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ISSN 1000-0690
CN 22-1124/P
创刊于 1981 年 (月刊)
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  • 地理科学
      2002年, 第22卷, 第3期 刊出日期:2002-05-20 上一期    下一期
    选择: 合并摘要 显示图片
    论文
    论京津空间相互作用
    戴学珍
    地理科学. 2002, 22 (3): 257-262.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.03.257
    摘要   PDF (627KB)
    在对京津空间相互作用的历史、现状及趋势分析的基础上,着重剖析了距离、规模、互补性及介入机会等空间相互作用的影响因素在京津空间相互作用中的影响,并将具有中国特色的制度因素对京津关系的影响引入空间相互作用理论,以期为京津联合发展提供决策参考。
    Based on analyzing history, present, and future relationship of spatial interaction between Beijing and Tianjin, it is concluded that Beijing and Tianjin have been interdependent for quite a long time historically, and interaction strength between them increases annually and is developing towards integration direction since the era of Chinese economic reform and opening to the outside world. Its acing factors include distance, size, complemantarity, and intervening opportunities etc. According to the theory of spatial interaction, Beijing and Tianjin is adjoining and large, the radiation range is overlapping, and there exists strong complemantarity in natural resources, social and economic condition etc. Further, Intervening opportunities provide good conditions for the development of other provinces, cities, counties towns, and developing areas except Beijing-Tianjin economic region. Moreover, a new factor, institutions is introduced into the theory of spatial interaction, which possesses Chinese features. In order to provide suggestions for making policy in coordinate development of Beijing and Tianjin, its affection was also explored based on the history, present as well as future of spatial interaction between Beijing and Tianjin.
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    北京建设世界城市模式与政策导向的初步研究
    李国平, 卢明华
    地理科学. 2002, 22 (3): 263-269.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.03.263
    摘要   PDF (804KB)
    结合世界城市同经济增长、科技创新以及区域基础之间的关系,世界城市结构演化及其成长过程等的一般规律,在内外部环境综合分析基础上,提出北京建设世界城市的基本经济模式与空间结构模式。加大开放程度,推进产业价值链分工,提高高级生产者服务业以及高科技产业在经济结构中的比重,积极吸引跨国公司总部与研发机构,增强对全球经济资源的配置能力,为基本经济模式;而在首都圈与环渤海地区形成合理的空间分工,以及改北京单中心结构为近、远程多中心圈域型结构,为基本空间结构模式,并进一步提出了北京建设世界城市的六大政策导向。
    In the paper, the author first explains the relationship between development of the world city and economy growth, the innovation of science and technology, regional foundation and then summarizes the general law of the world city structure evolution and growth process. Based on the comprehensive analysis of interior and external environment, the authors put forward the basic economy mode and spatial structure mode of Beijing's constructing the world city. The basic economy modes are as follows: enlarge opening; carry forward the industry value chain division; improve the proportion of advanced producer service industry and high technology industry in economy structure; attract actively the transnational corporation headquarters and R&D institutions; intensify the ability to configure the global economy resources. To form the reasonable spatial division in the Metropolitan Area and the Area Around Bohai and change the single core region structure into multi-core region structure are the basic spatial structure modes. Finally, the authors further put forward six policy tendencies of Beijing's constructing the world city.
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    环境与生态系统资本价值评估的区域范式
    李双成, 郑度, 张镱锂
    地理科学. 2002, 22 (3): 270-275.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.03.270
    摘要   PDF (551KB)
    在分析现行环境与生态系统服务功能划分和资本价值评估工作存在问题的基础上,提出了建立生态资产评估区域范式的必要性,介绍了生态资产评估区域范式的基本内容和工作步骤,并以青藏高原为例,划定了陆地环境与生态系统资本价值的空间分布格局。
    Many researches recently have been focused on analyzing ecosystem services and evaluating natural capital stocks of environment and ecosystems due to their huge social welfares. According to methodological analysis, most of the evaluating researches belong to type paradigm, and some works failed to pay attention to spatial heterogeneity of ecological assets and its related factors. This paper, thus, attempts to calibrate those deviations and to present new paradigm for monetary evaluation of ecosystem services and its capital stocks. New paradigm that we proposed is a regional evaluating approach, which gives more considerations for spatial differentiation of environment and ecosystem than that of type paradigm. The features of new paradigm are as follows: (1) both on-site values and off-site values of ecosystems are equally incorporated; (2) the spatial patterns of scarcity of ecosystem and environment resources are considered; (3) the social demands for ecological assets, which are decided by socio-economic development level, are paid more attention to.As the application of new evaluating paradigm, the ecological assets of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau were assessed in this paper. Firstly, an eco-regionalization version Qinghai-Tibet Plateau for assessing ecological assets was developed, and then functional division of the research region was finished. Secondly, the spatial distribution and the relative value grades of ecosystems according to the previous data such as NPP and vegetation maps are determined. Finally, spatial pattern of environment and ecosystems’ natural value was identified by using GIS and modelling methods. In top hierarchy, the ecological assets of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau are classified into 5 grades and 6 regions.Our researches show that regional evaluating paradigm is an alternative approach though it has some deficiencies. The next works will incorporate the integration between the type and regional assessment paradigms.
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    中国居民消费水平的地域差异
    向清成
    地理科学. 2002, 22 (3): 276-281.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.03.276
    摘要   PDF (805KB)
    建国以来我国居民消费水平的地域分布一直呈非均衡状态,地域差异显著。其中省际差异呈U字型变化,东西差异由小变大,南北差异不断缩小,而城乡差异波动性大。在地域差异构成中,东西差异突出,南北差异影响最小。地区经济发展不平衡是造成我国居民消费水平地域差异的主要原因,其次是经济体制、经济布局以及区域政策的影响。为了缩小地区差距、实现共同富裕,一方面要加快建立社会主义市场经济体制,另一方面要充分发挥政府在引导要素合理流动和调控区域发展方面的作用。
    The paper analyzed the changes of regional differences of households consumption in China since 1949 and reached the following conclusions:(1) the regional distribution of households consumption in China has been uneven since 1949,but the regional differences were reducing gradually before reform and openness and have been enlarging rapidly after reform and openness; (2) great changes of foundational pattern of regional differences have taken place among all provinces and between the south and north, but little change of them between the east and west as well as between the urban and rural; (3) the difference between the east and west in the structure of regional differences is becoming increasingly conspicuous .The main reasons for causing above changes lie firstly in the reflection of imbalance of economic development among all regions, and secondly in the changes of the economy system ,in the transfer of focus of the economy distribution, and in the reflection of regional policy. The conclusion of the paper put forward some suggestions and countermeasures on reducing regional differences of households consumption in China.
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    山区人口与环境互动关系的初步研究
    陈勇, 陈国阶, 王益谦
    地理科学. 2002, 22 (3): 282-287.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.03.282
    摘要   PDF (903KB)
    与平原/低地相比,山区(主要指典型中高山区)环境具有其本身固有的诸多属性。山区环境的复杂性表现在山地诸要素的垂直地带性规律与非地带性规律及其相互叠加上,而其不确定性是由山地环境和物质本身的不稳定性所决定。山区环境的的脆弱性和敏感性表现在山区生态系统抗干扰能力低,容易在外界因素的诱导下偏离生态阈值,甚至出现崩溃。由于高山与河流的阻隔,山区聚落和社区常常表现出分散性、封闭性以及文化的多样性和相对稳定性等特点。山区人地关系地域系统由环境系统和人口系统组成,山区环境对人口具有限制和制约作用,而人口对环境则表现出适应与改造的趋向。山区人口与环境的关系既可以表现为相互恶化,也可以表现为良性互动,其中间过程是通过人类对土地的不同利用方式而得以实现。
    All ecosystems on earth have been under the influence of human beings. It is also true for mountain ecosystem. Comparing with ecosystem on plains/low lands, mountain ecosystem is characteristic of complexity and uncertainty, fragility and sensitivity. Mountains are three-dimensional systems, of which the complexity is displayed in their verticality, non-verticality and compilation of both. Due to the complexity of mountains, it has been very hard to give mountain a well-understood definition. The uncertainty of mountains lies in their instability of internal structure and high potential energy. The fragility and sensitivity of mountain eco-environment is displayed in that mountain ecosystems usually have a low capability to resist external disturbance and it is easy for them to exceed ecological threshold or even to go to collapse under external influences. The fragility of mountain eco-environment is determined by its bio-physical features: high elevation, cold climate, thin air, thin layer of soil, low concentration of organic matters in soil and slow biochemical process. It is usually hard for soil and vegetation in mountains to rehabilitate and restore once they are destroyed. In most cases degradation of mountain environment is an irreversible process. Due to physical constraints, mountain settlements or communities have showed their characteristics of scattering, closeness and stability. Considering the interaction between population and environment in mountains, environment, on one hand, may be a constraint for human activities. Although human being is a keystone species in earth ecosystem, human activities are always constrained by environment. It is more like this in mountains where physical environment is harsh. Humans,on the other hand, are able to adapt to their environment by transhumance, physiological adaptive reaction, storage of foods and cultivation of wild plants. The man-earth relationship in mountains may take two forms: mutual deterioration or mutual amelioration in different types of land use such as farming, animal husbandry, forestry, settlement construction and mining.
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    社会主义市场经济条件下的土地储备及其模式选择
    冯昌中, 宋佳波, 曾尊固
    地理科学. 2002, 22 (3): 288-293.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.03.288
    摘要   PDF (793KB)
    社会主义市场经济建设的逐步完善,要求我们必须改变传统的土地管理思路,土地储备作为政府经营城市的一种重要手段,能够使政府在土地管理的实践中实现资源与资产并重的目标。在阐述土地储备的涵义、起源及其在我国的产生与发展的基础上,分析了土地储备的运行机制与最终目标,归纳了我国土地储备的基本做法,首次提出了城市土地储备的直接储备模式和间接土地储备模式概念,并提出了地方政府构建城市土地储备模式的基本原则和具体操作思路。
    With the establishment and improvement of socialist market economy, it is necessary to transform the traditional strategy of land management: the first way is to transform the land management from by the system of planning economy to by the system of market economy; the second is to transform the land use from extensive pattern to intensive pattern. Under those backgrounds, Land reserve, as a method for government to manage urban land, was put forward to help government to persevere resources and estate property in the practices of land management. This paper systematically demonstrated the land reserve's implication, origination and practice in China, analyzed its operational mechanism and anticipated goals, summarized the basic ways for land reserve in China, namely the Shanghai land reserve way directed by market, the Hangzhou land reserve way directed by government and combined with market operation, the Tianjing land reserve way with double reserve and control, and Nanjing land reserve way with land reserved by the society, and put forward two patterns for land reserve, namely the direct land reserve and indirect land reserve. At last, this paper gave out the key principles and methods for local government to implement these two land reserve patterns.
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    人类活动对黄河中游高含沙水流的影响
    许炯心
    地理科学. 2002, 22 (3): 294-299.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.03.294
    摘要   PDF (602KB)
    以黄河中游干流和渭河、无定河的资料研究了人类活动对黄土高原河流高含沙水流的发生频率的影响。人类破坏森林植被,大量拦截黄河上游清水来源区的清水基流,使得高含沙水流发生频率增大,大规模水土保持措施的实施则使高含沙水流发生频率迅速减小。近50年来黄河干流和一些支流的高含沙水流随时间的变化可以用一个三阶段模式来概括,即20世纪50~60年代,由于人类破坏植被,使高含沙水流频率增大;20世纪60年代末至80年代中期,大规模水土保持措施的实施使高含沙水流发生的频率减小;20世纪80年代末期以来,人类大量拦截利用清水资源,使高含沙水流的发生频率又复增大。
    Hyperconcentrated flow is a hazardous streamflow, which is typical in the Loess Plateau of China. Strong human activities such as deforestation and steep-land cultivation in this area can be traced back to 2000 years ago. Since the 1960s, large-scale soil conservation measures have been put into practice. All these have far-reaching effects on the hyperconcentrated flows. The middle Yellow River mainstream, the Wudinghe River and the Weihe River have been selected for a study on the influence of human activities on the hyperconcentrated flows. To quantify the occurrence of hyperconcentrated flows, the concept of the frequency of hyperconcentrated flows is proposed, which is defined as the number of days with daily suspended sediment concentration >300 kg/m3 in a given period, usually in a year. Then, this index is correlated with those indices that quantified the human activities. The results show that the frequency of hyperconcentrated flows is negatively correlated with forest cover, implying that the deforestation by humans in history may lead to a higher frequency of hyperconcentrated flows. The data from the Wudinghe River and the Weihe River show that the frequency of hyperconcentrated flows declines with the increase of the area with soil control measures and with the sediment reduction by soil conservation measures. However, the interception of clear water from the upper Yellow River by the Longyangxia and Liujiaxia reservoirs significantly increases the frequency of hyperconcentrated flows in the middle Yellow River mainstream. The temporal variation of hyperconcentrated flows in the past 50 years can be generalized as a three-stage model. In the 1950s to 1960s, the frequency of hyperconcentrated flows increased due to the destruction of natural vegetation by humans. From the late 1960s to the mid-1980s, the practice of large-scale soil conservation measures resulted in a decline in the frequency of hyperconcentrated flows. However, the frequency of hyperconcentrated flows has increased again since the late 1980s, because large quantitis of clear water are intercepted by reservoirs in the upper Yellow River for hydro-power generation.
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    基于GIS技术的泥石流风险评价研究
    唐川, 朱大奎
    地理科学. 2002, 22 (3): 300-304.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.03.300
    摘要   PDF (703KB)
    为了满足对自然灾害预测不断增长的紧迫要求,泥石流风险评价成为帮助决策过程重要的基础工具之一。即使泥石流风险性各组分的评价很困难,但地理信息系统可辅助提出这种风险性制图的有关方法。我们以云南省为研究区, 选取6个成因因子参与泥石流危险度敏感性分析,通过将研究区易损性评价图与危险性评价图叠加分析,编制出云南省泥石流风险评价图。该图描述了在现有自然条件和人类活动下的泥石流风险敏感区。研究成果为全面反映灾情,确定减灾目标,优化防御措施,进行减灾决策提供了重要依据。
    To satisfy the increasingly urgent demand for prediction of natural disasters, risk assessment is one of the fundamental tools for helping the decision-making process. Even though individual components of debris flow risk are difficult to be accessed, the availability of geographic information systems helps in proposing pertinent methods for the mapping of such risk. This paper describes the systematic methodology used to establish a GIS capable of identifying and quantitatively rating areas of debris flow risk. In this study we elected 6 causal factors from the initial set for susceptibility analysis of hazardous degree in Yuannan Province as study area. By overlaying vulnerability map of the study area to hazard map, debris flow risk map was created, which depicts relative risk susceptibility of areas to debris flows under existing natural conditions and human activities. The proposed method for debris flow risk assessment by geomorphologists is one of the most important methods to show hazardous situation, assure objectives of disaster-reduction, optimize prevention and control measures.
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    黄土地区灌溉水诱发滑坡群的研究
    王家鼎, 惠泱河
    地理科学. 2002, 22 (3): 305-310.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.03.305
    摘要   PDF (277KB)
    以甘肃省刘家峡、盐锅峡、八盘峡库区的黑方台台缘灌溉水诱发黄土滑坡群为例,论述了此类型滑坡在黄土高原的普遍性、滑坡的特征、形成机理、运动特征、斜坡稳定性以及适用于当地的防治措施。
    Due considerations have been paid to the characteristic features and phenomena of the tremendous loess landslides in crows induced by irrigated water. All of them occurred in Loess Plateau of China. Based on these features and phenomena, such as large extents, high-speed and long traveling distances, their universal law, mechanism, kinematical approach and slope stability are analyzed. A regional prevention rules that take drainage work as the dominant factor and the simple engineering preventions the second one is presented.
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    中国东北地区夏季旱涝的分析研究
    孙力, 安刚, 丁立
    地理科学. 2002, 22 (3): 311-316.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.03.311
    摘要   PDF (665KB)
    利用东北三省及内蒙东北部均匀分布的80个测站40年(1961~2000年)夏季(6~8月)月降水资料以及正态化Z指数变换、小波分析和正交旋转主成份分析等方法,对东北地区夏季降水进行了旱涝等级划分,并探讨了旱涝发生的时间演变规律和空间分布特征。结果表明,东北地区夏季不同级别旱涝出现的几率存在着一定的差异,并且旱涝异常还具有明显的年际、年代际和周期性变化以及阶段性和群发性特征,地理分布上,可将东北地区夏季降水分为7个旱涝型(或敏感区),各敏感区内旱涝异常具有相对一致的性质。
    With Z index according to the Person Ⅲ distribution, REOF and Wavelet analysis methods, the spatial anomaly features and time evolution rule of summer drought and flood in northeast area of China are studied by using the precipitation in June, July and August for the period 1961-2000 from 80 observational stations. The results show that the summer drought and flood in northeast are of China have the obvious characteristics of periodic change, interannual and inter-decade variations. The northeast area of China can be divided into seven dryness/wetness anomaly areas. In each area, the drought and flood coincide relatively.
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    上海城市热环境的空间格局分析
    陈云浩, 李晓兵, 史培军, 何春阳
    地理科学. 2002, 22 (3): 317-323.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.03.317
    摘要   PDF (1030KB)
    城市热环境是城市空间环境在热力场中的综合表现,通过对城市热环境的研究可以揭示城市空间结构、城市规模的发展变化。在RS、GIS的支持下,研究城市热环境的空间格局分析方法。借鉴景观生态学的研究方法,首次提出热力景观观点用以研究城市热环境空间格局,创建了热力景观空间格局的评价体系(总体评价指标、类评价指标、块评价指标)。对不同时期上海城市热环境的空间结构与格局进行了研究,使传统的对热环境空间格局的定性研究进入了定量阶段。
    The spatial heat environment is a thermal phenomena of whole spatial environment of a city. The research of urban spatial heat environment will find the change of urban spatial structure and urban scale and lead to sustainable urban development and improve the quality of human habitation environment. Urban heat environment synthetical phenomina reflecting urban environment and spatial thermal environment have full impacts on microclimate and urban zoology. The aim for this paper is to seek an effective method to analysis spatial pattern of thermal environment. Supporting with the remote sensing technology and GIS, the authors studied the estimate system of heat environment spatial pattern and dynamic evolvement. The main results are as fellows: (1) A method to analysis spatial pattern of urban heat environment was pointed out with GIS and remote sensing technology supporting in this paper. Using the viewpoint of landscape ecosystem for reference, the authors generated the idea of "thermal landscape", analyzed the mechanism of "thermal landscape" and developed estimate systems of spatial pattern of thermal landscape and dynamic variety. (2) Through research on Shanghai City by viewpoint of "thermal landscape", it was proved that "thermal landscape" in this city is felling to pieces and increase consumption of heat energy and expend the area of greenbelt and water is an effective way to weaken heat affect.(3) Supporting with GIS, the authors studied dynamic evolvement of "thermal landscape" and its change process according to the change of multi-temporal "thermal landscape" in Shanghai in 1990,1995,1998 based on remotely sensing data. The change intension trend of dominance degree of thermal landscape from 1990 to 1998 in Shanghai City were pointed out. The method to study spatial structure and thermal landscape pattern of urban heat environment promoted the development in the field into quantitative segment. In the present study, this model seems to be a viable method for city programming in the metropolis.
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    小城镇信息图谱初探
    周俊, 徐建刚
    地理科学. 2002, 22 (3): 324-330.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.03.324
    摘要   PDF (915KB)
    小城镇建设将成为我国农村经济发展的一种重要模式。为了引导小城镇的可持续发展,有必要对小城镇演变的内在规律作深入研究。运用"图谱"的表达方式和GIS分析工具,从小城镇图谱的基本构成要素入手,对小城镇的群体空间、外部形态和内部结构的演变规律进行了探讨。并以泰州市城镇群、兰溪市永昌镇为例,作了实证研究。研究表明,采用图谱的表达方式有助于我们对城镇发展进行历史总结、规律挖掘,客观地把握城镇的发展阶段,从而了解不同时期城镇工作的重点,以有的放矢地采取措施,部署长远规划。
    "Tupu" is a methodology that means to use iconic or graphic language for integrate the spatial and temporal analysis together, including a series maps such as symptom map, diagnose map and action map. "Geo-informatic Atlas" is a series of multi-dimension diagram for geo-scientific analysis, which isn't only for the present description, but also includes spatial and temporal geographical modeling for past reconstruction and virtual future forecasting. "Atlas" may be used not only for data collection, data mining, but also for scientific forecasting and decision-making.The main model of rural economic development of China will be small towns' construction. But there is little study on the spatial evolution of small towns. Integrated with the modern spatial technique and information science, Tupu may create some new conceptions for the study of the small town.In the first part of the paper, the authors discuss the pedigree, elements and characters of the geo-information Atlas of small towns. The development of spatial organization of town system, the outer morphology and inner structure of small towns was demonstrated in detail.In the second part of this paper, owing to methods of atlas and technology of GIS, taking Taizhou and Yongchang as examples, the authors probe into the geo-information atlas of small towns by the symptom maps of the town system, the symptom maps of the outer morphology and the symptom maps of inner structure.Finally base on the preliminary study and application of atlas method, the authors draw the conclusion that the town-information atlas is a good method for interpreting the development of the small town and it is also a good method for the government to making decision.
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    坝上高原安固里淖粒度年纹层与环境变化
    翟秋敏, 李容全, 郭志永
    地理科学. 2002, 22 (3): 331-335.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.03.331
    摘要   PDF (250KB)
    在安固里淖湖心区获取一未扰动沉积物样柱,分析发现了由冬季风搬运物与湖心沉积共同形成的粒度年纹层,建立了纹层年表,恢复了安固里淖湖区8507a B.P.以来的环境变化过程。8507~5429a B.P.冬季风活动较弱,后期有所波动;5429~3244a B.P.冬季风活动较强,3244~2494a B.P.冬季风活动减弱;2494~1165a B.P.冬季风活动略有增强;1165a B.P.以来,冬季风活动减弱。安固里淖粒度年纹层反映的冬季风变化情况与我国北方地区同期的环境变化和海平面变化有很好的对应关系。
    Annual lamination plays an important role in the research of environmental changes. Through coring a sample mud column without disturbing it in the lacuster of Angulinuo Lake, getting some thin sections from the core, and observing the sections under scanning electronic microscope, the researchers have discovered annual laminations of grain size that are made up of lacustrine deposits and eolian deposits, and the eolian deposits are transported by winter monsoon. By counting the layers the researchers have set up a time scale of annual laminations, and by calculating the grains in each layer the researchers have reconstructed the palaeoenvironment around Angulinuo Lake since 8507 a B.P. During 8507-5429 a B.P., the winter monsoon was weaker; but in the latter time of the period, the monsoon was unstable. During 5429-3244 a B.P., the winter monsoon was stronger. In 3244-2494 a B.P., the winter monsoon became weaker. In 2494-1165 a B.P., winter monsoon became a little stronger. Since 1165 a B.P., the winter monsoon has become weaker. The changes of winter monsoon reflected by annual laminations of grain size in Angulinuo Lake correspond well to the environmental changes in the northern area of China and to the changes of the sea level in the same period.The weak period of the winter monsoon responds to the period of high sea level; while the strong period of the winter monsoon corresponds to the new periglacier stage and the period of the low sea level. And the unstability of the winter monsoon is in accord with the unstability of environment in existance in in the northern area of China.
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    人类干扰对土壤侵蚀及土壤质量的影响——以苏南宜兴低山丘陵区为例
    张燕, 彭补拙, 高翔, 唐翔宇, 杨浩
    地理科学. 2002, 22 (3): 336-341.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.03.336
    摘要   PDF (832KB)
    以苏南低山丘陵区茶园土壤侵蚀与土壤质量改变为研究对象,并取自然状态的杂木林为参照,用137Cs法估算土壤侵蚀速率;以土壤粗化度、土壤有机质含量及土壤含水量描述土壤质量;在绝对数值的基础上,用变化量探讨研究对象的变化方向与幅度。对比耕作土与非耕作土的土壤侵蚀与土壤质量改变及将它们结合起来研究表明,人类活动有可能加剧土壤侵蚀,加快土壤质地粗化;合理的农业措施虽可减缓土壤质量下降,但防治侵蚀方可治本。
    The soil erosion and the soil properties change in the low mountains and hills of South Jiangsu Province are chosen as a target of study. And the uncultivated soil that is hardly disturbed in the miscellaneous forest is used as a reference. The soil erosion rates in the study area are estimated based on the redistribution of cesium-137 tracer element. Then the change amount of soil properties are discussed by means of some description indexes of the ratio of the coarse-particle to the fine-particle, the content of organic matter, the content of water and the change amount of indexes per unit slope length and by comparison between the cultivated soil and the uncultivated soil. The results of research show that human disturbance may increase soil erosion and raise the ratio of the coarse-particle to the fine-particle. Although some rational measures are available to slow down the pace of soil properties degradation, it is best way to control the soil erosion.
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    苏打盐渍土壤微咸水淋洗改良技术研究
    李取生, 王志春, 李秀军
    地理科学. 2002, 22 (3): 342-348.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.03.342
    摘要   PDF (280KB)
    研究了土壤粘土特性与土壤碱化的关系和淋洗水的矿化度对土壤渗透性的影响,提出了微咸水改良苏打盐渍土的技术思路。探讨了淋洗用微咸水的水质标准、作物耐盐碱标准、作物需水量及灌溉淋洗定额等参数及其确定方法,通过田间试验,证明了该技术对苏打盐渍土具有明显的改良效果。
    The sodium bicarbonate saline soils contain plenty of clay minerals such as montmorillonite, which absorb a lot of exchangeable sodium cation in their crystals. The clay particles with highly diffusion and very low hydraulic permeability become a main obstacle for soil improvement. According to "effect of added electrolyte" and chemical exchange theory, the techniques using gentle salty water leaching for sodium bicarbonate saline soil improvement is proposed. Selection of water quality or mineralization for leaching depends on the concentration, SAR of the saturated extract solution of the soil needed to be reclaimed; the crop's salt tolerance; the relationship among EC, SAR and infiltration. The water quality for leaching is generally 1-3g/L. But as long as its EC is smaller than that of soil saturated extract solution, the saline soil would be improved by leaching. Determination of the crop water requirement is the key problem for leaching fraction design. The Hargreaves method which is relatively simple and accurate was used for crop water requirement determination in experiment area. Perennially, the water requirement of wheat-Chinese cabbage, corn and soybean is 528.5mm, 525.4mm and 479.4mm respectively; the water deficit is 127mm, 139.1mm and 104.5mm respectively; the minimum leaching amount is 31.8mm, 34.8mm and 26.1mm respectively. If increasing leaching fraction, the soil improvement will be more quickly. To calculate the crop water requirement and leaching amount for a specific year, the specific climate data such as temperature, precipitation are needed. The field experiment shows that the salt content, ESP of arable soil layer decreased 28%-50% and 80% respectively two years later by 250mm leaching fraction. The possible planting crop was only sunflower, but now can be soybean and corn. The land economic benefit is doubled.
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    佛坪自然保护区植物群落物种多样性与海拔梯度的关系
    岳明, 张林静, 党高弟, 辜天琪
    地理科学. 2002, 22 (3): 349-354.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.03.349
    摘要   PDF (669KB)
    用多元统计分析方法研究了佛坪自然保护区植物群落物种多样性及群落各生长型多样性特征沿海拔梯度的变化。结果表明:1) 植物群落的Shannon指数与Simpson指数及物种丰富度与海拔梯度均呈显著负相关关系;2) 乔木层的物种多样性沿海拔梯度的变化则体现了"中间高度膨胀"的规律,即中等海拔高度上多样性高而低海拔和高海拔多样性较低;3) 灌木层丰富度指数在1600~1700m之间有个很不明显的峰值,而其它4个指标沿海拔呈单调的下降趋势;4) 草本层植物多样性呈先降后升的趋势,在中等海拔高度较低。
    The relationships between species diversity indices of plant in communities and altitude gradient of Foping National Reserve were studied using multiple regression analysis. The results are as follows: 1) The Shannon index, Simpson index and species richness of communities are negatively related to latitude significantly. 2) The species diversity of arbor layer showing a rule of "Mid-altitude bulge" with change of altitude, means that it is higher in intermediate altitude while lower in lower and higher altitude. 3) There is a no obvious peak value of species richness of shrub layer at Alt. 1600-1700m, while the other four diversity indices decreased monotonously with altitude. 4) All of the species diversity indices of herb layer are lower at intermediate altitude.
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    长春市空气中总悬浮微粒分布规律及来源的探讨
    王起超, 李东侠, 方凤满
    地理科学. 2002, 22 (3): 355-359.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.03.355
    摘要   PDF (543KB)
    分析了长春市环境空气中TSP时空分布规律,并运用降水前后TSP变化资料估算了TSP来源。长春市采暖期空气TSP主要来源于锅炉、机动车排放的一次性粒子,地面扬尘等二次粒子贡献较小;非采暖期大部分监测点位TSP来自二次粒子的贡献,一次粒子贡献较小。不同点位粒子来源构成不同。
    According to the monitoring results of TSP in the six function districts, the spatial and temporal distribution law of TSP in the atmosphere in Changchun City was analyzed.The total trend of TSP concentrations in a year are: the first quarter>the fourth quarter>the third quarter>. This is the result of interaction between the sources characteristic of TSP and climate condition.The first and forth quarters were heating season. The second quarter often has wind, and causes a lot of wind-blown dust. The third quarter has a lot of rain, which can scavenge part of TSP. In some year, the TSP concentration in second quarter was higher than that in the fouth quarter, which indicates that wind-blown dust plays an important role in TSP. The order of TSP concentrations in each function district is: the scattered heating district>the special industrial industrial district >the ordinary industrial district>the center heating district>the tourism district>the contrast district. The highest concentration of TSP appeared in January and November, and the lowest concentration appeared in July and August. Divide TSP into two parts: the primary particle and secondary particle. The source of TSP was estimated by analyzing the change of TSP concentrations before and after precipitation. The original particles emitted by boiler and vehicle was the main source of TSP in heating season, while the secondary particles such as wind-blown soil material accountted for a small part of TSP. The secondary particles contributed a large amount of TSP in most of the monitoring site in nonheating season; while the original particles contributed a small part of TSP. Particles has different sources in different site. In special industrial district, the primary particles still plays an important role in TSP. So, according to the source of TSP in each function district in different season, it should take corresponding measure to control TSP pollution.
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    北京市O3污染的区域特征分析
    王淑兰, 柴发合
    地理科学. 2002, 22 (3): 360-364.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.03.360
    摘要   PDF (227KB)
    通过优化布点试验,对北京市O3及其主要前体物NO2、NOx进行了强化监测,描述了北京目前O3污染的区域特征。通过数据分析,初步探讨了北京市大气对流层O3的形成机制及其与主要前体物浓度的相关性。
    Ozone is an important minor constituent of the natural atmosphere, whose average content is 10-2-10-1μg/cm3. It mostly gathers in 10-30km stratosphere, only about 10% is distributed in troposphere. Ozone plays an important role in atmosphere chemistry, and it can protect human and environment in stratosphere. But if ozone content is too high in troposphere, the health of human will be harmed.Ozone in troposphere results from photochemical reaction of NOx or/and hydrocarbon released by natural and artificial sources. Recently, with the increase of autombiles in possession and the use of fuel, oil products and organic dope, the concentration of NOx and VOC rise in atmosphere. Ozone pollution in troposphere is more and more serious. In this article, a network of sampling stations is designed and optimized, ozone and its precursors NO2, NOx are monitored in Beijing, and the current important characteristics of ozone pollution are analyzed and described. Through analyzing and processing data, ozone formative mechanism in troposphere and correlativity between main precursors concentration and ozone in troposphere are discussed.
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    综述
    中国西南岩溶生态研究进展
    李阳兵, 侯建筠, 谢德体
    地理科学. 2002, 22 (3): 365-370.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.03.365
    摘要   PDF (911KB)
    中国西南地区碳酸盐岩出露广泛,土壤和植被是其岩溶生境中最为敏感的自然要素。综述了西南岩溶区的土壤形成与演化、植被生态特征与演替等方面的研究进展,探讨了岩溶区生态脆弱性的评价理论,指出岩溶生态重建关键问题和进一步需要研究的主要内容。最后,对西南岩溶生态恢复与重建对策进行了探讨。
    Karst environment is distributed largely in Southwest China. Soil and vegetation are the most sensitive elements to the variation of Karst environment. The weathering of carbonate is important soil formation mechanism in Karst areas, but its soil forming ability is so poor that soil layer thickness becomes thin by the water erosion, though the soil loss is insignificant but serious. The character of Karst plants is firmly connected with the environment condition, i.e., lack of water, richness of Ca2+, poor soil and shortage of organic matter , the plants have low pace growth and low life-form resource, and is vulnerable under the disturbance of irrational human activities. Therefore, the rocky desertification is the end of Karst ecosystem degradation, but these degradation processes are depended on different land use patterns. Further, this paper discusses the assessment of the fragility on Karst ecosystem and raises vital problems on how to improve productivity. Finally, this paper suggests some solutions about rehabilitation of ecology to solve the problems of man-land relation in Karst environment in Southwest China.
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    研究报道
    黄山旅游资源开发与可持续利用研究
    胡善风
    地理科学. 2002, 22 (3): 371-374.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.03.371
    摘要   PDF (620KB)
    黄山是一座驰名中外的旅游名山,被联合国列入世界自然和文化遗产。近年来,随着旅游业的蓬勃发展,黄山风景区的旅游资源开发达到了黄金时期。但在开发的同时,也出现了一些令人担忧的隐患和问题,就如何科学、合理、适度的开发,以及对黄山旅游资源的可持续利用提出了新的观点和措施。
    Huangshan Mountain is well known as the tourism hot area all over the world, whose most merit is the mixture of many splendid natural & humanism sceneries. It is famous for its four orders: strange pine trees, unique rocks, hot springs & cloud seas. It is also a place rich in biological species, which has over 700 species of plants & 170 animals. Huangshan Mountain is human's common heritage created by nature & forefathers. In 1990, it was placed on the list of World Cultural & Natural Heritage by UNESCO. Huangshan Mountain is treasure of human. With the increasing of its reputation, many foreign & domestic tourist come to sightsee it. In 2000, there are more than 1,200,000 tourists and it make the highest record in the history. However, some worrying problems and worries that lie deep down have appeared during the process of development. On how to use the tourism resource of Huangshan Mountain, the author put forward his own idea, that is, not only using it to develop the region economy but also paying attention to its ecological resources to keep ecological balance. In order to protect the environment, the article has pointed out that the construction of hotel, road, railway ,water electricity, polluted water and how to deal with the rubbish should be planned well. Second, on how to measure scientifically the burdening ability and the capacity of the tourism district, the article has also included his own viewpoint. From the angle of the ecological balance, the protecting of environment, the tourist capacity of the scenes during high peak, how to properly, scientifically develop the mountain and how to persistently use it, the author put forward his own ideas.
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    因子分析法在洪水引起水环境突变研究中的应用
    汤洁, 林年丰, 黄奕龙
    地理科学. 2002, 22 (3): 375-378.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.03.375
    摘要   PDF (701KB)
    在分析1998年霍林河流域特大洪水特点的基础上,选择下垫面控制因子和复合控制因子两组变量进行了因子分析,求解出每组变量的数学表达式,继而进行了尖点突变模拟和洪水后水环境突变态的分区,划分为稳定区、潜在突变区和突变区,这对合理开发该区的水、土、生物资源,预防洪水灾害有重要意义,并为研究洪水对环境的突变影响提供了一种新的模式。
    On the analysis of characteristics of tremendous flood in the Huolin River in 1998, two variables that include underlying surface cotroled factors and compound controled factors have been selected and mathmatics expression of each variable has achieved using factor analyses. Then the model of needle mutation has been simulated and mutation rigion of water environment have been classed after flood. The study has an important significance for developing reasonable natural resources and defensing flood disaster. It provides a new model to study the influence of environmental mutation after the tremendous flood.
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    吉林玉米带的地位与发展前景
    齐晓宁, 王洋, 王其存, 刘兆永, 鲍强
    地理科学. 2002, 22 (3): 379-384.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.03.379
    摘要   PDF (853KB)
    对我国玉米生产概况和玉米在我国粮食生产中的地位作了概述,重点论述了吉林玉米带以玉米为主的粮食生产结构带来的问题。一方面,生产量大于需求量,加工形式单一,玉米积压严重;另一方面,由于生产成本高,比较效益低,作为农民家庭的主要经营收入低,限制了农民种植玉米的积极性,同时地方财政为保证保护价收购玉米而背上沉重包袱。加入WTO后,这些问题必将对吉林省玉米生产产生巨大影响。因此,提出了5条改善措施,即:科学规划,适当压缩玉米生产面积,建立优质玉米生产基地,以提高单产而保证增加总产,建立形式多样的玉米转化、加工体系,保证吉林省玉米生产持续稳定发展。
    The general situation of corn production and position in food production in our country is outlined in this paper, with emphatic discussion on the issue which is brought about by the food productive structure in the corn zone in Jilin Province where the main crop is corn. On the one hand, the output is over the demand, the processing type is single, corn production is overstocked; on the other hand, because of the high production cost and low profit and the low income for the farmer families as an major engagement, the zeal of farmer to produce corn is restrained; At the same time, the local governments are burdened with heavy finances for the insurance of protecting purchase of corn. After the entrance of WTO, these problems will have big influence on the production of corn in Jilin Province. Therefore, the authors propose five improving measures: making a good plan and reducing corn planting area, establishing high-typed transforming and processing systems, thus, the corn production will be developed sustainablly and stably.
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