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CN 22-1124/P
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  • 地理科学
      2006年, 第26卷, 第6期 刊出日期:2006-11-20 上一期    下一期
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    论文
    中国区域经济增长与差异格局演变探析
    欧向军, 沈正平, 王荣成
    地理科学. 2006, 26 (6): 641-648.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2006.06.641
    摘要   PDF (1269KB)
    在评析区域经济差异研究进展的基础上,以中国大陆31个省、自治区、直辖市为研究单元,以人均国内生产总值(GDP)为测度变量,定量评价了改革开放以来中国区域经济差异及空间格局变化的总体水平与特征;并引用国外最近使用的区域分离系数等方法,分析了中国区域经济增长与差异格局变化的相互关系,得出的基本结论为:随着中国经济的不断增长,其东、中、西三大区域逐渐发散趋异,而南、北两大区域逐渐收敛趋同。
    On the basis of analysis of domestic and international studies on regional economic growth and spatial structure of economic inequality, using a consistent data of GDP per capita and by taking 31 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities in mainland China as geographical research units, this paper makes a quantitative analysis of measuring the characteristics of regional economic inequality in China since the economic reforms and opening up of 1978. The result shows that the regional economic inequality has been enlarging with the regional economic increase. Using a regional separation index recently developed measures based on inequality decompositions, the paper makes a quantitative analysis of the relationship between regional economic increase and its inequality evolution in China. The general conclusion is that the continuous growth of diverges among eastern, central and western China and the continuous growth of converges between northern and southern regions, which is in some responses to national increase in China.
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    民用航空机场对城市和区域经济发展的影响
    宋伟, 杨卡
    地理科学. 2006, 26 (6): 649-657.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2006.06.649
    摘要   PDF (1036KB)
    在对现代经济活动的地理特征的研究中,"接近空港"成为一个越来越重要的因素,在促进地方经济发展,尤其是发展中国家和地区的发展中,航空运输业正发挥着愈来愈大的作用。更好的理解和认识航空运输的性质,特别是航空业及机场在都市地域的作用也成为一个具有理论和实践意义的课题。以民航机场,特别是大型航空枢纽对所在城市和区域发展的影响为主题,从原生效益(primary effects)、次生效益(secondary effects)、衍生效益(tertiary effects)和永久性效益(perpetuity effects)4个层次,详细分析了接近航空枢纽的人口与产业所获得的经济利益与区位优势,以及枢纽对产业和经济活动,尤其是现代"新经济"活动的独特吸引力。
    Air transportation is one of the world’s most important industries. Its development and its technical and service achievements make it one of the greatest contributors to the advancement of modern society. It plays an increasingly vital role in facilitating economic growth, particularly in developing countries and regions. Better understanding the nature of air transportation system and the role that air transport and airports play in an urban agglomeration is critical because the 'accessibility through airports’ issue has assumed an elevating role in answering the 'how’ and 'where’ of the geography of economic activity in the modern economy. This paper focuses on the economics of airports. It examines advantages enjoyed by passengers having access to a major airport, as well as the economic benefits that accrue to a city or geographical region that is host to a major airport, especially a hub airport. In particular, it looks into the linkages between airport-related activities and local economic development. By facilitating the flow of people and commerce, air transports and airports play a pivotal role in the industrial expansion and economic growth, both through their own activities and as an enabler of other industries. Airports essentially have four potential types of impact on the regional economy. The primary and secondary effects of airports are fulfilled through: 1) employment and income generated by airports and supporting activities, 2) employment and income generated by air passengers who make expenditures on travel-related services in local areas, and 3) induced economic activities as a consequence of the successive rounds of spending made by the recipients of the first two types of activities. These benefits can be extremely important to a local economy in terms of employment, household income and, for local government, taxation revenue. The tertiary effects of airports stemed from the economic stimulus benefiting a local or regional economy as firms and individuals, particularly high-technology companies, are attracted to the locale due to the fact that majors of airport and high-quality air transport are available. High-technology jobs and other administrative and auxiliary-related jobs have grown considerably in the region of major airport activities. By initially attracting key businesses to an area in sufficient numbers, airport development can lead to the crossing of important thresholds in terms of economies of scale, scope and density, through which a region can acquire a vital knowledge base to foster local development and make the region quasi-independent of others. The regional economy can feed on this to further its high-technology activities and hence to accelerate its growth (perpetuity effects).
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    Braess模型与城市网络的空间复杂化探讨
    陈彦光, 刘继生
    地理科学. 2006, 26 (6): 658-663.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2006.06.658
    摘要   PDF (945KB)
    Braess交通网络模型是经典的图论模型,但该模型同时具有很强的地理学色彩。Braess借助一个简单的网络揭示了出人意料的地理现象:增加交通路线有时反而降低运输效率。从理论地理学的角度对Braess网络进行了数学抽象,然后利用规划理论、图论和微分方程解析等方法揭示出区域-城市地理系统的空间复杂化两个重要动因:空间相互作用和宏观对称破坏。
    One of the important projects of spatial complexity science is spatial complication, which needs concrete and substaintial researches by means of effective methods. The paradox of traffic assignment problems is taken as an example to show how a system of cities and towns become complicate with the passage of time. Planning theory, graph theory, and differential dynamics, and so on, are employed to analyze the Braess’s paradox of traffic network, and new mathematical models are built in the process of geographical analyses based on the Braess’s network that is symmetric in macro-level. After new expressway is added in the network, two changes appear: one is macro-symmetry breaking of Braess’s network, and the other is spatial interaction between vehicle flows of different communication lines. Spatial interaction is associated with time lag and feedback what always give rise to non-linearity, while symmetry breaking implies spatial order breaking and reconstruction. A conclusion is drawn that spatial interaction and macro symmetry breaking are two dynamic factors activating spatial complication of self-organizing network of cities and towns.
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    地-气耦合气候动力系统的解析研究
    莫嘉琪, 林万涛, 王辉
    地理科学. 2006, 26 (6): 664-667.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2006.06.664
    摘要   PDF (703KB)
    ENSO事件是影响全球气候表象大尺度的海洋-大气耦合系统,其规律和预防的研究,为当前国际学术界关注的对象。非线性摄动理论和方法在国际学术界研究中是十分热门的。许多学者做了一类常微分方程非线性奇摄动边值问题, 反应扩散问题, 椭圆型边值问题,双曲型初始边值问题,非线性方程奇摄动问题的冲击层解等。文章讨论一类大气物理中海-气现象的ENSO模型,在一定条件下,利用摄动理论和方法较简捷得到相应非线性问题解组的任意次近似的渐近展开式。
    The ENSO(El Ni o/La Ni o Southern Oscillation) is an exceptional event in the tropical atmosphere and ocean. It describes phenomenon of circular climate. ESNO event is a larger scale ocean-atmosphere coupled system, which affects global climate. It is a complicated nonlinear system. Its appearance affects badly climate for the global each area and the environment and so on. The global economic development and human living are gotten grievous influence and it brings many calamities. Thus to study its rule and prevention there is recently very attractive object of study in the international academic circles. Many scholars made more studies for its local and whole behaviors using different methods, such as self-anamnestic principle, by the method of Fokker-Plank equation, and the higher order singular pedigree and predictable study, rapid change on boundary, indeterminate adapive cortrol, multi-cogradient method, perturbed situation and so on. Nonlinear perturbed theory is a very attractive object of study in the international academic circles. Many scholars considered a class of singularly perturbed nonlinear boundary value problems for the ordinary differential equation, the reaction diffusion equations, the boundary value problems of elliptic equation, the initial boundary value problems of hyperbolic eqaution, the shock layer solution of nonlinear equation for singularly perturbed problem and so on. In this paper, the sea-air phenomena ENSO in a class of atmospheric physics is discussed. Under suitable conditions, using a perturbed theory and method, we obtain simple and rapid arbitrary order to approximate asymptotic expansion of solution for the corresponding nonlinear problem.
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    区域农业用地营养盐剩余量的长期变化研究
    许朋柱, 秦伯强, 香宝, 单正军, Behrendt Horst, 黄文钰
    地理科学. 2006, 26 (6): 668-673.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2006.06.668
    摘要   PDF (363KB)
    根据太湖南部长兴县农业统计资料,对该地区1949~2002年农业用地上N、P的剩余量作出评估。评估结果认为,1949~2002年期间,单位农业用地面积的N、P剩余量具有显著地增加趋势。20世纪50及60年代期间,N的剩余量增加缓慢,自70年代中期以后增加迅速。1996年达到历史最大值。1996年后,N剩余量呈现减少趋势。60年代初期以前,P处于亏损状态。1975~1980年期间,P剩余量呈现缓慢增长趋势,其后出现回落,自80年代中期以后出现迅速增加趋势。1992~1998年期间,P剩余量维持在35~45 kg/(hm2·a)之间的高水平变化,自1999年以后出现显著回落。
    The nutrient surpluses in regional agricultural land may partly discharge to natural waters, which will cause the eutrophication of rivers and lakes. Based on the long-term agricultural data of Changxing County in the south of Taihu Lake, the estimation of nutrient surpluses from 1949 to 2002 has been made. The results show that the annual specific nitrogen and phosphorus surpluses in the agricultural land have obvious increasing trends. The linear increasing rates of the surpluses are 3.66 kg N/(ha穉) and 0.65 kg P/(ha穉) for nitrogen and phosphorus respectively (R2=0.56, 0.46). In the 1950s and 1960s last century, the N-surplus increased slowly, but after the middle of 1970s it increased fast .By the year of 1996, it reached the maximum value of 319.9 kg/(ha穉). Since that time, it decreased. Before the earlier 1960s the P was in deficit. During 1975-1980 the P-surplus increased slowly and then it decreased. Since the middle of 1980s the P-surplus rose very fast and increased twenty times from 2.4 kg/(ha穉) in 1985 to 48.2 kg/(ha穉) in 1991. During 1992-1998, the P-surplus kept in high values between 35-45 kg/(ha穉). Since 1999 it decreased rapidly.
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    南水北调西线一期工程调水区径流量与影响因子关系分析——以达曲为例
    门宝辉, 刘昌明, 夏军, 刘苏峡
    地理科学. 2006, 26 (6): 674-681.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2006.06.674
    摘要   PDF (964KB)
    以达曲为例,利用朱倭站1961~1996年的水文资料及东谷站的降水量资料,分析南水北调西线一期工程调水区径流量与影响因子的关系,结果表明:年平均气温呈上升趋势,其线性变率为0.24℃/10 a,36年共上升了0.864℃,以20世纪80年代以后上升趋势更为显著;年蒸发量呈增加趋势,其线性变率为+2.78 mm/10 a;年平均降水量及春、冬及非汛期降水逐年增加,其中年平均降水气候倾向率达+5.2 mm/10 a;调水区达曲的年平均径流及春、秋、汛期、非汛期流量呈逐年增加趋势,其中以春季和非汛期尤为明显。虽然气温升高、蒸发量增大,但这不是影响径流的直接因素,其增量还不足以抵消降水对径流的增加,降水是影响调水区径流量多少的主要气候因子。
    Based on the runoff in 1961-1996 at Zhuwo Hydro-station and the precipitation data at Donggu Hydro-station, the relationship between runoff amount and its impacting factors in the Water-exporting Rivers of the First Stage Project of the South-to-North Water Transfer Scheme via the Western Route is analyzed. The result shows that the annual mean air temperature was increasing, with a linear variation rate of 0.24℃/10a, and it has increased 0.864℃ since the 1960s; the annual evaporation was increasing, with a linear variation rate of +2.78mm/10a; the annual mean precipitation and precipitation in spring, winter and non-flood season have been increased since the 1960s, with a linear variation rate of annual precipitation of +5.2mm/10a; the annual runoff amount and runoff amount in spring, autumn, flood season and non-flood season were increasing, and the runoff amount in spring and non-flood season were more significant. The increasing temperature and evaporation were not the main factors to impact the runoff amount, while the annual precipitation was one of the main factors for impacting the runoff amount at the Water-exporting Rivers of the First Stage Project of the South-to-North Water Transfer Scheme via the Western Route.
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    欧亚春季雪盖对印度洋偶极子的影响
    庞洪喜, 何元庆, 卢爱刚, 赵井东, 宁宝英, 院玲玲, 宋波
    地理科学. 2006, 26 (6): 682-687.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2006.06.682
    摘要   PDF (249KB)
    文章研究了欧亚春季雪盖对印度洋偶极子的影响。研究发现,欧亚春季雪盖与印度洋偶极子关系密切,两者之间存在显著的反相关关系。欧亚春季雪盖异常导致夏季赤道印度洋垂直纬向环流以及印度洋和欧亚大陆之间的垂直经向环流发生异常,是欧亚春季雪盖与印度洋偶极子存在反相关关系的主要原因。欧亚春季雪盖异常可能是印度洋偶极子发生的一个重要的外在诱发因子。
    The influence of Eurasian snow cover in spring on Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) was first studied in this paper. The results indicate that IOD is significantly correlated negatively with Eurasian snow cover extent in spring. The anomalies of Eurasian snow cover in spring bring about the anomalies of the vertical zonal circulation over the equatorial Indian Ocean and the vertical meridional circulation between the Indian Ocean and Eurasian continent in summer. The anomalies of the vertical zonal and meridional circulations play an important role in occurrence of the Indian Ocean Dipole and its maintaining, leading a significantly negative correlation between the Eurasian snow cover in spring and the Indian Ocean Dipole. It is presumable that the Eurasian snow cover in spring as one of the causal factors could trigger IOD events. The results in the paper are important for us to further investigate the links between snow cover, atmosphere circulation and sea temperature and the possible mechanisms between them.
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    东北黑土水土流失特点
    张晓平, 梁爱珍, 申艳, 李文凤, 张学林, 王玉玺, 解运杰, 刘凤飞, 杨学明
    地理科学. 2006, 26 (6): 687-692.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2006.06.687
    摘要   PDF (986KB)
    东北黑土区是中国的主要粮食生产基地。黑土水土流失和肥力退化一直是东北农业持续发展必须面对的问题。文章以黑土为对象,分析了水土流失的方式和特点。黑土流失面积虽大,但侵蚀的土壤物质大部分没有进入河道,而是在黑土景观的低洼部位堆积下来,形成侵蚀和堆积共存的土壤物质再分布景观特征。合理的农业管理措施,如等高耕作和保护性耕作可以在很大程度上控制黑土侵蚀,保持和恢复黑土肥力。
    Black soils in Northeast China is main agricultural resources for grain production in China. The sustainability of agriculture in Northeast China is jeopardized by soil erosion and degradation of soil fertility. This article took the black soil as a target to analyze its erosion types and characteristics. Surface erosion by water is the most dominant erosion process for the majority of black soils in the region. Many eroded soil materials associated with the runoff have been re-deposited in low-lying land. Reasonable agronomic management practices can conserve black soils from erosion and regain black soil fertility, including contour ploughing and conservation tillage.
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    西藏扎布耶盐湖水位波动规律初探
    齐文, 郑绵平
    地理科学. 2006, 26 (6): 693-699.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2006.06.693
    摘要   PDF (1227KB)
    文章探讨扎布耶北湖1991年1月至2003年12月水位变化的季节性波动、长期变化和周期变动的规律。该湖水位的季节性波动在1991~1996年表现为单峰模式,高水位出现于4月,由冰雪与冻土融水补给引起;1997~2003年表现为双峰模式,高水位分别出现在4月和8~9月(雨季),反映近年来气温上升和降水增加的影响。数学模型表明水位波动表现出8.2年的周期,幅度达0.48 m。1991~2003年水位共上升0.25 m,但大多数年份表现出平均0.06~0.08 m/a下降趋势,1998~1999年的水位上涨是水位由单峰模式变为双峰模式转折点。
    There are many lakes in the northern Tibetan Plateau, but no lake water level records, except Zabuye Salt Lake, where a long-term field observatory station was established in 1990 by Open Laboratory of Saline Lake Water Resources and Environment, Chinese Academy of Geological Science, and water level was recorded monthly. This is the first time we publish the observing data of the water level fluctuation. According to the lake level records from January 1991 to December 2003, we established a time-serial model for the water level fluctuation of Zabuye Salt Lake, Tibet, and studied the long-term trend, seasonal fluctuation and cycles of the water level changes. Our research reveals that the seasonal fluctuation of the water level during 1991-1996 shows a monomodal pattern, indicating the prominent influence of the thaw of frozen soil and snow/glaciers on the water level, and the water level fluctuation during 1997-2003 shows a bimodal pattern, indicating the increasing influence of the rising air temperature and precipitation in addition to the recharge of thawing water of frozen soil and snow/glaciers in these years. The cyclic period of water level changes is 8.2 years, which is synchronous with the sunspot cycle. The water level generally rose 0.25 m during 1991-2003, but in many of the years the water level showed a long-term trend of dropping by 0.06-0.08 m per year, only in 1992,1997 and 1998 did the water level rise rapidly by 0.18 m per year. The very strong ENSO event occurring during 1997-1998 marked a turn from the monomodal to bimodal pattern of the seasonal water level fluctuation.
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    2003年中国西南山区典型灾害性暴雨泥石流运动堆积特征
    陈宁生, 张飞
    地理科学. 2006, 26 (6): 701-705.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2006.06.701
    摘要   PDF (792KB)
    2003年发生在中国西南山区的大规模泥石流为典型的灾害性暴雨泥石流,造成了巨大的经济损失和人员伤亡。作者实地考察其中7条造成较大损失的典型泥石流沟,分析得出,这一地区泥石流的流速一般都比较大,流量变化也比较大,流量大小与流域面积相关,总体上流量随流域面积的增大有增加的趋势,但流量与面积并非正相关关系。同时,在这些流域的堆积物的组成中,粗大颗粒极多,最大的颗粒普遍比较大,另外漂石含量很高。粘性泥石流中砾石含量相对于中国西南山区其它粘性泥石流较低,砂砾含量相对较高,大部分泥石流堆积物的有效粒径(d10)。
    The debris flows,occurring in the mountainous area of southwestern China in 2003,are of typically destructive,which are trigged by rainstorm. They swallowed many persons and damaged amount of property.To analyze the debris flow’s movement and deposit characteristics in the area,the authors chose seven typical debris flows to study,which caused much severe hazards.And then we computed their velocity and discharge by some models and concludes the characteristics of large grain and high concentration by statistic and analysis.The value of the debris flow velocity in the mountainous area of southwestern China is very high and the variation of peak discharge is marked.The peak discharge of these debris flows is correlative to the area of valley and in general it increases with the area of valley,however,the relationship between the discharge and area is not positive correlation.In the composition of these debris,some grains are unbelievably large.But the content of the gravels is comparatively low comparing to other viscous debris flows in the southwestern China.
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    全新世巢湖沉积记录及其环境变化意义
    贾铁飞, 戴雪荣, 张卫国, 俞立中
    地理科学. 2006, 26 (6): 706-711.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2006.06.706
    摘要   PDF (1058KB)
    根据巢湖全新世沉积地层对比及对ACN钻孔沉积物的测年、粒度、营养元素含量分析,认为巢湖在全新世中经历了频繁的河流、湖泊交互作用,是一个受河流影响十分显著的沿江湖泊。中全新世以来,巢湖共发生三次显著的湖泊收缩过程,分别是在沉积纪录的5 887~5 680 a B. P. 时,其后又再度扩张;2 239~2 126 a B. P.时,是在中国历史时期第二温暖期暖干气候条件下形成的,与其同期的河流相冲积层或淤积粘土,正是巢湖周边战国至汉代古文化遗址的基底物质,之后巢湖再度扩张,甚至导致汉代古城成为水下遗址;1 827 a B. P.以来,是巢湖现代淤积过程。
    According to the comparison among the Holocene sedimentary piles, as well as an analysis of the age data, granularity and the content of the mineral nutrient of deposits in ACN drilling sample, it is thought that Chaohu Lake impacted by the river mightily is a typical lake along Changjiang River, which experienced frequent river-lake interaction in the Holocene Epoch. Since the Holocene metaphase, the area of Chaohu Lake has remarkably contracted thrice, whose records were kept in the deposits. These records show that there was a contractive process between 5887-5680 a B. P. and then its area expanded renewedly; the sequent contractive process between 2239-2126 a B. P., which was formed under the climatic conditions of the second period of warming in Chinese history (the contemporaneous fluvial facies alluvium and warp clay is no other than the basement matter of the site of ancient culture in Chaohu Lake and its surroundings during the period between the Warring States and Han Dynasty), following expansion once more that even makes the ancient city of the Han Dynasty into the underwatersite; the last contractive process since 1827 a B. P., which has been a modern course of silting-up.
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    基于MODIS数据的城市光化学污染预警系统及预警等级研究
    夏丽华, 王芳, 王德辉
    地理科学. 2006, 26 (6): 712-716.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2006.06.712
    摘要   PDF (533KB)
    通过分析MODIS遥感数据反演的大气气溶胶光学厚度(AOD)与大气环境污染的关系,结果表明当空气清洁没有污染时,AOD小于0.3,当空气轻度污染时,AOD在0.3~1.0之间,当空气污染严重时,AOD大于1.0。在分析AOD与地面大气污染的关系的基础上,结合地面空气污染监测数据的空气污染指数,将城市光化学污染的预警等级分为无、微弱、较弱、较强和强五级,并对城市光化学污染预警系统进行了框架分析,为进一步建设城市光化学污染预警系统提供基础。
    With the increasing of vehicles in China, photochemical smog pollution accidents may be greatly possible in some Chinese cities. However, the predicting and alarming of photochemical smog is only in the preliminary stage. MODIS Information Service Processing System established by NASA provides 10km?10km resolution aerosol optical depth (AOD) Level 2 products. This paper establishes the framework of advanced warning mechanism system for the urban photochemical smog pollution based on MODIS data. The framework includes MODIS data reception and processing, analysis of variation of meteorology, analysis of ground surface detection data, atmospheric pollution index, and determination of advanced warning scale, etc. We can further develop advanced warning system on the existing framework process basis which is designed for urban atmospheric pollution aided monitoring and prediction and advanced warning of atmospheric pollution. There exists photochemical smog episode in some cities because of the increasing motor vehicles in China, which are more and more serious and dangerous. But the prediction and the early warning system do not start to work. So we had better monitored the photochemical smog using remote sensing data and built the early warning system at the same time. Some studies indicate that there is distinct positive correlation between aerosol optical depth (AOD) and air pollution monitoring by MODIS data. When AOD<0.3, air is clear, when 0.31.0 air pollution is serious. Based on correlation analysis between AOD and air pollution, using data of air pollution monitors and Air Pollution Index(API), this article divided early warning system of urban photochemical smog pollution into five grades: none, weaker, weak, strong, stronger, which can lay a base for the advanced warning system to the urban photochemical smog pollution. Advanced warning system of the urban photochemical pollution may be a part of the urban disaster prevention and reduction system to publicize atmospheric photochemical pollution in time, and provide grounds for controlling environmental pollution and reference information for our daily lives and outgoing.
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    成都市大气可吸入颗粒物来源解析研究
    王淑兰, 柴发合, 周来东, 王琴玲
    地理科学. 2006, 26 (6): 717-721.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2006.06.717
    摘要   PDF (567KB)
    通过对成都市能源结构及产业布局的分析,对可吸入颗粒物来源进行了定性识别和分类,确定了对可吸入颗粒物可能产生贡献的源类的化学成分谱,用化学质量平衡受体模型(CMB)对成都市可吸入颗粒物的来源进行定量解析,确定了成都市PM10的主要来源。
    Based on analysis of energy structure and industry sector distribution in Chengdu City, sources of inhalational particles (PM10) were qualitatively discussed and classified. The chemical composition profiles of sources possibly responsible for inhalational particles was determined. Contributions of different sources to PM10 in Chengdu City were quantitatively apportioned by applying chemical mass balance acceptor model.
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    扎龙湿地水环境可持续性度量研究
    王永洁, 邓伟
    地理科学. 2006, 26 (6): 722-727.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2006.06.722
    摘要   PDF (747KB)
    湿地水环境的持续性度量的指标体系是从湿地水环境系统结构、功能状态和人为因素三个方面构建的。扎龙湿地水环境可持续综合指数的数学模型是:可持续综合指数P=0.14P1+0.47P2+0.3P3+0.09P4。分指数(PI)分别是:水质指数、水资源量指数、生物指数和土地利用变化指数。计算过程运用了灰关联分析法、层次分析法和分段线性函数等方法,结果表明,扎龙湿地水环境可持续性的总体趋势在减弱,其影响因子已经不利于扎龙湿地生态系统的持续发展。
    The index system of sustainability measure of water environment is constructed by wetland water environment structure, the state of wetland functions and human factors. The mathematical model of integrated sustainability index is: P=0.14P1+0.47P2+0.3P3+0.09P4, and the sub-indices are: water quality, water quantity, creature and land use change indices. In this study, we used gray relation analyses, Analytic Hiberarchy Process(AHP) and Subparagraph Linear Function Method to calculate the integrated index(P). The results show that: the overall trend of water environment sustainability in Zhalong wetland is declining, and its impact factors are detrimental to the sustainable development of Zhalong wetland.
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    清末西垦对毛乌素沙地的影响
    韩昭庆
    地理科学. 2006, 26 (6): 728-734.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2006.06.728
    摘要   PDF (1062KB)
    以历史文献、地方档案及古今地图为主,采用政区和地名演变考证的方法,逐一复原了清代末年(1902~1908年)在鄂尔多斯中、南部地区,即今伊金霍洛旗、鄂托克旗、鄂托克前旗、乌审旗及鄂尔多斯市区放垦的范围,这些复原的放垦地带或在今毛乌素沙地边缘地带或远离毛乌素沙地。文章通过对清末放垦背景及过程的分析,认为放垦避开了土质低劣易于沙化脆弱地段,所以清末放垦对毛乌素沙地沙漠化发展起的作用有限。
    This article tries to restore the scope and location of the reclamation in the middle and south part of the Ordos area including Ejin Horo, Otog, Uxin banners and Ordos downtown area at the end of the Qing Dynasty. Then it compares them with that of today’s Mu Us Desert based on an evidential research of the changes of placenames and administrative divisions, with the materials collected from historical literatures, ancient and contemporary maps and local archives. It concludes that the land opened for cultivation at the end of the Qing Dynasty can be divided into the following tracts: 1) most part of today’s Ordos urban area, 2) the north part of Ejin Horo Banner and the area east to the Ulan Moron River, 3) part of Otog Banner and Taole County of Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region. Some of these regions were located at the edge of the Mu Us Desert while others beyond its scope. Moreover, with an analysis on the background and process of the reclamation, it argues that opening Inner Mongolia for cultivation at the end of the Qing Dynasty has evaded the fragile areas which is vulnerable to desertification. As a result the reclamation at the end of Qing Dynasty hardly play a role in the development of Mu Us Desert.
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    北京市郊区传统村落价值评价及可持续利用模式探讨——以北京市门头沟区传统村落的调查研究为例
    王云才, 郭焕成, 杨丽
    地理科学. 2006, 26 (6): 735-742.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2006.06.735
    摘要   PDF (1445KB)
    北京市西部门头沟区保留有许多传统村落,这些传统村落经过历史的积淀而具有典型的地域特征和深厚的文化底蕴,成为京西独特的景观旅游资源。在深入系统调查的基础上,结合悠久性、完整性、乡土性、协调性、典型性对传统村落的价值特征进行了综合评价,将传统村落划分为遗产性村落、特色性村落和保护性村落三种类型。在探讨传统村落可持续利用机制的基础上总结了传统村落可持续利用的6种模式。
    The western mountainous area is an important ecological belt to Beijing City. The populations in this area and economic models existing are directing factors to influence and damage mountain landscape, ecology and environment. But with historical relations to Hebei Province and others regions, this area is a special belt of Beijing ancient culture system. One of the culture types is traditional villages. Many traditional villages have been reserved in the western area of Beijing especially in Mentougou District with local characteristics and historical cultural heritages. The traditional villages are the important and special landscape and tourism resources now. Based on the systematical investigations and combined with the longevity, integrality, locality, coordination and typicality, this paper calculated evaluation index( ) by which evaluated the traditional villages and divided the traditional villages into three levels which are heritages villages(Etvi∈(4,6]), special villages (Etvi∈(1,4])and preserved villages(Etvi∈(6,9]). According to this, the mechanisms of sustainable development must insist on conserving and exploitations with different levels and different types, substituting living there with visiting and tourism, and discovered and experienced the landscape cognation rhythm of traditional villages. Based on the mechanism research of traditional villages sustainable development, we do more discussions on six sustainable development models of traditional villages which are folkways and rural museum, natural and cultural villages and tourism center, human and eco-system practice and education base, recreational belt and leisure town, and entertainment manor and time-share vocation base and rural sybject tourism development.
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    城市土地利用综合效益评价与案例研究
    王雨晴, 宋戈
    地理科学. 2006, 26 (6): 743-748.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2006.06.743
    摘要   PDF (790KB)
    土地利用效益是衡量土地利用水平的一项重要指标,从社会效益、经济效益和生态效益三个方面着手,建立城市土地利用效益评价指标体系,利用改进熵值法来确定各指标权重,构建土地利用效益的协调度评价模型,以量化方式评价全国14个大城市的土地利用综合效益的变化趋势,评价的结果与现实情况吻合,表明协调度函数模型可操作性强,可信度高,不失为一种评价城市土地利用效益较好的方法。
    Land use efficiency is an important index to measure the level of land use. The paper established evaluation indicators for land use efficiency from the aspects of society, economy, resources and environment. Applying the method of improving entropy value, we also defined the weight of each indicator and coordination function by which we evaluated the land use efficiency change of 14 big cities. The results are accordant with actualities. We can draw the conclusion that both the maneuverability and reliability of this method are high and it is really recommendable method for evaluating urban land use benefit.
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    基于人工神经网络的老年男性血沉参考值与地理环境关系研究
    杨青生, 张红贤, 葛淼, 刘燕, 姜海艳, 葛本伟
    地理科学. 2006, 26 (6): 749-754.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2006.06.749
    摘要   PDF (440KB)
    以健康老年男性血沉参考值为例,收集中国各地用温氏法测定的健康老年男性血沉参考值,运用BP神经网络模拟分析其与地理环境的海拔高度、年日照时数、年平均相对湿度、年平均气温、年降水量等要素间的非线性、复杂性关系特征,通过5层神经网络,经过500次及1 300次自学习建立模拟规则后,用此规则很好地模拟健康老年男性血沉参考值与地理环境的关系。知道中国某地的地理要素, 就可用此模型估算该地区老年男性血沉参考值。人工神经网络预测血沉参考值的模型自动定义具体的结构和参数,减少血沉参考值预测中的人为性,计算方便;同时,通过对不同地理要素的组合,模型可以寻找预测误差最低的地理要素组合关系。
    This paper discusses the nonlinear relationship between reference value (wintrobe) standard of Chinese old men's ESR and geography environments based on artificial neural network. Reference value (wintrobe) standard of Chinese old men's ESR is connected with geographical environment, diet structure and settlement environment, etc. which interact with blood indirectly. It is artificial neural network that have the ability to obtain the nonlinear relationship between variables. In order to supply a basis for uniting the reference value (wintrobe) standard of Chinese old men's ESR, a research is made about the nonlinear relationship between the reference value (wintrobe) of Chinese healthy old men's ESR and five geographical factors, which are determined by the way of wintrobe laws based on artificial neural network. After building 5-layer NN, the relationship was simulated by artifical neural network(NN). After training 500 times and 1300 times, the network works better. If the geographical factors known, the reference value (wintrobe) of Chinese old men's ESR can be simulated by the neural network more accurately.
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    一体化旅游区(ITR)空间发展战略研究——以长江三角洲旅游区为例
    聂献忠, 张捷, 章锦河, 刘泽华
    地理科学. 2006, 26 (6): 755-763.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2006.06.755
    摘要   PDF (873KB)
    以长三角旅游区为例,对其一体化进程的形成演变、空间特征及空间发展战略进行了研究。研究表明,一体化是指为谋求要素资源、市场与产业系统在整体空间内重新配置,并获得更多比较利益、互补利益和选择利益而进行的整合过程,区域旅游一体化不仅有助于促进旅游要素合理集聚,发挥近邻效应、分工效应、结构效应和"场"效应,而且还有助于强化区域产业空间优势和优化功能结构。规划建设一体化旅游区,不仅需要大力加强要素、空间和产业竞争力的发展规划,同时也需要不断完善一体化主体、领域和机制,进而提升一体化旅游区整体竞争力。
    This paper defines the conception of integrated tourism region firstly, and takes integrated tourism region of Changjiang River Delta as an example, makes a detailed study about the formation and evolution, spatial characteristic and spatial strategy of integrated tourism region. The study shows that the integrated course of integrated tourism region has the benefit for tourism elements' reset in bigger space, and could bring into more and more comparative benefit, reciprocal benefit and selective benefit. The construction of integrated tourism region contributes to promoting justified elements' configuration, leads to contiguous utility, separated utility, structural utility and conglomerated utility, achieves cogent spatial and industrial advantages, and ameliorates the structure of market and function. And then it could promote integration competitive abilities if the market member, field and mechanism are enlarged.
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    一个新的生态旅游者分类指标的有效性分析——以北京市百花山自然保护区为例
    李燕琴
    地理科学. 2006, 26 (6): 764-771.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2006.06.764
    摘要   PDF (1122KB)
    借鉴NEP尺度的指标构造思路以及国外相关研究进展,结合在北京市百花山自然保护区生态旅游者研究的相关数据,提出从生态旅游者与一般游客两方面的典型动机特征入手,构建一个新的生态旅游者分类指标生态旅游兴趣尺度EI,以综合评定游客对生态旅游的感兴趣程度。使用指标替代和增补的方法对EI尺度的有效性进行检验,结果表明EI尺度确实可提高生态旅游者判别的准确率,EI与NEP和VIS一起构成了识别生态旅游者的最重要的三个指标。同时,Logistic回归分析也表明,EI尺度目前在三个特征向量中对于分类的作用还较弱,这与中国处于生态旅游发展的早期阶段,生态旅游者与一般游客在动机特征方面的分异不大有关。
    As ecotoursim develops rapidly in China, it becomes very challenging to find the right balance between conserving the environment and meeting the growing demand of tourism, i.e., how to provide the best possible experience to the tourists ensuring the sustainable development of the environment. Hence, it is imperative to conduct comprehensive research on ecotourist. Ecotourist study must deperd on enough ecotourist samples. Therefore, it is important to identify ecotourists from visitors to protected areas.The majority of previous studies on ecotourism have used a behavioral approach to the identification of ecotourists. While these studies provide a number of useful ecotourist profiles, they do not provide a general scale in identifying ecotourists across a wide array of contexts. The paper adopted an integrated classification technique comprising K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN) and Back-Propagation (BP) Networks to identify the ectourists and 423 persons who answered the questionnaires during the National Day holiday in 2003 in Baihua Mountain Nature Reserve of Beijing and 139 out of them were identified as ecotourists. Based on the studies of the characteristics of the ecotourists and general tourists in Baihua Mountain and progress of the interrelated research in foreign countries, we set a new ecotourists classification index: Ecotourism Interest (EI). EI describes the extent that the tourists are interested in the ecotourism product, together with NEP (New Ecological Paradigm) and VIS (the number of times per visitor visiting rural natural regions), which constitutes the most important characteristic vectors for the identification and segmentation of ecotourists. Applying the same identified method again on the tourists in Baihua Mountain with these three vectors, the accurate identification rate to ecotourists is as high as 87.1% and the rate to all tourists is as high as 80.1%. At the same time, Logistic regression models are also used to test the hypotheses and the accurate identification rate to all tourists is as high as 82.7%. The classification effect with EI and VIS as eigenvectors is close to the effect with NEP and VIS as eigenvectors. However, the effect with EI, NEP and VIS as eigenvectors is better than with EI and VIS or NEP and VIS. Therefore, empirical results show that the ecotourism interest scale is useful in identifying if tourists are ecotourists. However, EI’s effect to the identification is lower than other two vectors at present because the development of ecotourism in China is still in the early phase and the differences between the ecotourists and non-ecotoursits are not very distinct. However, with the development of ecotourism in China, the ecotourists will have more representative motivation characteristics. At that time EI’s effect to the identification would more important. On the whole, EI appears to offer a useful explanation of the tourist participation in ecotourism activities. Other factors, such as age, gender, income, party composition, and organization of travel, influenced choice of the ecotourism products, suggesting that EI items should be supplemented by items measuring demographics and trip characteristics in future use.
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