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ISSN 1000-0690
CN 22-1124/P
创刊于 1981 年 (月刊)
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  • 地理科学
      2002年, 第22卷, 第4期 刊出日期:2002-07-20 上一期    下一期
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    论文
    21世纪中国农业与农村可持续发展方向和策略
    刘彦随, 吴传钧, 鲁奇
    地理科学. 2002, 22 (4): 385-389.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.04.385
    摘要   PDF (641KB)
    中国是一个历史悠久的农业大国,农民占全国总人口的70%,农村占城镇村居民点建成面积的86.1%,农业只占国民生产总值的17.2%。中国的基本国情决定了农业、农村、农民在国民经济和现代化建设中的关键地位;加入WTO后的中国农业和农村经济发展,既迎来了新的机遇,也将面临更大的挑战。基于对中国农业与农村经济发展特点与问题的初步分析,提出了21世纪中国农业与农村可持续发展应选择产业化、生态化、国际化和地区化的发展方向与模式,并将重点在优化制度环境、完善保障体系和突破结构制约等几个方面进行深化改革与创新。
    China is an agricultural country with a long history, its peasants making up more than 70 percent of its total population, its rural areas taking up more than 86.1 percent of its whole resident areas and its agricultural output value nearly contributing 17.2 percent to its GNP. The basic conditions of China determine the pivotal roles of agriculture, rural area and peasants in national economy and the construction of modernization. After entering WTO, Chinese agriculture and the development of rural economy will not only face new opportunities but also are confronted with greater challenges. Based on the preliminary analysis of the traits and problems in Chinese agriculture and rural economic development, this article put forward that Chinese sustainable agriculture and rural economic development should select the developing direction and model of industrialization, ecologicalization, internationalization and localization in the 21st Century, and lay stress on optimizing the institutional environment, consummating the guaranteeing system and breaking through the structural limitation to further reform and innovation.
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    我国西部生态退化的社会经济分析——以川西为例
    陈国阶
    地理科学. 2002, 22 (4): 390-396.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.04.390
    摘要   PDF (767KB)
    导致川西生态退化主要原因是经济发展水平低、人口超过环境容量,农村生产方式和生活方式落后,以柴、粪为薪,天然放牧,陡坡垦殖,砍伐森林等导致植被破坏、草场退化、水土流失。据此,对川西的区域资源优势、川西较低密度人口、川西资源开发和支柱产业选择应重新评价和定位。进行川西生态建设,实施可持续发展战略,必须营造开放的社会-经济-自然复合系统的耗散结构,构造社会、经济发展与生态建设协调的有序结构和机制。同时,较彻底地改造农林牧生态系统,开创与生态协调的农业结构、生产模式、种植模式和管理模式,进行农牧区社区建设,根除刀耕火种、陡坡垦殖、游牧的社会基础。
    The decision of taking ecological construction as one of important contents and goals in the Western development indicates a great prograss of construction thought in China history. Its signification is not only to give the ecological construction an outstanding strategical position in Western development, but also to emphasize the integration of ecological construction and economic construction. Ecological deterioration in Western China is causative of profound social and economic origin. The author in the paper wants to expound the homology of ecological deterioration and regional poverty, and their alleviation of integration by taking West Sichuan as an example. West Sichuan, which is a part of Qinghai-Xizang(Tibet) Plateau, provides an important ecological defence for the upper reaches of the Changjiang(Yangtze) River. At present, West Sichuan is suffering from ecological deterioration and ecological function weakening. Regional poverty and ecological degradation form a vicious circle. It is also facing a new contradiction and challenges between the demand of ecological construction and the hope of rapid economic development. The main causes of ecological degradation in West Sichuan include low economic development as a result of over-loaded carrying capacity of population; backward mode of production and backward life style in rural area, for instance, using plant and animal manure as fuel, deforestation, cultivated steep land and natural grazing, result in vegetation destruction, grass degradation and soil erosion.We should recognize the facts that obvious resource superiority in West Sichuan did not lead to alleviate its poverty, but to cause serious ecological and environmental degradation because of primitive exploitation for lack of advanced technology. There low density of population did not avoid the tragedy of overload carrying capacity either. We should re-assess and re-fixed the position of regional superiorities of resource and, low density of population and the choice of resource exploitation and pillar industries in West Sichuan must be thought of using advanced technology, getting high benelits and compatible with environment. For implementing ecological construction and the strategy of sustainable development, it is necessary to build an open dissipative structure of social, economic and natural complex system and to found an order structure and mechanism for social and economic development harmonizing with ecological construction. Meantime they should reform profoundly their agro-ecosystem and create or develop new agricultural structures, new modes of production, new planting patterns and manage patterns, re-build rural structure and inhabitant patterns. All efforts are to exclude social foundation of slash-and-burn cultivation, steep land cultivation and nomadic life.
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    黄土高原坡耕地退耕还草的水沙变化特征
    彭文英, 张科利, 江忠善, 孔亚平
    地理科学. 2002, 22 (4): 397-402.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.04.397
    摘要   PDF (689KB)
    根据野外观测资料,比较不同农耕地的产流产沙与草地,分析了退耕还草后减流减沙效应随降雨特征、坡度以及时间变化的特征。结果表明,退耕还草减流减沙主要是在大雨量时,尤其是减流效应,在小雨量降雨时很弱,甚至不减流。退耕还草减流减沙效应随坡度的增加而增大,且减沙效应增长速度大于减流效应,退耕还草应尽快退掉25°以上的坡耕地。退耕还草减流减沙在多雨和暴雨多年份以及在暴雨多的季节效应强,主要削减的是大暴雨、高含沙的地表径流。在任何情况下,退耕还草的减沙效应都明显大于减流效应。
    The Loess Plateau is well known to the world for its intense soil erosion. Increasingly critical soil erosion is an important factor contributing to ecological environment degradation such as land degradation and high sediment concentration of river. Water and soil losses are considered resulting from the most important cause of mankind irrational land use, particularly vegetation degeneration and cultivating steep slope land, and the awareness of tillage erosion as a soil degradation process has become an increasingly important concern to conservation. A large body of literature indicates that returning the steep sloping field to forest and grass land, and adjusting measures to local conditions to restore vegetation is the important measure to control soil and water loss in the plateau in our country. The study of returning the cropland to forest and grass affecting on the regional soil and water resources has been the hot. Even though there were many researches on reduced runoff and sediment for forest and grass, but based on comparing forest and grass to naked land, and less clear is the efficiency of reduced runoff and sediment resulting from returning cropland to grass. So, runoff and sediment changes characteristics after returning farmland to forest and grass should be studied. According to the comparison of the runoff and sediment amount in grass and cropland in experiment plots, the efficiency of reduced runoff and sediment with rainfall, slope and time were studied. Runoff and sediment reduction after restoring forest and grass occur mainly in heavy rain, particularly reduced runoff efficiency, in light rain, is very weak or not. Based on data calculated and analyzed, the efficiency of reduced runoff and sediment are 0.44 and 0.84 as rainfall exceeding 50mm compared 0.31 and 0.7 when rainfall under 20mm. With slope gradient increasing the efficiency increase, increasing speed of reducing sediment efficiency is much more rapidly than reduction of runoff. In those larger storms years and rainy seasons the efficiency of runoff and sediment reduction is high. At any time, reducing sediment efficiency is more strong than reduction of runoff. Returning cropland to forest and grass has been identified as main measure for conserving soil and water. The study results show, returning cropland to forest and grass is necessary, and the sloping field with a slope of >25° should be retured to grassland and forest as soon as possible. And it is hoped that such analyses will help understand the effect on water and soil resources from returning cropland to forest and grass.
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    全球变化下秦岭南北河流径流泥沙比较分析
    查小春, 延军平
    地理科学. 2002, 22 (4): 403-407.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.04.403
    摘要   PDF (519KB)
    分析比较秦岭南侧汉江和秦岭北侧渭河河流径流、泥沙含量变化表明,1935~1999年65 年间,渭河河流年均流量为248.26 m3/s,汉江河流年均流量为592.94 m3/s,汉江年均流量是渭河的2.4倍。汉江河流年均含沙量为0.88 kg/m3,渭河河流年均含沙量为52.03 kg/m3,接近汉江河流的60倍。渭河是一条多泥沙河流。分析20 世纪80 年代以后汉江、渭河河流径流泥沙含量表明,渭河河流年均流量为195.89 m3/s,汉江河流年均流量为585.05 m3/s,均比1935~1980年减少了27.4%和1.9%,但汉江河流年均泥沙含量为0.41 kg/m3,渭河河流年均泥沙含量却为54.58 kg/m3,为汉江河流133倍,比1935~1980年增加了90多倍。说明全球变化对秦岭山脉南北地质水文气候环境影响很大,秦岭南北两区在全球气候变化中表现出明显的区域响应性。
    The span of Qinling Mountains affected the geograply and climate between the southern and northern areas to it. And under the influence of the global change, the Qinling Mountains has more affected the runoff and sediment between the southern and northern rivers. Based on long-time observed data about the Hanjiang River and the Weihe River from 1935 to 1999, the change of runoff and sediment were analyzed. The result showed that the annual average runoff of the Hanjiang River and the Weihe River were 592.94 m3/s and 248.26 m3/s respectively from 1935 to 1999, the former was 2.4 times to the latter, but the annual average sediment of the Hanjiang River and the Weihe River were 0.88 kg/m3 and 52.03 kg/m3 respectively, the latter was 60 times approximately of the latter. The Weihe River has more sediment. Then the runoff and sediment of the Hanjiang River and the Weihe River were analyzed from 1981, the result showed that the annual average runoff of the Hanjiang River and the Weihe River were 585.05m3/s and 195.89m3/s respectively, which decreased 27.4% and 1.9% respectively. But the annual average sediment of the Weihe River was 54.85 kg/m3, which increased 4.90% compared to that from 1935 to 1980, and the annual average sediment of the Hanjiang River was 0.41 kg/m3, which decreased 53.41% Compared to that from 1935 to 1980. So from 1981, the annual average runoff of the Hanjiang River and the Weihe River decreased, but the annual average sediment in the Weihe River increased and the Hanjiang River decreased under global climate warming, the former was 133 times of the later. This showed that the climate environment of southern and northern areas to Qinling Mountains responded to the global climate warming.
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    天津滨海新区区域发展过程研究
    贾艳杰
    地理科学. 2002, 22 (4): 408-412.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.04.408
    摘要   PDF (601KB)
    以天津经济新区—滨海新区为例,以1993~2000 年相关统计资料为基础,通过其发展过程和影响因素分析,探讨区域发展特点。滨海新区的研究表明,在我国由计划经济向市场经济体制转型时期,小区域发展是一个相当复杂的过程。政府在滨海新区的发展过程中始终扮演重要角色。中央政府通过经济政策创造宏观发展环境,影响区域发展;地方政府是地方发展战略的决策者,通过促进经济增长引导区域发展方向,形成区域特色;地方开发条件是影响区域发展的基本因素,其在开发的初期阶段尤为重要,它是政府发展战略形成和外商投资选择的基础。环渤海城市间的竞争与联合对天津滨海新区的发展亦产生重大影响。
    Tianjin Binhai New Area (TBNA) is a new economic zone in the seaside area of Tianjin. Developing TBNA is a great strategic decision of local macroeconomic development distribution. TBNA is consisting of five sub-areas. Tianjin Economic-Technological Development Area (TEDA) and Tianjin Port Free Trade Zone are core areas of TBNA with significant contributions in attracting foreign investment and promoting international trade. TBNA has grown up to be a "Head of Dragon" of local economy in Tianjin with massive state and foreign investments through seven years development, which offered as 34.4% GDP, 40% GOVI, 51.7% Total Export percentages to Tianjin in 2000. The great achievements of TBNA have caused Tianjin city undergoing dramatic restructuring towards remaking the city as a global city, moving up the urban hierarchy in China. In this paper, through the case study of TBNA, I reveal the trajectories of and factors underlying local development. Based on the relevant statistics during 1993-2000, I hold that local development is a quite complicated process in the period of transitional economy in China. The paper has shown that development process is influenced by a multitude of forces operating at global, national, and local levels. On one hand, the Chinese government still heavily regulates its domestic economy, and actively initiates development policies. Governments are playing a significant role in urban and regional development in China. The local government of Tianjin has been an active agent of local economic development by obtaining preferential policies from central government and implementing numerous local initiatives. The infusion of foreign investment is clearly related to the preferential policy provided to foreign investors. However, I maintain government policies alone do not adequately explain trajectories of local development. Local states are embedded in forces operating at local, national and global scales. There is a strong geographical foundation for the functioning of local state corporatism. Local development conditions or geographical foundations in particular provide the basis for the initiation and successful implementation of local government policies and the location choices of foreign investment. Local governments, in initiating local policies, must carefully study those opportunities and constraints. Competition and cooperation among cities in Bohai Rim have also strongly influenced on the development of TBNA.
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    云南中甸纳帕海湖泊沉积物的磁化率及环境意义
    殷勇, 方念乔, 王倩, 聂浩刚, 秦尊丽
    地理科学. 2002, 22 (4): 413-419.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.04.413
    摘要   PDF (957KB)
    研究区母岩特性、搬运距离和搬运营力决定了磁性矿物主要赋存在砂砾级颗粒中。纳帕海湖泊沉积物的磁化率与颗粒粒径、沉积相和有机质含量存在密切的相关关系。滨浅湖环境中砂砾级颗粒含量增加以及波浪淘洗对磁性矿物的富集作用,磁化率较高;浅湖环境中粉砂增多,砂砾减少,磁化率较之滨浅湖有所降低;在低能的半深湖/深湖环境中,由于缺乏磁性矿物的输入,磁化率再次降低;有机质含量很高的湖岸湖沼环境由于有机质的稀释作用磁化率值最低,磁化率等环境替代指标以及和北半球气候变化阶段、深海氧同位素阶段的对比,将纳帕海近6 ka年来划分成6 个主要的环境演化阶段,32 kaB.P.(14.99 m)和15 kaB.P.(6.06 m)分别是环境和气候变化的重要转折点。32~15 ka B. P. 期间出现的高湖面表明,虽然大气温度下降但有效湿度增加,全新世湖泊的急剧萎缩预示在大气温度增加的同时有效湿度降低,暖偏干构成了研究区全新世气候演化的特色。
    Magnetic susceptibility measurements have been made on a long sediment core from Napahai, northwestern Yunnan, China. These results are set alongside those derived from total organic carbon and granulometric analysis to reconstruct the environmental and climatic processes recorded in the radiocarbon dated sediment column. It is shown that the variations of magnetic susceptibility in this sediment core are mainly the result of changes in size constitution, hydrological and sedimentological regimes and organic content, implying shifts in the sedimentary environment and climatic condition. Decided by the characterization of sediment source and proximal transport, the magnetic minerals, in this case, are mainly concentrated in coarser sand size fractions. The values of magnetic susceptibility in an organic-free shallow lake correlate positively with coarser sediment. The proportions of magnetic minerals are strongly linked to the increase of runoff around the catchment and high energy conditions in the environment. The magnetic minerals are mainly concentrated in silty sand in low energy conditions below wavebase and the values of magnetic susceptibility decrease due to the lack of coarser sediment, the major carrier of magnetic minerals. The magnetic susceptibility has no definitely link to a fixed grain-size fraction in lakeshore environment and extremely low values of magnetic susceptibility are encountered due to the dilution of organic matter. Six major environmental sages during the last 60,000 years from the core record have been identified on the basis of magnetic susceptibility. Two major environment shifts occurred in approximately 32 ka B. P. (14.99 m) and 15 ka B.P. (6.06 m) respectively, in response to climate change. Cold/moist and warm/dry assemblages dominated the area and a typical cold/moist climate occurred from 32 ka B. P. to 15 ka B. P. The incline of precipitation during this stage is due to an increased mass exchange between the cold/dry air of northern continent and the water vapor from the northern Indian ocean.
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    西安和宝鸡第5层古土壤铁质粘土结核的发现与研究
    赵景波
    地理科学. 2002, 22 (4): 420-425.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.04.420
    摘要   PDF (661KB)
    根据西安和宝鸡黄土中第5层红褐色古土壤的调查,在该层古土壤下部发现了红色铁质粘土结核。显微镜下和电子显微镜下的鉴定表明,铁质粘土结核是光性粘土胶膜聚集而成的,具有超微晶粒结构。铁质粘土结核主要由伊利石-蒙脱石混层粘土矿物组成,这表明西安与宝鸡地区第5层古土壤发育时的粘化作用为化学粘化或生物化学粘化。该地区第5层古土壤的铁质粘土结核迁出土壤粘化层底部的距离达1.0 m, 与江苏六合地区黄棕壤铁质粘土结核分布深度相同,指示该层古土壤发育时该区年均降水量可达1 000 mm左右。
    According to the survey of 5th red-brown paleosol layer in the loess in Xi'an and Baoji areas, it can be discovered that red ferriferous clay nodules exist at the bottom of this paleosol and the top of underlying 6th loess. Most of the ferriferous clay nodules have the prismatic, tabular and ellipsoidal shapes mainly filling in the cracks and root holes. The minor-axis diameter of the nodules is about 2-4 mm, while the major-axis diameter can be accessibly about 10 mm.The material obtained by optical microscope indicates that these ferriferous clay nodules have the charatcter of red-brown optical clay films developed well. It can be known by electronic microscope that these ferriferous clay nodules is consist of ultramicro crystals. These ultramicro crystals apparently spread by orientation, which is the reason of possessing optical character just as the mineral crystal.X-ray diffraction reveals that in the ferriferous clay nodules, mixed structure mineral of illite-montmorillonite take 90% or so and quartz takes about 5%, plagioclaspe and sanguine and so on just a little. The mineral ingredient shows that weathering of early-middle period occurred for clay mineral forming. Laboratory analyses indicates that in these ferriferous clay nodutles, SiO2 takes 42.13%-43.44%, Al2O3 22.29%-23.46%, Fe2O3 9.95%-10.36%. In the paleosol SiO2 takes 65.91%, Fe2O36.42%, Al2O3 15.85%, which shows that SiO2 content is about 12% lower in the ferriferous clay nodules than in paleosol, and Fe2O3 and Al2O3 are about 4.5% and 8% more in the nodules than in the paleosol respectively.In Xi'an and Baoji areas, the cracks and root holes developed well in the layer where the ferriferous clay nodules of 5th paleosol exist, and there is no water-resistance layer. Fe2O3 is high in content and there is no mineral formed in reduction condition. These shows that the ferriferous clay nodules of 5th paleosol formed not under the water resistance layer but by the ferriferous film migrating and gathering by the strong leaching.In Xi'an and Baoji areas, the ferriferous clay nodules lying in the parent loess are under the clay grouding layer of the paleosol bottom 1 m, which indicates that the affected depth of weathering was bigger than that of soil-formation band and the soil formation at that time is stronger than that of the contemporary drab soil. The distributive depth of the ferriferous clay nodules in 5th paleosol in these areas is primarily same with contemporary sub-tropical Yellow-brown Earth in Liuhe of Jiangsu, which indicates that subtropical climate migrated to these two areas at that time and the mean annual precipitation was about 1 000 mm.
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    中全新世以来黑龙江同江地区的孢粉组合与植被、气候演化
    张玉兰, 杨永兴
    地理科学. 2002, 22 (4): 426-429.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.04.426
    摘要   PDF (224KB)
    对黑龙江省同江县96—QP剖面从下至上划分4个孢粉组合带:1是以蒙古栎-桦属-蒿属-苔草属-禾本科-水龙骨科为主组合带;2是以蒿属-莎草科-禾本科-桦属-栎属为主组合带;3是以桦属-蒙古栎松属-蒿属-莎草科-禾本科为主组合带;4是以松属-桦属-蒙古栎-蒿属-苔草属为主组合带。这4个孢粉组合带清楚地反映了古植被、古气候演替4个阶段:依次为温性落叶阔叶林→针、阔叶混交林-草原→以落叶阔叶树稍多的针、阔叶混交林-草原→以松占优势的针、阔叶混交林。其气候变化是温暖湿润-温和略干-温和略湿-温凉湿润。
    Based on the sporo-pollen analysis and the 14C dating from the Tongjiang region of 96-QP core, the four sporo-pollen assemblages have been distinguished in ascendant order:Zone 1:Quercus mongolica—Betula—Artemisia—Carex—Gramineae—Polypodiaceae Zone.Zone 2:Artemisia—Cyperaceae—Gramineae—Betula—Quercus Zone.Zone 3:Betula—Quercus mongolica—Pinus—Artemisia—Cyperaceae—Gramineae Zone.Zone 4:Pinus—Betula—Quercus mongolica—Artemisia—Carex Zone.Sporo-pollen zones mentioned above can clearly represent 4 evolutional stages of vegetation and climate. In ascendant order these stages are:the temperate deciduous broad-leaved forest→conifer and deciduous broad-leaved mixed forest-grass→deciduous broad-leaved forest containing coniferous tree-grass→conifer as deciduous broad-leaved mixed forest dominated by Pinus. The climatic variations are:warm and moist-temperate and little dry-temperate and little moist-cool and moist.
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    莱州湾南岸平原古湖泊的形成与演变
    韩美, 张维英, 李艳红, 张丽娜
    地理科学. 2002, 22 (4): 430-435.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.04.430
    摘要   PDF (1894KB)
    运用查阅历史文献、地层剖面分析、地名考证、卫片解译等多种方法确证了莱州湾南岸古湖泊的存在,同时研究了它的形成与演变过程。莱州湾南岸有巨淀湖、黑冢泊、别画湖等古湖泊,它们形成于距今约6 000年以前,系由河口湾泻湖演变而成。该区古湖泊经历了中全新世全盛期和晚全新世收缩期两个阶段。湖泊消亡的原因是气候变干、河道迁移、人类活动影响等,其中河道迁移是最主要原因。
    Based on the data of the historical geography, the analysis of stratigraphic section, the textual research of the place name and satellite photographic interpretation, the authors studied the formation and evolution of the ancient lakes on the south coast plain of Laizhou Bay where ever had three lakes: Judian Lake, Qingshuibo Lake and Biehua Lake. All the lakes formed 6000 years ago, evolved from the lagoons near estuary and experienced two periods, the golden age in the Middle Holocene and the shrinking age in the Late Holocene. The disappearance of the lakes resulted from the drying climate, the migration of river and the activity of human being. Among the three reasons, the migration of river is the main one.
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    滦河源区东沟小流域土壤风蚀特征分析
    赵烨, 海春兴, 刘霄, 刘海鹏
    地理科学. 2002, 22 (4): 436-440.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.04.436
    摘要   PDF (713KB)
    土壤风蚀是世界许多地区面临的一个严峻环境问题。土壤风蚀特征是建立土壤风蚀预报模型、制定土壤风蚀防治措施的基础信息。综合考察了滦河源区东沟小流域地理环境特征,分析了不同风蚀强度下暗栗钙土的诊断特性。其结果表明:自然环境提供了土壤风蚀的物质条件,区域日益强化的农牧业及砍薪材活动则是土壤风蚀的触发驱动力;失去植被保护的干旱松散表土,在大风驱动下,其中的细砂和极细砂(0.01~0.10 mm)首先以跃移、悬浮方式流失,而粗砂(2~0.25 mm)则相对是非可风蚀颗粒;建立了定量刻划土壤风蚀相对强度指数,即SWEI=粗砂含量/风蚀粒子含量。东沟小流域自然暗栗钙土表土SWEI≤2.0,轻度风蚀区表土SWEI≥ 3.0,重度风蚀区表土SWEI≥9.0;而在风积区表土SWEI≤1.5,该指标较好地反映了区域土壤风蚀强度的差异性。
    Soil wind erosion is one of the most serious environmental and socio-economic problems in many semiarid ecosystems of the world. Donggou small watershed of the Luanhe River source area (41°31'36″-41°33'56″N, 116°06'06″-116°11'50″E, 1560-1960 m a.s.l.) is one of the prototype mixed pasture-agriculture-frost ecosystems in the North China, where the soil wind erosion is developing rapidly and receiving widespread attention. The properties of the soils, which are influenced by wind erosion, are very important information for the wind erosion prediction and conservation. Using the detailed ground-based investigations of the household livelihoods, land use, environmental characteristics and diagnostic soil characteristics of Donggou small watershed, this paper analyses the wind erosion properties of the Hap-Ustic Isohumisols (or dark chestnut soil) in the areas with different wind erosion intensities. The results show that: (1) During winter and spring, Donggou small watershed has very strong wind (cold wave) and little precipitation, the soil is in drying-friable state, and soil texture is sandy, these natural environmental factors have provided the material resource and kinetic energy for the wind erosion processes. For traditional farming intensity is becoming increasingly high, the livestock capacity on the grassland and demand for the fuel-wood is becoming more day-by-day. These anthropogenic factors have been the trigger driving-force for the wind erosion processes. (2) For drying-friable surface soil, which has lost the protective cover of vegetation, the fine sand (0.10-0.05 mm) and very fine sand (0.05-0.01 mm) are carried away first by suspension and saltation. But the coarse sand (2.00-0.25 mm) in the surface soil is relative nonerodible particles. (3) A quantitative index was used to estimate the wind erosion intensity in the study area, i.e. SWEI=CS/EF, where CS is the content of the coarse sand in the surface soil, EF is the content of the fine sand and very fine sand in the surface soil. In the distribution areas of the Hap-Ustic Isohumisols, the SWEI≤2.0; in the distribution areas of weakly eroded soils, the SWEI≥3.0; in the distribution areas of very strong eroded soils, the SWEI≥9.0; But in the wind deposition areas, the SWEI≤1.5.
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    GIS支持下青海湖地区草地蝗虫发生的地形分析
    张洪亮, 倪绍祥, 查勇, 韦玉春
    地理科学. 2002, 22 (4): 441-444.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.04.441
    摘要   PDF (546KB)
    草地蝗虫发生的地形分析是建立草地蝗虫发生预报模型的基础。以青海湖地区为实验区,在Arc/Info和ArcView地理信息系统的支持下,进行草地蝗虫发生与各地形变量(包括海拔高度、坡度与坡向)的叠置分析,提取草地蝗虫发生的地形信息数据库。然后,分别采用T-检验(对连续变量-海拔高度和坡度)和卡方(Chi-square)检验(对类变量-坡向类型)进行各地形变量对草地蝗虫发生的差异显著性检验。结果表明:海拔高度和坡度对草地蝗虫发生的影响极为显著(显著性水平p=0.000),而坡向对草地蝗虫发生的影响不是特别明显(显著性水平p=0.039)。
    The topographic analysis of grasshopper outbreak is the base to develop the prediction model for grasshopper outbreak. With the support of Arc/Info and ArcView, grasshopper outbreak information from field sampling is overlapped with elevation, slope and aspect types derived from Digital Elevation Models(DEM) respectively, the databases for each topographic variable of grasshopper outbreak information are obtained and analyzed. Then two-sample t-tests for the continuous variables and chi-square tests for the categorical variables are separately used to test the significance level. The results show that the effects on elevation and slope to grasshopper outbreak are very significant (two significance levels are all 0.000), while aspect’s effect is not very remarkable (significance level is 0.039).
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    湿地水环境中生物膜吸附铅、镉能力的研究
    李鱼, 董德明, 花修艺, 张菁菁, 杨帆, 邱立民
    地理科学. 2002, 22 (4): 445-448.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.04.445
    摘要   PDF (658KB)
    利用向海自然保护区不同类型湿地水体培养的生物膜进行了铅、镉的吸附实验, 结果表明,不同湿地水环境培养的生物膜吸附铅、镉的热力学数据可以用Langmuir等温吸附曲线来描述,各水体生物膜吸附铅、镉的能力存在很大的差异,吸附铅的能力大约比吸附镉的能力大一个数量级,且吸附铅、镉的能力与膜上锰、铁氧化物的含量有显著的相关性。
    Pb and Cd adsorption to surface coatings, which was developed in different waters in Xianghai Natural Preservation Areas, was carried out. Langmuir isotherm was used to describe Pb and Cd adsorption to surface coatings with significant correlation (n =6, p =0.01). It was also found that the adsorption of Pb to surface coatings is greater than that of Cd, and the maximum adsorption of Pb and Cd to surface coatings is closely related to the contents of Mn and Fe oxides on surface coatings.
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    江苏省太湖流域总氮、总磷排放标准研究
    盛学良, 舒金华, 彭补拙, 吴化前, 黄文钰, 杨静
    地理科学. 2002, 22 (4): 449-452.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.04.449
    摘要   PDF (653KB)
    根据太湖流域(江苏省境内)不同类型污水中总氮、总磷的浓度和当前废水治理技术及接纳水体的环境质量和经济承受能力等方面的系统分析,确定了江苏省太湖流域三级保护区内各类排污单位总氮、总磷允许排放浓度,并分析了本标准与其他排放标准之间的关系。最后,对实施本标准后的太湖水质影响进行了估算研究。
    At first this paper analyses water qualities of Taihu Lake and its rivers coming in and going out, and makes some statistics about nitrogen and phosphorus sources at the upper reaches and long the shores of Taihu valley in Jiangsu Province. Secondly, it calculates maximum permitted loads for total nitrogen and total phosphorus by a lake model which has been tested to be effective. Thirdly, according to the concentrations of total nitrogen and total phosphorus in some wastewater, present techniques of wastewater treatment, protection target for Taihu water body and economic condition etc. it puts forward some main technical parameters for determining nitrogen and phosphorus emission standards for domestic wastewater which is a principal contributor to nutritional salts, and draws up the emission standards of total nitrogen and total phosphorus applied to different pollution sources, which are classified into three scales corresponding to three protection districts at Taihu valley in Jiangsu Province. Then it discusses the relationship between the standard and other emission standards. Finally, the effect on water quality from the standard enforcement is also estimated.
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    赤峰地区孢粉分析与先人生活环境初探
    许清海, 杨振京, 崔之久, 阳小兰, 梁文栋
    地理科学. 2002, 22 (4): 453-457.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.04.453
    摘要   PDF (757KB)
    从考古孢粉学角度,根据赤峰七锅山剖面孢粉分析,结合赤峰地区古文化遗址的考古资料,探讨了赤峰地区8 000 aB.P.以来的先人生活环境,以及人类活动和自然环境演变的过程之间的相互关系。结果表明:8 400~6 200 aB.P.为温暖湿润的草原气候,先人既狩猎捕鱼,也种植作物和放牧;6 200~4 000 aB.P.,随着森林的破坏,环境逐渐恶劣,农业水平下降;4 000~2 500 aB.P.植被以草原为主,气候温干,先人以旱作农业为主;2 500 aB.P.至现在,植被为典型的蒿草草原,气候温和偏干,农业和畜牧业相对发展,人类活动加剧。
    The paper on palynology and archaeology reveals the living environment of ancestor and the mutual relationship between human activity and environment change by pollen analysis of Qiguoshan Section in Chifeng Area. The results show that 8 400-6 200 a B.P., the climate was warm and moist with grassland vegetation, ancestors did hunting, fishing, planting and herding; 6 200-4 000 a B.P., environment changed gradually bad, and the agriculture level dropped with destroying forest; 4 000-2 500 a B.P., climate was temperate and arid with grassland vegetation, ancestors planted dry crop; 2 500 a B.P.-today, vegetation was the typical grassland of Artemisia, with comparatively temperate arid climate, the agriculture and animal husbandry was comparatively developed, and influences of human activities on environment have been enhanced.
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    鲤鱼(Cyprinus carpio)鳃部微环境特征与铜的生物有效性
    龙爱民, 陶澍
    地理科学. 2002, 22 (4): 458-462.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.04.458
    摘要   PDF (529KB)
    对鲤鱼鳃部微环境进行了定量测量,建立了鲤鱼鳃部微环境的定量模型,对鱼鳃微环境进行了定量描述;通过暴露实验验证了EDTA络合态铜与高岭土颗粒吸附态铜对鱼鳃的生物有效性,并从形态变化的角度分析其存在有效性的原因,即络合态与颗粒吸附态金属随水流经过鱼鳃时,将会部分地发生离解,转变成为可以直接被鱼鳃吸收的形态。
    The gill microenvironment of carp was characterized using a two-apartment apparatus, and pH, alkalinity, mucus (expressed as total organic carbon, TOC) were modeled based on measured results. Copper uptake by gills at various concentrations of copper complexed with EDTA and bound to kaolin particulate was studied, and copper speciation in and out of the gill microenvironment was compared with chemical equilibrium model MINTEQA2. It was found that the copper uptake by gills increased with copper complex and particulate copper due to their dissociation in gill special microenvironment.
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    周秦两汉时期农业灾害时空分布研究
    卜风贤
    地理科学. 2002, 22 (4): 463-467.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.04.463
    摘要   PDF (262KB)
    周秦两汉时期农业灾害发生频繁,种类多样。灾害史料的灾度等级处理和统计结果表明:西周时期发生重大农业灾害8次,春秋战国时期发生重大农业灾害88次,秦汉时期发生重大农业灾害291次。农业灾害在时间分布方面表现出明显的时代特征:①农业灾害在年内季节分布中存在不平衡性;②农业灾害在年际分布中出现多个集中频发的时间区间。而且,愈到后来农业灾害集中发生的现象愈为明显。在空间分布方面,山东、山西地区是周秦两汉时期的农业重灾区。
    Various kinds of agricultural natural disaster occurred frequently in Zhou, Qin, Western and Eastern Han dynasties. Through dealing with natural disaster historical data, the result shows that the important agricultural natural disaster frequency was 8 times in Western Zhou epoch, 88 times in Eastern Zhou epoch and averaged 1 time every 6.2 years; 291 times in Qin and Han epoch and averaged 1 time every 1.5 years. Agricultural natural disaster showed obvious character in time distributing: ①agricultural natural disaster was not evenly distributed through a year, natural disaster taking place more times in summer and autumn than spring and winter. ②Natural disaster had many concentratedly freqent occurring periods in interannual distribution. There was 1 period in Western Zhou Dynasty, 9 periods in Eastern Zhou Dynasty, 20 periods in Qin and Western Han dynasties, 27 periods in Eastern Han Dynasty. Furthermore, the more late the time was, the more obvious the phenomena of agricultural natural disaster muster occurrence were. In the aspect of space distribution, the sum of various kinds of agricultural natural disaster was 131 times in Shandong disaster section, 113 times in Shanxi disaster section, 15 times in Jiangnan disaster section, 6 times in Northwest disaster section, 4 times in Sichuan disaster section. The heavy disaster areas were Shandong and Shanxi sections in Zhou, Qin, Western and Eastern Han dynasties.
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    兰州市地域结构分析
    杨永春, 曾尊固
    地理科学. 2002, 22 (4): 468-475.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.04.468
    摘要   PDF (881KB)
    兰州市是西北干旱地区典型的河谷盆地型城市,通过分析了兰州市域地域结构的特征、模式以及市区的结节地域和均质地域,讨论城市地域结构形成与发展的影响因素。兰州市域地域结构呈现带状分散多中心组团结构形态,而且各功能区的均质度、紧凑度都比较低,城市结节地域结构虽然发生了不同程度的变形,但仍遵循六边性构造的理论模型。
    Lanzhou is a typical valley-basin city in the northwestern China. This paper analyses the status quo's feature and organized model of internal structure and outer morphology of Lanzhou, and nodal region and homogenous area of urban district of Lanzhou. The factors affecting the forming and development of urban area structure of Lanzhou are discussed in the paper. Urban area structure of Lanzhou manifests dispersing and zonal multi-center spatial structure. Both of the homogenous degree and agglomerating degree of Lanzhou's urban district's functional area are very low. The average homogenous degree of inner and outer industrial area in Lanzhou's urban district are all below 1.07,and the average agglomerating degree of it are all below 0.27. The agglomerating degree of Lanzhou is below 0.03, which proves the belt feature of Lanzhou. The nodal region structure of Lanzhou's urban district still theoretically complies with Hexagon Structure Modal although the rank system of it isn't perfect because of the effect of natural conditions, especially landform.Lanzhou's unique natural condition and industrial development have played a great role on the development of its internal structure and outer morphology. Urban area structure of Lanzhou manifests dispersing and zonal multi-center spatial structure. The circle structure of urban area structure of Lanzhou from inner to outer place can be outlined as belted core parts, inner suburban district producing vegetables, melon and fruit in valley belt of the Huanghe(Yellow) River and the Huangshui River, outer sector satellite towns, outer agricultural area in the valley and others that concretely shows CBD commercial and serving center, fringe belt of urban center, inner and outer industrial area, satellite towns and agricultural suburbs. Fringe belt of urban center has the integrated function consisting of commercial function, social function, cultural function, administrative function, medical function, insurance function, financial function, and light industrial function. Inner industrial area includes Donggang, Yantan, Yanchangbu, Qilihe and Anning. The outer industrial area has Xigu, Liancheng-Haishiwan and Hekou-Dongchuan. There are cultivated land, lawn and tree land between the inner industrial area and outer industrial area. The satellite towns of Lanzhou have Yongdeng County town, Gaolan County town and Yuzhong County town. Now Lanzhou is one of the cities to be heaviest polluted in China because of its industry system whose key industry is oil and chemistry industry and limited polluted degree that urban air and water system in valley-basin can bear. Moreover, because the quantity of suitably urban land is limited urban reserve land will be lacked after twenty or thirty years according to the speed of consuming urban empty land. At the certain stage they are key problems to be solved in urban development that urban area structure should be rationally planned and the direction of its development should be carefully determined and satellite towns should be prudently selected after the sort of cities reach the certain higher stage. It is so important that urban area structure should be strategically adjusted, and independent districts should be rapidly established and satellite towns should be perfected in the process of valley-basin City's construction. In future, belted urban agglomeration would maybe appear in the upper reaches of the Huanghe River.
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    城市外来低收入移民安置与自下而上城市化发展
    田剑平, 许学强, 赵晓斌, 陈振光
    地理科学. 2002, 22 (4): 476-482.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.04.476
    摘要   PDF (1038KB)
    中国在由二元经济社会跨入现代经济社会的过程中,众多的农村人口向城市流动和转移,已经给中国社会和城市发展带来严重的影响。通过对广州市和东莞市两市三个层次的一般抽样调查和50个镇村的重点调查和分析,以城市外来低收入移民为研究和安置的对象,提出了适合中国情况的自下而上的开发性移民自助安置模式;并分析了自助安置模式对城市发展的影响,提出了一种在城市地域发生的自下而上的城市化理论发展假设。
    In the course of social transfer from duality economy society to modern economy society in China, many rural surplus labor forces have entered into the cities and spontaneous settlement of the immigrants had appeared in the cities, which have a serious impact on the Chinese social and urban development. Through spot check and stress investigation of "urban non-nativeborn low-income migrants" in 50 villages in Guangzhou and Dongguang cities in Guangdong Province with visiting and questionnaire method, the thesis argued about below-up self-help housing and developing settlement model, which impact on urban development. And a below-up urbanization theory assumption happening in urban region was pointed out.
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    我国水价的变化过程及其区域特征的研究
    张德震, 陈西庆
    地理科学. 2002, 22 (4): 483-488.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.04.483
    摘要   PDF (284KB)
    随着水资源危机的加剧,水价及其相关问题受到了广泛的关注。回顾了建国以来我国水价及其相关水利政策的演变,探讨了我国水价特征的空间分布、地区间的差异及其与社会经济、水资源与水环境之间的关系。研究了20世纪90 年代后期以来我国水价改革,分析了我国水价的现状和发展前景,提出了近期水价增长的理论依据,讨论了水价承受能力和调水的水价等相关问题。
    With the rapid deterioration of water resource, changes of water price and the relevant issues have received wide attention in China. This paper reviews the water price change and water policy in China since the founding of P. R. China. The regional difference in water price is examined in reference to the regional variation in society, economy, water resource and environment. Through studying the water price reform since the later 1990s, this paper analyses the present status and future prospect of water price in China. The basic theory for the increase of water price and the endurance of residents to water price are discussed.
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    广州城市游憩商业区(RBD)对城市发展的影响
    古诗韵, 保继刚
    地理科学. 2002, 22 (4): 489-494.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.04.489
    摘要   PDF (738KB)
    城市游憩商业区作为城市中一种新的功能区已逐渐成为城市新的空间要素,为旅游者、本地及周边地区的居民承担着提供旅游、休闲、娱乐、购物等功能,并作为城市游憩系统中的重要组成部分。通过对初具规模的广州城市RBD——天河城地段进行实证研究,分析城市RBD分别对城市商业、城市游憩、城市交通以及城市地域空间的影响。
    Urban recreational business district (RBD) has become a very important part of the urban tourism system, offering tourism for tourists, and leisure, entertainment and shopping experience to local and peripheral residents. Based on the research on RBD at home and abroad, this paper uses the RBD in Tianhe Plaza, Guangzhou City, as well as its neighbors Hongcheng Plaza, Tianhe Sports Center and Guangzhou Bookstore as the subjects of the study. The RBD of Guangzhou City gradually matured after Tianhe Plaza started business. As a result, it brought very good profit to the commerce of Guangzhou, especially to the business development in Tianhe. In 1996, the total amount of consumption in Tianhe district was ¥5.227 billion, with a 40% increase from the ¥3.73 billion in 1995. In 1997, the total consumption went up to ¥6.41, with a 22.63% increase from the previous year. The RBD improved further the business status of Tianhe district, bringing about a new network of retail shops. Back in 1990, the business center of the city was in the old part of the city. Since 1996 when Tianhe Plaza came into being, a new business center emerged in the eastern part of the city. As a result, there formed a new network of two business centers of retail shops, one new, one old, in the eastern and western part of the city. The success of Guangzhou's RBD came from the fact that people's need for consumption was satisfied in a very good shopping environment. Furthermore, this helped to bring about the business environment where people are the focus. The RBD stimulated the need for entertainment and introduced a new way for leisure. More and more residents went Tianhe district for leisure. Even those who were there shopping, got used to taking advantage of recreational facilities there. The development of RBD changed the way people spend money and time, giving them a more positive attitude to life. The development of RBD also attracted a lot of tourists, which had an impact on the flow and volume of the traffic. The most obvious change was in the increase of buses. The increase in buses in turn helped Tianhe district's development. The convenience in transportation made it easy for people to live in Tianhe. Consequently, the real estate in the district enjoyed very good sale. The new RBD in Tianhe attracted residents in the old part of the city to Tianhe district, expediting the development of the new district. In the mean time, the recreational facilities and leisurely environment makes the RBD very appealing. This diverted the traffic to the city center, and relieved the tension on the city's traffic. The formation and development of RBD has brought a new trend in the urban development: a new urban area with multiple functions can draw people to it, making it more competitive than an area with just one function.
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    伊春市城镇体系的演变及对策——一个“边缘化”地区的实例
    修春亮, 袁家冬
    地理科学. 2002, 22 (4): 495-499.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.04.495
    摘要   PDF (242KB)
    伊春市位于黑龙江省北部边陲,小兴安岭腹地,社会经济和城镇系统是伴随小兴安岭森林资源的大规模开发而形成的。在1990年代的区域发展中,与主流和核心地区相比,在先进生产力和生存方式发展方面的差距在拉大,表现出日益“边缘化”的特征。此间,市域城镇体系特征发生了一系列变化,主要特征表现为作为支撑各城镇发展的新的基本经济部门成长缓慢,各城镇的成长已经走向分化,而且这种分化在市域内部印证了“边缘化”现象的存在。作为地广人稀、生态条件优越的地区,伊春也存在摆脱边缘化趋势的的机遇。
    This study is based on a series of field investigation works that were done specially in the early and late 1990s.Yichun is situated in the border area of northern part of Heilongjiang Province, and in the hinterland of Xiao Hinggan Mountains. Its social-economic and urban systems are formed with the large-scale exploiting of Xiao Hinggan Mountains forest reserves. In the regional development in the 1990s, its process in economy and living pattern has been falling behind the mainstream regions, and Yichun was increasingly becoming a marginalized region. A series of changes in the urban system had taken place: (1) Urbanization level was superficial high, and the population continued concentrating. (2) Resources and locations were the decisive factors of town's increasing, stagnating or falling. (3) Central city was still weak, urban size structure was proportionate, but the rank-size relativity fell. (4) As basic economic sector that supported urban growth, forest industry was declining, meanwhile, substitute ones grew slowly, only in isolated towns ecological tourism developed at the outset. (5) Expanded internal difference of urbanization between the south and north confirmed the existence of marginalization inside the municipal area.As a vast, sparsely populated area in good ecological state, Yichun has the opportunity to be lifted out of marginalization. Strategic points are creating conditions for reverses and qualitative changes, thus joining the external pioneer regions, giving impetus to development with interchange. Adopt unbalanced developing way. Separate the governments and enterprises, in order to establish an administrative system that suits to the needs of market economy and external opening. Join districts together and set up counties, cancel some districts and set up towns, in order to establish normal administrative area system. Promote central city to grow rapidly by way of integrating neighboring towns and concentrating the creams. Promote the port construction, develop business cooperation with Russia, in order to increase external contact ways, change the unfavorable influence of location.
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    研究报道
    三江平原沼泽湿地与稻田CH4排放对比研究
    王德宣, 吕宪国, 丁维新, 蔡祖聪, 王毅勇
    地理科学. 2002, 22 (4): 500-504.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.04.500
    摘要   PDF (572KB)
    2001年5~10月,在三江平原对毛果苔草沼泽湿地和由沼泽湿地开垦后稻田的CH4排放通量进行了同步观测。三江平原毛果苔草沼泽湿地CH4排放通量范围是1.32~46.38 mg/(m2 ·h),平均值为17.29 mg/(m2·h)。稻田的CH4排放通量范围是0.05~24.37 mg/(m2·h),平均值为6.67 mg/(m2·h)。沼泽湿地CH4排放通量平均值是稻田的2.5倍,水分条件和因土地利用方式改变引起的土壤理化条件变化是导致二者的CH4排放通量产生差异的主要原因。CH4排放通量有明显的季节变化,7~8月高温期出现CH4排放高峰。
    The Sanjiang Plain is the major distribution area of marsh in China. In the past twenty years, the area of paddy field has increased rapidly from 13.47?104 ha in 1983 to 46.74?104 ha in 1997. The conversion of marsh into paddy field changed intrinsic characters of the soil, which resulted in the change in methane emission. To investigate the difference in methane emission from marsh and paddy field, we simultaneously monitored methane emission from the Carex lasiocarpa marsh and paddy field converted from marsh in Sanjiang Plain from May through October 2001. The results showed that the flux of methane emission from Carex lasiocarpa marsh ranged from 1.32 to 46.38 mg/(m2·h) with an average of 17.29 mg/(m2·h) and from 0.05 to 24.37 mg/(m2·h), averaging 6.67 mg/(m2·h) from paddy field. The former was 2.5 times higher than the latter due to different water condition and soil physical-chemical properties. The obvious seasonal variation of methane flux existed and the highest value occurred in between July and August.
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    长江巨洪前期物理因子的配置
    冯利华
    地理科学. 2002, 22 (4): 504-507.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.04.504
    摘要   PDF (450KB)
    提出了长江巨洪前期物理因子配置的概念。在每一次巨洪发生之前,影响巨洪的主要物理因子之间一般都会表现出相似的特征,即出现一些固有的配置。这些配置正是长江发生巨洪的强信号,对长江巨洪的预测研究具有重要的指示作用。
    The huge flood along the Changjiang River is the catastrophic flood of the whole basin along the Changjiang River. The huge flood along the Changjiang River is a result of the comprehensive action of the various physical factors. Now it is demonstrated that the physical factors which play a main part in the huge flood along the Changjiang River are as follows: monsoon of Asia, subtropical high of the west Pacific Ocean, blocking high of the middle latitude, snow on the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau in winter season, El Nino event, sunspot activity and so on. The physical factors which play a next part in the huge flood along the Changjiang River are as follows: assemble of nine stars, trade wind, earth’s rotation rate, geothermal release, eclipse of the sun and so on. The concept of composition of the physical factors before the huge flood along the Changjiang River is put forward. Before every huge flood arises, there are generally the similar characteristics that are some inherent compositions between the main physical factors that have an effect on the huge flood. That is, in next year of El Nino event around the transformation year of magnetic cycle of sunspot activity, the position of subtropical high of the west Pacific Ocean in summer changes south because of the influence of sunspot activity and El Nino event. At the same time, excessive snow on the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau decreases thermal action of the plateau, and blocking high of the middle latitude changes south frontal zone south. Because monsoon of Asia become weaker by them, the position of main rain band of China in summer changes south. Hence the catastrophic flood of the whole basin arises along the Changjiang River. These compositions are strong signal of the huge flood along the Changjiang River, which is of important indication function for forecast research of the huge flood along the Changjiang River.
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    土地利用变化的生态环境效应研究——以前郭县为例
    秦丽杰, 张郁, 许红梅, 刘湘南
    地理科学. 2002, 22 (4): 508-512.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.04.508
    摘要   PDF (625KB)
    随着人口的增加及经济的发展,人类对土地利用模式的改变更为显著,导致了土地资源生态环境背景的变化。对土地利用变化的生态环境效应进行研究,可改善农业生产条件和人类生存环境,促进区域经济与生态环境协调发展。
    With the increase of population and the development of economy, the land use change is more notable, and causes the change of eco-environmental background of land resources. Studying the effect of land use change on eco-environment can improve the conditions of agricultural production, and make the regional economy and ecoenvironment develop in a good way. Taking Qian Gorlos County as an example,the paper analyses the pattern of land use change, it shows that there was an obvious decrease in the area of grassland and forestland, while wasteland and paddy field increased in 1986 and 1996. Then the paper studies the effect of land use change on the eco-environment, the effect shows mainly at three aspects: ⑴ Land deterioration aggravated. Not only the area of land deterioration was enlarged, but also the degree of land deterioration was aggravated. ⑵ Water pollution was serious. With the farmland area enlarged and amount of irrigation water increased, the agricultural drainage resulted in water quality worsened. ⑶ Bio-diversity decreased. With the land use pattern changed, the landscape fraction increased while the dimension of patches decreased.
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