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CN 22-1124/P
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  • 地理科学
      2002年, 第22卷, 第2期 刊出日期:2002-03-20 上一期    下一期
    选择: 合并摘要 显示图片
    论文
    "新经济地理学"与"地理经济学"——兼论西方经济学与地理学融合的新趋向
    顾朝林, 石爱华, 王恩儒
    地理科学. 2002, 22 (2): 129-135.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.02.129
    摘要   PDF (1654KB)
    经济学家廖士(August L sch)十分重视空间和区位的关系,他在德国传统的区位理论基础上从事经济与空间配置的研究,提出了经济景观学说。廖士曾希望他的研究能够形成一个新的领域——空间经济学,并能引起经济学自身的重构。但实际上,经济景观学说对经济学并没有多少影响。相反,在19世纪50~60年代,他的名著《区域经济学》却对经济地理学发展和区域科学孕育产生了巨大贡献。最近几年来,由于经济全球化的趋势,西方经济学家又开始对地理学产生兴趣,新经济地理学或地理经济学应运而生。主要就其研究内容和发展动向进行综述介绍,并在此基础上对西方经济学与地理学融合的新趋向进行了讨论。
    August L sch, a famous economist, attached much importance to the relationship of space and location. Based on the traditional location theory from German, he engaged in the research of the matching of economy and space, and then established the theory of economic landscape. He had hoped that his own research would form a new field-space economy and brought the reconstruction to the economy itself. But in fact, the theory of economic landscape had not much effect on the economy. On the contrary, his famous book, The Economics of Location, did tremendous contribution to the development of economic geography and the gestation of region science between the 1850s and the 1860s. With the trend of economic globalization, the western economists have been interested in geography again in recent years, of which the leaders are Krugman, Porter, Arthur, etc. So "the new economic geography" or "the geographical economics" emerged. The paper introduces in detail the two major themes of "the new economic geography": the spatial agglomeration of economic activity and the dynamics of regional growth convergence, then points out the deficiences in "the new economic geography". In the end the paper emphasized that geography and economics should construct their new alliance based on the same goal and philosophical foundation.
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    论点-轴系统理论的科学内涵
    陆玉麒
    地理科学. 2002, 22 (2): 136-143.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.02.136
    摘要   PDF (1422KB)
    从理论渊流看,点轴系统理论以中心地学说等为理论基础,但两者的内涵和应用目标又是不同的。点(城市等)、线(交通等线状基础设施)、面(农业等腹地资源)构成区域三要素。区域发展理论都围绕着区域三要素而展开,由于侧重点的不同而形成相应的空间结构模型。以点为核心所形成的是以中心地学说为代表的古典区位论,以点、线为核心所形成的是点轴系统理论;点轴系统理论与中心地理论一起,构成为有关区域发展的两大基本理论。在中心地学说中,虽然加进了交通因素而构建了K=4的空间结构模式,但其中的交通因素依然属于外生变量。只有在点轴系统理论中,点、线才都是内生变量,是构建空间结构模型的不可或缺的两大要素。点与线的有机结合,尤其是对线的特别关注,构成了点轴系统理论的基本特色。正是因为如此,区域可达性、空间扩散方式等方面的理论创新,构成为点轴系统理论得以提出的科学基础。重大的理论创新赋予点轴系统理论以巨大的应用价值。点轴系统理论是中国人文地理学界贡献给社会的一个具有较大影响的理论成果。以此为契机,通过空间结构研究的不断深化,应当能够构建起具有中国特色的空间学派来。
    From the trace to the source of the theory, the pole-axis theory is based on the theory of the central place. However, the relationship between the two theories is not so easy. The point (such as cities), lines (the basic establishment of line formation such as traffic) and the surface (such as agricultural hinterland resources) form the three factors of the region. The regional developmental theory spreads according to these three theories and form the corresponding spatial structural model because of the different emphases. We can conclude that the core of the point forms the classic location theory that represent as the theory of central place; the core of the point and line forms the pole-axis theory and the pole-axis theory and the theory of central place form the two basic theories of the regional development. In the theory of central place, although we add up to the traffic factor so that construct the spatial structural model of k=4, the traffic factor is still ectogenic variable. Only in the pole-axis theory, do the point and the line become the endogenetic variable and they form the two indispensable factors of constructing spatial structure. It is not difficult to see that the organic combination of the point and the line forms the basic character of the pole-axis theory especially concentration to the line. Therefore, the theoretical innovation such as the regional accessibility and the spatial diffused mode forms the scientific basis of fording the pole-axis theory. The grand theoretical innovation endows the pole-axis theory with much practical values. The pole-axis theory is an important theoretical fruit in Chinese humane geography and the depth and the scope of its application are as perfect as the fruit of the agricultural regional layout. And then, we believe that we can build the spatial school of Chinese character through the research of spatial structure deeply.
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    历史时期官吏在海南开疆文化发展中的作用
    朱竑, 薛德升, 曹小曙
    地理科学. 2002, 22 (2): 144-149.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.02.144
    摘要   PDF (1598KB)
    以海南岛开疆文化的发展为例,探讨了历史时期各级官员在海南岛文化发展中的作用。指出我国历代的朝廷官员因为特殊的选拔机制,从而较一般人更有能力在边疆文化发展和社会进步中发挥主要作用。文章最后指出,现今我国的西部大开发中,从经济发达地区选派干部到西部挂职锻炼,以及从经济落后地区选派优秀干部到经济发达地区挂职学习是新时期的两种行之有效的开疆举措。
    This paper analyses the function of government officials in the progress of Hainan culture development in history, on the basis of concept of frontier culture and its forming, which points out that in the history,the officials always much more can give play to the development of the culture in frontier,because of their better culture background. In the history of Hainan Island,the officials made great contribution to Hainan's cultural development. Finally, the paper points out the officials were sent to the west of China from the developed areas (such as the coastal areas), and the officials were sent to the developed areas from the west of China may be considered as effective measures of developing frontier culture in new century.
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    从魁北克2000-世纪湿地大事件活动看21世纪国际湿地科学研究的热点与前沿
    杨永兴
    地理科学. 2002, 22 (2): 150-155.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.02.150
    摘要   PDF (266KB)
    介绍了魁北克2000-世纪湿地大事件活动的主要内容和信息,结合收集到的国际上新的湿地研究文献资料,总结了国际湿地科学研究的前沿领域、热点、主要研究进展和发展趋势,对国际湿地科学研究进展加以简要概述,以此透视现代国际湿地科学研究一些新的动向和趋势。
    This paper makes an introduction on chief activities of Quebec 2000-Millennium Wetland Event which was held in Quebec city, Canada in 2000. Main characteristics of the wetland development are showed from the Millennium Wetland Event. The wetland science has become an important discipline and research field of the scientific research in the 21st century, its research field is remarkably enlarged and its development is not balance in the world, the research level in developed countries is much higher than one in developing countries in wetland researches, but the difference between developed and developing countries is smaller and smaller in the research level. It also summarizes the hot points, forward position fields, main process and development trend of the 21st century international wetland science researches. The main hot points and forward position fields of wetland research in the world are as follows, conservation and management of wetland, development and succession of wetland, ecological process and dynamics of wetland, relationship between greenhouse gases and greenhouse effect and global environment change, theory and technique of creating wetland, restoration and reconstruction of degradation wetland, wetland ecosystem health, assessment and evaluation of wetland, wise utilization of wetland, peatland and peat. A vast amount of the academic works and papers on wetland were published with the rapid development of the wetland science in last few years. The theory system of wetland science is being perfected.
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    可持续发展评价初探
    黄铁青, 张养贞
    地理科学. 2002, 22 (2): 156-161.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.02.156
    摘要   PDF (1234KB)
    简要阐述了可持续发展评价的两个基本方面发展和可持续性,推导了评价中可能出现的8种评价结果,构建了能科学和直观地表达评价结果的可持续发展评价坐标系,指出了表格式指标体系的缺陷,提出了克服这一缺陷的金字塔型指标体系,对当前主要的发展指数和可持续性指数进行了分析和比较,分析比较后认为:人类发展指数是衡量发展的合适指数,生态盈余是衡量可持续性的合适指数。
    The essential aspects that should be considered in assessing the progress towards sustainable development are defined as development and sustainability. Eight classes of possible assessment result are inferred. The coordinate system of sustainable development assessment, composed of sustainability indicator as X-axis and development indicator as Y-axis, is proposed. The defects of matrix framework of sustainable development indicators are shown, and a new kind of framework called pyramid framework is proposed in order to overcome those defects. Several indexes are analyzed and compared, then the human development index (HDI) is chosen to reflect the development aspect, and the ecological remainder, which is the difference between ecological space and ecological footprint, is chosen to reflect the sustainability aspect.
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    水资源的天然可再生能力及其与更新速率之间的关系
    沈珍瑶, 杨志峰, 刘昌明
    地理科学. 2002, 22 (2): 162-165.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.02.162
    摘要   PDF (173KB)
    阐述了水资源的可再生性及天然可再生能力的表示方法,探讨了水资源天然可再生能力与水资源更新速率之间的关系。研究结果显示用单位面积单位时间的可更新水资源量来表述水资源天然可再生能力具有突出的优点。研究同时表明水资源更新速率与可更新水资源量之间关系密切,如果获得了水资源更新速率,则较易获得其可更新水资源量,从而可以研究水资源的可再生性。以全国水资源一级分区及黄河流域二级分区为例评价了其水资源的天然可再生能力。
    The reproducibility and its ability of natural water resource are introduced in this paper, the relationship between reproducible ability and refresh rate of water resource is discussed. The results show that it has many advantages to use refresh water resource per area per time as reproducible ability of water resource. The relation between reproducible ability and refresh rate of water resource shows that if the refresh rate of water resource is known, it is very easily to achieve the reproducible ability of water resource. The first order water resources areas in China and the second order water resources subareas of Yellow River are taken as an example to assess the natural reproducible ability.
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    耕地存量临界警戒和耕地非农占用成本的警度修正方法初探
    葛向东, 张侠, 彭补拙, 濮励杰
    地理科学. 2002, 22 (2): 166-170.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.02.166
    摘要   PDF (694KB)
    城市扩张实际上是城乡交错带的耕地因子被城市土地系统不断捕获的过程,耕地地价作为城市土地系统对耕地系统感知反应的灵敏度而影响这种捕获力。耕地占用成本偏低、耕地损失造成的社会影响没有纳入市场成本,导致耕地比较效益低下,是耕地丧失的深层次原因。耕地的社会效益体现为其对粮食安全保障能力的状况,从耕地总量动态平衡的角度来看,耕地预警系统判定的耕地警度反映了这种保障能力。在耕地非农化过程中,据此可对耕地存量进行临界警戒,并同时设立警度修正系数,对耕地非农占用成本进行实时修正。耕地存量临界警戒和耕地非农占用成本的警度修正均应建立在耕地分等定级工作的基础之上。给出了耕地警度判定系数和警度修正系数的计算方法。
    The poignant conflict between the rapid-growing population and the keeping-decreasing cultivated land has made the research on the dynamic monitoring system of cultivated land receive more and more attention. The early-warning system of cultivated land is the important portion of the dynamic monitoring system of cultivated land. Its purpose is to forecast the cultivated land system quantity and quality changes which exceed the critical value of space-time scope and dangerous degree, through analyzing the relevant factors of nature, society, economy and policy, which affect the farmland-developing situation. On the basis of ensuring the safety of food supplies, the early-warning system of cultivated land can alert the cultivated land situation to meet the need of society and economy development in the area during the period. At the same time it discusses the evolvement mechanism of cultivated land system, puts forward the amending scheme, monitors the system to avoid the grave depravation of the resource of cultivated land, supplies the service of the real-time data and model for the sustainable use manage of land and the actualization of the dynamic balance maintenance of total cultivated land. The strategic ultimate aim of the dynamic balance maintenance of total cultivated land is to ensure the safety of food supplies and to make the output capacity of deposit cultivated land and the output level per person increase. In fact, the urban expansion is the process during which the urban land system captures the cultivated land of the combination zone between urban and rural area. As the perceptive sensitivity of urban land system and the cultivated land system, the cultivated land price affects the captive force. The occupation cost of cultivated land is low; the social influence of cultivated land loss is not brought into the market cost. Both of these lead to low comparative benefit of cultivated land, which are the deep reasons of cultivated land loss. The social influence of cultivated land reflects the safeguard ability of corn security. From the dynamic balance of the total quantity of the cultivated land, the cultivated land alarming degree, which is judged by the cultivated land early-warning system, reflects the safeguard ability. During the cultivated land non-agricultural process, the critical alertness is taken for the cultivated land loss; the correct coefficient of the alarming degree is set up to modify the cultivated land price at the same time. The critical alertness of cultivated land and alarming modification of cultivated land non-agriculture cost should be founded on the classifying work of cultivated land. Based on the second general soil survey data, long-period soil monitoring data and relevant statistical data of cultivated land condition, integrated with the analysis of cultivated land investigation in typical area, an indicator system and warning model of cultivated land early-warning system of Xishan City are set up. According to this model, the analysis of the early-warning for the cultivated land of Xishan City is performed. The computation methods of the determinative coefficient of the cultivated land alarming degree and the correct coefficient of the cultivated land non-agricultural price are given in this paper.
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    投影寻踪门限回归模型在年径流预测中的应用
    金菊良, 魏一鸣, 丁晶
    地理科学. 2002, 22 (2): 171-175.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.02.171
    摘要   PDF (569KB)
    为预测年径流这类高维复杂动力系统,提出了投影寻踪门限回归(PPTR)模型。构造了新的投影指标函数,用门限回归(TR)模型描述投影值与预测对象间的非线性关系,并用实码加速遗传算法优化投影指标函数和TR模型参数。实例的计算结果表明,用PPTR模型预测年径流是可行而有效的。PPTR模型简便、适用性强,克服了目前投影寻踪方法计算量大、编程实现困难的缺点,有利于投影寻踪方法的推广应用,为解决高维非线性复杂预测问题提供了新途径。
    Today water resource is very important in the world. The variation of annual runoff not only influences economy and people's living standards, but also restricts the economic development. To solve these problems, accurately predicting the variation of annual runoff is indispensable to scientifically utilize water resources. Being the output of a rainfall-runoff system of drainage basin, the annual runoff time series is a very complex dynamic phenomenon varying from region to region and changing with time, which includes lots of past information of all variations and hides many laws. The evolution treads of annual runoff time series are often time irreversible, nonlinear with weak dependence. Now traditional methods for predicting annual runoff usually use linear technique, but the forecasting precision is not satisfactory, owing to complexity of its intrinsic evolutions, and its close and complicated relationships to climate change and other hydrologic effect factors. In order to predict the high dimension complex dynamic systems of the annual runoff system, a new model-projection pursuit threshold regressive (PPTR) model is presented in this paper. A scheme of PPTR modeling is also given to reduce the computational amount, a new function of projection indexes is constructed, the relation of projection value and predicted object can be described with threshold regressive (TR) model, and it is suggested that both the function of projection indexes and the parameters of TR model can be optimized by using a real coded genetic algorithm developed by the authors. The examples of predicting annual runoff show that PPTR model is both practical and effective. PPTR model is simple and general, which overcomes the shortcomings of large amount of computation and difficulty of computer programming in traditional projection pursuit methods, benefits the more applications of projection pursuit, and gives a new approach to resolving the high dimension, nonlinear complex predictive problems.
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    中国新亚欧大陆桥经济带旅游资源结构及开发布局研究
    沈正平, 马晓冬, 曾尊固
    地理科学. 2002, 22 (2): 176-183.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.02.176
    摘要   PDF (1030KB)
    从中国新亚欧大陆桥经济带中选出具有较高管理类别和一定代表性的53处旅游景区作为研究样本,采用定性与定量相结合的方法,在对其旅游资源的类型结构、空间结构、界值结构和开发层次结构依次做出分析的基础上,提出了该经济带旅游资源开发的基本思路、空间结构模式和时空组织系统;接着分别探索了5大旅游区旅游资源的合理开发利用;最后针对这一经济带旅游资源开发中存在的突出问题,就其战略措施进行了讨论。
    In regional tourist resources development and allocation, the structure of tourist resources often plays an important role. The length of the new Eurasian Continental Bridge in China is more than 4000 km, it is one of the main axes of Chinese economic allocation, the Outline of the Tenth Five-Year Plan for National Economic and Social Development requires that the economic belt relying on the new Eurasian Continental Bridge should be established. The section along the new Eurasian Continental Bridge in China, which is called the economic belt of the new Eurasian continental bridge in China in this paper, is not only rich in the tourist resources with a great quantity of landscape, various types and wide distribution, but also has the distinguishing feature. However, because of the low level of economic and social development in this area and the lack of scientific plan, the tourist resources are not fully utilized over a long period of time, and especially in the spatial structure, they are both uneven and irrational. Therefore, it is of great importance to make research into the structure, the development and the allocation of the tourist resources.Firstly, regarding 53 tourist landscape regions in this economic belt as the unit of research, combining qualitative method with quantitative method, this paper analyzes the structure types, spatial structure, threshold structure and developing hierarchical structure of the tourist resources in the economic belt, and finds the features in four aspects: 1) chief of the structure types is cultural tourist landscape; 2) there are two cultural regions in the spatial structure; 3) the scale of China is main body in the threshold structure; 4) there are three levels in the development structure.Secondly, with the above study, this paper puts forward the main aims, the overall thinking, the model of spatial allocation and the organization in time and space of tourist resources development in the economic belt, and places emphases on two of them: 1) it is the main aims to build up a tourist belt exerting a tremendous worldwide influence around 2010; 2) to sum up the spatial allocation model of tourist resources development with 1 core, 4 grown poles, 5 nodes, 1 main axis, 3 expanding axes, 18 characteristic routes and 5 divided functional regions.Thirdly, from the distinctive features and developing situation of the tourist resources in 5 tourist regions of the belt, this paper probes into the rational development of them respectively.Lastly, in view of the relative problems, the paper discusses the strategical measures of the tourist resources development in this belt in aspects such as government role and organization coordination, relationship between development and protection, image creation, etc.
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    天山北麓灌溉绿洲的形成和发展
    樊自立, 穆桂金, 马英杰, 马映军
    地理科学. 2002, 22 (2): 184-189.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.02.184
    摘要   PDF (1028KB)
    17世纪以前,天山北麓是以牧为主地区,由"兵屯"建立的古代绿洲仅在交通要道呈星、点分布,且屡兴屡废。18~20世纪中叶,由清朝到民国,大力发展屯田,使社会发展进入半农半牧时期,这时形成的旧绿洲,呈断续岛状小片。1949年以后,由大规模农垦建立的新绿洲群,把分散小片旧绿洲联结在一起,形成与天山相平行绿洲带。本区绿洲形成特点是由屯垦和内地移民发展起来,起步虽晚,但发展很快;而且古绿洲、旧绿洲和新绿洲之间有延续性,不象塔里木盆地的很多古代绿洲已沦为沙漠、戈壁或风蚀地。
    Before the 1600's, the northern piedmont of the Tianshan Mountains was an area dominated by animal husbandry, the paleo-oases opened up by the "station troops" were spottily distributed along the traffic routes and were frequently abandoned. During the period from the 1700's to the mid-1900's, except the reclamation of the "station troops", the major efforts were devoted by the "local people" to open up the wasteland, which made the social development here to enter the period of semi-farming and semi-grazing. The old oases formed during this period were intermittently distributed in a small area. After 1949, the old, decentralized and small-sized oases have been connected by the new oases through the large-scale land reclamation and cultivation, and the oasis group and belt paralleling the Tianshan Mountains have formed. The oases in this region are mainly developed by the immigrants from other provinces, and they are developed very rapidly. Moreover, there is a continuity from the paleo-oases to the old and new oases, which is quite different from the situation of many paleo-oases in Tarim Basin because they have evoluted as the deserts, gobi deserts, and wind-erosion lands.
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    青藏高原气候变化对气候带的影响
    赵昕奕, 张惠远, 万军
    地理科学. 2002, 22 (2): 190-195.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.02.190
    摘要   PDF (1211KB)
    已经发生和未来的全球气候变化将对自然界和人类社会产生一系列的影响,特别是全球气候要素的变化会导致气候带的变动,进而导致自然带(区)的变动并影响人类的生产、生活。在对青藏高原20世纪50年代到90年代气温变化分析的基础上,讨论了40?年来积温等气候带指标值的变化特征,并依据对未来气候情景的假设,指出未来全球气候变化背景下,青藏高原气候带的可能变动。
    The climatic change in the past and future can impact the nature and humankind, e.g. the change of climate elements can cause the change of climate zones, which will effect the natural regions and the activities of humankind. Based on the analysis of the change of temperature during the 1950s to the 1990s in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, the change of the index indicating climate zones is discussed in this paper. Then the possible change of climate zones under the scenario of cliamtic change in the future is pointed out.In the past 40 years, the change of the index indicating climate zones is as below; 1) The period during which the daily mean temperature is above 10℃, is becoming longer by the rate of 2.0-4.0 d/10a in some areas in the Plateau and is unchangeable in other areas. 2) In the warm and cold times, the difference of the periods during which the daily mean temperature is above 10℃, is 0-20d. The monthly temperature in the month whose temperature is highest in a year, is larger by 0.1-2.0℃ in the warm time tham that in the cold time.Following the scenario of the 2.0℃ rising of the annual temperature in the plateau, the boundaries and areas of current climate zones will change, but the character of them is unchangeable. The change of those zones is: 1) The eastern boundary of plateau frigid zone will move westward by 1.0 degree so that the frigid zone will be limited on the west of 90°E in the future. 2) The eastern boundary of plateau sub-frigid zone will move westward by 3.0 degree and reach the 100°E; the south-eastern boundary of the sub-frigid zone will shrink towards north-west by 100km or so; the part of the plateau sub-frigid zone in the northern plateau will be small and have the character of plateau temperature zone.3) The temperature zone in the future will expand in the plateau, especially in the eastern and northern parts; meanwhile the cumulated days with those days whose temperature ≥10℃ in the future will be more and the temperature of the warmest month will rise. 4) In the future the cumulated days with those days whose temperature ≥10℃ will be more in the sub-tropical and tropical zones, but the boundaries of them are still.
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    华南亚热带山地土壤有机质更新特征定量研究
    陈庆强, 孙彦敏, 沈承德, 彭少麟, 易惟熙, 姜漫涛, 李志安
    地理科学. 2002, 22 (2): 196-201.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.02.196
    摘要   PDF (273KB)
    选择鼎湖山自然保护区森林植被带(SL)、灌丛-草甸过渡带土壤剖面(GC)进行薄层取样,根据土壤有机质14C放射性水平,运用模型计算土壤有机质更新速率(m)。结果表明上部0~10cm土层有机质更新速率(m)最高;向下,m锐减;剖面下部m值极低,这说明土壤有机质由不同更新周期(T)组分构成。表层快循环组分占绝对优势,向下,慢循环组分为主,剖面下部为稳定组分。根据m、有机碳含量、土壤容重、土层厚度计算有机质更新CO2产量,表层0~10cm层段CO2产量约为整个剖面的98%。SL剖面m值及有机质更新CO2产量均明显大于GC剖面相应值。分析表明在同一气候带植被是制约土壤有机质更新及CO2产量的第一要素,这为通过绿化加强土壤碳汇功能提供重要依据。
    Two soil profiles were excavated at the forest vegetation zone and the shrub-meadow transitional zone of Dinghushan Mt. (23°09'-23°11'N,112°30'-112°33'E), and thin-layer sampling were conducted for studies on soil carbon dynamics of mountainous soils in the subtropical area. Based on 14C radioactivity of soil organic matters (SOM), SOM turnover rate (m) is calculated with a numerical model for the upper sections with SOM Δ14C value greater than zero, due to incorporation of 14C produced by atmospheric nuclear weapon testing (Bomb 14C) in the 1960s. As for the lower section with SOM Δ14C value less than zero, the effect of Bomb 14C may be neglected due to the slow turnover rate of SOM, and value m is calculated by one specific equation. Value m decreases downward, and is greater than 0.01a-1 at the upper 12cm section of the soil profiles, then, value m reduces abruptly downward, and is about one magnitude less than that of the above specimen. From 12cm on, value m reduces consistently with depth, till the minimum at the deepest of the profiles. This suggests that soil organic matters are composed of various compartments with different turnover times (T). Rapid compartments (T < 10a) are predominated at the upper 12cm section, slow compartments (100a<T < 1000a) turn to be the main part of SOM downwards, and stable compartments (T > 1000a) are predominated at the lower sections of the profiles. CO2 production resulted from SOM turnover is calculated based on value m, organic carbon content, soil bulk density and soil section thickness. The results suggest that the CO2 production from the upper 12cm section is about 98 percent of the total CO2 production of one profile. Therefore, the upper 12cm section is the main contributor for CO2 emission due to SOM decomposition in one soil profile. CO2 flux of the upper 12cm section of SL profile is 0.1233gC/cm2·a, which is about one magnitude higher than that of the upper 12cm section of GC profile. This is ascribed to that value m and organic carbon content of the upper 12cm section of SL profile are greater than those of the upper 12cm section of GC profile, respectively. For example, value m of the upper 12cm section of SL profile are greater than 0.1a-1, and those of the upper 12cm section of GC profile are from 0.01a-1 to 0.08a-1. Value m of the uppermost specimen is 0.402a-1 for SL profile, and is 0.078a-1 for GC profile; the former is about one magnitude higher than the latter. The aboveground vegetation types contrast obviously between SL profile and GC profile, which results in different primary production of aboveground vegetation for the two spots. Soil organic carbon content and value m of SOM are controlled directly by primary production of aboveground vegetation. Therefore, aboveground vegetation is the key factor controlling SOM turnover and the corresponding CO2 production of soil profiles within one climatic zone, which give scientific supports for increasing soil carbon sink through afforestation. The upper soil section has high SOM content and great value m, and is apt to be eroded away, thus, the upper section of one soil profile is prone to be CO2 source. Plant debris is the main source for SOM of the upper soil section. Therefore, to reduce plant debris production and to increase the biomass of deep roots, in order to transfer more organic matters into the deep, may be one effective measure for reducing and slowing down the emission of CO2 due to SOM turnover. For this purpose, vegetation with high underground biomass should be planted firstly under all possible conditions, which needs comprehensive cooperation between soil scientists and botanists.
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    赣江入湖三角洲上的网状河流体系研究
    王随继
    地理科学. 2002, 22 (2): 202-207.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.02.202
    摘要   PDF (323KB)
    中国南方的冲积河流有许多属于分汊河流,这已被许多研究者进行过比较深入的分析研究,但赣江在其入湖三角洲上的多河道体系与分汊河流有着明显的不同,它的形成是河流自发调整的结果,而不象分汊河流那样由节点控制。它具有网状河流所具有的地貌和沉积物特征,属于典型的网状河流体系。虽然是低含沙河流,但由于其水动力较弱及汛期基准面的上升,洪泛频繁,可输入河间地以大量的泥沙并在低能环境中发生沉积,使河道及河间地能够协调加积升高,并维持多河道体系的稳定性。
    Many fluvial rivers in southern China are anabranched river pattern and most of them have been studied. But the multiple channel fluvial system on the delta plain of the Ganjiang River differs from the anabranched river pattern. The multiple channel system formed spontaneously. It was not controlled by rocky or man-made nodes whereas the anabranched river was. The multiple channel system belongs to anastomosing fluvial pattern because it has the basic characteristics of anastomosing fluvial pattern in geomorphology and sedimentology such as the small channel width/depth ratio, low channel gradient, cohesive fine graind levees, interchannel wetlands and floodplains, etc. Although the Ganjiang River has low concentration of sediment, its flood plains or interchannel lands have similar sedimentary rate to that of the channels due to the import and aggradation of suspended sediment carrying by the frequent overbank flow during flood periods. The fine grain sediment of the levees that has high cohesive intensity maintains the channel stability.
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    提高城市化水平与耕地面积变化的的关系研究——对大连市的实证研究
    栾维新, 王茂军
    地理科学. 2002, 22 (2): 208-212.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.02.208
    摘要   PDF (684KB)
    在对城市化水平与耕地面积关系综合分析的基础上,通过对大连市域城市化水平提高与耕地面积变化之间关系的实证研究,得出以下结论:①人均建设用地与居民点规模呈反向变化;②大、中城市建设用地基本可以得到控制,农村居民点用地的控制难度较大;③在充分挖掘农村居民点内部潜力的前提下,随着城市化水平的提高,各类居民点人均建设用地的总规模将减小,提高城市化水平是缓解耕地供需矛盾的重要途径。
    Based on the thorough analysis on the relationship between the level of urbanization and the area of infield, this paper makes a study of the relationship between the improvement of the level of urbanization and the variation of infield area in Dalian City and reaches some conclusions as follows: first, there is reverse correlation between the construction land per capita and the dimension of the dwelling; second, on the whole, the demand for the construction land in big or middle cities has been ensured but there are deficiencies in rural dwellings; third, based on the full apprehension of potential in the rural dwellings, with the development of urbanization, the general dimension of a variety of dwelling construction land will diminish, so improving the level of urbanization is an important solution to ease up the imbalance between supply and demand of infield. Confronted with the present situation, the author recommends that: with the general new plan of the utilization of land, we should give more attention to the arrangement of the construction land of rural dwellings; enhance the plan to the village and small town in countryside; rigorously enforce the regulation system of rural construction land; make more research on the relationship between the improvement of the level of urbanization and the change of infield.
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    塔里木沙漠公路植物固沙灌溉方式比较研究
    何兴东, 高玉葆, 段争虎, 赵爱国, 陈珩
    地理科学. 2002, 22 (2): 213-218.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.02.213
    摘要   PDF (760KB)
    在塔里木沙漠公路沿线两侧建立植物固沙体系时首先应确定适宜的灌溉方式。从1998年开始,我们根据不同灌溉方式本身的优缺点与前期试验结果,结合立地条件,在塔里木沙漠公路L292处选择沟灌、畦灌与滴灌进行植物固沙灌溉方式比较试验,对不同灌溉方式植物生长状况、沙层盐渍度变化、灌溉制度及成本投入比较分析后认为,滴灌不受起伏沙丘地形限制,水分利用效率高,能够保证植物正常生长,且费用最低,因而是塔里木沙漠公路植物固沙的首选灌溉方式。
    Determininga suitable irrigation manner is a key problem for establishing sand-fixation plantation system along Tarim Desert Highway. A series of comparison experiment about furrow irrigation, basin irrigation and drip irrigation, according to the merits and demerits themselves, the former research results and site conditions, were made on the plot L292 along the Highway. After comparing and analyzing the plant growth,the changes of salts content in the sand layer and the irrigation system as well as the cost input, it is concluded that drip irrigation is the best irrigation manner for constructing sand-binding plantation along Tarim Desert Highway because it is not influenced by dune landform, it ensures plant regular growth and its water utility efficiency is the highest as well as its cost is the lest.
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    东北地区植被过渡带生态气候学研究
    吴正方
    地理科学. 2002, 22 (2): 219-225.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.02.219
    摘要   PDF (999KB)
    温度和水分是决定植被分布重要的能量和物质基础,其长时间尺度的变化和短时间尺度的波动是植被过渡带形成和分布的主要原因。从生态气候保证率出发,以桑斯威特(C. W. Thonthwaite)温度效率指数(PE)的90%保证率为过渡带上边界和10%保证率为过渡带下边界,定量地划分了东北地区由南向北因温度差异形成的森林植被过渡带; 以湿润指数(Im) 的80%保证率为过渡带上边界和20%保证率为过渡带下边界,定量地划分了由东向西因水分差异产生的森林、草甸草原和典型草原间的过渡带。
    As the basis of energy and substance, temperature and water play very important role in distribution of vegetation zones. Their long-term scale change and short-term scale fluctuation are essential causes of formation and distribution of vegetation transition zone. By using 90% ratio of eco-climatic factor's assurance of Thornthwaite PE as upper limit and 10% as lower limit of vegetation transition zone, forest vegetation transition zones of Northeast China are quantitatively classified. And 80% ratio of eco-climatic factor's assurance of Thornthwaite Im as upper limit and 20% as lower limit of vegetation transition zone forest/meadow/ prairie vegetation transition zones are classified.
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    吉林省发展绿色食品的农业生态环境优势分析
    孙道玮, 俞穆清, 田卫, 冯立权, 董致祥
    地理科学. 2002, 22 (2): 226-231.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.02.226
    摘要   PDF (244KB)
    发展绿色食品生产是吉林省实施"生态省"建设工程的主导产业之一,本文按照绿色食品产地环境质量标准要求,客观评价了吉林省发展绿色食品的产地环境条件,得出吉林省具有发展绿色食品生产的显著农业生态环境优势。基于吉林省良好的农业生态环境质量,结合区域自然条件和资源优势,将全省分为东部山区、中部松辽平原区、西部松嫩平原区和大、中城市郊区四种区域类型,并分别提出了其发展绿色食品生产的宏观策略。
    Developing green food is one of the leading-industries in constructing eco-province in Jilin Province. A pre-evaluation of the agricultural environment in Jilin Province was made according to the standards for the green food production base just after the government made the green food development strategy. After the soil, water and air quality having been evaluated respectively, we draw a conclusion that there are great environmental superiorities in developing green food in Jilin Province. In order to guarantee the environmental quality of green food production base it should be founded a bit farther away from city, especially in the direction that most of the winds blow, also irrigation water should not be taken from where the city sewage just flows in. The whole Jilin Province was divided into four kinds of areas according to the natural conditions and the distribution of natural resources, which are the east mountain area, middle Songliao Plain, west Songneng plain and suburb area. Then the strategies of developing green food for each of the four areas were put forward in the paper.
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    湿地土壤有机质和全氮含量分布特征对比研究——以向海与科尔沁自然保护区为例
    白军红, 邓伟, 朱颜明, 翟金良, 张玉霞
    地理科学. 2002, 22 (2): 232-237.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.02.232
    摘要   PDF (731KB)
    研究了土壤有机质及全氮在霍林河中下游的科尔沁和向海两个自然保护区湿地表层土壤中的水平分布及其在土壤剖面中的垂直分布特征。结果表明,与科尔沁自然保护区相比,向海自然保护区的空间分异程度较高,其表层对有机质及全氮的持留作用较强,碳的固定速度比氮累积更慢一些;盐碱化程度较高,湿地植被净化效应较显著;pH值对有机质和全氮的影响也更为显著。
    This paper studied the vertical discribution characteristics of soil organic matter and total nitrogen in soil profiles, and their horizontal distribution characteristics in the surface soil of wetlands in Xianghai Nature Reserve and Horqin Nature Reserve, respectively. The results show that, in contrast to Horqin Nature Reserve, there exists higher spatial variation for soil organic matter and total nitrogen in Xianghai Nature Reserve, their variation coefficients can be more than 90%; moreover its surface soil holds more soil organic matter and nitrogen in Horqin wetland; its rate of carbon fixing is slower than that of nitrogen accumulation in Xianghai wetland; its degree of salinity is also more severe than, Horqin wetland and its wetland plants in Xianghai assimilate more salts than those in Horqin wetland; in addition, the distribution of soil organic matter and total nitrogen is influence by pH values more strongly.
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    于桥水库流域地表水非点源N时空变化特征
    李俊然, 陈利顶, 傅伯杰, 张淑荣, 李广清
    地理科学. 2002, 22 (2): 238-242.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.02.238
    摘要   PDF (608KB)
    在野外水样监测(1999年5月~2000年10月)和土地利用调查的基础上,利用遥感影像和数字化地形图,运用GIS的空间分析和图形叠置功能,研究于桥水库流域地表水非点源N的时空变化特征。结果表明,在时间上,NH4+-N的峰值出现在枯水期,而NO3--N的峰值出现在丰水期;在空间上,NH4+-N含量在中部平原区最高,南部丘陵和北部山区居其次,NO3--N含量的变化则不具有明显的规律性。NH4+-N和NO3--N不同的时空分布特征与它们的化学性质及流域内土地利用格局有关。
    Water samples were taken from May 1999 to Oct.2000 and land use investigation was carried out in Aug. 2000 in Yuqiao Reservior watershed. Using the functions of space overlapping and graph computing of GIS, related data was collected to analyze temporal and spatial characteristics of non-point source N in surface water of the study area. The results indicate that the peak value of NH4+-N appears in the low-water period while the peak value of NO3--N displays in the high-water period; On spatial, peak value of NH4+-N appears in the central plain area followed by the southern rolling area and northern mountain area, but the diversification of the content of NO3--N in the surface water of the watersheds does not have regular rules. Topography, land use, land cover, human activities and the influencing factors of nitrifcation and denitrification were considered in each region (northern mountain area, central plain area and southern rolling area) of the study area to explain the variance of NH4+-N and NO3--N, and proposal about sustainable watershed development was brought forward as well.
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    研究报道
    金沙江干热河谷土地荒漠化评价方法研究
    范建容, 刘淑珍, 钟祥浩, 李勇
    地理科学. 2002, 22 (2): 243-248.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.02.243
    摘要   PDF (254KB)
    什么样的退化土地才是荒漠化土地,土地荒漠化的发生发展以及程度和区划等问题的定量确定,至今有关报道甚少。干热河谷是我国西南地区特殊的生态环境类型,自然资源丰富,但土地荒漠化问题十分突出,这一现象的定量认识尤为重要。针对土地景观生态系统的复杂性和模糊性,在建立评价指标体系的基础上,采用模糊综合评判的方法,对土地荒漠化程度进行定量评价,为荒漠化土地的预防和治理提供科学依据和决策支持。
    Arid-hot valleys are special ecological type in southwest China. Land degradation/desertification is very severe in the arid-hot valley of the Jinshajiang River, the upstream of the Yangtze River, and threatens residents' living and sustainable development of national economy. The study on land desertification presently include type, distribute, cause of formation, harm, process and principle of forming. Land desertification degrees are still determined qualiatively. In order to take some countermeasures, rapid and accurate evaluation to the land desertification in this region should be done. The degrees of land degradation/desertification are determined by element analysis and multiplayer fuzzy evaluation in accordance with the complexity and fuzziness of land ecological system. The study shows those as following: Physiognomy, soil and vegetation is important factors for evaluation to land desertification in the arid-hot valley of the Jinshajiang River. According to the evaluation criteria system land desertification degrees are determined quantitatively with fuzzy evaluation. The evaluation result is accurate and reliable. It can tell us not only the degree of land degradation/desertification, but also its developing tendency and provide scientific basis and support of policy decision for the prevention of Land degradation/desertification and bringing it under control.
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    河流水质风险评价的灰色随机风险率方法
    胡国华, 夏军, 赵沛伦
    地理科学. 2002, 22 (2): 249-252.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.02.249
    摘要   PDF (935KB)
    提出了量化影响河流水质的随机不确定性与灰色不确定性的水质超标灰色-随机风险率概念,建立了水质超标灰色-随机风险率评价模型。在水质单项参数评价模型中,将河流污染物浓度变量的分布处理成灰色概率分布,将污染物浓度超过水质类别标准值的风险率处理成灰色概率,即水质超标灰色-随机风险率。在水质综合评价模型中,河流水环境系统被考虑为担任某一使用功能的可靠性系统,而任意一种水质参数超标意味着河流水体使用功能已不能得到应有的保证,也即表明水体综合评价超标,最后借鉴系统可靠性分析的理论和方法计算水质综合超标率。该方法应用于黄河花园口断面重金属污染风险评价。
    The river water environment system is a system with many uncertainties. The risk assessment quantifying the influence of uncertainties on river water quality have been paid attention to widely. However, the most of research on risk assessment for river water quality confined to quantify stochastic uncertainty of the river water environmental system using the method of statistics. The research on quantifying the risk due to grey uncertainty of the river water environmental system is done less. Based on the theory of probability and grey system approach, the concepts of grey probability, grey probability distribution, grey probability density, grey expectation and grey variance are defined in this paper. The concept of grey-stochastic risk for water quality concentrations exceeding the standard values is presented to quantify the influence of stochastic uncertainty and grey uncertainty on river water quality. The assessment models of grey-stochastic risk for water quality concentrations exceeding the standard values are established. In the assessment model for the individual parameter, the contaminant concentration is modeled as a random variable with a grey probability distribution and the risk for contaminant concentration exceeding the standard value is expressed with grey probability-the grey-stochastic risk for water quality concentrations exceeding the standard values. In the model of comprehensive assessment for multiple parameters, the river water environmental system is considered as the reliability system to undertake useful function, and the result that the concentration of anyone of water quality parameters exceeds the standard value shows that the useful function of river water environmental system cannot be guaranteed. Lastly, the comprehensive risks for water quality concentrations exceeding the standard values are computed by using the approach of reliability system. An example of application to evaluate the grey-stochastic risks for heavy metals concentrations exceeding the standard values in the Yellow River at the Huayuankou section is given. The results provide more information and are satisfactory.
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    经济欠发达山区农业产业化发展问题与对策——以梅州市为例
    邱国锋
    地理科学. 2002, 22 (2): 253-256.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.02.253
    摘要   PDF (174KB)
    经济欠发达山区由于自然条件和经济基础均比较差、基础设施较薄弱、缺乏现代化经营管理手段等原因,在实施农业产业化过程中面临难于形成规模大、集约化的龙头企业实体,形成产业的主导产品少,农副产品的综合利用率较低、附加值不高等问题。结合梅州市近年来农业产业化的实践探索,提出要充分依托资源优势确立主导产业;因地制宜选择产业化发展模式;运用市场规律、优化要素配置;积极探索适应山区农业产业化发展的领导体制和政府作用等对策。
    Agricultural industrialization which is a new management way of agriculture production is one of the important ways to realize agricultural modernization in our country. Owing to various reasons in the undeveloped mountain areas such as the poverty of nature conditions and economic base, the weakness of the infrastructure and the lacking of the management methods of modernization, the following problems will appear. It is hard to establish the large scale and intensive leading enterprise during carrying out the agricultural modernization. The leading industrial products are poor. Comprehensive utilization rate of agricultural by-products is low. Extravalue is not so high, and so on. According to the practical exploration of agricultural industrialization in recent years in Meizhou, the article puts forward the strategies fully depending upon the advantages of natural resources to establish the leading industry, to choose the development model of industrialization in the light of local conditions, to utilize the law of market, to make the disposition of essential factors right, to explore the leader system and the functions of the government to meet the development of agricutural industrialization.
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