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CN 22-1124/P
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  • 地理科学
      2002年, 第22卷, 第1期 刊出日期:2002-01-20 上一期    下一期
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    论文
    关于“点-轴”空间结构系统的形成机理分析
    陆大道
    地理科学. 2002, 22 (1): 1-6.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.01.1
    摘要   PDF (1947KB)
    “点-轴系统”理论建立在“中心地理论”基础之上,但二者的理论内容和应用目标是不同的.“点-轴系统”理论在我国国土开发和区域发展实践中取得了巨大的成效.在分析空间聚集和空间扩散导致“点-轴系统”空间结构形成机理的基础上,阐述了“点-轴系统”理论与增长极理论及网络开发模式之间的关系.
    In this paper, the author first clarifies that the theory of pole-axis spatial system is based on the well known central place theory, however, the two theories are different in terms of theoretical components and application objectives. The author analyzes the formation and dynamics of pole-axis spatial system mainly through the perspective of spatial agglomeration and diffusion effect, and compares pole-axis spatial system theory with growth pole theory and networked development model. Then the author elaborates on the rationality and effectiveness of the theory of pole-axis spatial system to China′s territorial development and regional development in the past decades.
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    中国步入经济全球化的空间态势与顺应决策取偿问题探讨
    陈长春, 杨洪, 袁开国
    地理科学. 2002, 22 (1): 7-11.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.01.7
    摘要   PDF (220KB)
    适应中国21世纪持续实行全方位经济开放的需要,将中国作为经济全球化空间结构巨系统中的一个重要组成单元,按世界各经济体之间的相互联系、相互作用的研究视角,对中国步入全球化进程中不断推进国内外商品、资本、技术、信息等国际经济要素加速转移的空间演化态势的特殊内涵,着重从其空间跨越性、空间汇敛性、空间依存性等三个主要方面加以揭示与评价,并对中国的相关适应决策取偿问题进行了初步探讨.
    Regarding China as an important compositional unit of the huge system of the spatial structure of the economic globalization and viewing from the interaction among the economic communities, the present article discusses theoretically the spatial significance which indicates the acceleration of the state of the spatial evolution concerning domestic or foreign commodity, capital, technology and information. The study mainly focuses on the spatial span, the spatial convergence and the spatial interdependence. In order to adapt China to the spatial state of the globalization, the study advances simultaneously, starting from the analytic approach which compares the regional differences and focusing on the analysis of the regional spatial differences of the socioeconomic in the globalization, the framework of the contents of the compensation of related tactics in China’s opening process. This framework discusses the type of the regional spatial structure which is suitable for the international communities, stipulates the export oriented spatial strategy of the consolidated elementary domains, the domains of "risks", the potential expended domains as well as different regional strategies which follows the regional differences of the domestic export oriented economy, considers and implements the economic opening of China’s East and West Regions. Theoretically, the following three corresponding strategic proposals are given by the author in accordance with the spatial state of China’s participation of economic globalization: 1) to be fully aware of the phenomenon of the regional differences in the process of spatial span with attention to the relatively harmonious development in the overall expert oriented economic activity; 2) accelerate the process of export oriented conglomeration and diffusion of international economic element with a full efficiency of the functional effect of China’s export oriented economy; 3) conceive countermeasures for strengthening the ability and effect of international competition according to the research of spatial dependence of economic globalization in the process of China’s participation.
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    滨水环境与城市发展的初步研究
    王颖, 盛静芬
    地理科学. 2002, 22 (1): 12-17.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.01.12
    摘要   PDF (691KB)
    通过对国内外城市滨水地区的规划与建设特点进行对比分析研究,得出水体在城市发展中具有:景观功能,水源功能,交通运输功能,游乐运动功能,生态环境功能以及文化历史渊源与发展文化的功能等.滨水地段是城市的珍贵资源,需很好从"人地和谐相关"与"生存环境持续发展"的观点指导进行城市规划与建设.并对广州市珠江两岸滨水区域的建设发展规划,提出一些建议:1)浚深与疏通内河航运,使珠江干流成为多功能的水道;2)利用深水潮流通道,扩大建设"虎门"海港;3)珠江滨水带景观规划必须具备层次性与地带性;4)保证沿岸留有充分的公共空间、娱乐场地和绿地林带;5)提高堤围的设防标准至100年一遇以上的防洪标准;)沿海潮滩、沙洲、岛屿在原养殖与农业开发的基础上,开展田园风光旅游与度假旅游;7)沿岸水污染控制和治理.
    Compared with the patterns of water front planning among several cities both in China and abroad, it can be summarized that the waters function to urban developments as following: the function of ecology and landscape, water resources and living bodies, linkage and transportation, recreation and exercises, cultural business and historical loading. Waterside is a kind of precious resource to city development. It should take serious account on point view of to planning design city construction with point view of sustainable development, and the harmonic relationship between human and existent environment. Based on the principal idea, authors also support with several suggestions on the Zhujiang River Side planning. 1)Deepen and dredge the inner river to maintain transportation of the Zhujiang river and turn the mainstream into a multifunctional water route. With the river deepened, it will make important influences on the development of Guangzhou, i.e. prospering the transportation and construction, stimulating the booming of tourism and the last but not the least, decreasing the air pollution significantly. 2) Enlarge Humen seaport to make use of deep tidal channel. A port of 100-50 thousand tons can be constructed, serving as connection of Guangzhou Bay and inner river system. A the same time, high technology gardens and international leisure and recreation centers are to be built in areas around the seaport. In the downstream area of the Zhujiang river, advanced container processing centers should also been designed to increase the capacity of unit transportation. 3)Plan rankly and regionally. Detailed planning projects are to be planned on the basis of ecological principles and the function of hinterland. The ratio of greenland areas to exploited areas should maintained as a proper level. It is required that the ecological and resident living conditions should be prior to the economic benefit. 4) Set aside enough space for recreation place and green belt. According to the planning of Guangzhou City the area from Pazhou Island to Longxuewei Island together with its hinterland will become the CBD of Zhujiang delta, accordingly, a beautiful corridor should also be designed to separate the clamor and the tranquil. 5) Increase the level of levee to ensure the security of production and living condition. 6) Develop holiday tourism on the basis of agriculture and aquaculture. Various activities such as fishing, swimming, meeting and training are supported to encourage the flourishing of suburb economy. 7) Control water pollution along the Zhujiang river. Now the river seems like a sewer accepting all kinds of pollutants. In order to purify the water and better living conditions in nearby areas, water pollution controlling and dealing are imperative especially in the area of Huangpu.
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    两个冰期-间冰期旋回的黄土记录及其古气候意义
    熊尚发, 刘东生, 丁仲礼
    地理科学. 2002, 22 (1): 18-23.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.01.18
    摘要   PDF (671KB)
    北京邻区枣沟、斋堂和赤峰黄土-古土壤剖面粒度和磁化率变化在幅度和相位上都有明显的差异.在两个冰期-间冰期旋回,磁化率记录具有冰量变化模式,而粒度记录具有轨道周期特点,粒度和磁化率之间的相位关系在从冰期向间冰期转换和冰期向间冰期过渡的过程中,既有滞后也有超前的表现,很难单纯以成土作用来解释.由于黄土粒度主要反映粉尘源区环境和古风场强度的变化,而磁化率主要记录的是沉积区的成壤作用,反映夏季风的强度变化,因此剖面粒度和磁化率变化的不协调说明古风场和粉尘源区变化与粉尘沉积区气候变化之间不统一.这可能意味着控制夏季风强度变化和控制冬季风强度变化的机制存在差异.
    The studies for the loess deposits of China have been obviously progressed in recent two decades and many paleoclimatic signals were detected by the analyses of a lot of climatic proxies. An important understanding by now is that the depositional features of the loess are mainly controlled by the paleomonsoon and the variations in summer and winter monsoon strength can be deciphered from the fluctuations of the grain size and magnetic susceptibility of the loess. However, the paleoclimatic proxies of the loess are not yet well understood and more loess sequences need to be studied in detail. Here we report the analysis result of three sections in the vicinity of Beijing region, focusing on the comparison of the variations in the grain size and in susceptibility along the sequence. The results show that the variations in the grain size and susceptibility are not simultaneous both during the deglaciation and glaciation. During glaciations (from paleosol to loess), the grain size exhibits lagged variations than that of the susceptibility. However, during deglaciations, the variations of the grain size either lead or lag that of the susceptibility. Meanwhile, the curve of the susceptibility from S2 to S0 (in Zhaogou section) is featured by 100ka cycles (ice volume variation pattern) but the grain size variation has the cycles of the orbital parameters in general. This may imply that the winter monsoon is relevant to the orbital cycles whereas the summer monsoon is cooperated with the ice volume changes. It’s not yet properly explained why the susceptibility and the grain size exhibited different patterns of variations along the loess sequences. The susceptibility of the loess reflected the variations in the strength of the summer monsoon which are controlled by the low latitudes machanisms, whereas the grain size recorded the fluctuations in the winter monsoon winds from high latitudes. The different patterns of variations in the susceptibility and the grain size may imply that the mechanisms that controlled the climate changes of the low latitudes and the high latitudes are different.
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    中国耕地有机质含量变化对土地生产力影响的定量研究
    王卫, 李秀彬
    地理科学. 2002, 22 (1): 24-28.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.01.24
    摘要   PDF (657KB)
    在土地持续利用与管理研究中,土地质量变化对土地生产力影响的定量研究是核心内容之一.借助新古典经济学的生产函数法,构建了我国耕地的生产函数模型,定量模拟了我国耕地有机质含量变化的边际产出弹性和边际生产力.初步结果表明,由于我国长期存在耕地过度利用导致有机质含量及肥力下降问题,当前提高耕地质量的增产潜力十分可观.
    Sustainable land use and management is becoming an important research aspect in China and abroad,and the response of land productivity to changes of land quality is one of the core studies. In this study,the authors construct the model of marginal productivity of cultivated land with the changes of land quality in China by the method of function of production in economics. The method of function of production is usually applied in calculating the change of quantity of cultivated lands to contribution of marginal gross productions of agriculture. The authors use this method in measuring marginal productivity of cultivated land with changes of land quality. The model is as follows: lnY=a0+a1lnL+a2lnF+a3lnQ+a4lnI+a5Z+a6TbiDi, where Y is the productivity of cultivated land(kg/ha); L is the factor of agricultural labors per hectare(men/ha); F is the factor of chemical fertilizers per hectare(kg/ha); Q is the factor of land quality which is indicated by soil organic matter of cultivated land(g/kg); I is the factor of irrigation ratio(%); Z is the factor of disaster ratio of the disaster lands to all lands(%); T is the factor of time that represents technology developing; D is the fictitious variables of provinces. According to the model, we devise three projects and get the calculated results using the data of 30 provinces from 1981 to 1990. The results are satisfying and show that the main impact factors on productivity are chemical fertilizers,land quality and irrigation ratio in China. It is emphasized that the coefficient of output elasticity of land quality represent the influence of change of soil organic matter to marginal productivity of cultivated land. The coefficient is 0.257 in the average condition in the whde country, and is 0.425 in the provinces with low soil organic matter,and is 0.154 in the provinces with high soil organic matter. The coefficient represents that if soil organic matter increase 1%,the productivity of land will increase 0.257%, on an average, in the whole country,increase 0.425% in the provinces with low soil organic matter,and increase 0.154% in the provinces with high soil organic matter. Based on the study,the authors come to the main conclusions:(1)Improving the land quality is one of effective ways of increasing the productivity of cultivated land in China,especially in some provinces with low soil organic matter.(2)It is not best indicator to use soil organic matter represent land quality,so this maybe affect precision of the results. This question need to be studied deeply.
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    藏北高原地气之间的水分循环
    杨梅学, 姚檀栋, 何元庆, 张晓君, 马耀明
    地理科学. 2002, 22 (1): 29-33.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.01.29
    摘要   PDF (739KB)
    利用GAME-Tibet期间所取得的高分辨率土壤温度、含水量以及降水量资料,对藏北高原地气之间的水分循环过程进行了分析.结果表明,唐古拉山以南平坦地表7~8月份地表蒸发的水汽量可达177 1 mm,占同期降水量的73.2%;唐古拉山以北平坦地表7~8月份地表蒸发的水汽量可达73.3 mm,占同期降水量的7.7%.地表土壤通过蒸发不但将大量的水分输送给其上的大气,而且将热量传给了其上的大气,从而抑制了土壤温度的升高.如果仅就唐古拉山南北地表蒸发而言,引起其较大差异的原因主要是降水量的不同.
    The water cycle processes in large scale were studied by many scientists. However, the studies of the water cycle processes between land and atmosphere are still not so much. This is especially true on Tibetan Plateau. Because the soil temperature and moisture distribution reflect the soil wet/dry and energy conditions, the variation of the temporal and spatial distributions of the soil moisture and temperature is one of the very important parts in the water cycle processes in land atmosphere system. In order to examine the water and energy cycle processes on Qinghai-Xizang(Tibet) Plateau and their roles in the context of the Asian monsoon system, the GAME (GEWEX Asian Monsoon Experiment) Tibet project was carried out. In this paper, using the high temporal resolution soil moisture and temperature as well as precipitation data of GAME Tibet, the water cycle processes between land surface and atmosphere in the northern part of Tibetan Plateau were analyzed. The results showed that the evaporation from the flat lan surface from July to August is 177.1mm(73.3mm) in the south(north) side of Tanggula Mt., which is 73.2%(57.7%) of the precipitation in the same period. The evaporation processes not only transport much water but also much energy from land surface to atmosphere, which can restrain the rising of the soil temperature. The difference of the evaporation between the two sides of Tanggula Mt. is mainly caused by the difference of precipitation in the two sides.
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    2.5Ma以来柴达木盆地的气候干湿变化特征及其原因
    王建, 黄巧华, 柏春广, 刘泽纯
    地理科学. 2002, 22 (1): 34-38.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.01.34
    摘要   PDF (226KB)
    长期以来,一直认为柴达木盆地第四纪气候在波动中向干旱方向发展.原因是青藏高原的隆升阻挡了来自印度洋、孟加拉湾的水汽.然而,来自柴达木盆地新的证据表明,柴达木盆地第四纪气候演变的总体趋势是冰期越来越干燥,间冰期干燥程度却存在减弱的趋势.并且这种变化是呈阶段性的.最明显的阶段划分应在0.8~0.6Ma前后.这种现象可以用青藏高原的隆升做出比较合理的解释:青藏高原的隆升,不仅通过增强冬季亚洲高压(西伯利亚高压)使冬季风增强,使东亚季风区冰期气候更加干燥寒冷,而且还可以通过增强夏季亚洲低压(印度低压),使夏季风增强、间冰期气候更加温暖湿润,从而使得中国季风区冰期-间冰期的气候变差增大.可是,柴达木盆地位于青藏高原北缘,我国西北内陆区受夏季风影响较弱,间冰期或者湿润期湿润程度的增大如何与高原隆升和季风系统的调整相联系,还有待于进一步的研究.
    It has been long believed that the Quaternary climate in Qaidam Basin evolved towards dry. However, evidence from lithofacies, sporo pollen, and organic carbon content has revealed that the general evolutionary trend of Quaternary climate in Qaidam Basin, i.e., glacial climate became drier and interglacial climate became wetter at about 0.8-0.6 Ma B.P. This phenomenon can probably be attributed to the uplift of Tibetan Plateau. The uplift of Tibetan Plateau made both the Asian High (Siberia High) and the Asian Low (India Low) strengthened, which consequently intensified the winter and summer monsoons, giving rise to much drier and colder glacial climate and much wetter and warmer interglacial climate in the East Asian monsoon region. The Quaternary climatic evolution of Qaidam Basin is probably influenced by Asian monsoon circulation as well. However, how to relate the uplift of the Tibetan Plateau and the intensification of the monsoon with the increase of the amplitudes of the humidity variations in Qaidamu Basin leave unsolved.
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    近150a来南红山湖的地球化学特征及环境意义
    陈玲, 朱立平, 张青松
    地理科学. 2002, 22 (1): 39-42.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.01.39
    摘要   PDF (194KB)
    通过对西昆仑山南红山湖的沉积地球化学特征的分析,恢复了南红山湖区近150a来的环境变化.19世纪50年代初~19世纪80年代中期,气候受小冰期末次波动的影响,以冷湿为特点.19世纪80年代中期~1997年,处于小冰期后回暖期,以暖干趋势为主.其中19世纪80年代中期~20世纪20年代初,以暖干为特点;20世纪20年代初~20世纪中叶,气候较干燥,而且温度与湿度的结合较复杂,属于冷干-暖湿交替的气候类型;20世纪中叶~1997年,气候总特征以暖干为主,尤其是1990年以后,温度升高趋势明显,气候干燥.从近150a湖泊变化的整体趋势看,随着时间的推移,南红山湖在逐渐萎缩.就湖区的气候变化与西昆仑山古里雅冰芯所恢复的气温、降水变化及与较近的两个站点的气象记录进行了对比,认为该地区与古里雅冰芯地区受相同的气候系统控制;高原上区域间存在气候差异;应开展多尺度、高分辨率的多种代用资料的研究.
    A 107-cm piston core (SHC-2) was drilled with water depth of 5m in South Hongshan Lake, northwest Tibet in 1998. Based upon the 0.72cm/a of modern sedimentary rate that was tested by 210Pb method and also calibrated by 137Cs method as well as the 1cm interval sample cutting level, a lake sedimentary record with 150 yrs long and 1.4 yrs resolution was obtained. The values of TOC, TN, C/N, CaCO3, Sr/Ba and Fe/Mn had clear environmental significance and well reflected the environmental changes. Geochemical multi proxies of lacustrine sediments showed that the environmental changes during the past 150 years could be reconstructed as follows: Stage 1 (1850s-1880s) is a cold wet period, because it is affected by the climatic variation after the Little Ice Age. Stage 2 (1880s-) is a warm dry period. But the period from 1920s to 1950s is warm wet and cold dry type. After the 1990 the warming tendency is marked in the curve of TOC and TN. In the view of general trend in the past 150 years, South Hongshan Lake was shrinking gradually.
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    滇西和黔中表土中7Be与137Cs分布特征对比研究
    白占国, 万国江
    地理科学. 2002, 22 (1): 43-48.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.01.43
    摘要   PDF (265KB)
    滇西和黔中28个表土剖面分层土样7Be、137Cs比活度对比分析可见:滇西地区表土层顶部7Be/137Cs为100~1 000,而黔中地区仅10~100;两地区表土层中7Be的表观比活度和最大渗透深度总体相近;137Cs在黔中表土层中的比活度总体较滇西地区略高.而黔中表土中7Be累计值的偏低现象,映射了该地区强烈的水土流失.为解释滇西和黔中地区之间表土层顶部7Be/137Cs的地区差异,需进一步讨论两核素的湖泊沉积物蓄积特征.
    The analytical results of 7Be and 137Cs activities in the 28 surface soil profiles in the Yunnan Guizhou Plateau have shown that the 7Be/ 137Cs activity ratios on the topsoils reached 100-1000 in the western Yunnan, but only 10-100 for the central Guizhou region. The apparent activities and Maximum penetrative depth of 7Be in the soils of the two regions are totally close. However, 137Cs activities in the surface soils in the central Guizhou are overall a little higher than that in the western Yunnan. The phenomena that 7Be inventories in the soil cores at the most sampling sites in the central Guizhou were relatively low would just reflect the serious soil erosion in the region. 7Be inventories in the soil cores in the western Yunnan obviously differed from that in the central Guizhou, which mainly embodied that the 7Be inventories in the soil cores in the Lake Lugu watershed in Summer Autumn were apparently higher than that in Lake Hongfeng/Baihua watershed and also higher than that in Lake Erhai watershed as well. This could be related to 7Be high precipitation in summer and altitude. To explain the regional differences of 7Be/ 137Cs activity ratio on the topsoils between the western Yunnan and the central Guizhou, the accumulative characteristics of 7Be and 137Cs in the lake sediments should be further understood.
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    澜沧江水文与水环境特征及其时空分异
    李丽娟, 李海滨, 王娟
    地理科学. 2002, 22 (1): 49-56.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.01.49
    摘要   PDF (1077KB)
    简要分析了我国澜沧江流域云南段部分水化学指标的时空变化,发现顺干流流向降水和径流的变化量增加,稳定性减弱,离子浓度也随水流方向逐步降低;典型站点的离子浓度随时间表现出程度各异的增加势头.而支流的空间变异比较复杂,表明非地带性因子的作用强烈.目前澜沧江水质总体尚好,丰水期主要污染指标为CODMn和TP;上、中游水质良好,下游水质污染较严重,支流水质劣于干流;上、中游水质比较稳定,年际变化较小,下游及各支流水质呈逐年恶化趋势.
    The Lancangjiang River is not only an important river to Yunnan Province, but also a significant international river in South East Asia since it flows through six countries, its hydrological characteristics and water quality are the decisive factors to the social and economic activities of adjacent areas and countries in the lower reaches. Thus it is important for us to understand the change and distribution of hydrological characters and water quality which can make a foundation for exploiting and utilizing water resources in this basin. Furthermore, the countermeasure against water pollution can be set down according to hydrological character and water quality assessment of this area. In this paper, the authors took the mainstream and tributaries of the Lancangjiang River drainage basin in Southwest China as a case, analyzed the temporal and spatial distribution of hydrological character: precipitation, runoff, some hydro-chemical indexes, and the organic pollution status. From upstream to downstream, the authors found that variation of precipitation and runoff increased, but stability decreased, ion concentration gradually dwindled also. On time dimension, all ion concentrations of the sample stations demonstrated some increment, though difference existed in degree. At the same time, this paper analyzed some effective factors such as drainage area and volume of runoff that had important relationship with low flow characteristics and hydro-chemical change. But the spatial distribution in the tributaries was much more complicated because of azonality. As water quality is concerned, water quality status of the river is comparatively acceptable at present. But the deterioration trend is very severe. It’s obvious that water quality of the upper and middle reaches is much better and stable than that of the lower reaches. Water quality in the mainstream is much better than that of its tributaries. As the type of pollution is concerned, CODMn and TP have played the major roles in water pollution. The degree of contamination in rainy season is more serious than that in dry season. According to the research, the main reasons for the deterioration of water quality in the Lancangjiang River are shown as following: Firstly, the fast speed of population increasing in the basin has made sewage discharging augment greatly and most sewage has been discharged directly into the rivers without treatment. Secondly, accompanying with soil erosion and water loss in the basin becoming more and more serious, the increasing amount of fertilizers flowing directly into the rivers have resulted in the decreasing of water quality. Thirdly, wastewater from industrial enterprises was of growing on the one hand, while its disposal efficiency was not improved enough to deal with most part of the sewage. The author strongly suggested that pollution control should be carried out to improve water quality as soon as possible and no time to delay. Some measures such as soil and water conservation, sewage treatment, and water quality monitoring enhancement etc. should be effective prescription.
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    近几十年来西北江三角洲网河区顶点的河相关系
    贾良文, 杨清书, 钱海强, 罗宪林, 罗章仁, 杨干然
    地理科学. 2002, 22 (1): 57-62.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.01.57
    摘要   PDF (274KB)
    据西北江三角洲网河区顶点马口、三水两水文站1959~1988年的实测大断面、流量、流速和水位资料,采用Leopold的水力几何形态关系建立断面河相关系,探讨两水文观测断面的河相关系特征、年际变化及河相关系的差异.河相关系表明,西北江三角洲的断面水力几何形态指数β1值相对较小,而β3值相对较大,代表了珠江特有的丰水少沙河流的河相关系.
    Hydrological data of Sanshui and Makou hydrometric stations were collected in the Pearl River Delta. Hydraulic geometry represents the regulation of flow and channel. Hydraulic geometry was used to analyse the at-a-station hydraulic geometry. It was shown that the change in discharge (Q) with river width (B), mean depth(h), mean velocity(U) at the Sanshui cross section differ from those at Makou cross section. The characteristics of the at-a-station hydraulic geometry in the Pearl River Delta indicated that the exponent value β1 is much less and β3 is much greater than that of the Yellow River and the Yangtze River.
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    南沙套二元相结构的发现及其意义
    张生, 朱诚, 于世永, 戴东升
    地理科学. 2002, 22 (1): 63-66.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.01.63
    摘要   PDF (225KB)
    野外调查中,作者在湖北宜昌枝城市红花镇南沙套村三峡出口处最高阶地上发现一套二元相结构沉积.按发现地点,将其定名为南沙套二元相结构.根据地层层序和接触关系,其相对年代可定为Q1.研究认为:这套沉积物不仅可用以确定长江三峡切穿和长江贯通的时代,而且也可用以研究本区新构造运动的时代及网纹红土的成因与环境.
    In the field investigation, the authors discovered that a group of sediments, which is named Nanshatao binary structure according to the discovering place, are located on the highest terrace in the mouth of the Three Gorges at Nanshatao village, Honghu, Zhicheng, Hubei Province. The relative age is decided as Q1. The authors thinks that this group sediment can be employed to decide the age and mode of the cutting through and run-through of the Yangtze River, and also to decide the age and mode of the Neotectonic movement, the formation genesis and the forming environment of the reticulated soil in this region.
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    天山西部中山带积雪变化趋势与气温和降水的关系——以巩乃斯河谷为例
    张丽旭, 魏文寿
    地理科学. 2002, 22 (1): 67-71.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.01.67
    摘要   PDF (232KB)
    根据位于巩乃斯河谷的天山积雪雪崩研究站近30年来的年最大雪深、月平均气温、月降水量观测记录,用平均差值法、最小二乘法、自回归滑动平均法检验了天山西部中山带积雪、冷季降水、冷季平均气温的变化趋势,结果表明,天山西部中山带积雪呈增加趋势,近30年来年平均增加1.43%,与青藏高原、南极大陆及格陵兰冰盖表面积雪积累增加相一致.天山西部中山带冷季气温和降水的变化趋势也是增加的,其中冷季降水平年平均增加0.12%,而冷季气温升高了0.8℃,积雪与冷季气温之间存在着弱的负相关关系,而与冷季降水呈显著的正相关关系.积雪的增加主要是因为气候变暖引起的冷季降水的增加对积雪增加的贡献大于由于冷季气温升高而造成积雪减少的贡献的结果.
    On the basis of observed records of daily snowcover depth,monthly average temperature and monthly total precipitation at Tianshan Mountains Snowcover and Avalanche Station in the valley of the Kunes River,three trend estimates about the snowcover depth,cold season precipitation and cold season temperature by using the difference of average,least square fitting and slope AR(1)process are made. The results show that an increasing trend of the snowcover depth is very significiant in the middle mountains of western Tianshan in the last 30 years or so.The change trend coincides with the snowcover change trend over the Tibetan Plateau,and the snowcover accumulation increases in Antarctica and Greenland.The secular trend of cold season temperature and precipitation is increasing as well.In the last 30 years,the annual accumulation of snowcover increases 1.43%,the annual increasing rate of cold season precipitation is 0.12%,and the cold season temperature has increased 0.8℃.A significant positive correlation exists between snowcover and cold season percipitation,but the correlation between snowcover and cold season temperature is negative.The increases of snowcover mainly result from the increases of cold season precipitation,which occurred in the background of global climate warming.
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    土壤类型遥感识别推理决策器研究
    付炜
    地理科学. 2002, 22 (1): 72-78.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.01.72
    摘要   PDF (277KB)
    介绍了干旱区土壤类型遥感识别推理决策器的设计原理与实现方法.在用TM遥感图像对土壤类型进行非监督分类的基础上,建立了正向推理与逆向推理相结合的推理机制,对土壤类型进行分类识别决策.用知识表示的产生式规则与框架式规则相结合的数据结构表示土壤学专家的土壤分类识别知识.用像结构模式建立了土壤分类识别的规则,构造了土壤分类判决树,并用典型像例模式进行了各类型土壤判据文件的组织.用该方法对新疆天山北麓阜康试验区的土壤分类识别进行了试验研究.结果表明,该方法分类精度可靠,为干旱区土壤分类识别开辟了一条新的途径.
    This paper presents design principle and realizable approach for Inference Decider for Recognition of Soil Classification Remote Sensing(IDRS) in arid land. On the basis of non-supervising classifying for soil classifications with TM remote sensing images, the author builds reasoning mechanism of direct inference combined with contrary reasoning for soil classification and recognition decision. The author also expresses soil classification and recognition knowledge of expert in soil with data structure of producing rule linking with frame rule for knowledge expression in the IDRS. Furthermore, the author structures rules of soil classification and recognition with image structure model, and builds decision tree of soil classification in the IDRS, and organizes file of decision for soil classifications with typical image case model. With the means, the author makes a test research on classification and distinguishing for soil in test region of Fukang County, situated on the northern foot of the Tianshan Mountains, Xinjiang Region. And the test result shows that the approach mentioned above is a high reliable precision, and it reclaims a new way for classification and recognition of soil in arid land.
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    土地利用空间格局及其变化的图形信息特征分析
    刘湘南, 许红梅, 黄方
    地理科学. 2002, 22 (1): 79-84.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.01.79
    摘要   PDF (715KB)
    运用地理图形信息理论和景观生态学理论,探讨了土地利用空间格局及其变化的图形化描述方法,并以吉林省前郭县为例,在GIS空间分析和统计分析模型的支持下,分析了研究区土地利用空间格局及其变化的图形特征.结果表明:每一土地利用类型图斑特征都可以用几个图形参数来刻画,图形参数随面积变化而变化的曲线可以有效地揭示和区分不同的土地利用类型特征,而土地利用空间格局及其变化则可用VCM曲线来描述.
    Land use is a number of heterogeneous spatial pattern drived by complex force. Land use change displays not only quantity and quality change, but also spatial pattern change. In this article we discuss the method to describe spatial pattern of land use quantitatively. Furthermore, we select Qianguo County of Jilin Province as study area which lies in agro husb ecotone in north China and analyze spatial pattern change of land use change in this area based on geography graphic information theory and combined statistic analysis and spatial analysis of GIS. The results indicate that fractal dimension and circularity can reflect graphic information of land use patches from both the patch shape and coherence. The fractal dimension and circularity vary in different land use types and change with patch area. The fractal dimension of residence is the smallest while grassland largest, patch area have little influence on the fractal dimension of forest and residence which are almost unchanged during the study period, and the fractal dimension of grassland and farmland change significantly and this change is relative with patch area. The circularity of residence is largest among all the land use types while grassland smallest, and the circularity of grassland and farmland change small as patch areas become large. The circularity of residence is almost unchanged, but the circularity of forest, grassland and farmland decreased in different extent. The curve of variable distance buffer analyzing method can declare clearly the spatial distribution of patches by measuring the connectivity and concentration of patches. The VDM curve of farmland close to the left side of the scale and only has one peak, which show the patches of farmland close to each other. The VDM curve of both forest and grassland close to the left side also, by the patches of grassland closer than forest, and the VDM curve of residence has several peaks which mediate, and the patches of residence are disperse.
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    GIS支持的土壤贫瘠化区域分异研究——以福建为例
    钱乐祥, 许叔明, 秦奋, 李斌, 朱鹤健
    地理科学. 2002, 22 (1): 85-90.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.01.85
    摘要   PDF (759KB)
    区域分异研究是区域开发及生态环境保护的重要基础工作,GIS在土壤贫瘠化区域分异研究中的应用是GIS技术在土壤地理学中应用的重要方面.以福建为例,在GIS技术支撑下,利用多元数理统计方法,提出了一个反映土壤养分贫瘠化状况的综合性指标,计算并输出福建土壤贫瘠化等级图,据此分析了土壤贫瘠化的区域分异特征,表明,GIS技术在这一领域的应用具有先进性、区域分异研究工作的高效性和成果的实用可靠性.
    The studies on regional differences are important basic works of regional development and ecological environment conservation. The application of Geographic Information System (GIS) in the study of regional difference of soil impoverishment is a main aspect of GIS in the soil geography. Taking Fujian Province as a case, the authors make the soil unit to be the regional unit, supported by GIS and multivariate statistical analysis methods, put forward a comprehensive index of reflecting the condition of soil impoverishment, calculate and output the grade maps of Fujian soil impoverishment. According to the shows of the map, the regional characters of soil impoverishment are analyzed. The conclusions are: (1) there are differences in area ratio of the soil nutrient in grade in Fujian Province, from small to middle to large, the area ratios in grade are 19.89%, 70.21% and 9.90%; (2) compared with two different land use types, the area ratio in grade of middle in forest land and dry land is higher than that in paddy field; (3) the regional distributions are the following: the grade of light impoverishment is mainly along the Daiyun mountains, middle mainly in the northwest and southeast Fujian Province, and large is mainly focused on several counties along the sea, such as Hui′an, Shishi, Yinjiang, Zhangpu, Yunxiao, Dongshan etc.. The study shows that the application of GIS in this field is advanced of application, efficient of the regional difference study and practical and credible of fruits.
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    电磁技术在苏打盐渍化土壤研究中的应用
    宋长春, 阎百兴, 宋新山
    地理科学. 2002, 22 (1): 91-95.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.01.91
    摘要   PDF (315KB)
    分析了盐渍化土壤导电性的决定因子,提出松嫩平原苏打盐渍化土壤的电导率主要由土壤溶液中Na+和HCO3-离子的总电荷数和迁移速率决定;而土壤中粘土矿的含量会因外在环境条件(土壤含水率)的变化而影响土壤的电导率,其是针对不同的土壤物理特征对测量仪器进行校正的理论依据.简述了利用电磁技术进行盐渍化土壤电导率测量的技术原理,探讨了不同深度土壤电导率测量数据的提取方法,在此基础上,对不同类型土壤的测量结果与典型剖面调查结果进行对比分析,认为该技术具有快速、稳定、准确、实用的特点,利用这项技术可以对大面积不同深度土壤盐渍化情况进行快速测量,并对从事田间实验研究有重要的指导意义.
    The factors that determine conductivity of sodium-saline soil are analyzed. It is pointed out that the conductivity of sodium-saline soil in the west of Songnen Plain is mainly determined by the total charge of Na+ and HCO3- and transferred speed of them in the soil solutions. Furthermore, the content of clay mineral in soil can affect the conductivity because of different environmental conditions, such as ratio of soil moisture, which is the theoretic foundation to adjust the instrument according to different soil physical character. The theory by electromagnetism technology to survey the conductivity of sodium-saline soil is viewed, and the gaining method of conductivity data in different depths of soil is probed. Moreover according to above research, we contrasted the surveying results of analysis in laboratory for the conductivities of different types of soil section. Generally, electromagnetism technology can quickly, steadily, accurately survey the conductivity of sodium-saline soil in the field, and it has important guidance meaning to explore soil characteristics in the field.
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    旅游系统的空间结构模式研究
    吴晋峰, 包浩生
    地理科学. 2002, 22 (1): 96-101.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.01.96
    摘要   PDF (894KB)
    在阐明旅游系统概念的基础上,将旅游系统空间结构模式界定为以目的地和客源地为结点、交通线路为连接所形成的占据一定空间范围的网络.并用结点数、α指数、β指数、γ指数、平均径路长等拓扑参数对旅游网络结构进行了拓扑分析.最后探讨了旅游网络结构模式研究的实用意义.
    The spatial network model of tourism system is discerned and analyzed in this paper. Since Leiper developed a definition of tourism using the systems methodology, there are a few of different definitions of tourism system presented by scholars inside or outside the country. But all those definition made a wrong in taking the tourist industry or its components as a subsystem of tourism system. Still using the systems methodology, a new definition of tourism system is put forward in part one. The elements of the system are destination, origins and travel route. Those elements are arranged in spatial and functional connections. Having the characteristics of an open system, the tourism system is the spatial pattern of tourist flows or the process of the tourist activities. There are two sections in part two. Section one advances that the spatial model of tourism system is a network composed of two types of nodes, destination and origins connected by travel route links centered with destination place. The characteristics of the model are described using six spatial elements for geographical model of P.Haggett. The six spatial elements are movement, path, node, nodal structure, field and, pervasion. The movement refers to the tourists moving in the network from different origin places to the destination along different transits routes. Path is the transits routes that tourists use. Nodes are the origins and destination. Nodal structure refers to the different origins that generate different mounts of tourists. Field refers to the spatial scope of the tourism system decided by the attractions of the destination. Pervasion refers to the field that is changing by the time. Section two analyzes the topological properties of the tourism network using several indexes such as β,α,γ indexes and the shortest path matrix. The values of those indexes and the shortest path matrix of the network in figure 1 are calculated separately. Those indexes give a way to estimate the network quantitatively. At the end part, the applications of the spatial network model in several areas and at many levels of analysis is discussed in details. In academic research it can serve as a reference point for general and specific studies. In the business world, the model and those indexes can be used in research for the tourist marketing, destination’s accessibility appraising, spatial competition analyzing of tourist places, tourism planning and, tourist industry developing. Further detailed work on the model of tourism system is studied with Jinggangshan town. The spatial network model seems particularly relevant as a guide for tourism planning and assessing the developing policies in some special destination tourist place. In summary, the spatial network model provides governments and planners a valuable approach to tourism policy and tourism planning. Meanwhile, the model is very useful for academic research, especially for synthetic tourism research using systems methodology.
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    中国温泉资源旅游利用形式的变迁及其开发现状
    王艳平, 山村顺次
    地理科学. 2002, 22 (1): 102-109.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.01.102
    摘要   PDF (855KB)
    就中国温泉利用演化过程和南、北及内陆温泉观光利用的实态特征,对温泉观光开发资本的地域特性给予了比较全面的论述,力图从时间空间二维尺度展示中国温泉观光利用实态的分布,为有志从事温泉旅游地理学研究的学者提供一些可参考的关于中国温泉利用的文献.
    In this paper the evolvement of hot spring utility and the regional spa tourism situations of north, south and middle areas in China are discussed widely. Authors want to describe the overall spa tourism situation from time space dimension which will be useful for researchers who are interested in China spa tourism because there is not yet a comprehensive paper in this field until present day.
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    研究报道
    东北地区煤矸石环境危害及对策
    刘汝海, 王起超, 刘景双
    地理科学. 2002, 22 (1): 110-113.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.01.110
    摘要   PDF (590KB)
    东北矿区开采历史长,煤矸石的累计堆存量大,煤矸石对环境的危害显著.文章分析了东北地区主要煤矿煤矸石的理化性质,论述了煤矸石对矿区大气、水、生态环境造成的危害,由此提出该区对煤矸石进行综合利用、开展土地复垦和加强管理等对策.
    In the Northeast of China, the mining history is long and the accumulation of gangue is huge. The production of gangue is about 33Mt in 1996 and about 59.7% of gangue was used. The gangue hill has influenced the environments and people’s health around. In this paper, the features and the hazards of gangues were analyzed, then we give the methods of utilization of gangue in the Northeast of China,for example used as fuel of pulverized-coal boiler in gangue powder plant, the production of building materials, the chemical deep processing of gangue, ecological reclaim of gangue hill etc. At last, some policies were proposed to administer the gangue production.
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    考虑地质条件进行土壤生态分区的原则、方法探讨
    李绪谦, 蒋惠中, 赵晓波, 李宏卿
    地理科学. 2002, 22 (1): 114-118.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.01.114
    摘要   PDF (237KB)
    土壤生态特征与地质环境之间具有密切的成生联系,以地质构造和地貌条件划分土壤生态区、亚区,以土壤类型、母质、微地形、土壤资源评价等级,社会经济条件划分土壤生态片,从而建立了多层次、系统化的土壤生态信息库,为优化土地利用结构提供了可靠的依据.
    There is a close forming relation between soil ecology characteristics and geological environment.To divide the regions (or inferior region) of soil ecology are based on geological structure and landform and to divide the slices of soil ecology are based on soil types, soil mother’s body, micro-topography, soil resources evaluation grades and society economy condition.Hence,to establish a more rank order and systematized information warehous,it will supply a reliable basis for optimize land use structure.
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    双台河口自然保护区濒海湿地景观变化及其管理对策研究
    张明祥, 董瑜
    地理科学. 2002, 22 (1): 119-122.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.01.119
    摘要   PDF (444KB)
    从国内外湿地研究进展看,濒海湿地景观变化及其管理对策研究得到人们越来越广泛的重视.以辽宁双台河口自然保护区为研究区域,利用199和1997年两期TM数据进行GIS数据处理,通过各种类型的湿地景观在该时段的面积变化得到保护区濒海湿地景观的动态变化特征,并在变化原因分析的基础上提出了一些相应的保护区管理对策,以便更好地为湿地保护和管理提供决策依据.
    In the history of wetland research at home and abroad, the study on changes of coastal wetland landscape and its management measures attaches more and more importance. This paper takes Shuangtaihekou Nature Reserve as research region, applies Geographical Information System (GIS) to analyze multi temporal remote sensing data in 1994 and 1997. From the changes in area of all sorts of landscapes, we can obtain the characteristics of changes of coastal wetland. On the basis of thorough analysis of reasons, this paper put forward some relevant management measures in Shuangtaihekou Nature Reserve, thus making a great contribution to wetland conservation and wise use of wetland resources.
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    TPC及DLC理论在旅游产品再开发中的应用——昆明市案例研究
    戴光全, 吴必虎
    地理科学. 2002, 22 (1): 123-128.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.01.123
    摘要   PDF (1057KB)
    从旅游产品再开发的角度出发,应用市场营销学的TPC理论和旅游地理学的DLC理论,对昆明市的案例进行分析,提出了昆明市旅游产品再开发战略的方向、原则和发展重点.
    From the view of tourism product redevelopment, this paper uses Total Product Concept (TPC) theory of Marketing and Destination Life Cycle(DLC) theory of Tourism Geography to analyses the case of Kunming City, Yunnan Province. According to the two theories, the paper gives the orientation, principles and emphases on the tourism product redevelopment of Kunming City. Firstly, according to the basic analyses of a survey of tourism routes, scenic regions & protected cultural relics of Kunming, its DLC of domestic and international tourism, the paper uses the tourists number to classify the DLC groups of representative scenic regions in Kunming City. Secondly, the paper defines the strategy direction as "one two three four": One is to make Kunming Tourism Cycle as one tourism product strategy center; Two is to make conference & hallmarks tourism and recreation & vacation tourism as its two strategy keystones; Three is to develop three kinds of tourism resources-natural, national and historical tourism resources; and Four is to construct four tourism regions-Kunming Urban Tourism Belt, Tourism Belt Arround Dianchi, Stone Forest Tourism Region and Jiaozi Snow Mountain Tourism Region. In the course of analyzing, the paper gives two theory conclusions. The first one is a model to optimize the total function of scenic region via adding its minor function. The second one is a figure of two distortional models of scenic regional DLC.
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