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ISSN 1000-0690
CN 22-1124/P
创刊于 1981 年 (月刊)
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  • 地理科学
      2000年, 第20卷, 第1期 刊出日期:2000-01-20 上一期    下一期
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    论文
    我国新世纪区域发展规划的基本发展趋向
    方创琳
    地理科学. 2000, 20 (1): 1-6.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2000.01.1
    摘要   PDF (1114KB)
    区域发展规划是特定经济体制下引导区域经济和社会持续稳定发展的必然产物,面对市场经济条件下规划编制的“小政府,大社会”宏观背景,我国新世纪区域发展规划编制的基本趋向应该是编制计划与市场兼容型的弹性区域发展规划、多目标复合协调型的区域可持续发展规划、公平与效率兼容型社会发展规划、效益型发展规划和应用导向型发展规划。
    Regional development planning is an inevitable income under the specified economic structure, which can lead the regional economy and society to a sustainable and stable development. Being confronted with the macro background which is as “small government, big society”, so the basic trend of compiling regional development planning toward the new century should be to plan and compile a series of regional development plannings, which should include the elastic regional development planning in which plan is compatible with market, the regional sustainable development planning which involves multiple targets and comprehensive coordinations, the social development planning in which equity is compatible with efficiency, the benefit-oriented development planning and the application-oriented development planning.
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    跨国企业投资的区位行为与企业空间组织联系特征——以在华投资的日资和韩资企业为例
    张文忠, 庞效民, 杨荫凯
    地理科学. 2000, 20 (1): 7-13.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2000.01.7
    摘要   PDF (794KB)
    从经济区位论角度出发,立足于实际考察、问卷调查和大量中外统计资料的分析基础上,以日资和韩资企业在华投资为例,研究了跨国企业在华投资的区位行为、投资模式和企业的空间组织联系特征。
    On the basis of economic location, question paper investigation, and a lot of statistical data, the Japanese investment enterprises (JIEs) and Korean-investment enterprises (KIEs) in China were studied. The paper discussed these issues: (1) the investment location behavior of the Japanese-capital enterprises and Korean capital enterprises in China; (2) the investment model of the JIEs and KIEs in China; (3) the space relation characteristic of the Japanese capital enterprises and Korean-capital enterprises in China. Base on the study, the authors come to the conclusion: (1) the main investment behavior of JIEs and KIEs in China is to reduce the cost. The Japanese-capital enterprises are even more interested in the Chinese market, i.e. the Japanese-capital enterprises are mainly “market-dimensional investment” and most of the Korean capital enterprises are “cost-dimensional investment”. (2) There are three kinds of investment models of JIEs and KIEs in China, that is the investment of exporting obsolete property, the exporting-replace investment, and the market developing investment. The KIEs mainly aim at the first and the second aspects. The JIEs aim at the second and the third aspects, especially the market developing investment. (3) It is dominant that the JIEs and KIEs have close production relation with the companies in their native country. But the relation with the Chinese enterprises is weak. R&D are chiefly conducted in their native country. When an enterprise carries out the R&D in China, the technology mainly comes from its native country. In order to suit the needs of Chinese market, some technologies have been reformed. At the same time, the staff training is also dependent on their native country. As for the market relationship, the sale market of the Japanese-capital enterprises is diversified by the different kind of product. Comparatively, the sale market of Korean-capital enterprises gives service to their native market mainly.
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    三江平原大面积开荒对自然环境影响及区域生态环境保护
    刘兴土, 马学慧
    地理科学. 2000, 20 (1): 14-19.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2000.01.14
    摘要   PDF (1020KB)
    根据多年在三江平原野外考察积累的大量资料,对比开垦前后不同年代的数据,分析三江平原大面积开荒引起的区域环境变化,包括生态类型的变化、土地退化、水环境变化以及动植物资源的变化等,并在总结三江平原开荒过程中经验教训的基础上提出区域环境保护对策。
    There was a sparse population in the Sanjiang Plain before the 19th century. At the beginning of the liberation, the farmland area was merely 78.6×106 hm2. So, the plain is famous for “the great northern wildness”. With the rapid increase of population and goverment investment, the farmland area had been 457.24×104 hm2 up to 1994. With reclamation over 40 years, the area of mire had decreased over 300×104 hm2, and the area of forest land decreased 307×104 hm2 by 1983, much more than that in 1949. Reclaiming and destorying forest and grass land has led to a series of ecological problems, such as the worse of soil erosion, the intrease of local desertification area and water erosion, the emphasis on reclamation rather than harness, the emphasis on use only rather than culture, the divorce between reclamation and construction, and result in the decrease at different level of cultivated soil fertility, and the intensification of pollution of farm chemicals, chemical fertilizer and surface water. In recent years, growing rice in large scale by well-irrigation has led to the falling of local ground water level. At the same time, it also has resulted in the destruction of biodiversity and the decrease of valuable and rare animals and plants. In order to restore and protect regional eco environment, it is imperative to stop reclaiming at once, take the way to reform middle and low yield cropland mainly, to strengthen effective management of mire nature reserves, to improve shelter-forest system, combine use with culture, culture soil, rational plan and use land. We should set up superior structure of agriculture forestry and stock raising, improve regional eco environment and reinforce sustainable use of regional resources.
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    北京市城乡过渡地带产业结构演化研究
    宋金平, 李丽平
    地理科学. 2000, 20 (1): 20-26.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2000.01.20
    摘要   PDF (833KB)
    城乡过渡地带资源合理配置和产业发展问题,已受到人们的普遍关注。以北京市为例,探讨了北京市城乡过渡地带的产业结构现状,分析了其产业结构演化过程和社会经济特征,揭示出影响城乡过渡地带发展变化的社会、经济、文化因素以及内在机制,在此基础上提出未来北京城乡过渡地带产业发展方向并提出简单的结论
    How to imply resources equitable distribution and industrial coordinated development has held more and more people’s interest. Beijing has made rapid growth in the past, to study industrial structure of its urban rural transition belt is of momentous current significance. The industrial structure of this region has the following features: 1)Agriculture has turned to metropolis agriculture, animal husbandry contributes main products.2)Non-agriculture industries grow rapidly. 3)Economic activity is short of a long-term plan, industrial structure is unstable.4) There is an apparent difference between districts. By 1996, the industrial structure had changed to 3.7%:42.8%:53.5%, proportion of the primary industry decreased year by year, the secondary industry grown steadily and the tertiary industry raise rapidly, employment structure has greatly changed, too, and every district has formed a few preponderant industries. There are five facts that impel the evolution of industrial structure: 1) economic development,2) value change of land, 3) urban planning,4) policy, 5) society. In future, this district should maintain current speed of the secondary industry development, quicken the speed of the tertiary industry development. Chaoyang district will be a base of technology-intensive industries. Haidian and Fengtai districts will be a base of high-technology industries. Shijingshan district will become a base of heavy industries.
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    黄河三角洲的适用生态农业模式及农业地域结构探讨
    许学工
    地理科学. 2000, 20 (1): 27-32.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2000.01.27
    摘要   PDF (979KB)
    从可持续发展的观点出发,通过对黄河三角洲地区生态环境分异和生态农业雏型的研究,提出7种适用的生态农业模式,并在此基础上进行了该区的农业地域结构规划探讨。
    The prominent characteristic of agricultural production in the Yellow River Delta is that there are rich land and other resources but fragile ecological environment. Because of this duality of producing condition and for realizing sustainable development of agriculture, we should take an eco-agriculture approach. According to the principles of agriculture system and sustainable development, this paper puts forward seven eco agricultural models by means of positivist study on differences of ecological environment and embryos of eco agriculture in the Yellow River Delta, and then divides the Yellow River Delta region into four economic regions and twenty-one agricultural areas, through arranging proper eco-agricultural models into every area to complete the agriculture territorial structure planning of the Yellow River Delta region. Combining territorial management and items of agricultural development, we can regulate and optimize territorial structure of agriculture, and enable every eco-agriculture model operating. The sustainable agriculture of the Yellow River Delta is full of promise.
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    灾害地貌专家系统的结构设计
    付炜
    地理科学. 2000, 20 (1): 33-38.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2000.01.33
    摘要   PDF (1340KB)
    灾害地貌专家系统采用压缩编码方式存贮各种地学专题图形和遥感图象数据,具有数据与图象的存贮更新、查询检索、分析处理、图象显示和自动制图功能。该系统可以对灾害地貌过程进行专家级的预测和评价,并对灾害地貌的综合治理与区域规划提出几种可行性方案供用户选择。用该系统对天山阿拉沟流域泥石流灾害地貌进行了试验研究,并对试验结果进行了系统评价。
    This paper presents the approaches and principles for building Calamitous Landform Expert System (CLES). The author expounds the methods of classification and graduation for the expert knowledge of calamitous landform, discusses basic rules of knowledge expression in CLES and organization patterns of expert knowledge in knowledge base, elaborates design principles of Inference Engine(IE), and explains strutural principles and approaches of inference rules. The system stores geo thematic graphics data and image data of Remote Sensing (RS) in compressed coding. The CLES can be also used to store, update, inquire, search, analyse, process data and images, and to make maps automatically. In addition, the system can be used to predict and evaluate developmental process of calamitous landform professionally. Moreover, several decision plans and regional programs can be obtained by consulting with the system, so that users can select a practicable one from them for comprehensively harnessing calamitous landform. Furthermore, the author makes a test research with the system on developmental process of mudrock flows in Alagou watershed of Tianshan Mountains, and evaluates the test results systematically.
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    黄土高原古土壤形态特征的差异及成因探讨
    胡雪峰, 周杰, 孙有斌, 安芷生
    地理科学. 2000, 20 (1): 39-44.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2000.01.39
    摘要   PDF (880KB)
    灵台剖面第四纪晚期古土壤——这里指S8及其上古土壤;第四纪中早期古土壤——这里指离石黄土S9及其下古土壤和午城黄土中所有古土壤;第三纪古土壤——指第三纪红粘土,在形态特征上有明显区别。这种区别是由于古成土过程中水分运行方式的不同造成的。根据形态特征和古成土过程水作用方式的差异,把上述3个时代的古土壤依次称为淋溶型古土壤、滞水型古土壤和地下水升降型古土壤。不同时代古土壤成土过程水作用方式的这种差异,是由降水量、尘降速率等环境因素的改变引起的,在黄土高原具有普遍性。正确地认识这一问题有助于更好地解译黄土高原晚新生代以来的古气候和古环境。
    The Lingtai section includes both the Quaternary loess-paleosol sequence and the Tertiary red clay. The investigations revealed that the morphological features of the paleosols of the section formed in late Quaternary (S0-S8), middle and early Quaternary (S9-S41) and late Tertiary (the Tertiary red clay) were different to large extent. It was caused by the different water migrating patterns during the paleo-pedogenetic processes. According to the variations of the morphological features and the paleo-pedogenesis, the paleosols in the different periods mentioned above were classified as the leaching-type paleosols, the stagnating type paleosols and the ground-water-fluctuating-type paleosols, respectively. The variations of the paleosols’ morphological features, which are common in the Loess Plateau, were caused by the changes of environmental factors, mainly precipitation and dust accumulation rate. A correct understanding of it will help us further interpret the palaeo-climates and palaeo-environments of the Loess Plateau, northwest China since the late Cenozoic.
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    香港地区港湾沙坝的沉积物来源——以香港大屿山岛贝澳湾为例
    王为
    地理科学. 2000, 20 (1): 45-50.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2000.01.45
    摘要   PDF (275KB)
    香港港湾沙坝海滩的沉积物主要来源于河流带来的物质,其他来源是海湾内的残余沉积物和沿岸岩石的侵蚀带来的物质,沙坝的形成与第四纪冰后期海侵无关。由于香港地区河流短小,沉积物数量有限,故香港港湾砂坝坝体小,仅位于湾顶附近,向海推进年代较晚,对海岸环境变化反应甚为敏感。
    The bay barrier in Pui O Bay on the south coast of Lantau Island, Hong Kong was selected as an example for the study of the sediment sources for bay barrier on the Hong Kong coasts. The studies of geomorphology and sediments of the selected bay barriers include the analysis of longshore variations of beach profiles and grain size and that of heavy minerals form the beach and the inland streams, which are compared to those in the surface deposits on the continental shelf off the Hong Kong coasts. Longest beach profiles and beach deposits with coarsest grain size, worst sorting and positive skewness are found near the outlet where the wave energy is smallest, indicating that the main source for the barrier beach is the materials from the inland streams. Although the heavy minerals of the beach and the inland streams are similar in mineral species assemblage, the fact that very stable minerls occurring in the beach are not found in the streams, that different ratios of contents of heavy minerals with similar stability and specific gravity are in the beach and streams and, that minerals of the same species in the present beach always have different surface textures indicates that there are other sources for the beach from the sea. However, the heavy mineral assemblage of the surface deposits on the continent shelf differs very much from that in the present beach. This suggests that the source must be the deposits from somewhere between the present beach and inner continent shelf, that is the remnant sediments in offshore zone within the bay. This is also supported by the previous study which indicated that the sand movement is restricted within the bays on the Hong Kong coasts due to low coastal energy. The fact that some very unstable minerals, which cannot be kept for a long time in deposits, are only contained in the present beach deposits shows that the final source for the beach is the materials eroded by waves from coastal headland rocks of the bay. The case study of Pui O Bay indicates that under the local geological and climatic conditions, the materials for bay barrier development in Hong Kong are mainly from the inland streams, which are limited resulting in the bay barriers on the Hong Kong coasts having developed in a small size. The bay barriers could not have been the result of the postglacial marine transgression in Hong Kong. The bay barriers in Hong Kong prograded very late in the Holocene period and are still located near the head of bays in the present day, which differs from those with the progradation reinforced by inner shelf sands, because of the limited source from inland streams, and also because of this, the barrier beaches are very sensitive to regular and irregular changes in coastal environments.
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    松嫩平原西部土地盐碱化与农业可持续发展
    李秀军
    地理科学. 2000, 20 (1): 51-55.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2000.01.51
    摘要   PDF (893KB)
    松嫩平原西部土地盐碱化是我国土地盐碱化的重要地区。近几十年来由于受自然因素和人为因素控制,盐碱化土地面积已达320×104hm2,平均年递增2×104hm2,而且盐碱化程度逐渐加剧,生态环境逐渐恶化。通过生态工程措施、农艺措施、水利工程措施、以及发展小化工厂等的治理措施,盐碱化土地可得到改良,区域环境向良性发展。
    The alkili-saline land in the western Songnen Plain is one of the important alkili-saline areas in China. In recent decades, the total area of alkili-saline land reaches 3,200,000hm2 and increases by 20,000hm2 per year on an average due to the natural and human factors. Besides, the degree of salinization increases, ecological environment teriorates and the good development of the regional economy are impeded. The measures to harness the salinized land should follow such principles as ecological continuance, economic continuance and social continuance. The comprehensive measures are as follows. First, the ecological engineering measures are to perfect the shelter-forest, to strengthen the administration of grassland, as well as to raise reeds and fish in lakes and pools. Second, the agronomic measures are to strengthen the administration of cultivation, to introduce salinie-enduring plants and to bring soil from other places where are not salinized to fertilize the poor soil. Third, the irrigation works should be set up so that the salt of soil are removed. Forth, small chemical plants are set up in order to make full use of the salt and alkili of the salinized soil. Therefore, the salinized land can be improved, the regional environment can develop in a good direction and the regional economy can develop in a good way.
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    气候波动对莱州湾地区水资源及极端旱涝事件的影响
    邓慧平, 李爱贞, 刘厚风, 陈淑芬, 张雪芹
    地理科学. 2000, 20 (1): 56-60.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2000.01.56
    摘要   PDF (830KB)
    通过对莱州湾地区1960~1993年气候波动对水资源及极端旱涝事件的影响分析,可以看出该地区水资源对气候波动很敏感。当降水增加10%,全区水资源总量可增加22%;若降水减少10%,全区水资源总量则减少23%。在气候处于多雨时期,极端雨涝频率远高于少雨时期;在气候处于少雨时期,极端干旱频率远高于多雨时期。同时还分析了未来气候变化对莱州湾地区水资源的可能影响。
    The Laizhou Bay area is located in the north coastal zone of Shandong Province, China. In order to investigate the sensibility of water resources and extremes to climate fluctuations, the annual regional precipitation series (1960-1993) is divided into more precipitation and less precipitation periods equally at the point of 1976. In the wet period (1960-1976), average precipitation is 12% more than the normal. In the dry period (1977-1993), average annual precipitation is 12% less than the normal. In the wet period, regional total water resources is 26% more than the normal, while in the dry period, regional total water resources is about 27% less than the normal. Ten percent increase in precipitation will cause about 20% percent increase in total water resources. Ten percent decrease in precipitation will result in about 20% decrease in total water resources. Regional water resources is very sensitive and fragile to the climatic fluctuations. During the wet period, extreme waterlogging occurred four times, while during the dry period it only occurred once. The frequency of extreme waterlogging in the wet period is much higher than that in the dry period. During the dry period, extreme drought occurred four times but it only appearred once during the wet period. The frequency of extreme drought in the dry period is much higher than that in the wet period. The frequencies of extremes also show their sensibility to the climatic fluctuations. Based on the future climate secnarios in Huabei region, impacts of climate change on water resources in 45 years (1998-2042) are investigated primarily.
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    流域水污染物排放总量控制研究——以吉林省松花江流域为例
    包存宽, 张敏, 尚金城
    地理科学. 2000, 20 (1): 61-64.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2000.01.61
    摘要   PDF (633KB)
    介绍了污染物排放总量控制的3种类型:容量总量控制、目标总量控制和行业总量控制;提出了总量控制的技术路线和技术方法;并将此理论与方法具体应用到吉林省松花江流域污染物总量控制研究中,着重分析了松花江中下游控制单元和吉林市子控制单元的总量控制方案;最后探讨了总量控制措施。
    This paper introduces three kinds of total quantity control of pollutants emission(TQCPE), which are based on environmental capacity(EC),environmental target(ET) and the industrial characters(IC)respectively. Both the technical route and approaches of TQCPE are proposed, then applies the theories and methods to the Songhua River basin of Jilin Province,especially researches the programs of TQCPE in the middlelower reaches of the Songhua River and Jilin City. At last the countermeasures of TQCPE are discussed.
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    农用土地价格初步研究——温州市农用地案例分析
    陈浮, 彭补拙
    地理科学. 2000, 20 (1): 65-71.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2000.01.65
    摘要   PDF (289KB)
    根据农用土地价格特征,选择适当的方法和评估的具体操作是研究重点,为此建立农用土地类型、等级、基准地价及变幅的价格体系,为农用土地流转、土地税收等提供依据,促进耕地保护和利用格局调整。并在温州市农用土地管理中实践,有利于深化土地有偿使用制度改革,建立、健全农村土地市场,强化农用土地资产化管理。
    This paper focuses on the topic of how to choose correct methods and resolve a concrete calculation according to the characteristics of agricultural land. The authors set up the agricultural land price system which includes the categories,ranks of the datum land price and changing slope.This work provides a scientific basis of the land transfer and the land taxes of different levels in rural areas, accelerates to preserve arable land and positively adjusts land use structure.This theory has been used with the land grading and appraising of the countryside in Wenzhou City, and has comparatively good theoretical and practical significance to deepening the reform of the property system, establishing the reasonable land market,and regarding the land resource as a property.
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    城市地表饮用水源保护研究进展
    杨爱玲, 朱颜明
    地理科学. 2000, 20 (1): 72-77.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2000.01.72
    摘要   PDF (842KB)
    城市水资源短缺和地表饮用水源污染已成为全球范围的重大问题和人类社会共同关注的焦点。城市地表饮用水源的保护已越来越受到人们的重视,它的研究应该在城市地表饮用水源的科学管理和保护中发挥重要的作用。对国内外地表饮用水源保护研究现状和地表饮用水源保护现状进行综述,同时重点分析和讨论了国内外研究存在的不足,提出城市地表饮用水源保护的未来研究重点。
    The shortage of urban water resources and the pollution of surface drinking water sources have been world wide problems which received much attention from all society. The studies on it should play an important role in the scientific management, protection of urban surface drinking water sources. The paper summarizes the current situation of the surface drinking water sources protection and the study of the surface drinking water sources protection, at the same time, discusses the deficiency of the study at home and abroad, advances the future main studying points of urban surface drinking water sources protection.
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    桂林市区域人粮关系及其协调研究
    周生路, 朱凤武, 彭补拙, 赵其国
    地理科学. 2000, 20 (1): 78-82.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2000.01.78
    摘要   PDF (746KB)
    采用粮食趋势产量与资源潜力产量结合、从食物消费结构探求粮食消费数量等方法,对桂林市未来区域人粮关系及其协调对策进行了研究。结果表明,未来该市人粮关系矛盾依然严峻,并有加重趋势;但在加大投入、提高粮食单产,加强计划生育、严格控制人口增长、大力开发周边旅游资源、分流外来游客、充分利用草山草坡资源、走“节粮”型畜禽发展道路等前提下,人粮关系矛盾有望得到解决。
    By the way which connected tendency grain production with resources potential production and calculated grain consumption according to food consumption structure, the development and coordination of man grain relationship in future in Guilin City were studied in this paper. Results show that: 1)The man-grain relationship in Guilin City will be serious or more serious in future. 2)The contradiction of man grain relationship will be settled, if input and grain production, family planning and population growth control are improved, the periphery tourism resources are exploited greatly, and some tourists are separated; the grassy mountain and hillside resources are full utilized, poultry and animal develop without a lot of grain consumption.
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    洱海近代气候变化的化学记录
    陈敬安, 万国江, 陈振楼, 黄荣贵
    地理科学. 2000, 20 (1): 83-87.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2000.01.83
    摘要   PDF (222KB)
    对洱海现代沉积物进行采样,将放射性核素精确计年与沉积物化学记录研究相结合,成功地恢复了洱海近650年来的气候与环境变迁。研究结果表明,洱海区域气候主要表现为暖干与冷湿相交替的气候演替类型,且存在约200年时间尺度的变化准周期,目前正处于暖干期末期-冷湿期初期,预计气温将有所下降,降雨量将有所增加。
    As a main lodging of surface substances, the plateau lake sediment continuously records the information of regional climate and environment with high resolution, and has major implications for reconstructing short time-scale climatic changes. Through careful sampling of recent sediments and accurate dating by radionuclides, the evolutionary history of the regional climate and environment in recent 650 years is reconstructed successfully by chemical records in sediments of Lake Erhai. The results show that the CaO/(MgO·Al2O3)ratio in sediments can indicate palaeotemperature changes while the (CaO+K2O+Na2O)/Al2O3, Sr/Ba, Ca/Mg ratios have the palaeoclimate implications for revealing the aridity/humidity changes, according to it three climate phases are revealed: the warm dry period within 1340-1570AD,the cold humid period within 1570-1800AD and the warm-dry period since 1800AD. This suggestes that the climatic succession type in the region of Lake Erhai is the warm-dry and the cold-humid alternatively and there exists 200 years time-scale climatic quasi periodical changes. At present, it is at the end of the warm dry period and at the beginning of the cold humid period, so the temperature will fall and the precipitation will increase. On the one hand, the regional climate in Lake Erhai shows consistency with the global climate. On the other hand, it takes on specific regional characteristics. Therefore, to strengthen palaeoclimate study in this region is very important and meaningful in theory and reality for extending contents of global changes, realizing climatic change characteristics in the southwest monsoon zone and perfecting the Asian paleomonsoon study.
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    新亚欧大陆桥新疆段水害时空分维特征研究
    陈亚宁, 杨思全, 李卫红
    地理科学. 2000, 20 (1): 88-91.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2000.01.88
    摘要   PDF (188KB)
    基于区域自然灾害发生的复杂性和不确定性,运用分形、混沌理论,对新亚欧大陆桥新疆段近38年的洪水灾害资料进行了时空分维特征研究。结果表明:陆桥新疆段洪水灾害不仅在时间序列上具有自相似性,其容量维Df在0.0497~0.0678间,而且在空间序列上也具有自相似性,存在明显分维结构,其信息维D1在0.0537~0.0797之间。洪水灾害严重区段的信息分维值较低,并且信息分维与洪水灾害发生频度呈反相关。这一特征将有助于我们认识灾害发生规律和动力学特征。
    Fractal and Chaos Theory is a subject on entering a kind of special disordered state in the process of system evolution. In this paper, based on the random and indefinite of regional natural disaster, the space time fractal characteristic of the flood hazard in Xinjiang Line of New Eurasian Continental Bridge is studied using the Fractal and Chaos Theory. The analysis of 38-year flood hazard data shows that the flood hazard in Xinjiang Line have self-similarity not only in the time alignment (volume fractal dimension Df varied from 0.0497 to 0.0678), but in the space alignment (informative fractal dimension D1 varied from 0.0531 to 0.0797). Moreover, except for showing the grades of flood hazard as time alignment by the relationship that volume fractal dimension Df is in inverse proportion to the disaster grades, space alignment can reveal the irregularity of flood hazard distribution.The result from this is useful for us to recognize the inner regularity and dynamic characteristic of the flood hazard.
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    土地退化评价与监测技术路线的研究
    孙武, 李森
    地理科学. 2000, 20 (1): 92-96.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2000.01.92
    摘要   PDF (571KB)
    在对90年代后期国内外土地退化评价与监测主要进展分析基础上,归纳出了绝对、相对和差异三种退化的评价思想;直接运用图象处理软件,通过监督非监督分类选择几个基于RS、GIS的指标,给定不同的权重综合地确定土地退化类型和程度的两种技术监测路线。最后,结合中国的实际情况,以沙质荒漠化为例提出了在绝对退化思想指导下,通过确定土地退化生态基准的时空尺度,建立监测区内典型土地退化类型与程度的标准信息资源库,GIS数据与RS数据相融合的土地退化评价与监测的技术路线框架。
    Based on the review of the advance on monitoring and assessing of sandy desertification at home and abroad since the late 1990s, the paper draws an outline of theories and technical lines after conducting desertification evaluation in several regions. Three of theories are important, respectively representing absolute, relative and diversity degradation, they are global assessment of human-induced soil degradation(GLASOD), the assessment of the status of human induced soil degradation in South and Southeast Asia(ASSOD), and the theory put forward by Moscow State University and Russia Academy of Science(RUSSIA). Two technical lines are either using image processing software through supervised and unsupervised classifications or selecting different weighed indicators from RS and GIS. Combining the situation in China and under guidance of absolute degradation theory, the paper puts forward the technical framework for monitoring and assessing sandy desertification of China, which include the definition of degradation baseline with temporal and spatial scale, the establishment of indicators database based on 3S for the typical desertified land of all levels and the integration of computer image processing, GIS and ES.
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