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CN 22-1124/P
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  • 地理科学
      1999年, 第19卷, 第2期 刊出日期:1999-03-20 上一期    下一期
    选择: 合并摘要 显示图片
    论文
    水资源:21世纪全球更加关注的重大资源问题之一
    邓伟, 何岩
    地理科学. 1999, 19 (2): 97-101.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1999.02.97
    摘要   PDF (682KB)
    水是人类社会赖以生存的必要物质基础。近百年来人口爆炸性的增长,给全球资源、环境都带来了巨大的压力。人类自身生存不仅消耗巨量水资源,而且还向环境中排放大量的污染物,造成水环境的明显恶化,使全球可利用的淡水资源日益减少,供需矛盾加剧,而全球气候变化又使水资源利用产生一系列新问题。我国是贫水国之一,加上人口众多,水环境和水资源利用问题相当严重。应根据国情、水情,寻求水资源持续利用方式和途径,从严管水,为我国社会经济持续发展提供必要的水资源保证。
    Water is indispensable material base on which society depends to develop. Mankind has exerted huge pressure on the resource and environment of the earth by themselves explosive population increasing in about one hundred years. On the one hand, mankind itself is consuming huge water resources, on the other hand, mankind has being gived out enormous contaminants into environment, which have resulted into the obvious water environment worsen such as the gradually decreasing fresh water resource, the aggravating contradictory between providing and need of fresh water resource. Furthermore, the climate changes of earth have brought about new problems how to use fresh water resource. China is one of the countries that have poor fresh water resource; moreover, China has huge population, which have led to considerably serious problems of water environment and development of water resource. So we have to search the sustainable way of water resource development and control and manage strictly the development of water resource according to our national conditions, which will provide the necessary guarantee of water resource for sustainable development of our nation.
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    全球变暖背景下的南极地区气候变化
    龚道溢
    地理科学. 1999, 19 (2): 102-107.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1999.02.102
    摘要   PDF (993KB)
    南极地区气温冬季、春季和秋季都有上升趋势,而夏季则有下降趋势,年平均气温也趋上升。气温上升趋势最强烈的是冬季,其次是春季;降水各季和全年都有增加趋势。在年际尺度上,年均气温和降水与南极涛动指数是负相关,南极涛动对不同区域影响的方式和程度也有区别。从长期变化趋势来看,气温、降水和南极涛动指数都有上升趋势,这说明全球变暖从更大的时间尺度和空间尺度上影响着南极涛动。
    This paper analyzed the characteristics of surface temperature and precipitation changing over the Antarctic region in the past two decades based on the NCEP-NCAR reanalysis data. Under the background of global warming, the temperature of Antarctic region increases in winter, spring and autumn, but the summer temperature tends to drop. The annual temperature also increases. The strongest warming occurs in winter. Antarctic precipitation of all four seasons in increasing. The variation of temperature and precipitation has different features in different areas. Evidence shows that the atmospheric circulation may play an important role in making the difference between places. Annual average AOI correlated to surface temperature and precipitation of Antarctica is -0.55 and -0.31 respectively, and the temperature to precipitation is 0.57. These facts show that in annual time scale the variation of surface air temperature and precipitation are both affected, or controlled, by the AOI. But, all AOI, temperature and precipitation have the same uprward trend, especially the trend of AOI and precipitation is pronounced. One feasible explanation is that under the background of global warming, Antarctic temperature is also increasing, higher temperature means more moisture in air, then increasing precipitation can be expected. Many general circulation models also suggest that precipitation amounts in polar latitudes will increase under the double CO 2 scenarios, especially in Antarctic region.
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    改革开放以来我国城市地域结构演变与持续发展研究——以南京都市区为例
    吴启焰, 任东明
    地理科学. 1999, 19 (2): 108-113.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1999.02.108
    摘要   PDF (865KB)
    研究改革开放以来我国城市地域结构空间重组的基本特征,指出除少数高科技产业健康发展的内陆城市外,我国城市原有格局将长期存在,在此基础上分析了南京都市区内部地域结构特征、存在的问题并提出了解决途径。
    In this paper, authors throw light on the elementary prosperity of the re-organization of Chinese metropolitan area since open-door policy. They point out that formerly geographical distribution will last a long term, while a few of front cities which found on high-technological sectors have turn better steadily. At last, they analyze the regional features and existing problems of metropolitan Nanjing, then propose some suggestions.
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    区域交通网络分形的DBM特征——交通网络Laplacian分形性质的实证研究
    陈彦光, 刘继生
    地理科学. 1999, 19 (2): 114-118.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1999.02.114
    摘要   PDF (1423KB)
    城镇体系在理想状态下的三角点阵格局暗示着现实中的交通网络在一定时空条件下具有DBM模型的某些特征。从形态分析和维数对比两个方面论证了区域交通网络的Laplacian分形性质,认为可用DBM模型模拟城镇体系-交通网络的形成和演化过程,从而揭示其动力学机制。
    According to the central place theory,urban systems under ideal conditions appear in the form of triangular lattice,which suggests that the transport network around a central city maybe possesses some characteristics of di electric breakdown model (DBM).It was presented in the paper that transport networks are Laplacian fractals after the authors’ comparing some networks of communication lines of China with DBM in respects of morphology and fractal dimensions.The spread mechanism of a transport network is very similar to that of DBM,and the mean of the fractal dimension values of real transport network is about 1.7,which approximates that of DBM in the Laplacian field of two-dimension.So,one of the important conclusions is that we can simulate and then optimize networks of communication lines by means of suitable di electric breakdown model and computers.
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    青土湖近6000年来沉积气候记录研究——兼论四五世纪气候回暖
    王乃昂, 李吉均, 曹继秀, 蔡为民
    地理科学. 1999, 19 (2): 119-124.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1999.02.119
    摘要   PDF (1132KB)
    对青土湖志云村剖面沉积气候记录和湖泊进退进行了研究,证实季风边缘区河西走廊东段存在暖湿、冷干气候变化的阶段性特征。根据湖相沉积的颜色、粒度、化学组成和有机质含量等气候代用指标的综合分析,提出公元四五世纪存在一次百年尺度上的气候回暖,这一气候回暖事件的发现,可得到历史文献记载和青海湖自然记录的佐证。
    A preliminary study on the advance and the retreat of Qingtu Lake and its climatic records of the Holocene lacustrine deposits has been made through comprehensive analysis. Based on the study on the lacustrine sedimentary color, grain size, Fe3+/Fe2+ and organic matter, the authors put foward that a warm period existed during the phase of 355-480 A.D in the studied area. This warm period could be further testfied by a lot of evidence obtained from the historical documents and the natural records of Qinghai Lake.
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    珠江口伶仃洋海平面变化趋势研究
    杨清书, 罗宪林
    地理科学. 1999, 19 (2): 125-127.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1999.02.125
    摘要   PDF (450KB)
    根据珠江口伶仃洋三灶、赤湾、香港三个站的验潮记录,应用傅氏变换方法对月均验潮序列先做离散傅氏变换,并将周期小于4a的波动振幅设为零,再进行反傅氏变换,以消除小于4a的周期波动对确定海平面变化趋势的影响,最后由低通序列一元线性回归分析确定珠江口各站的海平面变化趋势。应用经验正交函数将区域的海平面变化分解为独立的时间特征函数和空间特征函数,据主要模态的特征函数分析珠江口海平面的时空变化规律,并由主要模态的时间特征函数估算珠江口伶仃洋海平面的平均变化趋势为0.89mm/a.。
    Tidal gauge records are collected from three tidal stations in Lingdingyang Estuary. Fourier transform and inverse fourier transform are used to eliminate the components that periods are less than 4a from monthly mean time series. The secular trends of sea level are determined by means of linear regression of low passed time series. The empirical orthogonal function (EOF) is used to analyse the spatial and temperal characteristics of sea level change in Lingdingyang Estuary. The average rate of sea level change in Lingdingyang Estuary, which is estimated by the time series of the main mode, is 0.89 mm/a.
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    80年代以来苏州地区城镇土地演化特征与机制
    王红扬
    地理科学. 1999, 19 (2): 128-134.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1999.02.128
    摘要   PDF (958KB)
    对城镇土地演化研究作了初步理论探讨,并对80年代以来苏州地区城镇土地演化的特征与机制进行了实证分析,试图揭示在特定的历史背景下该地区富有中国特色的城镇土地演化规律。
    Urban land evolution reflects the law, tendency and contradiction in economic and social development. This paper explains the fundamental theoretical problems of urban land evolution research. And then four features of urban land evolution in Suzhou area are summarized including amount, location structure, function structure and spatial structure features. At last the mechanism of urban land evolution is analyzed. It is pointed out that the decisive factor influencing urban land evolution is economic growth and economic structure in the 1980’s-1990’s in this area.
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    我国砷中毒病区的环境特征研究
    林年丰, 汤洁
    地理科学. 1999, 19 (2): 135-139.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1999.02.135
    摘要   PDF (595KB)
    我国饮水型砷中毒的流行屡见报道,台湾嘉南、新疆奎屯、内蒙古河套及山西大同等地是我国几个有代表性的病区。病区多为河湖相和滨海相沉积,粘土、粘土质淤泥和有机淤泥层发育,为富含有机质的还原环境,地下水中砷的含量一般为0.2~0.6mg/L.有时还有氟、腐殖酸、甲基胂酸和某些烷烃类等的有害有机化合物。砷中毒主要与总砷、As3+和甲基胂酸等有关。除砷中毒外,往往还有地氟病和癌症流行。由于各病区地下水化学成份的差异,不仅砷中毒的危险浓度不同,而且砷中毒的类型也不同,文章将病区环境划分为三种地质环境类型。
    There are many reports about endemic arseniasis in China. Jianan in Taiwan, Kuitun in Xinjiang, Hetao area in Inner Mongolia and Datong in Shanxi are four typical arseniasis areas. The arseniasis areas are mostly deposits of river and limnetic facies or marine bed with clay, clayey and organic mud, and belong to environment with rich organic matter. Arsenic in groundwater is 0.2-0.6 mg/L and some harmful organic materials, such as fluorine, humic acid, methyl arsenate and hydrocarbon. Arseniasis related mainly to total arsenic, As3+ and methyl arsenate. Besides arseniasis, there are fluorosis and cancer in these areas. Because of the difference of chemical compounds in ground water, there are different "dangerous concentration" and arseniasis types. Three geological environmental types are classified. The paper not only summarize the characteristics of geological environment but also provides important basis for prevention, cure and research of arseniasis.
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    试论经济中心型城市旅游的商务主导模式——以汕头市为例
    彭华
    地理科学. 1999, 19 (2): 140-146.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1999.02.140
    摘要   PDF (904KB)
    城市旅游是当代旅游的主体,旅游职能也是当代城市的一个重要职能。提出考虑城市旅游发展的动力机制,必须分析影响产业发展的诸因素,以针对性地找到推动城市旅游发展的主动因素。经济中心型的城市旅游主体市场产生于以大流通为标志的广泛经济联系,以商贸为代表的大流通业是经济活力的核心,商务旅游是这一类城市旅游发展的主导。汕头市不是一个传统的资源型旅游地,其旅游发展应是以商务主导型的都市旅游带动区域旅游发展的模式,城市的可持续发展是旅游可持续发展的前提。
    Urban tourism is an important part of contemporary tourism. However, different cities have different models for tourism development. As a highly complex system, tourism can’t achieve sustainable development without the social, economic and cultural setting of the city. This paper argues that the motivational mechanism of sustainable urban tourism should rely on the analysis of different elements related to it, in order to find the major and secondary elements for urban tourism. Business tourism is the main target market of cities with a focus on economic development. Shantou City is not a traditional destination with tourist resources. Its tourism should follow the model of commercial urban tourism leading to regional tourism development. Therefore, the sustainable development of the city should come before sustainable tourism.
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    三维地形模型光照和动态显示的新方法
    谢顺平, 田德森
    地理科学. 1999, 19 (2): 147-151.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1999.02.147
    摘要   PDF (493KB)
    介绍了一种具有真实感的三维地形模型光照显示的新方法,给出了相应的构建多精度数字高程模型DEM的步骤,并讨论了适应三维地形模型光照显示的消隐、可见性测试、光照模型、浓淡处理等处理算法和方法,此外还讨论了适合微机动态显示三维地形模型的方法。
    A New Method of three-dimensional terrain model of illumination and dynamic display proposed by the authors, which is the most realistic. The procedure of created different level of detail DEM are given, and processing algorithm and methods appropriate to 3-D terrain model, such as illumination model, hidden surfacese limination, visibility test and shading, are disscussed. Furthermore, dynamic display method of 3-D terrain model appropriate to micro-computer is also discribed in this paper.
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    中国华南地域结构的形成、演变与优化研究
    吕拉昌, 许学强
    地理科学. 1999, 19 (2): 152-157.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1999.02.152
    摘要   PDF (870KB)

    伴随着世界地缘政治格局的转换,边缘地区由军事对抗渗透逐步向多方经济合作、交错方向发展。改革开放之后,中国华南地区利用毗邻港澳优越的地缘环境、以华人文化为纽带,吸引了港澳台的大量资金投入珠江三角洲及边缘地区,形成了日益典型的核心边缘模式。阐述了中国华南地域结构的形成、组成结构、演化规律及地域功能设计,在此基础上提出了华南地域结构优化的途径。


    With the change of geopolitical pattern of the world, Pacific rim area increases economic cooperation,instead of military antagonism. Afer reform and open to outside world, south China takes in an amount of investment from Hongkong, Macao and Taiwan, taking advantage of superior geo environment and thus forms a typical model of core periphery. The core Periphery model in south China is territorially made of three parts: core area Hongkong, Macao and Taiwan; second core area Zhujiang delta; peripherial area Hunan Province, Jiangxi Province, Fujian Province and Hainan Province and the Guangxi zhuang Autonomous Region. The evolution of this model can be divided into four stages: (1)the stage of polarization of core area; (2)the stage of second core area strongly controlled by core area; (3)the transitional stage of second core area; (4)the stage of south China territorially unified. Taking the core periphery model in south China as an integrity of interrelational and rational division, its whole functional organized system is “input-product-assemble-output”, core area is mainly the managed and transported centre, second core area has product and productive control function and become centre of manufacturing centre of study and development, periphery area is constructed as the centre of material and raw material and the base of agricutural and side line product. Based on the analysis of the formative structure,evolutional law and the design of territorial function, we suggust the way of territerial optimization as follows: (1) to establish the large hinterland which takes Xijiang water basin as its core; (2) to construct the hign and renewed technogical corridor; (3) to construct stable and varied material and raw material bases; (4) to reinforce the organization and adjustment and managment between core area, second core area and periphericl area; (5) to constuct the varied corridor among core area, second core area and perpheric area.

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    综述
    地学数据特征分析
    李军, 周成虎
    地理科学. 1999, 19 (2): 158-162.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1999.02.158
    摘要   PDF (773KB)
    地理信息系统的广泛应用使地学数据的使用大为扩展,但关于地学数据的一些基本认识,如地学数据概念、地学数据的基本特征等并没有达成共识。在分析地学数据概念和来源的基础上,对地学数据的基本特征,如多尺度特征、分布式特征、空间拓扑特征等进行了详细的说明。
    More and more geospatial data have been used, but some basic concepts of geospatial data such as geospatial data, basic characteristics, are still have not consistent definitions. Based on those problems, the paper describes the sources, definition of geospatial data, and mainly describes the basic characteristics of geospatial data such as multi spatial scale, multi temporal scale, distributed characteristics and topographical relationship.
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    援外考察研究
    马里萨赫勒地区风成沙特征、来源与发育时代
    李森, 夏训诚, 肖洪浪, 杨根生
    地理科学. 1999, 19 (2): 163-170.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1999.02.163
    摘要   PDF (1171KB)
    马里萨赫勒地区是全球荒漠化强烈发展的区域之一,广泛分布于地表的各类风成沙是沙质荒漠化发生发展的物质基础。本区风成沙的粒度组成以细沙为主,极细沙次之,各类型沙丘沙的粒度特征有一定差异;重矿物组分以稳定矿物和极稳定矿物占绝对优势,并具有高稳定度和成熟度。风成沙主要来源于古沙丘活化供沙、现代流水作用供沙、干涸湖泊和河流故道供沙等。上新世以来,本区经历了上新世至第四纪初期、末次冰期、全新世和现代等4个风成沙发育的主要时期。
    The Sandy desertified land in Sahelian region of Northern Mali amounts to 254 880km2, occupying 55.3% of the area, and the sandy desertification is still in the intensely developing stage. Various eolian sands spreading widely on the surface is the material base for the occurrence and development of sandy desertification. The grain size composition of eolian sand in the region is dominated by fine sand, followed by very fine sand. Bacause of the impacts of sand origin, accumulation condition and development course, there are some differences in the features of grain size of various dune sand. The eolian sand consists of 26 minerals, among which 21 are heavy minerals, Occuprging 0.1-2.0 percent. The stable and very stable minerals are dominating in these heavy minerals, and the heavy minerals have high stability and maturity. The eolian sand in this region mainly originates from reactivation of ancient sand dunes, modern fluvial action, dry lake deflation and older river courses. According to preliminary study, there are at least 4 major periods of eolian sand development in the region, i.e. Pliocene-early Quaternary, last glacial period, Holocene and modern times; among them the Holocene has 3 aeolian stages, namely early Holocene (10.3-9.2 ka B.P.), mid Holocene (6.8-5.8 ka B.P.) and late Holocene (3.5-1.8 ka B.P.). In the orderly fluctuated courses of alternately dry humid changes in the global climate the eolian sand underwent development, expansionfixation and soil formation in the region.
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    研究报道
    农业资源高效利用评价几个基本问题的探讨
    徐勇
    地理科学. 1999, 19 (2): 171-175.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1999.02.171
    摘要   PDF (647KB)
    围绕当前农业资源高效利用评价工作中需要先行搞清的一些理论和方法问题进行了议论。讨论了农业资源高效利用的评价标准,在概括农业资源高效利用评价目的、内容和基本方法的基础上,提出了加快我国农业资源高效利用评价研究工作纵深化发展的具体建议。
    In view of ensuring food safety and realizing sustainable development of agriculture, the problems of effective utilization of agricultural resoruces (EUAR) are being followed with interest by the government and academic circles of China. The author carries out discussion about some much needed theroretical and methodological problems of EUAR research. The paper includes some sections as follows. Firstly, the author defines the conception of agricultural resources,and divides agricultural resources into two parts. Agricultural natural resources include climatic resources, soil resources, water resources, biological resources and land resources, etc. And agricultural social economic resources include man made materials, labor force, science and technology, information, management, etc. Secondly, the author discusses and corrects the measurement standards of EUAR. Those corrected standards include: economizing resources and increasing utilization and output ratio of resources; using effectively resources, and meeting the needs of agricultural products; increasing the input output benefits of agricultural production; not polluting environment, and keeping agricultural ecologicalenvironment of high quality; not bringing about the retro gradation of resources, and utilizing sustainable resources. Thirdly, the author expounds the targets and contents of EUAR appraisement around the measurement standards of EUAR. Fourthly, the author puts forward some basic ways of EUAR evaluation, which include index methods, model methods and regional methods. Lastly, the paper offers some proposals of promoting the effective utility evaluation of agricultural resources in China.
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    惠州城市的形成与发展
    李存
    地理科学. 1999, 19 (2): 176-180.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1999.02.176
    摘要   PDF (576KB)
    从历史地理的角度研究惠州城市的形成和发展,重点考察了腹地和职能的演化。基于动力学分析,认为惠州城市未来发展的动力将主要来自石化、电子等行业的工业化和以惠州港为中心的交通枢纽地位。
    Huizhou City originated in late part of the Spring and Autumn Perrod, which was set up in the east of Guangdong in the Qin Dynasty, was the ascertainable beginning of Huizhou City. Development of Xizhijiang (a branch of Dongjiang) drainage basin in the period from the Eastern Jin Dynasty to the Southern and Northern Dynasties strengthened the function of Huizhou City. The economy and culture of hinterland of Huizhou City was developing rapidly in the Song Dynasty, and Huizhou had already been a city with rather flourishing handicraft industy and market then. Since the Ming Dynasty, the regional structure of Huizhou City had been differentiating. Due to undeveloped commodity economy, Huizhou was still an administrative local city by 1978. In recent 20 years, especially the latter decade, Huizhou is changing into an industrial city with leading industries of electron, automobile and oil, While its function as the central place of Dongjiang drainage basin and nearby coastland is to be resumed and developed. According to the conclusion drawn from history, the main motive force of sustainable development of Huizhou City will come from industrialization and reconstruction of transportation junction. Great attention should be paid promptly to the transportation problem.
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    黄淮海平原冬小麦生长期旱情分析
    赵昕奕, 刘继韩
    地理科学. 1999, 19 (2): 181-185.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1999.02.181
    摘要   PDF (486KB)
    黄淮海平原降水较少且年际、季际变化大,因此水分供应状况成为该区作物,特别是以冬春季为主要生育期的冬小麦的主限制因素。鉴于作物实际蒸散量与潜在蒸散量关系依赖于作物生长状况和土壤水分的事实,提出反映作物缺水状况的干旱指标---作物水分胁迫指数(CWSI).计算黄淮海平原冬小麦生长期间的CWSI,并分析其在自然降水条件及适量灌溉条件下的时空分异规律。
    Based on the fact that the ratio of actual evapotranspiration to potential evapotranspiration depends on the availability of soil moiture and crop growth stages, Crop Water Stress Index (CWSI) is submitted to express the crop drought. The CWSI by ten days interval during 11(1980-1991) winter wheat growth years of 60 stations in Huang-Huai-Hai Plain were calculated in this paper. Then we analyzed the characteristics of CWSI in time and space scale. And the CWSI on the conditions of rain-feed and that of irrigation are compared.
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    哈尔滨城市经济区产业结构调整与布局研究
    梅林, 杨青山
    地理科学. 1999, 19 (2): 186-188.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1999.02.186
    摘要   PDF (457KB)
    运用城市经济区理论与产业系统理论,分析了哈尔滨城市经济区产业发展中存在的主要问题,提出了哈尔滨城市经济区调整与优化的战略举措和产业结构的基本空间格局。
    The essay applied theories of urban economic region and industrial system, to analyze the main problems in industrial development in Harbin urban economic region, and mentioned the strategic decision of industrial structure adjustment and spatial pattern of industry in Harbin urban economic region.
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    长白山国家级自然保护区旅游与环境可持续发展研究
    俞穆清, 朱颜明, 田卫, 刘景双
    地理科学. 1999, 19 (2): 189-192.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1999.02.189
    摘要   PDF (499KB)
    举世闻名的长白山国家级自然保护区近年随着旅游事业的发展,因环境管理措施不力等原因,而带来了一定的环境污染与较明显的生态破坏。协调好旅游开发与环境保护的唯一出路是坚持可持续发展的原则。为此,必须建立完整的技术与管理体系,并因地制宜采取一系列相应的对策与措施。
    With the tourism development of the Changbai Mountains Nature Reserve famous in the world in recent years, as a result of being short of environmental management measures, there appeared certain environmental pollution and obvious ecological damage. The only way to coordinate better relationship between tourism development and environmental protection is to insist on the rule of sustainable development. For this reason, it must set up the complete technique and management system and take a series of countermeasures and steps depending on the local situation.
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