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CN 22-1124/P
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  • 地理科学
      2003年, 第23卷, 第2期 刊出日期:2003-03-20 上一期    下一期
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    论文
    论地理学面临的挑战与发展
    陈国阶
    地理科学. 2003, 23 (2): 129-135.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.02.129
    摘要   PDF (739KB)
    地理科学研究地球表层系统特定时空层次下的系统有序度和变化。其发展正面临着几大挑战:①地球表层系统的复杂性难以精确定量描述;②人地关系变化速度超过人类认识与预警能力;③地球表层系统的模糊性与科学价值精确性存在矛盾;④地理学与其它学科的竞争剧烈;21世纪地理学研究主要趋势:①地理学研究人文化;②界面研究将成为自然地理研究热点;③全球研究是地理学重大题材;④地理学研究生态化;⑤山地研究将成为地理学重大领域;为着地理学的顺利发展,建议:①造就地理学思想家和战略家;②进行地理学方法论的集成和创新;③寻找适合各时代认识水平的定量化方法;④重点突出与人类命运攸关的重大课题,创立有震撼性、权威性的理论和成果。
    Geographical science studies order degree and its changes of the earth surface system in a definite spatial and temporal scales. Contemporary geography is facing several serious challenges: (1) the complexity of the earth surface system is very difficult to be described quantitatively; (2) the change speed of relationship between human and the earth oversteps human ability for identifying and forecasting warning; (3) there exists a contradiction between fuzzy characteristics of the earth surface system of and exact demand for scientific value; (4) acute competition exists between geography and other scientific disciplines. Geography development might have the following tendencies in the 21st century: (1) geography study pays more attention to humanism; (2) interface study would be a hot point for physical geography study; (3) global study would be a big issue for geography study; (4) geography would pay more concern to ecological security; (5) mountain research would become an important field. For accelerating geography development, the author gives the suggestions as follows: (1) bring up a number of geographical thinkers and strategists; (2) assembling all useful methods from other disciplines for geography and creating new geographical methodology; (3) seeking quantitative methodology to suit different demands in different development levels; (4)focusing geography study on big subjects concerning with human future.
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    邹衍的地理学说及与《五藏山经》之关系
    王乃昂, 蔡为民
    地理科学. 2003, 23 (2): 136-141.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.02.136
    摘要   PDF (250KB)
    邹衍是我国古代最早的地理学家之一。他不仅考察过燕、齐海滨及近海岛屿,而且曾游历诸国,掌握了大量地理资料。根据当时所知的海陆分布,提出了著名的"大九州"学说。邹衍活动时代与《五藏山经》成书时代一致,他一度作为祭酒的稷下学宫是战国时期的文化中心和图书资料中心,为《五藏山经》的编撰提供了来自不同地域的地理资料。《五藏山经》记述方法与邹衍的经验归纳法十分吻合,其主要内容、文字风格与邹衍佚文也颇有相似之处。综合各种因素,可认为《五藏山经》系邹衍学派汇编整理。
    ZOU Yan(about 343-265 B.C.)was a well-known Chinese ancient philosopher and geographer in the Pre-Qin Period. He established two knowledge systems of history and geography. Along with the development of navigation of Qi State, the geographical knowledge about oversea-lands had grown. From this knowledge, ZOU Yan presented a geographical theory of "Nine Large Lands". He thought that China was only a small part of the world. The large land on which China locates was named Chi Xian Shen Zhou, and it was divided into nine parts, called "Nine Lands". There were nine large lands, each of then was the same large as China. The nine large lands made up a division, and there were nine such divisions in the earth. Hence, according to the views of ZOU Yan, there were 81 large lands altogether in the world. All divisions were surrounded by ocean (Da Ying Hai), and in each division the large lands were separated by sea (Pi Hai). ZOU Yan's theory was advanced in Pre-Qin Period, but it was considered an absurd idea in ancient China. Wu Zang Shan Jing(the Classic of the Mountains) is the most concrete and most elegantly written part of Shan Hai Jing. Even though mixed up with some elements of legend and mythology, it is primarily a regional geographic work that contains much realistic knowledge of the ancient times. Concerning the author of Wu Zang Shan Jing, it may be said as opinions varying, and no unanimous can be draw. Synthesizing the relevant factors, this article pointed out that the Wu Zang Shan Jing was possibly written by ZOU Yan and his followers. The reasons included following sections: 1) The academy of Ji Xia and Qi state, in which ZOU Yan being as a chairman once, was the cultural center of China in the Pre-Qin Period. So there were much geographical data, which was from different regions, it is possible for collecting of the Wu Zang Shan Jing. 2) The writing times and contents of the Wu Zang Shan Jing were identical with the activated times of ZOU Yan and his theory. 3) The describing method of the Wu Zang Shan Jing was coincident with ZOU Yan's empiric induction, and the writing style did not show any differences between the Wu Zang Shan Jing and his left literary works.To sum up, being one of the earliest geographers, ZOU Yan should have taken an important position in the history of ancient geography both in China and in the world.
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    开发区与我国城市空间结构演进及其动力机制
    张晓平, 刘卫东
    地理科学. 2003, 23 (2): 142-149.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.02.142
    摘要   PDF (888KB)
    开发区是近20年来我国经济发展的重要空间载体。经济活动在开发区的集聚,对所在地区的空间结构产生了深刻的影响。结合对开发区的实地调研,提出我国开发区与城市空间结构演进的基本类型可分为双核结构、连片带状结构、多极触角结构等。并指出开发区与城市空间结构的演进主要是由跨国公司主导的外部作用力、城市与乡村的扩散力和开发区的集聚力共同作用的结果。
    The spatial structure of regional development has been one of the major academic concerns of both geographers and economists. In the last two decades, as a result of increasing globalization and fast technological advances, dynamics behind spatial organization of economic activities have been changing very rapidly and hence spatial arrangements of economic activities become more and more complicated. To actively participate in globalization via attracting foreign direct investment (FDI) and technological transfers, the Chinese government has established various kinds of development areas since the opening up and reform in the late 1970s and provided tax holidays to foreign investors in these areas as well as domestic investors in the high-tech sectors. After 20 years' fast development, most of these development areas become a major contribution to urban economic growth and spatial restructuring, which is a very important spatial phenomenia of development in China in the last two decades. Based on field investigations, this paper has identified three basic types of urban spatial changes resulted from the growth of development areas. They are, namely, twin-center structure, joint-zone structure, and multi-antenniform structure. The driving forces behind rapid agglomeration of economic activities in these development areas are global forces in terms of FDI (seeking favorite locations), internal spatial restructuring of the cities, and attractive investment environment of these areas. As such, the new urban spatial structure is different from that resulted from traditional urban expansion, which has profound policy implications for urban development.
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    东京大都市圈内各核心城市的职能分工及启示研究
    卢明华, 李国平, 孙铁山
    地理科学. 2003, 23 (2): 150-156.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.02.150
    摘要   PDF (859KB)
    东京大都市圈是日本乃至世界上最大的城市集聚体,在承担日本全国政治、经济、文化中心职能的同时,更是担负了重要的全球经济控制职能。在东京大都市圈内部各核心城市间形成了相对比较明显的区域职能分工与合作体系,从而支撑这一全球区域发挥出了集聚优势。在对东京大都市圈内各核心城市职能分工的分析与把握基础上,考虑中国首都圈内各主要城市的基础和优势,提出各城市职能分工的构想,以加速该区域合理分工与合作体系的形成。
    Tokyo Megalopolis is one of the biggest urban agglomerations in Japan, even in the world. It takes on the function as the political, economic and cultural center of Japan, at the same time, it takes on the function that controls the global economy. Among the core cities in Tokyo Megalopolis, relatively distinct functional division and cooperation system has formed, which makes the global region exert the advantage of agglomeration. Based on the analysis of functional division among the core cities in Tokyo Megalopolis, combined with actualities in China Capital Circle, this paper put forward the assumption of functional division among the core cities in the China Capital Circle, which will accelerate the formation of reasonable division and cooperation system in this area.
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    新疆绿洲当代人地关系紧张情势与缓解途径
    姜逢清, 朱诚, 穆桂金, 胡汝骥
    地理科学. 2003, 23 (2): 157-163.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.02.157
    摘要   PDF (865KB)
    讨论了目前新疆人地关系紧张的情势;分析了造成新疆绿洲目前人地关系紧张的主要原因。认为环境先天脆弱、水资源总量有限且分布不均、气候的干暖化等是产生目前新疆人地关系紧张的生态环境前提;快速增长的人口及其不断增长的需求和过激的经济发展政策对环境产生了极大的压力;资源滥用、管理机制不健全、相关法律法规执法不严以及有偿使用制度不完善是造成目前区域人地关系紧张的主要原因。最后讨论了缓解当前新疆人地关系紧张矛盾的途径。
    This paper focuses on the recently man-land relationships inconsistency in the oases of Xinjiang. The disorder of the man-land relationships in Xinjiang can be found in almost all aspects in the nature. It is evident that the land degradation and salinization, the shortening of the river courses and the dry-up of the lakes, the enlargement of the flood-affected and the drought-affected areas, the decrease of the pasture production, and the decline of the natural forests in the river valleys, etc. are drastic. The global climate change and especially local human activities have contributed much to these. Therefore, more attention is now being paid to finding the means to allow society to adapt to the unfolding gradually impacts of climate change and human activities. The actual resources, especially water resources use situations, the eco-environmental settings and the implemented development policies in Xinjiang are also carefully analyzed in this paper. It is argued that the technological renovation and the system change should be taken as the main countermeasures to mitigate the present man-land relationship inconsistency in the oases of Xinjiang.
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    中国地理学研究中的伦理思考——以图们江地区国际交通通道开发研究为例
    丁四保, 朱华友
    地理科学. 2003, 23 (2): 164-168.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.02.164
    摘要   PDF (954KB)
    讲求伦理道德是中国几千年儒家文化特有的要求,我们地理学工作者不能回避。在列举了地理学必须回答地理学伦理问题,认为,中国地理学工作者的研究行为与政府行为相结合有着中国文化熏陶和社会制度的必然性,研究成果与政府的需要相结合是地理学必须遵循的伦理规范。在图们江地区国际交通通道研究的不同时期,政府行为的利益目标和利益原则有不同的变化,地理学的研究方法和科学原则也随之发生变化。进而认为,只要政府行为的利益目标符合战略尺度上的公众利益,地理学研究行为的变化就是符合科学伦理的。不能孤立地强调地理学家的科学公正,理解我们所服务的政府,帮助、引导政府开展其符合社会公众利益的行为是更积极的科学态度。
    We can find a different situation of our geography sciences and the situation abroad. There are several sciences schools in West geographies,e.g. radicals geography, Marxism geography. The symbol of the school is its subject of study—to criticize the political and economic contradictions of West capitalism system. It is obvious that these are radicals ethics issues. Chinese people, including our Chinese geographers, always pay much attentions to morals and the ethics because of our cultural tradition of Confusion School in a very much long historical time. We, as Chinese geographers, have to seriously answer on the questions of ethics. The paper points out that there are three kinds of ethics questions which geographers often meet. The first one is personal behavior,means the geographer as a private scientist, whether or not his behavior is in pace of ethic and moral. The second is the ethic think about the subject which geography studies on(e.g. the view point of "deep ecology", the interaction of the human society and the nature, the moral code of the natural environment, and so on). The third is geographers'(as a social group) ethics codes of scientific behavior. The most important view point is about the positive connection between our Chinese geographers scientific behavior and the demand, the decision behavior of the governments. The positivity is decided by cultural education and the social system which decide our scientific work being the service for the decisions of governments thereby. It is the ethics we must defer to. We practice these codes in study of international traffic corridors construction of Tumen River Area. The construction is a kind of typical behavior of government of China, either the other countries concerned. There are three periods of the construction term. The goal or we can call "the demand of the government of China and the international society" of the start period was a hot one. Then, about 5 years later, it became "cold". Since the 21st century it is hot again. The change is the reflection of the change of economic situation of China and the situation of internatianal cooperation. So,the code of geographic work and the scientific principle were different in pace of the subject of interests of government in different periods of construction. The key view point is, when the interest of government is the social or we call it "the public interest" —being the strategic interest of a enough long term and enough wide space, the change of geographic scientific behavior is correct, and in according with our ethics and moral codes. The last view point is, we can not stress alone the scientific impartial of geographers. To understand the government which we must work for,to help and to guide the direction of their decision behavior is our duty and our ethics code. We believe that the geographic sciences have the capacity to make big improvements of decisions of government, along with the achievements, we can practice our ethics and morals codes.
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    中国蓼科花粉类型的地理分布格局及其与生态因子的关系
    周忠泽, 李玉成, 张小平, 许仁鑫
    地理科学. 2003, 23 (2): 169-174.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.02.169
    摘要   PDF (918KB)
    从蓼科植物的孢粉类型角度,研究了中国蓼科花粉类型的地理分布格局及其与生态因子的关系。根据中国蓼科植物赖以生存的生态因子,得出中国蓼科花粉类型分布区的主要生态因子,包括地理位置(分布中心)、海拔高度、年降水量、年积温及生境数量。在此基础上,根据同一区域内相同或相似的生态环境条件下分布的现代蓼科各种花粉类型,确定一定花粉类型组合所指示的现代气候和环境,为利用地层中蓼科化石花粉重建古气候、古环境及气候变迁提供了现代孢粉学证据。
    In the present paper, geographic distribution patterns of pollen types of Polygonaceae and their relationship to ecological factors are first introduced. Geographic ditribution centre of Atraphaxis-type,Calligonum-type and Aviculare-type is located in the northwestern China, but they differ in other factors. Atraphaxis-type and Calligonum-type are in the habitats of gobi desert and sandy land with altitudes from 300 to 800 m, annual precipitation from 20 to 200 mm, annual accumulated temperature from 1600℃ to 3400℃;Aviculare-type is in the habitats of arid hillside,calcareous desert and flood grassland with altitudes from 400 to 2000 m,annual precipitation from 200 to 800 mm,annual accumulated temperature from 1600℃ to 4500℃.Geographic ditribution centre of Rheum-type, Koenigia-type and Acetosa-type is located in Northwest China and Southeast China, but they differ in other factors. Rheum-type is in the habitat of mountain slope of cold high mountain area with altitudes from 2000 to 4000 m, annual precipitation from 50 to 400 mm, annual accumulated temperature from 1600℃ to 2000℃; Koenigia-type is in habitat of meadow in summit of a mountain with altitudes from 2000 to 4900 m, annual precipitation from 300 to 800 mm, annual accumulated temperature from 600℃ to 3000℃;Acetosa-type is in habitats of wetlant in mountain valley and near river with altitudes from 450 to 3100 m, annual precipitation from 200 to 800 mm, annual accumulated temperature from 1600℃ to 6000℃.Geographic ditribution centre of Aconogonon-type, Cephalophilon-type and Polystachyum-type is located in Southwest China. They are in habitats of shrubbery and grassland on mountain slope and wetland in mountain valley with altitudes from 1000 to 3000 m, annual precipitation from 400 to 1600 mm. Geographic ditribution center, habitats,altitudes and annual precipitation of Fagopyrum-type resemble that of Aconogonon-type,Cephalophilon-type and Polystachyum-type,but they differ in annual accumulated temperature. Fagopyrum-type is from 4500℃ to 8000℃; the others from 1600℃ to 8000℃.Geographic ditribution centre of Bistorta-type and Aubertii-type is located in Southwest China and Central China, but they differ in other factors. Bistorta-type is in habitats of meadow in summit of a mountain and wetland in mountain valley with altitudes from 1300 to 5000 m, annual precipitation from 400 to 1200 mm, annual accumulated temperature from 1600℃ to 8000℃; Aubertii-type is in habitats of grassland on mountain slope, shrubbery in mountain valley with altitudes from 900 to 3200 m, annual precipitation from 400 to 800 mm, annual accumulated temperature from 1600℃ to 5000℃.Geographic ditribution centre of Pteroxygonum-type is located in Qinling in habitats of crevice in rock and shrubbery on mountain slope with altitudes from 600 to 2000 m,annual precipitation from 400 to 800 mm,annual accumulated temperature from 3400℃ to 4500℃.Geographic ditribution centre of Persicaria-type and Tovara-type is located in East China and Central China in habitats of wetland near gully with altitudes from 30 to 2500 m, annual precipitation from 400 to 1600 mm,annual accumulated temperature from 4500℃ to 8000℃.Geographic ditribution centre of Amphibium-type and Convolvulus-type is located in Southwest China, Central China and Northeast China, but they differ in other factors. Amphibium-type is in habitats of shallow water in margin of lake and near gully with altitudes from 50 to 3700 m, annual precipitation from 800 to 1600 mm, annual accumulated temperature from 1600℃ to 6000℃;Convolvulus-type in habitats of grassland on mountain slope and wetland in mountain valley with altitudes from 100 to 2800 m, annual precipitation from 300 to 1600 mm, annual accumulated temperature from 1600℃ to 6000℃.Geographic ditribution centre of Tiniaria-type is located in Southwest. China, Central China and East China in habitats of shrubbery in mountain valley with altitudes from 200 to 3000 m,annual precipitation from 800 to 1600 mm, annual accumulated temperature from 4000℃ to 8000℃.Distributions of the pollen types indicate arid and desert climate in Northwest China with assemblage of Atraphaxis-type and Calligonum-type;warm, humid and subtropical climate in Southwest China with assemblage of Aconogonon-type, Cephalophilon-type,Polystachyum-type, Acetosa-type and Fagopyrum-type; high and cold climate in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau with assemblage of Koenigia-type and Rheum-type; warm humid subtropical climate and tropical monsoon climate in southern coastal area with assemblage of Persicaria-type and Tovara-type; warm and humid climate in Central China and East China with assemblage of Persicaria-type, Bistorta-type, Tiniara-type and Tovara-type; warm and semi-humid climate in North. China with assemblage of Bistorta-type, Aubertii-type and Pteroxygonum-type; humid, semi-humid, middle warm and monsoon climate in Northeast China with assemblage of Amphibium-type, Convolvulus-type and Sibiricum-type.
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    黄河三角洲沉积物的自然固结压实过程及其影响
    师长兴, 尤联元, 李炳元, 张祖陆, 张欧阳
    地理科学. 2003, 23 (2): 175-181.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.02.175
    摘要   PDF (336KB)
    对黄河三角洲及下伏沉积物的压实量和压实过程及其引起的地面沉降进行了分析研究。分析认为,在厚度为15 m的新淤积的黄河三角洲沉积重压下,前三角洲粘土和下伏海相粘土总固结量可达约1.35 m,海湾或烂泥湾及前三角洲和海相粘土总压缩量为1.48 m。这些粘土层在亚三角洲建设时期就开始受压固结,但是在亚三角洲废弃后,仍要经过几十年自然固结才会基本完成。除去前10年的固结量,前三角洲粘土与下伏海相粘土叠加形成的14 m厚粘土在随后的27年内可能会压缩50 cm;而海湾或烂泥湾及前三角洲和海相粘土叠加成的20 m厚粘土在50年内可能会压缩86 cm,两者的年平均压缩速率都超过17 mm/a。固结量和速率与上负沉积物重量成正比,而亚三角洲沉积厚度从沉积中心向外围逐渐减少,所以下伏粘土固结量和速率也向周围逐渐降低。但从亚三角洲沉积厚度分布情况看,在大范围内,下伏粘土固结引起的地面沉降在几十年内都将比较明显,从而可能加重三角洲地区风暴潮和海岸侵蚀灾害,降低已有灾害防治工程的作用。
    The causes for the disasters in the highly developed deltaic areas have been a main study topic for many years. Using data of depositional structure, grain size composition, dry bulk density and other engineering properties of the deposits in the Yellow River delta and under the seabed, this study made an analysis of potential land subsidence due to post-depositional sediment consolidation. The settlement was estimated in the light of some basic equations of soil mechanics and empirical relations between dry sediment bulk density and burial depth. The degree of consolidation was calculated based on the theory of Terzaghi's one-dimensional consolidation.It is revealed that consolidation of silt layers, which are the main component of the Yellow River delta, may finish in a short time, but consolidation of clay layers under the silt layers may last for decades and the total settlement, which mainly comes from the clay layers at the top of the seabed, seems to be considerable. The clay layers may reach 14 m in thickness where the prodelta clay layers stack on the marine ones and about 20 m in thickness where clay layers consist of those in the bay and prodelta and under the seabed. The results disclose that the total settlements due to consolidation of clay layers of 14 m and 20 m in thickness under 15 m deltaic deposits may reach about 1.35 m and 1.5 m, respectively. Over about 10 years, which is the mean lifetime of the deltaic lobes of the delta, about 37% of settlement for the 20 m thick clay layers and 60% of settlement for the 14 m thick clay layers may be completed. The settlement of the 14 m thick clay layers is about 50 cm over the next 27 years and it is about 86 cm over the next 50 years for the 20 m thick clay layers. The average rates of settlement for both cases are over 17 mm/a. The settlement and its rate at a location should approximate to the products of maximums multiplied by the ratio of the thickness of deposits in the lobe at the location to 15 m, so the total sediment settlement and rate tend to decline with the distance from the depocenter of an abandoned lobe. But, the land subsidence due to sediment consolidation should be noticeable in a large area along the coast during decades after a deltaic lobe was abandoned in the light of the isopach maps of lobes of the delta. Land subsidence will result in inland invasion of storm surge and land losses and will lower the standard of projects for preventing storm surge floods and coastal erosion, so the natural sediment consolidation must be taken into account in designing projects in the areas where it is still active.
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    广东沿海地区近50年登陆台风灾害特征分析
    唐晓春, 刘会平, 潘安定, 梁必骐, 李燕彤, 王同美
    地理科学. 2003, 23 (2): 182-187.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.02.182
    摘要   PDF (647KB)
    根据1949~1998年广东沿海地区登陆台风灾害资料,并对这50年登陆台风活动特征进行分析,对台风灾害特征进行了初步探讨。分析了导致台风灾害的因素,对台风所造成的主要灾害进行归类并进行灾情统计,探讨了广东沿海地区台风灾害的特点以及主要台风灾害与台风路径的关系,提出了台风灾害的宏观防治对策。
    Based on the data of disaster of landing Typhoo in coastal regions of Guangdong Province in 1949-1998, and through the analysis of the activity features of landing Typhoo in recent 50 years, this paper has studied the features of Typhoo disasters. It has analysed factors leading to Typhoo disaster, and has classified the main disasters and statistics of the effects of the disasters causeed by landing Typhoo. This paper has also studied the characteristics of Typhoo disasters and the relations of Typhoo route and Typhoo disasters, and has given the countermeasures of prevention and control.
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    吉林省西部土地荒漠化现状、特征与治理途径研究
    裘善文, 张柏, 王志春
    地理科学. 2003, 23 (2): 188-192.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.02.188
    摘要   PDF (775KB)
    吉林省西部土地荒漠化主要表现为土地沙漠化、盐碱化和草场退化,制约着该地区农、牧业的发展,该区土地荒漠化具有脆弱性、可恢复性和可逆性的三性特征。采取不同实用技术,治理盐碱化、沙漠化和草原退化,并将其纳入社会经济发展规划,常抓不懈,使生态环境保持良性循环、经济可持续发展。
    In the west of Jilin Province, land desertification mainly includes sandy desertification, salinization and grassland degradation. Land desertification limited agricultural and animal husbandry development in this region. In particular, soil salinization has threaten the survival of the local farmers. The desertification in this area has the characteristics of fragility, restorability and reversibility. Therefore, it is required that different practices of management should be used for different types of land desertification. The management of land desertification is a long and tough work, and should to be taken into account in social and economical planning. With the persistent management we can keep the ecological environment on the right cycle and maintain the sustainable development of economy.
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    黑河绿洲坡面分异演化研究
    张勃, 程国栋
    地理科学. 2003, 23 (2): 193-199.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.02.193
    摘要   PDF (965KB)
    对干旱区绿洲的物质和能量随坡面分异现象和规律的研究,有助于我们深刻了解不同类型绿洲形成和演化的自然背景和农业资源组合的特点,为农业生产的合理布局和农业自然资源的优化配置提供理论依据。以黑河流域绿洲为例,在综合分析影响绿洲坡面分异的气候、地质构造和地貌演化、地表水和地下水水文化学性质、土壤性状和水资源供应状况等自然地理要素基础上,将黑河绿洲划分为高位绿洲、中位绿洲和低位绿洲等不同类型。在此基础上,分析了黑河流域不同类型绿洲主要农作物气候适宜性随坡面的分异,为绿洲农业资源的优化配置提供了重要的理论依据。
    The phenomenon and law studies of the substance and energy differentiation along with slope change in the oases of the arid region greatly conduce to better understanding the natural background of the inhomogeneity oases formation and evolution and the characteristic of agricultural resources combination. That can offer a theoretical basis of rational agricultural distribution and optimum disposition of natural resources. The oasis differentiation in the Heihe River Basin is obvious. On the basis of integrated analysis of the physical geographical elements of climate characteristic, geologic structure, geomorphologic evolution, surface and groundwater hydrochemistry character, soil properties, and water supply, the paper classifies the Heihe Oases into three types, that is, the higher position oasis, the middle position oasis and the lower position oasis. The higher position oasis lies to the diluvial fans of the north foot of the Qilian Mountain, the height is 1?400-2?200?m above sea level, the annual average temperature is 2.2℃-7.0℃in the district, and the annual precipitation and evaporation are 150-370?mm and 923-2?246?mm separately. This kind of oasis is more stable than the others. It is further subdivided into two types, that is, the higher cool oasis, which has high potentialities, and the higher temperate climate oasis, which is the cream of the oases in the Heihe River basin at present. The mid-position oasis lies to the alluvial plain of which the elevation is 1?100-1?400?m above sea level, annual average temperature 7.0-8.0℃, per annum precipitation 60-100?mm, and per annum evaporation 2?250-2?540?mm. The lower position oasis lies to the lacustrine plain and dry river delta, the height is about 900-1?100?m above sea level, the annual precipitation is only about 38?mm, however, the annual evaporation reaches the peak of 3?506?mm. This kind of oasis belongs to natural ones, and is unstable because of deficiency of water resources. Each type of oases has a certain combination of light, heat, water and soil, and has a certain oasis quality and suitable degree. Moreover, the paper has analysed the climate suitability of main crop differentiation with slope in very oases types of the Heihe valley. Every type of oasis possesses specific optimum combination, and every sort of crop has the most suitable planting region, and in accordance with these, the planting zone can be divided into five regions, that is, the most suitable, more suitable, suitable, little suitable and unsuitable planting regions respectively. That provides the important theoretical basis for optimum disposition of agricultural resources. Adjusting and distributing agricultural structure and energetically developing farm industry would suit measures to local conditions, so as to develop potential productive forces of photosynthetic, temperature, water and land resources to the full. Spring wheat, potatoes, flax, rapeseed and broad bean are suit to plant in the cool higher position oasis, spring wheat otherwise would be reduced the areas in the mid-position oasis due to the dry-hot wind.
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    海南岛土壤中铝钙的地球化学特征及其对生态环境的影响
    龚子同, 张甘霖, 赵文君, 陈志诚, 欧阳洮, 赵玉国
    地理科学. 2003, 23 (2): 200-207.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.02.200
    摘要   PDF (966KB)
    对海南岛土壤中铝、钙的含量、形态及其在成土过程中的地球化学特征进行讨论,并就这两种元素对作物生长和人类健康影响进行初步探讨。
    In the paper the contents and forms of aluminum and calcium of soils, as well as their geochemical characteristics in soil-forming processes, in Hainan Island are discussed. Meanwhile, the impacts of both elements on crop growth and human health are also primarily researched. The soils in Hainan Island have the pedogeochemical characteristics that the soils are highly abundant in aluminum and highly deficient in calcium. The total amount of aluminum (Al2O3) may be as high as 300 g/kg, but that of calcium is very low or even trace. In the same way, the content of exchangeable aluminum of the soils is high and that of exchangeable calcium is very low. Now, there are about 50 percent area of the soils where plant growth may be impact due to soil aluminum toxicity. The intake of calcium for local people, reflecting on the food, is less than that for the people of whole country as well as the neighboring province. Consequently, the suggestion is recommended that, besides improving soils, cultivating more legume crops, increasing soybean production and developing dairy farm are necessary to build up the people's health.
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    向海湿地元素地球化学特征与高分辨沉积记录
    王国平, 刘景双
    地理科学. 2003, 23 (2): 208-212.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.02.208
    摘要   PDF (228KB)
    以内流河下游漫流区-向海沼泽湿地为研究对象,对其典型剖面沉积物的柱状样以厘米级间距采样,在多元统计分析的基础上,结合137Cs、210Pb测年数据对其进行高分辨率元素地球化学特征解析,以获取现代沉积记录及其与流域环境变化的关系。结果表明,主成分分析提取的第一主成分有较高的代表性;聚类分析将元素按造岩、迁移累积型、强烈迁移型元素归为三类;大多数金属元素之间存在着显著相关性,并且均与TOC、<63?μm粒径的颗粒呈正相关。典型剖面金属元素的高分辨沉积记录解析表明:向海的沼泽发育可以追溯至1885年之前;1885年左右区域环境发生过突变;近250年以来,暖湿气候与风沙、干旱交替出现;研究区沼泽湿地沉积物表层沉积序列内已明显富集了重金属元素,近年霍林河流域上游人类活动对下游湿地的扰动增强。
    Here we reported a case study on the Xianghai wetlands at downstream of an interior river—Huolin River. By segmenting sample at an interval of 2cm or 4cm and assorted with 137Cs,210Pb age measure, high-resolution characteristics of sediment element geochemistry were analysed in two typical sedimentation cores. Results indicated that F1 of PCA has much more representative; Cluster Analysis classifies elements to three major groups according to geochemistry features and behavior at surface of the earth; most of metal elements present remarkable relativity among them and with TOC and <63?μm grain size, by analyzing high-resolution sedimentation records, Xianghai marsh development can be traced back to 1885; in 1885 AD, the environment in this region have originated sudden change; in recent 250 years, temperate and humid climate, wind-drift sand action, or arid climates have occurred by turns; within the upper layers of the sedimentary sequences, heavy metals have been enriched clearly, which indicated increasing human disturbance in the upper reaches of the Huolin River.
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    沼生植物过渡金属元素含量季节变化特征——以三江平原典型湿地植物为例
    王金达, 刘景双, 于君宝, 李仲根
    地理科学. 2003, 23 (2): 213-217.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.02.213
    摘要   PDF (245KB)
    三江平原沼泽湿地生态系统不同水文条件下(高、中、低位区),同种植物和不同植物不同器官中过渡金属元素Fe、Mn、Zn、Cu含量季节变化规律基本相似,亦表现出一定的时间分配差异。高、中和低位区小叶章茎、叶、根中Fe含量季节变化规律为幼苗时期最高,成熟后含量减少(高位区根除外);高、中和低位区茎、叶中Mn含量随季节分配趋势是先减少后增加,而根中Mn含量变化较复杂;高、中和低位区茎、叶和根中Zn含量随季节变化呈初期含量高,后期含量低(低位区茎、根除外)的趋势,而中期变化复杂;各区植物茎、叶和根中Cu含量基本呈随时间变化含量逐渐下降,高位区根和低位区的叶含量变化趋势较特殊;从元素含量水平比较,高、中小叶章和低位区毛果苔草表现为茎、叶Mn含量>Fe含量,根中Fe>Mn;茎、叶、根中Zn>Cu。
    Under different hydrological conditions in wetland ecosystems in the Sanjiang Plain, the seasonal variation of the transition metal element Fe,Mn,Zu,Cu is general resemble in different organs of the same and different kinds of plants, and at the same time it shows a seasonal content difference to some extent. The content of Fe in root, stem and leaf of Calamagrostis angustifolia in upper, middle and lower land reaches the acme in the seedling, and reduces after it matures except in the upper land. The content of Mn in Calamagrostis angustifolia reduces in the seedling period and then increases seasonally, and the variation in root is complicated. The content of Zn is high in the seedling and becomes low in the mature period except in stem and root of the lower land, and the variation trend is complexity. The Cu content in root, stem and leaf in all sites reduces with time, and the trend of root in high land and leaf in the lower land is different. The order of element content in different organs of these plants is Mn >Fe in stem and leaf, Fe >Mn in root; Zn>Cu in root, stem and leaf.
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    广州城市可持续发展及企业行为研究
    许学强, 葛永军, 张俊军
    地理科学. 2003, 23 (2): 218-222.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.02.218
    摘要   PDF (632KB)
    广州城市总体上朝可持续方向发展,但多呈现弱可持续发展状态。主要原因是经济增长牺牲了部分环境,具体表现在生活用水浪费、工业用水重复率低、工业粉尘排放量大、物质利用率低。企业是城市经济的实体单元,其环保意识和环保行为对城市可持续发展起着至关重要的作用。调查发现,企业的经营目标已转向利润最大化,但环境意识较薄弱。广州企业的环保行为表现出被动的特点,且环保投入比例过低,环保机构作用弱,多进行末端处理,需进一步改善。
    This paper makes a comprehensive assessment of Guangzhou's urban sustainable development, and analyzes its utilization of natural resources and energy. The results are: since the reform and opening up, Guangzhou City is advancing towards sustainable development, but it is at the expense of environmental degradation to some extend. The expressing problem of Guangzhou is that urban ecological system is being destroyed, which are prominently presented by the waste of living water; the lower reuse-rate of industry water; the huge emission of industrial dusts; and the lower use-rate of materials. Enterprises are the basic unit of urban economy, and their consciousness and behaviors of environmental protection are critical to urban sustainable development. According to questionnaires, the aim of Guangzhou's enterprises has transferred to profit maximization, but their consciousness of environmental protection is too weak. As to their behaviors of environmental protection, Guangzhou's enterprises are somewhat passive: their driving forces of investment on environmental protection are from Environmental Protection Law, the citizens' suing, and the government regulations; their investment on environmental protection is too low; their environmental protection organ plays a less important role; they dispose pollution at the end stage of production.
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    山区县域农业可持续发展综合评价研究——以五华县为例
    赵莹雪
    地理科学. 2003, 23 (2): 223-229.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.02.223
    摘要   PDF (918KB)
    在阐述山区县域农业复合系统特征的基础上,通过专家咨询,建立了山区县域农业可持续发展评价指标体系。构建了山区县域农业可持续发展协调度函数, 弥补了目前区域农业可持续发展评价体系在反映可持续发展协调性方面的不足。运用定性和定量综合集成方法确定指标权重及构建综合评价模型,并结合五华县对山区县域农业可持续发展现状进行综合评价,依据评价结果分析了山区县域农业可持续发展现状下的制约因子,提出了农业可持续发展的对策。
    On the basis of the features of agricultural combinative system in mountain counties and according to the ideas of sustainable agricultural development and by expert decision system, an evaluation index system of sustainable agricultural development in mountain counties is set up. The index system consists of level evaluation index system and capability evaluation index system, which are selected from ecosystem, economy and society aspects and can represent the features of agricultural combinative system in mountainous county areas. A coordinative evaluation model of sustainable agricultural development in mountain counties is constructed, which makes up for the shortcoming in sustainable agricultural development evaluation. With qualitatively and quantitatively integrated method, a synthetic evaluation model of sustainable agricultural development in mountain counties is constructed. Taking Wuhua for an example, the present condition of the sustainable agricultural development in mountain counties is evaluated. The restrictive factors are: underdevelopment of agriculture facilities, lack of priority in agricultural structure, lack of scientific improvement, sharp contradiction between man and land and low industrialization.In accordance with the limitations and by making good use of the advantages of agricultural development in Wuhua County, strategies and concrete measures are proposed, which includes: (1)to increase the agricultural investment by improving the agricultural investment mechanism; (2)to adjust agricultural structure according to market orientation and the principle of priority;(3)to adopt measures to promote agriculture by applying scientific and technological advances so as to increase the science and technology content of agricultural products; (4)to divert the surplus agricultural labor force so as to ease the contradiction between a big population and the deficient land; (5)to synthesize the regulation and exploitation of mountain, water conservancy, forestry, farmland and roads and promote coordinative development of agricultural ecosystem, economy and society,ect.
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    坡面土壤侵蚀过程研究进展
    郑粉莉, 高学田
    地理科学. 2003, 23 (2): 230-235.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.02.230
    摘要   PDF (664KB)
    基于土壤侵蚀发生方式,重点评述了坡面雨滴溅蚀、薄层水流侵蚀、细沟侵蚀和浅沟侵蚀的研究进展,指出了各自研究中存在的问题,并提出坡面侵蚀过程中亟待加强的研究领域。
    According to soil erosion pattern, research progresses in raindrop splash, sheet erosion, rill erosion, and ephemeral gully erosion were reviewed, and existing shortcoming in research on hillslope erosion process was proposed. Finally, urgent strengthening research fields in raindrop splash, sheet erosion, rill erosion, ephemeral gully erosion were put forward.
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    研究报道
    基于加速遗传算法的投影寻踪模型在水质评价中的应用研究
    付强, 付红, 王立坤
    地理科学. 2003, 23 (2): 236-239.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.02.236
    摘要   PDF (826KB)
    提出将改进的实码加速遗传算法(RAGA)与投影寻踪评价模型(PPE)相结合,同时优化多维参数(投影方向),建立了多元数据分类与评价模型。对长春南湖水的营养状态做出了评价,取得满意效果,为水质分析与评价提供一种新的方法与思路。
    The authors improved the traditional genetic algorithm, and combined the new method named RAGA (Real coding based on Accelerating Genetic Algorithm) with PPE (Projection Pursuit Evaluation) model. The RAGA-PPE model can optimize several parameters at one time. Based on this method, the authors built up a new evaluating model. Through applying the new model to evaluating the water nutrient states of South Lake in Changchun, the authors gained the good results. Thus, the authors provided an new method and thought for readers who engage in researching the water quality evaluation.
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    旅游地阻力面理论初探——五大连池风景名胜区为例
    张序强, 李华, 董雪旺
    地理科学. 2003, 23 (2): 240-244.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.02.240
    摘要   PDF (591KB)
    以生态学中的阻力面理论为依托,创建了符合旅游规划需要的旅游地阻力面理论模型,构建了旅游景点、景区、旅游地、旅游区域之间联系的阻力层次体系,建立了旅游空间联系关系的影响因子系统,提出了旅游地阻力面理论在指导区域、地方及旅游区规划中的作用。以国家级风景名胜区五大连池为例展示了旅游地阻力面理论在地方旅游开发建设实践中的现实作用。
    The article founds the theory of tourist resistance side and the model on the ecological theory of resistance side. Also, the paper founds the resistance system of sight spots, scenic spots and historical sites and the system of the influence factors. In addition, the article discusses the function of the theory in local tourism planning and development. Finally, the paper illustrates the beauty spot of Wudalianchi to demonstrate the function of the theory in local tourism exploitation and development. There are four parts in the article to discuss the theory of tourist resistance side. The first part is the foreword. In this part, the trend of rapid development of global tourism and the unceasing upgrade of tourism status in the area industry are analyzed. And after entered into the WTO, the tourism in our country is faced with more drastically competition. So, how to find and found the directive theory to optimize the space structure of area tourism and to enhance the benefit of investment and to strengthen the capability of market competition is very essential. Then, the theory of resistance side is introduced. In the second part, based on the introduce the ecological theory of resistance side, the article found the theory of tourism resistance side and the model and analyzed the influencing factors. And the resistance hierarchy system of sight spots, scenic spots is founded. Also, from the two aspects of academic and practice, the significance of study on the theory exploitation and development and planning in local tourism is systemically and thoroughly analyzed. The paper takes the beauty spot Wudalianchi as an example to illustrate the function of the theory of tourism resistance side in local tourism developing and planning in this third part. Firstly, it can provide the guidance to optimize the space structure of area tourism; secondly, it can help optimize the tourism path and enhance the abundance of the tourism product; lastly, it is in favor of foundation of the network system of tourism among the beauty spots.In the end, it is concluded that the spot of tourism resource is looked as motile main body that is capable of expending in the theory of tourism resistance side and the realization of expending of the spot of tourism resource is depended on overcoming the resistance that is decided by local element character and the capability of completion of the spot of tourism resource. So, analyzed from the diffent scale of space, the tourism spatial structure in given area is can be realized and the developing trend can be forecasted and controlled by study on the tourism resistance side. In a word, the study on the theory of tourism resistance side can help optimize the scheme of the resource and rationalize the tourism spatial structure in tourism planning and developing.
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    吉林省东部山区耕地动态变化研究——以延边朝鲜族自治州为例
    何艳芬, 马超群, 朱金花
    地理科学. 2003, 23 (2): 245-250.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.02.245
    摘要   PDF (734KB)
    分析吉林省东部山区1978~1998年耕地数量的动态变化趋势和20世纪80年代中期(1986年为例)至90年代中期(以1996年为例)的土地利用类型转化,使用相关分析和层次分析法(AHP)对引起东部山区耕地数量和质量变化的自然方面、社会方面以及经济方面各因素进行分析,指出东部山区耕地变化的主要驱动力因子是人口因素、农业投入水平、市场导向和居民消费水平;新的发展形势下,耕地的压力仍然存在。该区应在保障粮食供给的情况下调整农业内部结构,发挥森林资源和野生动植物资源的优势,大力发展森林种植和养殖,同时积极发展森林旅游,缓解耕地压力,促进社会经济的持续发展。
    Land-use /cover change(LUCC) study has been an important subject, since it was put forward. Its theoretical analysis has converted from pure natural analysis to the combination with natural and socio-economical analysis, from macroscopic global analysis to small regional analysis, from multiple type analysis for land use to single type.One of the dimensions of the studies is to study the human driving forces, which cause the changes. Cultivated land is one of the main type of land-use, and it is closely, correlative to population, spatial distribution of agricultural produce and natural factors such as soil, air temperature, topograghy and water condition. Cultivated land is an important basis source for a region's sustainable development and food security. With the development of economy, increase of population and expansion of city, cultivated land is faced with heavy pressure to raise and to hold more and more people on it. There are several cases studies of LUCC in China for cities such as Shanghai and Shenzhen, which are both the developed cities. What about mountainous area in middle-level developed province. The paper gives the quantitative changes and qualitative changes of cultivated land in eastern mountainous area of Jilin Province. Using correlation analysis and combining natural status, social status and economy status, we can get the causes of the dynamic change. With AHP, the conclusion is obtained that the decrease of the cultivated land in east mountainous area has close correlation with the increasing population, the level of agriculture skill, and economical policy.
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    旅游建筑水环境后效与调控模型
    全华
    地理科学. 2003, 23 (2): 251-254.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.02.251
    摘要   PDF (529KB)
    许多风景区内或其流域上游,都建有旅游建筑,而且在急剧增多,导致自然环境日趋恶化,其中乱建疗养院和旅馆的影响最为严重。通过实地监测并全面分析张家界金鞭溪水环境演变趋势,发现住宿设施对水环境的影响,比其他游乐设施更为明显。金鞭溪水质恶化主要表现为蓝藻,绿藻迅速繁殖,感官质量下降。主要原因是磷污染较重,总磷年均值100%超标。基于水环境因子的动态阈值调控模型,计算得出:在不超出金鞭溪水质标准:总磷≤0.02前提下,其上游接待区住宿设施生态阈值的动态系列:春季临界床位数为1?186,夏季为3?057,冬季为545,秋季为333。目前的建筑规模已超过了金鞭溪上游接待区住宿设施生态阈值。
    There are some buildings within most scenery spots. They take the environment go to bad. The main reason is that more and more hotels are built. After field monitoring and analyzing the tendency of the environment in Zhangjiajie National Forest Park, we found that the effect of the hotels is more evident than that of the others. The most glaring change is the declining of the water quality in Jinbian stream. Main expression is blue green algae breeding quickly. The main reason is that phosphate content surpass the set standard in the discharging waste water from Luoguta, the reception area in the upstream. A threshold model for the most fragile environment factor was given in this paper: L={(CN-C0)Q+K(X/U)CNQ}/P·R-L0. On condition of no surpassing the set water standard in Jinbian stream, the most fragile environment factor, that is phosphate content≤0.02,we computed the dynamic threshold series for tourist lodgings in the upstream of Jinbian stream:the most quantity of beds in Spring,Summr,Autumn and Winter is 1186,3057,545 and 333. The scale of building in the upstream of Jinbian has built in excess of the threshold
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    书评
    评介《环境地理学导论》
    杨士弘
    地理科学. 2003, 23 (2): 255-255.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.02.255
    摘要   PDF (51KB)
    由朱颜明、何岩等编著的《环境地理学导论》,于2002年8月由科学出版社正式出版发行。该书是《中国科学院研究生教学丛书》地学学科重要教材之一。研究生教材建设是提高研究生培养质量的一项重要基础性工作,国内目前还没有一本专门讨论环境地理学的书籍。为适应21世纪我国环境地理学高级人才培养的需要,全面提高研究生培养质量,作者填补了这方面的空缺。该书是作者多年来从事环境地理学研究和研究生教学实践的结晶。环境地理学是一门正在形成和发展起来的学科,是地理学与环境科学交叉的边缘学科。
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