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CN 22-1124/P
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  • 地理科学
      2004年, 第24卷, 第1期 刊出日期:2004-01-20 上一期    下一期
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    论文
    中国城市化的区域经济支撑模型分析
    李诚固, 郑文升, 李培祥
    地理科学. 2004, 24 (1): 1-6.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.01.1
    摘要   PDF (847KB)
    以中国特大城市地域为对象,基于加速中国城市化,促进城市与区域互动、协调发展的研究目的,以城市化动力因素分析为线索,利用SPSS手段与多元统计分析模型,对中国特大城市地域的城市化与区域经济发展进行动态分析,建立了特大城市地域城市化与区域发展相互关系数学模型。探讨了城市化率、建成区面积、城市经济密度与区域经济发展相互作用的特点与机制,在此基础上,提出了中国特大城市地域可持续发展的主要途径。
    Aiming at accelerating Chinese urbanization and integrating development of city and region, threading of dynamical factor analysis, the article researches on the metropolis area. By utilizing SPSS means and multiple statistical analysis model, dynamic analysis is carried on and mathematics model of correlation is built between urbanization and regional development of Chinese megalopolis region. At the same time, character and mechanism of interrelation between urbanization ration, non-agricultural population, acreage of built area and regional development is discussed. Base on above, the main way to get sustainable development of Chinese metropolitan area is given.
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    交通通道对住宅空间扩展和居民住宅区位选择的作用——以北京市为例
    张文忠, 孟斌, 吕昕, 刘旺
    地理科学. 2004, 24 (1): 7-13.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.01.7
    摘要   PDF (921KB)
    随着我国住房制度的改革,房地产市场逐渐趋于发育,城市内部住宅空间结构发生了巨大变化。在实地调研、抽样问卷调查基础上,建立了北京住宅区数据库,然后利用GIS分析手段和统计分析方法重点研究了以下3个问题:(1)交通通道与住宅空间分布、扩展趋势;(2)交通通道与住宅价格和居民住宅空间选择;(3)交通条件与居民住宅区位选择行为等。
    With the deepening of the housing system reform in China, the real estate market has gradually assumed an initiative shape along with tremendous changes in the city's housing spatial structure. Based on filed investigation and spot checks, this paper tries to set up a database of housing in Beijing and produce a map of housing spatial distribution.Firstly, the paper studies the traffic passages and the trend of housing spatial distribution and expansion. The authors believe that there exist strong relations between traffic passages and housing spatial distribution and expansion. Areas along main traffic lines, exits and entrances of expressways and areas around subway and light rail stations always become the best locations for agglomeration and development of urban housing. Beijing's housing spreads along the city's main stem and assumes a shape of concentric circles.Secondly, by means of GIS and field study, we research the relationship between Beijing's housing spatial distribution and traffic passages and the influence of fast traffic passages on local residents' selection of housing location. We deem that the construction of traffic passages can improve the accessibility to the existed housing and propel the value increase of along-passage lands. Meanwhile, it can also widen people's selection of housing location, thereby providing a potential profit guarantee for the development and construction of new housing projects.Finally, using questionnaires we analyze the influence of traffic conditions on residents' selection of housing location. We hold the opinion that when selecting the housing location, urban residents often put more attention on the traffic conditions. As a result, those housing projects boasting traffic convenience are easy to sell with comparatively high prices. Therefore, traffic conditions must be taken into account in the development of a housing project which should be adapted to the construction of fast traffic passages and main roads.
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    20世纪90年代浙江省耕地非农化过程分析
    谭永忠, 吴次芳, 牟永铭
    地理科学. 2004, 24 (1): 14-19.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.01.14
    摘要   PDF (780KB)
    通过对浙江省1990~1999年的耕地非农化面积、人口、GDP、工业总产值、工业化率、城市化率等社会经济发展指标的统计分析,结果表明:(1) 浙江省1990~1999年的耕地非农化面积为70 878.85 hm2,耕地非农化率为3.01%,年均耕地非农化率为0.32%,大约是同期全国水平的1.6倍。(2) 受经济活动周期、土地管理政策以及经济活动分布等因素的影响,耕地非农化在时间上呈现出一定的波动性,在空间上表现出很强的地域性。(3) 1996年后,浙江省农业人口的非农化与耕地的非农化基本同步。(4) 提高建设用地集约利用程度的空间较大。(5) 今后一段时期内浙江省仍将出现较大规模的耕地非农化。就如何减缓耕地非农化提出了努力提高现有城市用地的集约利用水平、加大农村居民点用地整理力度以及加强耕地保护的制度建设等建议。
    Cultivated land non-agriculturalization (CLNA) is one of the main characteristics of land use at the stage of rapid development of economy. It is a cost for realizing the urbanization and industrialization. The indexes of society and economy development in Zhejiang during 1990-1999 such as CLNA area, popularity, GDP, gross value of industrial output, industrialization rate and urbanization rate are counted and analysed in this paper. Some results are obtained. (1) The CLNA area in Zhejiang during 1990-1999 is 70 878.85 ha and the rate of the CLNA is 3.01%. The rate of the CLNA per year is 0.32% and it is 1.6 times as high as average rate of the whole county. (2) Being influenced by the periodicity of economy, policy of land management and the distribution of economic activities, the CLNA shows fluctuation and regionalism. (3) The non-agriculturalization of agricultural population is on the whole in pace with the non-agriculturalization of cultivated land in Zhejiang after 1996. (4) The potentiality of raising intensive use degree of construction land is great. (5) The relatively large scale CLNA in Zhejiang will continue for a period of time. However, the protection of cultivated land is an eternal theme of land management in China as well as in Zhejiang. The suggestions of slowing down the CLNA are put forward in the paper. They are raising hard the intensive use degree of existing urban land, increasing consolidation of rural residential area land and strengthening the building of institution of the protection of cultivated land.
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    四川省耕地地力生产潜力及承载力研究
    何毓蓉, 周红艺, 张保华, 宫阿都
    地理科学. 2004, 24 (1): 20-25.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.01.20
    摘要   PDF (278KB)
    四川省的耕地地力以土壤质量系数衡量,多数在0.70以下。其中在0.70以上的一、二、三等耕地面积为278.17万hm2,占全省耕地面积(第二次土壤普查面积)的42.5%。而四等及其以下的中低产田土占过半数。四川省耕地粮食作物生产潜力,按第二次土壤普查耕地面积计算为10 715.986×107 kg。按现有耕地面积(2001年)计算为6 981.757×107 kg。按耕地最大生产潜力,在2040年后,四川省的粮食产量与人口需求间将出现亏缺,分别以线性模型和指数模型预测,预计分别缺口粮食523.702×107 kg和168.442×107 kg,那时四川将超载人口386.34万人至1 201.20万人。按耕地现实粮食生产力(单产)计算的四川省耕地承载力,从2000年后,出现粮食缺口和人口超载。预计未来50年,粮食亏缺将在887.425×107 kg至2 982.280×107 kg,人口超载达到2 035.4万人至6 840.1万人。表明四川省的耕地超载、粮食危机将不可避免,形势是严峻的。
    Cropland potential productivity in Sichuan Province is estimated by soil quality index. Most soil quality index is less than 0.70. The area of the first, second and third grade cropland is 185 447 ha and accounts for 42.5% of the total cropland in Sichuan, and the area of the fourth grade and others grade with low yield makes up more than 50% of the total (the second time general investigation of soil resource of China). The climate-soil productive potentiality of Sichuan are 10.7?1010 kg and 69.8? 109 kg with the area cited from the second time general investigation of soil resource of China and statistic of 2001, respectively. According to the climate-soil productive potentiality of Sichuan, the food supply will fail to meet the people's need and will lack 52.4?108 kg and 16.8?107 kg using the linearity model and the exponent model to forecast the population and the area of cropland in 2040, the population of 3863400-12012000 will suffer from shortage of food. If using the actual production capacity to calculate, it is concluded that the population bearing capacity will be overloaded from 2000.In the next 50 years, 8874259-29822803000 kg of grain will be short and the population of 203654000-68401000 preson will be overloaded in Sichuan Province. The result showed that overloaded population-bearing capacity and the shortage of food will not be avoided and the situation will also be austere.
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    湖南省耕地动态变化及驱动机制研究
    熊鹰, 王克林, 吕辉红, 许联芳
    地理科学. 2004, 24 (1): 26-30.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.01.26
    摘要   PDF (712KB)
    利用1949~1999年的统计和普查数据,分析探讨了湖南省近50年来耕地数量变化及区域差异,并在此基础上进一步探讨了影响耕地数量动态变化的驱动机制。结果表明:50年来,湖南省耕地总体态势逐年下降,耕地变化区域差异显著;经济增长是形成湖南省耕地数量变化的主要宏观驱动因子,耕地快速减少在发生时间上与经济发展的增长基本同步,具体则受固定资产投资规模的牵动;在空间分布上具有与地区间经济发展速度和水平的差异相一致的特点。影响耕地数量动态变化驱动机制具体表现为:非农产业的发展建设与人口城镇化的发展对耕地的冲击,种植业效益下降、耕地利用方向的调整以及管理上的不完善和疏漏等。
    According to statistical and survey data from 1949 to 1999, dynamic changes of quantitative and regional differences of cultivated land in Hunan Province during the last 50 years are analysed. Based on which, the mechanism driving forces for the effect of the economy and population on the change in the cultivated land ares is dealt with in this article.The results indicates that the general trend of cultivated land during the past 50 years was decreasing and regional differences of cultivated land was very notable. The idiographic factors influencing the dynamic change of cultivated land quantity include: (1)the increasingly strong conflict from non-agricultural activities and construction,such as urbanization,industrialization, township and village infrastucture construction land;(2)the farmer's incomes from planting is much lower than the output for the means of agricultural production,casuing jeopardizing farmer's enthusiasm in cultivation activities and adjusting the structure of utilization in cultivatied land;(3)some inappropriate points in the present policies and land management and so on. In addition, the economic growth is the dominant macro-driving factor in decrease of cultivated land area in Hunan Province. The rapid decrease of cultivated land area coincided in time with the overheated economic growth resulting from the direct investment in fixed assets. The spatial distribution patterns for the decrease in arable land matched the differences in speed and scale of economic growth between different regions of the Hunan.
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    近17年城镇用地扩展对粮食生产 影响的定量评估研究——以江苏省常熟市为例
    张定祥, 潘贤章, 李宪文, 史学正, 于东升
    地理科学. 2004, 24 (1): 31-36.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.01.31
    摘要   PDF (847KB)
    运用多源遥感数据,获得常熟市1984、1992、1999和2001年四个时期城镇建设用地状况矢量数据。利用土壤普查资料建立土壤空间和属性数据库。统计分析并借助水稻土生产力评价模型对17年来城镇建设用地扩展占用的水田生产力状况评价研究表明:1984~2001年的17年间,常熟市城镇建设用地扩展占用水田面积2 438公顷,根据现有的生产管理水平估算,粮食年产量损失总量约2万t,城镇扩展损失水田以生产力水平中、高等级为主,损失水田平均产量达8 160 kg/hm2。水稻土生产力指数模型(SPI)可以对常熟市水田土壤生产力进行合理地评价,可以用来估算在城镇建设用地扩展对水田土壤生产力和水稻产量造成的损失量。
    Using multi-source remote sensing data, four vector maps of expanding towns of Changshu City from 1984 to 2001 are acquired, and a soil database is constructed based on the Second Soil Survey of study area. By a concept soil productivity index (SPI) model combined with soil database, the loss of rice yield and paddy soil productivity caused by urban expansion are evaluated from 1984 to 2001. The model can be used to evaluate soil productivity and the yield of rice at certain management level. As a whole, the productivity of paddy soil is high in Changshu. The extending urban construction has invaded about 2,438 ha of paddy field among recent 17 years, which causes about 20,000 tons of the loss of rice at a management level today. The most of the cropland occupied by urban expanding has high or middle productivity. The loss of average yield of rice is about 8 160 kg/hm2. The soil productivity index (SPI) model can be used to evaluate the distribution of paddy soil productivity and the loss of rice yield caused by urban expansion.
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    城镇基准地价平衡研究
    王庆改, 郑新奇, 闫弘文, 白军红
    地理科学. 2004, 24 (1): 37-41.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.01.37
    摘要   PDF (588KB)
    城镇基准地价平衡,是为了协调区域地价,充分发挥地价在调控土地市场中的作用,使基准地价能客观地反映出不同城镇间真实的经济差异和地价水平,促进土地市场的均衡发展。基准地价平衡以土地分等为依据,并综合考虑在区域内的地位和作用、不同城镇间的经济差异、市场地价总体水平等情况确定,形成各等城市、县、建制镇的基准地价序位。以山东省17个地级市为例,研究了基准地价平衡的过程,把山东省17个地级市的地价纳入到同一个体系中,使城镇间的地价建立起可比性,为城镇地价体系的建立奠定了基础。
    The balance of urban datum land price is based on the gradation of urban land quality and is made considering the discrepancy among different cities and the land price level of the market.The premise of realizing the balance of urban datum land price is the unification of the land price implication and conditions. The stipulation of land price implication is the radical procedure, or else the land price of different cities can not be compared and it is difficult to realize the balance of urban datum land price. The unification of the land price implication is realized by a series of formulas.After the gradation of urban land quality and unification of urban datum land price implication, the datum land price of every grade towns is computed. The datum land price of every grade cities is stipulated by averaging the datum land price of all the cities and consulting advice of experts. The range of the urban datum land price is stipulated according to the range of the datum land price of each grade of each town and the sample land of the special land. The range of the urban datum land price is made according to different type and different grade.
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    中国东北地区地表水资源与气候变化关系的研究
    孙力, 安刚, 高枞亭, 任红玲, 唐晓玲
    地理科学. 2004, 24 (1): 42-49.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.01.42
    摘要   PDF (1016KB)
    利用NCEP/NCAR 1948~2000年共53年的月平均再分析资料,统计分析了东北地区不同区域和季节气温和(或)降水变化对蒸发量、地表径流量以及浅层和深层土壤含水量的影响。结果表明,东北地区地表水资源各分量与气温和降水之间有着较好的相关关系。还建立了气温和(或)降水变化对水资源各分量影响的简单统计评估模型,利用这些模型研究了东北地区地表水资源各分量对气温和(或)降水变化的响应情况,得出东北地区较小的"气候扰动"可能会导致径流量等地表水资源较大的变化和其它一些有意义的结果。
    By using the 53-year NCEP/NCAR reanalysis monthly mean data for the period 1948-2000, the influences of the temperature and/or precipitation on the surface water resources (surface potential evaporation, surface runoff, 0-10cm soil moisture content and 10-200cm soil moisture content) in Northeast China in different seasons have been studied. The simple statistical evaluation models about the influence of the temperature and/or precipitation on the variables of the surface water resources have been also established. Based on these models, the responses of the variables of the surface water resources in Northeast China to the different climate variations have been assessed. The results are summarized as fallows:The temperature variation in Northeast China has some influence on the variables of the surface water resources. When the temperature is higher (or lower) than its normal, the surface potential evaporation tends to increase (or decrease), the surface runoff and the soil moisture content tend to decrease (or increase). Especially the variables of the surface water resources in the west part of Northeast China are the most sensitive to the temperature variation in summer and in autumn. And in the southeast part of Northeast China, the influence of the temperature on the surface water resources is smaller relatively.The variables of the surface water resources in Northeast China have the very closely relations with the precipitation. When the precipitation is more (or less) than its average, the surface potential evaporation tends to decrease (or increase), the surface runoff and the soil moisture content tend to increase (or decrease) greatly. The correlation coefficients can reach 0.70 to 0.98, far exceeding 99.9% significance level. The influence of the precipitation on the surface runoff is the biggest. In summer, when the precipitation increases or decreases 20%, the surface runoff can even increases or decreases 55% to 60% in Northeast China. The statistical evaluation models about the influence of the temperature and the precipitation on the variables of the surface water resources established in this study have the very good capability of prediction and assessment. In summer the variations of the variables of the surface water resources are mainly controlled by the precipitation, but the influence of the temperature on the variables of the surface water resources in spring is also important. The responses of the surface runoff to the simultaneous variation of the precipitation and the temperature are also the most significant. When the precipitation and the temperature increase (or decrease) 10% and 1℃, the surface runoff can increase (or decrease) 25% to 30%, i.e. "the smaller climatic fluctuation" can result in a bigger change in the surface water resources in Northeast China.
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    中国森林生态系统的植物碳贮量及其影响因子分析
    赵敏, 周广胜
    地理科学. 2004, 24 (1): 50-54.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.01.50
    摘要   PDF (612KB)
    利用中国第四次(1989~1993年)森林资源清查资料,指出中国森林植被的总碳贮量和碳密度分别为 3 778.1Tg(1Tg = 1012 g)和41.321 Mg/hm2(1 Mg= 106 g),其分布很不均衡,东北和西南各省的碳贮量和碳密度较大。中国森林碳贮量约占世界的1.1%,森林碳密度低于世界平均水平,但中国森林以中、幼龄林为主,占80%以上,表明中国森林植被具有巨大的固碳潜力,对全球碳循环具有重要作用。同时,采用多元线性回归模型、标准系数法定量分析了气候因子对森林植被碳贮量的影响程度,指出气温对森林植被碳贮量的贡献大于降水。
    Forests are major vegetation types in terrestrial ecosystem and play a key role not only because they account for a greater part of the carbon exchange between the atmosphere and terrestrial biosphere than any other ecosystem type, but also because they can mitigate carbon dioxide emission under the background of global change, and accurately estimating forest carbon storage is increasingly gaining global attention. In terms of the fourth national forest inventory data (1989-1993), forest vegetation carbon storage and carbon density in China are estimated by the relationships between stand biomass and volume for different forest types. The results shows that total forest vegetation carbon storage and average carbon density in China are 3778.1Tg(1Tg = 1012g)and 41.32 Mg/hm2(1 Mg = 106 g), respectively. Forest vegetation carbon is not distributed evenly among provinces in China: more than half of the carbon is stocked in northeastern and southwestern China. Carbon storage of forest vegetation in China is about 1.1% of the global vegetation, and forest carbon density is lower than the world's average, the major reason is that the area of pre-mature forests in China occupies more than 80% of Chinese forests. It suggests that Chinese forests have the large potential to fix carbon. In addition, based on linear multi-regression of forest carbon storage model and standard regressive coefficient methods, the relationship between carbon storage of forest vegetation in China and climatic factors including temperature and precipitation is developed:Yc=2.004Xp-2.809Xt+1.805. The regressive coefficient of annual precipitation (Xp) and mean annual temperature (Xt) show that forest vegetation carbon storage will decrease with climate warming, but it will increase with the increase of precipitation. According to factor analysis method, the contribution of climatic factors to forest vegetation carbon storage is calculated, the contribution of annual precipitation is 2.363, and that of mean annual temperature 3.227, it indicates that the effect of temperature on forest carbon storage is larger than that of precipitation,and global warming may seriously affects the forest carbon storage in China. The study may be helpful not only to provide a method for estimating carbon storage of forest vegetation using systematic and continuously forest inventory data in China, but also to improve understanding the relationship between climatic factors and carbon storage of forest vegetation.
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    基于3S技术的中国东北地区林地时空动态特征及驱动力分析
    徐新良, 刘纪远, 庄大方, 张树文
    地理科学. 2004, 24 (1): 55-60.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.01.55
    摘要   PDF (761KB)
    利用3S技术和中国资源环境数据库中用LandSat TM(ETM)解译获取的东北地区1985,1995,2000年林地空间分布数据,建立林地时空演变模型,定量分析东北地区林地变化时空特征。结果表明:1985~2000年东北地区林地发生较大幅度变化,时空差异明显;1995~2000林地急剧减少趋势得到有效遏止,有林地面积出现一定程度增长,但林地变化的广度和强度仍然超过1985~1995年,突出表现在大兴安岭地区林地动态度增加。从空间格局上看,大小兴安岭、长白山山麓地带林地动态变化最强烈,主要表现为林地与耕地和草地相互转换。
    The development of 3S technology that including RS(Remote Sensing), GIS(Geographic Information System) and GPS(Global Position System) provides an effective method for woodland resources investigation and analysis of spatial-temporal characteristics. This article analyzed the woodland changes from 1985, 1995 and 2000 LANDSAT TM images based on 3S technology. The authors studied the spatial-temporal characteristics of woodland change in the northeastern China according to dynamic degree model and time series analysis. It is found that during 15 years from 1985 to 2000, the great changes of woodland had taken place in the northeastern China. The rate of forest decrease during the period of 1995-2000 is less than that of previous period, the area of forest increased 353 thousand ha from 1995 to 2000. But the scope and depth of woodland change during the period of 1995-2000 exceeded that of previous period. This phenomenon was represented in Da Higgan Mountains region. From the point of view of spatial patterns, the change rate of woodland in piedmont such as Da Higgan Mountains, Xiao Higgan Mountains, Changbai Mountains was higher than that of other regions. On the other hand, the authors analyzed the driving factors that caused above process in different regions.
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    黑河下游额济纳绿洲现代荒漠化过程及其驱动机制
    李森, 李凡, 孙武, 李保生
    地理科学. 2004, 24 (1): 61-67.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.01.61
    摘要   PDF (1035KB)
    额济纳绿洲是发育在黑河下游内陆河三角洲上著名的天然绿洲。20世纪50年代以来,额济纳绿洲现代荒漠化过程加剧,绿洲萎缩,生态恶化。绿洲现代荒漠化过程是由水环境恶化过程、土壤干燥化过程、植被退化与生物多样性衰减过程、土地沙漠化过程和土壤盐碱化过程构成的地表动力学过程。导致额济纳绿洲荒漠化的驱动力是区域气候暖干化、强盛的风蚀侵蚀力、上中游过度开发水土资源的人为活动和额济纳绿洲内的"三滥"活动等。荒漠化驱动力的第一主成分与第二主成分的贡献率分别为59.276%和28.083%,反映出绿洲荒漠化驱动因子的多面性和综合性,绿洲内外过度的人为活动是其主导驱动因素。内在、外在驱动力在时间与空间上的耦合性是绿洲荒漠化的区域机制,驱动力因子团的互动-激发作用形成荒漠化的动力机制,驱动力与荒漠化土地间的响应形成正反馈机制,三种作用机制组合成绿洲现代荒漠化过程的复杂的驱动机制。
    The Ejina Oasis is a famous natural oasis that develops on inland river delta of the lower reaches of the Heihe River. Since the 1950s, its rapid desertification causes a decrease in the oasis area and degradation in ecological environment. The present desertification as a complicated dynamic process of the earth surface is characterized by the several degradation processes such as in water, vegetation, soil and biodiversity. In the process of desertification, the Ejina natural oasis has degraded systematically in the surface features, vegetation and the land biological productivity, and the area of the Ejina natural oasis has decreased to 3070 km2 from 3908 km2 in the 1960s, reduced by 21.44%. The reason for these is that many variables play a comprehensive role in the desertification of the Ejina Oasis, which include a warming and drying tendency in climate, strong erosion force, irrational utilization of water and land resources in the middle and upper reaches, and the three popular typical human activities of over cultivation, overgrazing and overhacking in the oasis. Based on the method of rotated PCA, the first tow factors respectively account for 59.276% and 28.083%, which implies that the modern desertification is due to many factors, but the factor of human activities in and outside the oasis leads the first. The warming and drying tendency in regional climate and the strong erosion force are the internal driving forces, but the excessive human activities in and outside the oasis is the external driving force. From analysis above, the paper finally come to a conclusion that the modern desertification mechanism is made of three ones: regional mechanism results from coupling of human and natural factors in temporal and spatial, which controls the changes of ecological environment and the humanitic and historical changes in the Ejina Oasis; dynamic mechanism from mutual interaction among driving factors, which is in chain reactions and becomes the direct driving force of the desertification; and the positive and negative feedback, which be of vicious circle, focus on the relation between the driving forces and the desertification.
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    西北干旱区土地荒漠化中人类活动作用及其指标选择
    李香云, 王立新, 章予舒, 张红旗
    地理科学. 2004, 24 (1): 68-75.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.01.68
    摘要   PDF (957KB)
    人类活动对环境的负效应在总体上导致以土地荒漠化急剧发展为主的生态环境质量显著下降是目前干旱区突出的矛盾。基于1994年的《联合国防治荒漠化公约》给出的土地荒漠化概念和干旱区的特点,划分土地荒漠化的自然因素和人为因素。探讨人类活动的涵义和特点,综合分析了土地荒漠化发展中人类活动因素,包括人类活动的驱动作用、人类各种活动方式的作用和人类活动的管理作用等。依据一定原则,构建出适用于干旱区人类活动对土地荒漠化作用的指标体系,该指标体系多为量化指标并可反映人类活动的动态变化,可为人类活动在土地荒漠化中作用的进一步(定量)研究提供依据。
    The important conflict in arid area is the negative effect of human activities to environment for which the land desertification is taken in the leading position. Based on the characteristics of arid area and the concept of land desertification given by "United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification in Those Countries Experiencing Serious Drought and /or Desertification, Particularly in Africa, 1994, 10 in Paris", the conceptual model of desertification causes is built. In this model, the natural factors include geology, climate, hydrology, vegetation and land and the human operates on these natural factors. The different natural factors have different ways of human activities. Through the analysis on specialties and meaning of human activities, the human activities are thought as consisting of driving and manner factors. Further, the manners and driving force of human activities on land desertification are studied. According to some criterions, an indexes system which shows the human activity effect on desertification in arid area is designed. The most of indexes are quantitative in this system and it can indicate the dynamic changes. Thus, the indexes system can supply the basis for the quantifying study of human effect on desertification.
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    40年来长江九江河段河道演变及其趋势预测
    李茂田, 于霞, 陈中原
    地理科学. 2004, 24 (1): 76-82.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.01.76
    摘要   PDF (1000KB)
    利用地理信息系统(GIS)与数字高程模型(DEM)技术定量模拟40年来九江河段冲淤演变过程,结果表明: 1963~1972年总体表现为淤积,淤积量为6.505 hm3,平均淤积速率为0.65 hm3/a。1972~2002年总体表现为冲刷,冲刷量为20.720 hm3,平均年冲刷率为1.036 hm3/a。1963~2002年九江河床总体表现为冲刷,冲刷量为14.977 hm3。2003年与1963年比较,河床淤积区域主要分布在九江河道上段近南岸区域,中下段河道的中间区域;冲刷区域主要分布在九江河道上段的中间及近北岸区域,中下段河道两岸的近岸区域。中下段南岸的不断刷深和南偏对九江的防洪带来更大的压力。
    Jiujiang is one of the best import business and tour center in Jiangxi Province. However, more and more flood disasters from the Yangtze River have been occurred since the last century. The Jiujiang River course evolution has huge impact on flood discharge, shipping and the sustainable development of Jiujiang City. This thesis adopts DEM (Digital Elevation Model) and GIS (Geographic Information System) technology, and rationally simulates the Jiujiang River course evolution in recent forty years on the basis of the Yangtze River Lower Reaches Relief Map in 1963,1972 and 2002 (map scale is 1∶10000). It quantitatively expresses spacial-temporal distribution of riverbed erosion-deposition such as cross section, vertical section, isobaths and erosion-deposition volume. From 1963 to 1972, the Jiujiang River course was generally characterized by deposition, and the total deposition volume was 6.505×106m3, average annual deposition load was 0.65×106 m3/a, and the main deposition area is located in the south bank area of upper-middle course and the middle area of lower course, the main erosion area is situated in the north bank area of the course; From 1972 to 2002, Jiujiang River course was generally characterized by erosion, total erosion volume was 20.720×106m3, average annual rate of erosion was 1.036×106 m3/a, and the main deposition area is located in the south bank area of upper course, the middle area of middle-lower course and a piece of north bank area, the main erosion area is located in north bank area of the course and the south bank area of middle-lower course; From 1963 to 2002, the Jiujiang River course was generally characterized by erosion, and the total erosion volume was 14.977×106 m3, and the main deposition area is located in the south bank area of upper course and the middle area of middle-lower course, the main erosion area is located in the the north and the south bank area of middle-lower course.The course change is relative multi-factors such as suspend sediment load and runoff load from upper reaches, geological basis and crust motions, human activities and river evolution of lower reaches. The deposition from 1963 to 1972 is directly the result of Hankou suspended sediment load increase from 1955 to 1969, which relates to deforestation activity; the erosion form 1970 to 2002 is directly the result of Hankou suspend sediment load decrease and runoff increase, which because that lots of reservoirs quickly increase in upper and middle reaches since the 1970S. In conclusion, Jiujiang course evolution is the result of the course borderline conditions, runoff, suspend sediment load and human activities. In addition, the paper gives a river evolution trend in the future, and points out the continual erosion of the south bank area in middle and lower course will bring the more pressure for preventing flood. The government should pay attention to constructing the protecting bank project, monitoring the riverbed evolution. These measurements are essential to Jiujiang City's future.
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    山东荣成月湖潮汐汊道系统的沉积物平衡问题——兼论人类活动的影响
    贾建军, 高抒, 薛允传, 李凤业
    地理科学. 2004, 24 (1): 83-88.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.01.83
    摘要   PDF (301KB)
    在月湖进行了沉积物采样和潮汐水文观测,分析计算了表层沉积物类型、泥沙输运率、现代沉积速率,讨论了月湖的沉积物平衡。结果显示,月湖的沉积速率较快。按目前的数据和资料估算,月湖每年的沉积通量约为(1.8~2.3)×104 t,而正常情况下的沉积物供应量每年只有(0.5~1.2)×104 t。研究表明,人类活动还改变了月湖的物理与生态过程。由于土地利用的方式及其强度发生了变化,月湖汇水盆地的侵蚀量大为增加,侵蚀模数可能远大于400 t/(km2·a),从而使流域侵蚀量大大超出了正常范围,加剧了月湖的淤积。
    In the latest two decades, deterioration changes of physical and ecological environment happened in Yuehu, a small inlet-lagoon system located in the eastern part of Shandong Peninsula, China, mainly due to human activities.In order to investigate the sediment dynamic behaviour of the Yuehu, measurements and sampling were undertaken to obtain data sets of tidal water levels, current velocities, suspended sediment concentrations, grain size parameters, and organic carbon contents. With these data, analysis of surficial sediment distribution, grain size trends, sediment transport rates, deposition rates, and sediment budget were carried out.The results show that the deposition rates are relatively high within the tidal basin. Based on 210Pb dating and short cores analysis, sediment flux into Yuehu Lagoon is estimated to be 1.8?104-2.3?104 t/a, whereas sediment input from the open sea, the aerosol and biological production, and the material from land is only 0.5?104-1.2?104 t/a; In another word, the total sediment flux cannot be balanced by the input. Thus, the denudation rate over the catchment basin of Yuehu Lagoon, representing a major component for the balance, was underestimated. Inferred from the aero-photos derived land use patterns, the material from land has been intensified by agricultural activities over the past several decades. Therefore, the denudation rate, must be much higher than 400 t/(km2·a). Besides land use patterns, many physical and ecological processes in Yuehu Lagoon have been altered by local inhabitant. Evolution of Yuehu Lagoon show that human being should put their development activities under the control of natural rules, otherwise un-reversible changes would happen.
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    长江三峡库区现代坡地剥蚀速率研究
    何太蓉, 姜洪涛, 杨达源, 任朝霞, 李徐生
    地理科学. 2004, 24 (1): 89-93.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.01.89
    摘要   PDF (976KB)
    三峡库区以山地为主,人口密度较大,三峡工程引起的移民搬迁以及经济建设的需要,造成坡地上人类活动强度越来越大,从而造成现代坡地剥蚀作用的加剧。采用简便、实用且操作方便的地貌测量方法,对三峡库区草堂河流域三个坡段进行了现代坡地剥蚀速率研究。结果表明,<15°的缓坡、15°~45°的斜坡和>45°的陡坡的现代剥蚀速率分别为4.0、4.9和7.1 mm/a。当地平均现代坡地剥蚀速率已达4.9 mm/a (7 902 t/km2·a),即达到强度剥蚀标准,未来三峡库区坡地退耕还林(草)以及水土保持等生态建设任务十分艰巨。
    In the Three Gorges Reservoir area of the Yangtze River, the main geomorphology unit is mountain, its area accounts for 78%. The uprightness altitude difference is about 2 000 m. Because there are very high mountains, very steep sloping field, human kinds' cultivation, transmigrant because of Three Gorges Project and the demand of economic development, the slope fields are exposed to very strong man-made disturbance. So the modern slope denudation process is very violent. Geomorphic measure means is a way of calculating sloping field's substance denudation mass by means of measuring the geomorphic deformation. Because of saving a great lot of middle taches, this means is very simple, practical and expediently manipulative. And its results can reflect the difference of denudation rates between slope fields which have different slope gradient. Adopting geomorphic measure means, this paper studies the modern slope denudation rates of slope fields in the Caotang River watershed. First, all slope fields can be classfied to three species according to their slope gradients. There are gentle solpe which slope gradient is less than 15?, moderate slope which slope gradient is between 15癮nd 45?, and steep slope which slope gradient is greater than 45?. Adopting the means of measuring root can confirm the denudation rate of gentle slope. Its principle is dividing the root's bare height by tree ages. And through measuring eroded channel length, width and depth on the moderate and steep slope, so their volume can be obtained. Its volume is representation of denudation mass of moderate and steep slope. To the moderate slope, we select three plots which slope gradient is 20?, 30? and 40? respectively but their vegetation coverage are similar. To the steep slope, we select two plots which are man-made through opening road and their gradient are 50? and 60? respectively. By the measuring and deducing, the results is as follows. The modern slope denudation rates of gentle slope are 3.0 mm/a and 5.0 mm/a respectively to 7?-8? and 15? slopes. The ones of moderate slope are 4.1mm/a, 5.5mm/a and 5.0mm/a respectively to 20?, 30癮nd 40? slopes. The ones of steep slope are 5.7mm/a and 8.5mm/a respectively to 50? and 60? slopes. So the modern denudation rates of three species of slope field are 4.0 mm/a, 4.9mm/a and 7.1mm/a respectively. The mean modern slope denudation rate of the Caotang River basin is 4.9 mm/a (i.e. 7902 t/km2·a), which is agree with intensely denudation degree according to national erosion standard. This result is larger than others' data. It is mainly induced by human activities in last few years. Because ecological environment is becoming worsening, so water and soil conservation is a very tough task in long time of future in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area.
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    苏北岸外条子泥沙洲潮沟系统的稳定性研究
    陈君, 冯卫兵, 张忍顺
    地理科学. 2004, 24 (1): 94-98.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.01.94
    摘要   PDF (785KB)
    以苏北岸外条子泥沙洲潮沟系统为例,分析该区域野外实地测量及历年卫片,分析主要潮沟系统近20年来的动态变化。总结了潮沟系统发育演变的特点,主要表现为各个主干潮沟系统摆动幅度、速率均不相同,单独潮沟系统的各沟段亦有不同的摆动幅度、速率;位于沙洲中部西大港西侧近岸潮沟系统摆动具一定周期性,其东侧潮沟摆动较稳定;潮沟摆动有突变和渐变两种形式。沙洲潮沟系统在多因素的综合作用下具备自动调整作用,主要表现为单一潮沟具有平衡倾向性及沙洲潮沟系统整体的综合布局调整。
    Tidal creek system is one of the most particular geomorphology units in muddy flat and offshore sand shoals. This paper aims to study the tidal creek system of Tiaozini sand shoals in the north of Jiangsu coast. Through field surveying and a series of remote sensing images comparing, it details the main tidal creek system shift in recent years, such as Shishenggang, Neiwangjiachao, Xiaodengzhuanggang, Henggang, Xidagang, Dongdagang, Gaonigang. On this basis, it summarizes the development characteristics of the tidal creek system. First, every main tidal creek system has different shift distance and move rate and every part of one single tidal creek system also has different shift distance and move rate. Second, the tidal creek system in the west of Xidagang located on the center of Tiaozini sand shoals has shift period and the tidal creek system in the east of Xidagang is stable. Third, the shift style of tidal creek is sudden change and gradual change. Last, tidal creek system of sand shoal has autoconditioning action which behaves balance orientation of one single tidal creek and integrate adjusting of the whole tidal creek systems of sand shoals. This study on tidal creek system of Tiaozini sand shoals is available complementarity of the whole study of muddy flat and sand shoals tidal creek system. It also will provide scientific guidance for engineering construction, resource exploitation and so on.
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    利用宇生核素测年技术对青藏高原东南部冰蚀面年代的研究
    徐孝彬, 王建, 朱捷, 姜洪涛, 杨亦青
    地理科学. 2004, 24 (1): 101-104.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.01.101
    摘要   PDF (188KB)
    分析理塘与稻城之间库昭-桑堆处的冰蚀面以及兔儿山北侧宽谷中的羊背石的宇生核素10Be,研究结果表明,库昭-桑堆处的冰蚀面暴露于133.4 ka B.P.,即倒数第二次冰期大约结束于133 ka B.P.,这一时间与深海氧同位素第6期相吻合。兔儿山北侧的冰川作用大约结束于18.5 ka B.P.,即末次冰期大约结束于18.5 ka B.P.,这一时间与深海氧同位素第二期相吻合。由同一地区的两个样品X8、X9得出相同的测年年代,并从样品X6得出的测年年代与野外观测的结论相一致来看,运用宇生核素10Be对冰蚀面的形成年代进行测年是一个行之有效的测年技术,并且还可运用于火山熔岩、断层、侵蚀阶地等其它地貌面的测年,该测年技术具有很大的运用潜力。
    With the development of the technique of cosmogenic isotopes dating, the formation age of glacial surface can be calculated now. Its principle is that the cosmogenic isotope concentration in the surface rock is a function of age, erosion rate and uplift rate of plateau. Samples of X8 and X9 are taken from the up-surface of glacial boulder in Kuzhao-Shangdui. Sample of X6 is taken from the up-surface of roche moutonnee in valley of the north of Mountain Tuer. The concentration of the cosmogenic isotope 10Be can be got from measure and calculation. According to field exploration, the rock surface where samples X8 and X9 are taken from is erosed about 9 cm in the exposure age t. It means that the erosion rate is about 9/t (cm·a). Then, the t (133.4 ka) can be calculated. Because having the same geographical environment, the rocke moutonnee has about the same erosion rate with the rock. The t (18.5 ka) can be calculated. The study shows that the glacier boulder was formed in 133.4 ka B.P. and the roche moutonnee was formed in 18.5 ka B.P. It can be concluded that Daocheng ice cap was about current in 133.4 ka B.P. (stage 6 of oxygen isotope of deep sea) and the glaciation in the valley occurred about in 18.5 ka B.P.(stage 2 of oxygen isotope of deep sea). The same result coming from two samples X8 and X9 taking from same glacier boulder, and the result from X6 being in concordance with field exploring show that the cosmogenic isotopes dating technique is a effective method in dating surface of landforms.
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    行政单元数据向网格单元转化的技术方法
    范一大, 史培军, 辜智慧, 李晓兵
    地理科学. 2004, 24 (1): 105-108.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.01.105
    摘要   PDF (494KB)
    数据网格化是图形绘制、科学计算和空间模型实现的基础工作。文章提出了空间数据从行政单元向网格单元转化的技术方法,在ARC/INFO软件的支持下,以人口数据为例,实现了这一方法。结果表明:利用网格单元表达社会、经济数据的空间分布,比用行政单元本身更接近于实际。如果提高网格单元的分辨率和行政单元数据的空间尺度,网格化的结果就会达到更加令人满意的效果。而且这种方法也可以用于其它统计单元数据(包括遥感数据)向网格单元的转化。
    Data gridding is a fundamental work to plot map, calculate for science and realize the spatial model. In this paper, a new method of spatial data transform from administration cell to gridding cell is presented and realized with a case of population data, supporting with ARC/INFO software. As a result, the spatial distribution of social and economic data what gridding cells express is closer to fact than what administration cells do. With the spatial resolution of gridding cells improved and the spatial scale of administration cell increased, this method of data gridding will have a more satisfied effect. Furthermore, it can be applied for data gridding from other statistics cell including remote sensing data to gridding cell.
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    松嫩平原西部典型农田需水规律研究
    李取生, 李晓军, 李秀军
    地理科学. 2004, 24 (1): 109-114.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.01.109
    摘要   PDF (260KB)
    采用联合国粮农组织最新推荐的模型方法(FAO56),利用近10年的日气象资料对松嫩平原西部玉米、大豆、高粱等作物近10年的农田逐日需水量进行了系统研究。得出了本区不同作物的需水规律,并根据当地的有效降雨量,获得了不同作物不同时段的水分亏缺规律,为节水灌溉和提高作物产量提供科学依据。
    Based on the FAO56 method recommended by Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, the last ten-year daily meteorology data and the related observed data in field, the daily water requirements of major crops(corn, soybean and grain)from 1992 to 2001 in farmland are calculated,and analyzed systematically in Western Songnen Plain.The results show that the different crop has the different water requirement law. The peak period of corn water requirement is from the late June to early August. The daily ETc is usually more than 5 mm. The corn total ETc varied between 490 and 574 mm in last 10 years, less in wet years and more in dry years. The maximum water requirement period of soybean occurred during early and middle July, with daily water requirement usually more than 5mm, when the plants are in the late floral differentiation and early flowering stage. In the last 10 years, soybean water requirement varied between 380 mm and 440 mm with an average of 400 mm. The average sorghum water requirement is 506.8 mm with the peak period from the late June to the late July, when the plants are in the elongation stage and booting and heading stages.Employing the local effective rainfall and the calculated crop water requirement, the water deficit is confirmed. It is found that the main reason for the low yield of corn in this area is the serious water deficit in the booting and heading stages and the milk stage, in which it lacks 28% and 46.7% of the ETc respectively. The water deficit of soybean mostly is in the podsetting and podfilling stages and the mature stage. The water deficit of sorghum is mainly in the elongation stage and milking stage, with the average water deficit of 66.8mm and 65.9mm respectively. Therefore in order to increasing the crop yields in this area in the large scale, the crop water in summer and autumn should be met on the basis of the settled drought in spring by dibbling irrigation.
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    西安市社会收入空间的研究
    程丽辉, 王兴中
    地理科学. 2004, 24 (1): 115-121.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.01.115
    摘要   PDF (358KB)
    城市社会地理学目标性命题就是对城市生活空间的研究,当前西方国家对其探讨已转向社会空间评价方面,其核心方向之一集中在城市社会生活基本条件的空间结构与社区布局规律上[1] 。城市社会收入空间是构成城市社会生活空间质量的基本方面之一,通过对国外有关城市社会收入空间理论进行概括,结合中国大城市西安的实际,首次全面探讨其社会收入空间的结构与模式。研究方法上采用行为抽样调查并借用居住空间与收入空间互拟等行为地理学相关原理,力图揭示西安市社会生活空间质量及其结构。
    The study of urban social living space is the main subject of urban social geography. The present study of urban social geography in the west have turned to the evaluation of social living space, and one of its cores is the study of the spatial structure and the basic urban social living conditions as well as the distribution laws of communities. The urban social income-space constitutes one basic part of the quality of the urban social living space. This paper, firstly, generalized the relating theories of urban social income-space abroad, summarized the economic and social foundations of the differentiation of income-space, and tried to explain the impetus of the differentiation of income-space. Secondly, it is the first time that took the facts of Xi'an into consideration, tried to research the urban social income-space and its patterns comprehensively in Xi'an, meanwhile to classify the pattern of social structure of income through different social income ranks, and to evaluate the regional differences of the social income-space through the imbalance index, to summarize the spatial structures and models of the social income imbalance. Thirdly, in methodologies, it adapted the method of behavioral sampling and at the same time used the theory of the substitution between social living space and social income-space. As the urban social space of income is the indicator of the quality of the urban social living space, so the author tried to discover the quality and structure of urban social living space through summarizing the space preference surface of the urban residents in Xi'an.
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    研究报道
    二龙山水库水环境保护研究
    王宏
    地理科学. 2004, 24 (1): 122-126.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.01.122
    摘要   PDF (219KB)
    文章在对二龙山水库水源地环境现状进行系统分析的基础上,划分水源地保护区,确定水质保护目标;并以此为依据,对水源地的水环境容量及主要污染物削减量进行了分析和研究,提出了二龙山水库水源地主要污染物总量控制目标及保护对策。
    Erlongshan Reservoir is one of the six biggest centralized surface drinking-water resources in the Liao River valley, so it is necessary to assess present water quality pollution status thoroughly, to carve up protection zone reasonably, to calculate environment capacity of reservoir water scientifically, and to enact diminishing scheme of pollutants and measures of environment protection. Based on the systematic analyses on present environmental status of Erlongshan drinking-water resource site, the paper partitions the function regions and establishes protection aim of water quality. Based on this, environmental capacity and main pollutants minifying amount of drinking-water resource site are investigated, and total amount control aim and protective countermeasures on drinking-water resource in Erlongshan Reservoir are presented in the paper. In 2005, if water quality standard III for the Erlongshan Reservoir is achieved, the capacities of COD and NH4+-N are 1 325 t/a and 1 044 t/a, respectively.
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    书评
    城市生态环境研究的新进展——评《城市生态环境学》(第二版)
    管东生
    地理科学. 2004, 24 (1): 127-127.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.01.127
    摘要   PDF (190KB)
    20世纪以来,汹涌澎湃的世界城市化潮流深刻改变了城市生态环境的结构与功能,它所引起的一系列严重的“城市病”已经威胁着城市居民的生存条件和生活空间。基于这样的背景和城市对现代化进程的重要作用,城市的生态环境已成为一个研究的热点领域。科学工作者从不同的角度探讨城市发展与环境之间的关系,寻求合理的城市发展途径。《城市生态环境学》一书正是体现了这一研究方向的成果。
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