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CN 22-1124/P
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  • 地理科学
      2005年, 第25卷, 第1期 刊出日期:2005-01-20 上一期    下一期
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    论文
    中国农村工业地区竞争力差异分析
    杨晓光, 樊杰
    地理科学. 2005, 25 (1): 1-6.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2005.01.1
    摘要   PDF (701KB)
    农村工业近20年来在我国得到迅速发展,成为推动国民经济发展的重要力量。研究农村工业的地区竞争力对于进一步推进我国农村工业的健康发展,形成各具特色的地区农村工业竞争格局有着重要意义。在总结现有研究成果的基础上,通过对目前影响我国农村工业竞争力的主要因素的把握,构筑了我国各地区农村工业竞争力分析评价的指标体系,在此基础上,运用因子分析的方法计算出我国各省区农村工业竞争力指数,简要分析了我国农村工业竞争力地区差异的状况,并进一步运用聚类分析的方法探讨了农村工业竞争力差异的基本类型及其提高竞争力的战略举措。
    In the past 20 years, Chinese rural industry has got great achievements and comes to be a vital factor of national economy. It's very important to study regional rural industrial competitive power to promote rural industrial sustainable development. It's also useful to set up various characteristic frameworks of regional rural industrial competitive power. This paper tries to bring forward a general index system to competitive power assessment. It's based on the outputs of former studies and my own research on main factors of rural industrial competitive power. Index to competitive power is achieved by factor analysis. Regional difference and types of rural industrial competitive power in China is explored. Besides these, this paper is trying to find out measures to improve competitive power. Some conclusions are drawn as followed: 1) The regional difference of rural industrial competitive power is consistent with rural industrial gross output. By the analyse of rural industrial competitive power of 30 provinces, it can be found out that the competitive power of rural industry in most of east provinces is stronger; And the power of competitive in west provinces is lower. Only Henan and Hunan these two provinces have a little stronger competitive power in central China. 2) The rural industrial enterprises in the east region have made greater progress with benefit of output, upgrading of industrial structure and market-based process through structural adjustment in recent years. Though the growth rate of rural industry in the west region is very fast in recent years, quality of development is far behind the east region. The gap between east and west in the development of rural industry will be greater and greater. And this gap will be shown in quality of development more and more. The central and west regions need to spend a long time to improve their rural industrial competitive power. And they must make good use of natural and workforce resources under the support of policy bias and industrial groups with better foundation to improve their competitive power.
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    清代东北地区土地开发及其动因分析
    李为, 张平宇, 宋玉祥
    地理科学. 2005, 25 (1): 7-16.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2005.01.7
    摘要   PDF (403KB)
    论述了清代东北地区土地开发过程、特点和趋动因子。指出封禁时期土地开发主要集中于辽河流域及辽西地区,吉、黑两地只有零星开发,总的呈现一派大荒景象。开禁后,先后在奉天、吉林、黑龙江进行了大面积的放垦。大规模的移民和高速度的土地开发世所少见。最后分析了影响东北地区土地开发的主要趋动因子,指出巨大的人口压力、连年的大灾荒以及清朝政府的土地开发政策是造成清代晚期东北地区大规模移民和高速度土地开发的重要原因。
    This article discusses the process, characteristics and causes of the land development in Northeast China during Qing dynasty. In this period, land development mainly happened in the Liao river valley and the west of Liaoning Province, only a little land was developed in Jilin Province and Heilongjiang Province, representing a scene of desolation in vast undeveloped interior area. After Qing government abolished an immigration ban, large area was cultivated in Fengtian, Jilin and Heilongjian one after another at a high speed rarely seen before. The authors further analyse the main factors which had influenced land use change in this area, and find that huge population pressure in central China, successive famines and land policy change of Qing government are the 3 major reasons that caused the large scale immigration and high speed land development in Northeast China during Qing dynasty, particularly in the late period.
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    基于“日常生活圈”的我国城市地域系统的重建
    袁家冬, 孙振杰, 张娜, 赵哲
    地理科学. 2005, 25 (1): 17-22.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2005.01.17
    摘要   PDF (246KB)
    在分析我国城市地域系统重新建立的必要性的基础上,通过对国内外有关城市地域系统建立的理论与方法的分析,指出我国城市地域系统界定中存在的问题,从可比性和功能性的角度,提出基于"日常生活圈"的我国城市地域系统重新建立的理念,并对基于"日常生活圈"的我国城市地域系统的基本构造、建立方法和可行性进行了初步探讨。
    This paper points out that the urban region studied by urban geography has three types. Urban regional system is a synthesis that is composed of geography factors forming the urban region. And it is an organic entirety with different function in the region and complicated structure that is formed by the promotion of productivity and urbanization. The system is an urban function regional one formed by the differentiation and combination of urban region. And the urban regional system is developing, changing, differentiating and integrating all the time. The reasonable urban regional system must have the comparable and functional feature, and the urban statistic must be true. The foreign geographers have studied the foundation of urban regional system for a long period of time. This paper analyses the American Standard Metropolitan Area (SMA) Theory and the Japanese Densely Inhabited District (DID) Theory that are representative and ripe. All these theories can be used by China to reconstruct the urban regional system for reference at the aspect of theory and method. Comparing with foreign study, China has attempted for many times at the aspect of foundation of urban regional system. But some problems of concepts and methods still exist. After the analysis of theory and method about the construction of the pertinent urban region system at home and abroad, the paper points out the subsistent problems in the define of urban region system in China. On the base of analysis of necessity of reconstruction of Chinese urban regional system, this paper puts forward the idea of reconstruction based on daily life circle and defines the concept of daily life circle. From the point of view of inhabitant's individual life, daily life circle is the spatial area that the daily activities of urban inhabitant involves such as inhabitation, work, education, shopping, medical treatment, entertainment and commuting. The daily life circle is a material urbanization region of a city, and it is the spatial shape and structure system that is formed through urban inhabitant fulfills all kinds of activities in the material urban regional system. It is a functional urban regional system including three circles-essential life circle, basic life circle and opportunity life circle. The essential life circle corresponds to the built-up area of city. The basic life circle corresponds to the linking part of town and country. The opportunity life circle corresponds to outskirts of city. The reconstruction uses the method of raster technique. This method realizes that basic spatial unit of urban regional system based on daily life circle can't be confined by the urban district borderline, and can describe the urban developing level objectively. In the last part, the paper discusses the feasibility of construction of Chinese urban regional system based on daily life circle elementarily. The idea of daily life circle can be used to study Chinese urban developing rules from the point of microcosmic view. And it can also provide a new thinking method to frame and accomplish urban planning and management. The idea of daily life circle has important theoretical and practical meaning for the theoretical study and the practice of urban planning for Chinese urban problems.
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    集群理论与主导产业理论比较研究
    王仲智, 林炳耀
    地理科学. 2005, 25 (1): 23-28.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2005.01.23
    摘要   PDF (671KB)
    自20世纪50年代诞生以来,主导产业理论在某些国家和地区获得了比较成功的实践纪录。然而,半世纪后,该理论产生和应用的条件时移境迁,自80年代以来,该理论实践的绩效多有不佳,我国十五计划的编制仍然沿用了主导产业和支柱产业思想作指导,进一步加剧了区域经济的结构趋同性。20世纪90年代初国际学术界提出的产业集群理论广泛总结了全球成功案例的实践经验,开拓了区域发展理论研究的维度,是适合当前中国国情的新型区域发展理论之一。本文从不同层面比较了上述两大理论,展望了集群理论在我国的应用前景。
    In its early 30 years after naissance in 1950s, the theory of Leading Industry diffusion was very effective in practices in some countries and regions. However, half a century later, the conditions and situation that the theory depend on have greatly changed. Since the 1980s, the performance based on the theory was not gratifying. The Tenth Five-Year Plan which around the notion on the Leading Industry and the Pillar Industry enhanced the homogeneity of regional economic structure. In the early 1990s, the theory of Industry Clusters as a new pattern about region development has been put forward, which absorbed widely positive factors in the traditional theories of region development and added new viewpoint to them, maybe adapted to the current situation of China. Based on the all-sided comparison between the two theories, we think that the theory of clusters should be followed to consummate the old industrial synthesis.
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    珠江河口地区可持续发展评价研究
    张正栋
    地理科学. 2005, 25 (1): 29-35.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2005.01.29
    摘要   PDF (497KB)
    未来发展对珠江河口区的资源环境承载能力和生态服务功能提出了前所未有的要求,在此认识基础上,构建了基于资源承载力的可持续发展评价指标体系,并进行了河口区发展水平、可持续性水平、可持续发展能力及其可持续发展状态变化的定量分析,得出:① 珠江河口区总体已进入经济资源驱动阶段;② 在自然子系统、经济子系统、社会子系统中,社会子系统滞后;③ 可持续发展能力处于中等可持续发展水平。
    Sustainable development that the system of human being and nature system(including resource and environment) evolve together, is a compound system, comprised by three subsystem: nature system(including resource and environment),economic and society(including population). Starting off the broad sense concept of resource, the three subsystems of nature, economic and social resources had been quantified as nature resource population loading capacity, economic resource population loading capacity and social resource population loading capacity. Based on which, the paper constructed sustainable development evaluation index system based on the resources loading, and analyzed the development level, the sustainable level, the sustainable development ability and its changes in the Pearl River Delta. In order to provide the reference to the similarity of the Pearl River, the thesis drew up the conclusion: ①In 2002, the contribution of the Pearl River Delta economic subsystem to the whole area had reached 55.6%, the index of development level had reached 2.71, that had advanced 0.01than the index of development level in 1998, which had entered the stage of the economic resources driving.②In 2002, the Pearl River Delta sustainable development index had reached 2.16, had heightened 0.09 than the sustainable development index in 1998. Social sub-system of the system was lagged behind its nature sub-system, economic sub-system of the system. ③ In 2002, the Pearl River Delta sustainable development capacity was placed in middling level of sustainable development, which has advanced 0.04 than the index of sustainable development capacity. ④In 2002, economic resource loading capacity was great. From the loading capacity of each subsystem, the economic resource loading capacity was largest among the whole Pearl River Delta, which is 31000 thousand people. Nature resource loading capacity is the second large, which got to 21000 thousand people. Social resource loading capacity was the third, which got to 9000 thousand, less 10000 thousand people than the sati in 1998. The whole Pearl River resource loading capacity was 56000 thousand people.⑤The trend of the Pearl River Delta sustainable development changing was obvious. In the light of level of sustainable development, the level of sustainable development of the nine cities in the Pearl River fluctuated very small extent, which means that sustainable development level is a comparative stable index. In the light of the level of sustainable, the whole Pearl River Delta sustainable level fluctuated in very small extent during 6 years, but sustainable of each city fluctuated in a big extent, which means that the level of sustainable is a index that related with development fettle in different parts. The level of sustainable development determined the change of sustainable development capacity in different area. In the light of sustainable development capacity, the sustainable development capacity of the nine cities had been changing obviously during past 6 years. Guangzhou, Shenzhen, Foshan, Huizhou, Dongguan, and Zhongshan's sustainable development capacity was rising; Zhuhai and Zhaoqing's sustainable development capacity was descending.
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    整合景观生态学的理论基础
    丁圣彦
    地理科学. 2005, 25 (1): 36-42.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2005.01.36
    摘要   PDF (801KB)
    整合景观生态学的核心概念是"整体人类生态系统",是全球生态各个阶层协同进化的最高水平,由生物圈景观和石油燃料驱动的技术圈景观组成,整合景观生态学致力于将两者从结构和功能上整合为一个和谐、可持续的生态圈。文章在讨论整合景观生态学产生的历史背景和发展意义的基础上,初步论述了整合景观生态学的理论基础,包括整合景观生态学的系统论基础、控制论和可持续发展理论基础、自组织理论基础、协同进化理论基础、等级理论基础、相互作用系统理论基础和隐含次序理论基础,目的是使整合景观生态(经济和自然景观)和其他跨学科一起,共同促进当今自然与人类社会的"共生"过程。
    The central concept of holistic landscape ecology is the "Total Human Ecosystem". It is in the highest level of co-evolutionary complexity in the global ecological hierarchy with solar energy powered biosphere and fossil energy powered techno-sphere landscapes. By utilizing new insights in self-organization,Holistic landscape ecology could contribute to their structural and functional integration into a coherent sustainable ecosphere and there by to the establishment of a sustainable balance between attractive and productive biosphere landscapes and healthy and livable techno-sphere landscapes for this and future generation. On basis of the historical background of holistic landscape ecology formation and its development trend, the paper discussed the basic theories of holistic landscape ecology, such as general systemitic theory, cybernetics and sustainable theory, self-organization theory, co-evolution theory, general systems and hierarchy theory, interaction systems theory and implicate order theory ect. General systematics theory consider that,a system is always more than sum of its elements due to some relations, and it include some new emergent properties that each elements do not have. Cybernetics and sustainable theory consider that, feedback control can adjust culture in the whole nature and human, and can control and establish a stable mechanism, and through structure and function of biosphere and techno-sphere holistic, forming a sustainable biosphere. Self-organization theory consider that systems on a relatively high organization level that can renew, repair and replicate themselves as networks of interrelated component-producing processes in which the network is created and recreated in a flow of matter and energy are called autopioetic systems. The synergetic systems include landscape wholeness and hierarchy principle, landscape antagonism principle, landscape instability or multistability principle, landscape selection principle. Landscapes should be treated as a special case of mixed natural and cultural medium-number interaction systems, in this system, through the interaction of natural elements and human constructions, adaptation of humans and their natural environment in cultural Total Human Ecosystem landscapes created closely co-evolutionary process. Holistic landscape (economy and natural landscape) ecology together with other environmental sciences could promote the urgently needed symbiosis between nature and human society.
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    建国以来中国洪涝灾害成灾面积变化的小波分析
    刘会玉, 林振山, 张明阳
    地理科学. 2005, 25 (1): 43-48.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2005.01.43
    摘要   PDF (980KB)
    文章以小波诊断技术为基础,对建国以来中国洪涝灾害成灾面积变化进行了多时间尺度分析。研究表明,建国以来中国洪涝灾害成灾面积变化具有明显的3年左右、9年左右和17年左右的特征时间尺度和相应的周期性变化特征;并且特征时间尺度近年来逐渐缩短,即成灾面积的变化渐趋频繁。根据这几个特征时间尺度上小波系数的演变趋势发现,在未来几年内,中国洪涝成灾面积呈现下降的总体趋势。根据小波方差分析发现中国洪涝灾害成灾面积变化具有显著的3年、9年和17年的主要周期,并以9年和17年的周期尤为显著;同时,根据功率谱的比较分析同样发现,中国洪涝灾害成灾面积同样存在着3年左右、7~9年和17年的主要周期。
    The major superiorities of wavelet analysis lie in good part characteristics in time (or spatial) domain and frequency domain, as well as focusing attention on any signal details. Therefore, it is suitable for wavelet analysis to extract the implicit periodical characteristics from the time series and to predict qualitatively the trends. Based on the wavelet analysis, time series of area affected by flood disaster after 1949 have been studied at multiple time scales. The results show: (1) the area affected by flood disaster in China has 3-year, 9-year and 17-year characteristic time scales. The characteristic time scales tend to diminish in recent years, which represents that the inundated cropland area varied more frequently than ever. There is a trend that the area affected by flood disaster in China will decrease in whole in the recent years on the base of the analysis of changes of the wavelet coefficients at 3-year, 9-year and 17-year time scales. (2) The area affected by flood disaster in China has the 3-year, 9-year and 17-year main periods from the wavelet variance analysis, which is consistent with the results of the wavelet coefficients analysis on the whole. The 19-year period and 17-year period are especially outstanding. The wavelet energy of the area is mainly focused on 9-year, 17-year and 3-year characteristic time scales, which means the change of the inundated cropland area is rested on these three time scales. (3) Based on the power spectra analysis, we also find that the area affected by flood disaster in China has the 3-year, 9-year and 17-year main periods. In contrast with wavelet analysis, the distribution characteristic of different periods can not be reflected at local time-domain by power spectra analysis, that is to say, there is no resolution in time-domain and power spectra analysis can not be used to analyze locality. In a word, the application of wavelet analysis in the area affected by flood disaster and its development will deepen the knowledge of characteristic of flood disaster, and provide some reference to the prediction of the inundated cropland area. It also provides a new tool to explore spatial-temporal complexity of flood disaster, and it will draw more and more attention.
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    宁夏降水变化及其与ENSO事件的关系
    信忠保, 谢志仁, 王文
    地理科学. 2005, 25 (1): 49-55.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2005.01.49
    摘要   PDF (895KB)
    分析1959~2001年的月降水数据发现:20世纪60~80年代宁夏降水有较明显的干旱趋势,但90年代降水较80年代有所增加。功率谱分析表明,ENSO和宁夏降水具有一致的变化周期,即14年、3.75年、准2年和1.5年。宁夏降水对EL Nino事件达到最显著响应需要滞后2~4个月,而对LA Nina事件的响应比对EL Nina迅速,只需滞后1~2个月便达到最显著响应。ENSO对宁夏不同季节降水的影响差异很大。EL Nino发生4个月后,春、夏、秋三个季节降水都偏少,但冬季降水却是增加了。LA Nina发生1个月后,夏、秋、冬三个季节降水都偏多,但春季降水减少了。EL Nino事件发生期间,宁夏年降水偏少28 mm,占常年降水量的10%,而LA Nina发生期间,年降水偏多24 mm,占年降水量9%。
    According to the monthly precipitation data during 1959-2001, we find the drought trend was obvious from the 1960s to the 1980s, and more precipitation was observed in the 1990s than in the 1980s. Power spectrum analysis shows that there exist three obviously simultaneous periods between precipitation in Ningxia and ENSO: 14 years, 3.75 years, approximately 2 years and 1.5 years. Precipitation in Ningxia responds quicker to La Nina than to El Nino, the lag time of the former is 1-2 months while the latter is 2-4 months. The impact that ENSO imposes on the seasonal precipitation varies tremendously. Four months later after the El Nino event, the precipitation decreases in spring, summer and autumn except a winter's increase. One month later after the La Nina event, the precipitation experienced a large increase in summer, autumn and winter except a spring's decrease. During the period of El Nino event the precipitation in Ningxia shows a 28mm decrement, whose proportion to the perennial year is 10?. However, during the period of El Nino event the precipitation in Ningxia has a 24-mm increment, which accounts for 9%.
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    华南与中南半岛三角洲发育特征之比较
    黄镇国, 张伟强
    地理科学. 2005, 25 (1): 56-62.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2005.01.56
    摘要   PDF (1223KB)
    韩江、珠江、红河、湄公河、湄南河三角洲同处东亚季风热带。河流丰水少沙,径流强劲, 洪枯流量比值大,洪泛平原和湿地发育,有珊瑚礁和红树林堆积,平原推进速率较大,出海口门多,这些都是热带三角洲的特色。各三角洲的构造基础都是断陷盆地,由于断陷的幅度和时代不相同,故而第四系的厚度和年龄差异很大。受全球海平面变化的影响,末次冰期以来,各三角洲经历了相似的沉积过程,发育3期三角洲。所处位置(湾内或湾外)、滨外陆架坡度、海洋动力等条件,使各三角洲的地貌类型、地面高程、平原推进速率、水下三角洲、水动力类型等有较大的差异。
    The five deltas of South China and Indochina Peninsula are all deposited in downfaulted basins. The downfault structure is mainly shown by the red weathering crust on the basement of the Quaternary,island hills on plain,islands off estuary,seismic activity and others.The thickness of Quaternary of Chao Phraya Delta is over 650m but that of Zhujiang Delta is only 63m, showing the different amplitude of downfaulting. The deposits of Early and Middle Pleistocene can be found in the three deltas of Indochina Peninsula but the kown oldest datings are only 52 138 a B P and 45 120 a B P in Hanjiang and Zhujiang Delta,respectively. Since middle stage of the Latest Glacial Period the five deltas have undergone three times of deltaic deposition and two times of discontinuity occurred.The maximum of Holocene transgression is mostly dated at 6 500-5 000 a B P.The advance rate of plain during the past hundred years is 63-120m/a in Zhujiang Delta but that of Chao Phraya Delta is only 4.0m/a. The similarity of the deltas can be enumerated as follows:abundant water and less silt content,composite deposits of several rivers,braided stream,several river mouths,smaller channel curvature,extensive flood plain and wetland,south-westward extending of delta plain,and sedimentary of mangrove. The deltas have following differentiation.The areas of the deltas are quite different.The altitude of plain is larger in the delta inside of estuary.The submerged delta developed in the delta with smaller shelf gradient.The hydrodynamics of the deltas can be recognized as follows:runoff-tidal type of Zhujiang Delta and Chao Phraya Delta,runoff-wave type of Hanjiang Delta and Red River Delta,and runoff-tidal-wave type of Mekong Delta.
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    金沙江干热河谷元谋盆地冲沟沟头形态学特征研究
    王小丹, 钟祥浩, 范建容, 李辉霞
    地理科学. 2005, 25 (1): 63-67.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2005.01.63
    摘要   PDF (755KB)
    金沙江干热河谷因独特的气候类型——干、热、降水集中,冲沟侵蚀破坏十分严重。从冲沟沟头形态学特征的角度,运用分形几何学理论,以金沙江干热河谷元谋盆地的冲沟为研究对象,对沟头的分形弯曲度和土壤分形特征进行分析,揭示不同土地利用方式下,沟头空间形态、土壤形态与冲沟发育的相关关系及不同沟头形态所反映的自然环境特征差异性,这对研究冲沟的空间格局和动态监测提供了新的思路,对冲沟侵蚀治理,防止土地劣化具重要的理论指导意义。
    Due to the unique climate characteristics such as arid and concentrated rainfall, gully erosion is very serious in the arid river valley of the Jinsha River. Based on morphological characteristics of gully heads, this paper applied fractal geometrical theory to analyze fractal curvature and fractal dimension of soil particle-size distribution of the gullies investigated, and discovered the correlation between gullies' morphology and development under different land-use patterns. As a result, it could indicate that the difference of natural environmental characteristics reflected by changes of gully morphology and provide a new way for studying spatial structure and monitoring dynamic growth of gullies. In additional, the paper has an important theoretical guiding meaning for controlling gully erosion and preventing land degradation.
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    长江三角洲(长江以南)地区深层地下水三维数值模拟
    祝晓彬, 吴吉春, 叶淑君, 赵建康, 吴孟杰
    地理科学. 2005, 25 (1): 68-73.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2005.01.68
    摘要   PDF (769KB)
    长江三角洲地区做为未来中国经济发展的一大重心,对该区地下水资源进行评价具有十分重要的意义。文章将该区作为一个整体来进行数值模拟,避免了以前将各行政区边界作为研究区边界分别来模拟各局部地区地下水资源量所带来的人为误差。对如此大面积、条件复杂的多层含水层系统,建立了反映该区地下水贮存和总体运移特征的三维模型,在采用地下水数值模拟国际通用标准软件GMS对其进行精细剖分的基础上,对模型参数进行了识别,进一步对该区地下水资源几种不同开采方案进行了评价,为该区今后建立水资源管理模型提供依据,为其经济发展规划和可持续发展提出合理的用水建议。
    The Changjiang (Yangtze) Delta is an important center area for Chinese economic development in the future, so the evaluation of the groundwater resources of this area is of great significance. In the previous studies, this area was divided into some subareas, according to the boundaries of the administrative districts, to evaluate their groundwater resources respectively, but the separation resulted in some human error. For the first time, the Changjiang Delta was considered as a whole in this paper, so such human error can be avoided. The three-dimensional model which describes the characteristics of the storage and the movement of the groundwater was built according to the multilayer aquifer system with large area and complex condition, the parameters of the model are identified on the basis of the fine division by GMS, which is the international common-used standard software for the numerical simulation of groundwater. Furthermore, some different exploitation alternatives of the area are evaluated. The results provide evidence to the building of management model of water resources in the future, and give some reasonable advices of exploitation to the project of economic development and sustainable development.
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    遥感影象中居民地信息的自动提取与制图
    安如, 赵萍, 王慧麟, 冯学智, 何凯
    地理科学. 2005, 25 (1): 74-80.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2005.01.74
    摘要   PDF (2155KB)
    如何自动获得居民地矢量信息是遥感和地理信息系统领域研究的热点问题。以南京市江宁区为研究区域,基于光谱特征分析,建立决策树模型进行居民地信息的自动提取。重点研究如何将已提取的居民地图斑进行形态综合,得到满足地理信息系统数据建库与更新、遥感制图等的可视化图形数据,为灾害评估、城镇扩展和环境变化研究等提供必要的基础信息。最后,给出文章方法的实验结果并做出讨论。
    How to automatically obtain visualized vector information of settlement is a key problem in the fields of remote sensing and GIS. A number of researchers have been conducted in this field for many years. They all believe that the key problems about automatic obtaining visualized vector information of settlement from remote sensing image are two ones, the first one is information extraction of settlement from remote sensing image, the other is the generalization of the extracted information. At present, the main method of settlement information extraction is man-machine interaction. This approach is based on the knowledge of the man about residential area in the image. Although the accuracy of the method is higher, the efficiency is lower. The research on the generalization of the extracted settlement is seldom reported. In this paper, taking Jiangning County of Nanjing as a case study area, extraction of residential information from SPOT images based on a simple model of decision tree through analysis of characteristics of residents and other land-use types on the image are discussed firstly. Then, the paper's attention is paid to how to generalize the residential features in classified imagery. Mathematical morphology is a science about morphology and structure based on set theory. The key problem to use it generalizing residential patches is to design a lot of fair structure elements. Through the analysis of the extracted settlement information, a series of structure elements are designed. They are used to fill the irregular holes inside patches, smooth the edges of the patches and keep a right angle turn. The map scale determines the size of structure element. Then according to given steps, the generalized result will obtained. The generalized residential vector patches information would meet the needs of GIS and remote sensing mapping and severed for the loss estimation of natural disaster and the study of urban extension and environmental change, etc. At last, the test results are obtained and some conclusions are derived.
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    基于遥感的东北农牧交错区景观格局与变化研究——以吉林省长岭县为例
    唐立娜, 陈春, 王庆礼, 郝占庆, 代力民
    地理科学. 2005, 25 (1): 81-86.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2005.01.81
    摘要   PDF (808KB)
    根据1980年和2000年的两期Landsat-MSS、Landsat-TM数据,应用景观空间格局指数分析了地处东北农牧交错带的长岭县景观结构及其变化特征。结果表明:耕地始终是研究区域内的基质景观;该地最显著的变化为高覆盖度草地面积的大量减少,耕地和盐碱地面积的增加;各景观类型的斑块在大小上有很大差异;多样性和均匀性减少,景观异质性程度下降。
    The transitional region between cropland in semi-humid region and grassland (pasture) in semiarid region, is an important ecological barrier, which prevents the desert from extending into the plains of the eastern China. It is also a region with severe environmental problems such as desertification, vegetation degradation and salinization due to its natural fragility enhanced by human activities. The study on landscape spatial pattern provides valuable information for rational management of the environmental resources. And it has been one of the key study areas in landscape ecology as a whole. In this article we choose Changling County of Jilin Province as a case study area to present the changing feature of landscape patterns. Changling County is a typical region of farming-pastoral zone in Northeast China, located in the region of 43?59'-44?42'N, 123?06'-124?45E', covers a total area of 5737.9 km2. By applying satellite imageries of different years, Landsat-MSS in 1980, Landsat-TM in 2000 respectively, we analyze the changing feature of landscape patterns in the study area according to the patch-size, spatial pattern, and other index. The study shows that the farmland covering over 50% of the study area is the matrix both in 1980 and 2000. The most remarkable changes in landscape pattern are the obvious decreasing by 55.46% of high-covered grasslands and the increasing by 26.61% of farmlands and salina. The different landscape types had different scales in their patch-size, and the landscape pattern had a trend of decreasing diversity and increasing dominance. The impact of human activity and study area's natural conditions combining together are the leading factors that induce the degradation and salinization of grassland.
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    基于TM影象的快速大气校正方法
    刘小平, 邓孺孺, 彭晓鹃
    地理科学. 2005, 25 (1): 87-93.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2005.01.87
    摘要   PDF (1571KB)
    文章针对Landsat TM影象,设计出一种简单快速的大气校正方法。该方法主要是在DOS法的基础上 ,比较合理地分析暗体反射率值,并结合大气辐射传输模型,通过对大气程辐射的确定方法进行改进,给出一种基于TM影象自身信息的快速的、行之有效的大气辐射校正方法。此方法显著特点就是不需要依赖任何外部信息,直接从TM影象上读取所需信息,运算速度快,简单有效。
    The satellite measurements are the contribution of surface reflectance and atmospheric back scattering, and it must distinguish one from the other for the quantitative remote sensing require the actual surface reflectance information. For the sake of solving this problem, a fast atmospheric correction algorithm based on Landsat-TM imagery is proposed in this paper. An outstanding feacture of this method is simple, practicable and easy to be used. Based on the traditional dark-object subtraction (DOS) technique, according to the reasonable analyse on dark-object and associated with the atmospheric radiative transfer models, the paper improves the determinate measure of atmospheric path radiance. In the paper, the author regards the vegetation in the shadow in a mountainous area as dark-object because the vegetation reflectance is very weak in the visible light and the direct daylight illumination in shadow area is also weak. Therefore, we can suppose that the vegetation reflectance in shadow area is zero approximatively so that the pixel value that is not zero all the same ought to arise from the atmospheric back scattering. Depending on the hypothesis we can calculate atmospheric path radiance and deduce the molecule optical thickness and aerosol optical thickness from the atmospheric correction algorithm. And then the parameters of atmospheric correction could be identified so that it can retrieve the surface reflectance. But this result does not answer to our precision request since the vegetation reflectance in the shadow is not zero in fact, especially in the near infrared. And for removing the error and increasing the precision the author emendates the atmospheric path radiance by the overlap way. The material approach is that we choose the exuberance and direct-daylight illumination vegetation area around the aforementioned vegetation area in the mountain shadow and regard its value as the new actual vegetation reflectance and process the second operation. By means of the overlap way we can discover the second result is more close to the actual surface reflectance. Of course, it can operate time after time until the result answer to the precision request by this method. At the same time the operate isn’t complexity by dint of the programme.At the end of this paper, as one of its exemplifications, we applied the fast atmospheric correction algorithm to Landsat-5 TM imagery obtained on December 8, 1998 to retrieve the surface reflectance, and compared the computational result with the original reflectance and field-measured reflectance. As a result, it shows that the computational reflectance by the method almost tallies with the field-measured reflectance. In addition, due to eliminating the atmospheric scatter influence the edges of the surface objects are distinct and easy to identify. So the imagery quality have been reformed too. In conclusion, based on this fast atmospheric correction algorithm, it can retrieve the actual surface reflectance from the imagery itself because all needful parameters, such as atmospheric optical thickness, single scattering albedo, are derived from the information contained in the imagery. This method adapt well to the area where the landform is plainness relatively and when it is sunshiny.
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    徐连过渡带低山丘陵森林植被次生演替模式与生态恢复重建策略
    阎传海, 徐科峰
    地理科学. 2005, 25 (1): 94-101.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2005.01.94
    摘要   PDF (1297KB)
    徐连过渡带位于江苏省北部,地当南北要冲,为一典型的生态过渡带;低山丘陵生态环境遭到严重破坏,生态系统的恢复与重建任重道远。基于10个样地4650 m2的野外调查资料,建立了徐连过渡带低山丘陵森林植被分类系统,包括2个植被型组、3个植被型、3个植被亚型、6个群系组、12个群系。根据建群种与光照强度的关系,分析了12个森林植被群系间的演替关系,构建了徐连过渡带低山丘陵森林植被次生演替模式。以次生演替模式为指导,论述了徐连过渡带低山丘陵生态恢复重建策略。
    Xu(Xuzhou)-Lian(Lianyungang) Ecotone, located in the north of Jiangsu Province, is militarily a very important region in the eastern China. Its ecological environment has been damaged severely, and the burden of ecological restoration and reconstruction is heavy. Based upon the field survey material of 10 plots(4 650 m2), the classification system of the forest vegetation on the low mountains and hills in Xu-Lian Ecotone is established, including 2 vegetation type groups, 3 vegetation types, 3 vegetation subtypes, 6 formation groups and 12 formations(i.e., Pinus densiflora forest, Pinus thunbergii forest, Platycladus orientalis forest, Robinia pseudoacacia forest, Pistacia chinensis+Dalbergia hupeana forest, Pteroceltis tatarinowii forest, Celtis bungeana forest, Carpinis turczaninowii forest, Quercus acutissima forest, Quercus variabilis forest, Quercus fabri forest and Quercus variabilis+Machilus thunbergii forest). According to the effects of light intensity on forest edificators , the successional relationships among the 12 formations are analyzed, and the secondary succession model of the forest vegetation of the low mountains and hills in Xu-Lian Ecotone is built. Guided by the model, its strategies of ecological restoration and rehabilitation are discussed.
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    西太湖沉积物污染的地球化学记录及对比研究
    刘恩峰, 沈吉, 朱育新
    地理科学. 2005, 25 (1): 102-107.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2005.01.102
    摘要   PDF (695KB)
    通过对西太湖MS、DLS沉积短岩芯中金属元素、营养指标的对比分析,讨论了西太湖近80年来的元素地球化学演化特征。结果表明,20世纪40年代以前,西太湖沉积物中元素为自然来源;40~70年代末期,除北部Hg、TP受到人为污染之外,其余元素仍主要为自然来源;70年代末期以来,重金属元素人为污染逐渐加重,湖泊营养程度升高。西太湖北部沉积物中Pb、Zn、Mn、Ni、As污染开始于20世纪70年代末期,Hg污染开始于40年代初期;与北部相比,南部沉积物重金属污染历史较短,Pb、Zn污染开始于70年代末期,As、Mn、Ni、Hg污染开始于80年代中期~末期。西太湖北部、南部沉积物中TN、TOC含量70年代末期以来开始增加,C/N比值增大,有机质外源输入比例增加。西太湖北部沉积物中TP含量自40年代初期以来逐渐增加,受到人为污染;南部TP含量在40~70年代略高,但无明显的人为污染特征。
    Sedimentation rates,element concentrations and grain size distribution of cores MS and DLS sediments from western Taihu Lake are investigated,which represent the sediment characters of north and south western Taihu Lake.According to 137Cs dating,the average modern sedimentation rates of cores MS and DLS are 1.7 mm/a and 0.9 mm/a respectively.The geochemistry evolutional history of western Taihu Lake since 1920s' is studied on the basis of analyzing geochemical characteristics of sediments from core MS and DLS. The chemical elements in the sediments were from natural sources before 1940s' and some heavy metals and nutrients have been polluted due to human activities ever since.Pb,Zn,Mn,Ni,As and Hg are the main pollution heavy metals,which have different pollution history and pollution degree. Hg pollution began in the early 1940s' in north western Taihu Lake sediments,while in the south western Taihu Lake,it didn't begin to accumulate until the late 1980s' along with Mn,Ni and As.Pb,Zn,Ni,Mn and As pollution began in late 1970s' in north western Taihu Lake sediments and in the south western Taihu Lake Pb,Zn pollution also began.The concentration of TP in the north western Taihu Lake increased since early 1940s' because of the domestic wastewater,while that high concentration during 1940s' to 1970s' in the south western Taihu Lake might have a correlation with the chemical properties of phosphorous.The concentration of TN and TOC increased since late 1970s' both in north and south of the western Taihu Lake indicated the input of outsource organic matters,and the increased TN also related to the increased use of agricultural chemical fertilizer since late 1970s'. The higher concentration of TN and TP have close correlations with eutrophication of Taihu Lake.The pollution history recorded by sediments' geochemical proxies is correspondent with the economy development of Taihu Lake drainage basin.
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    长春市土壤重金属污染特征及其潜在生态风险评价
    郭平, 谢忠雷, 李军, 周琳峰
    地理科学. 2005, 25 (1): 108-112.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2005.01.108
    摘要   PDF (595KB)
    以长春市区土壤为对象,研究土壤中重金属污染的特征,并采用Hakanson提出的潜在生态危害指数法对土壤中重金属的潜在生态危害进行了评价。结果表明,长春市区土壤重金属污染较重,尤其是铅和镍。污染源的空间差异性引起不同功能区土壤中重金属元素的含量不同。长春市土壤达到轻微生态危害,且铅、铜和锌对土壤生态危害达到轻微生态危害;不同功能区达到生态危害程度的顺序依次是公园>郊区耕地>工业区>住宅区>开发区。
    Specificity of heavy metals pollution in index urban soil of Changchun city was studied for the potential ecological hazards. The potential ecological hazard suggested by Hakanson was used to assess the ecological hazards of heavy metals in urban soils. The results showed that urban soils were seriously polluted with heavy metals, and Pb and Ni was dominated in urban soils. The different domains were polluted by the different metal elements because of source space variance. The urban soil of Changchun was of the slightly ecological hazard, and Pb, Cu and Zn were feeble ecological hazard factors. The ecological hazard for the different domains was the order of urban park>farmland>industrial area> residential area>development area.
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    南京幕燕风景名胜区景观生态评价与规划
    赵清, 丁登山, 阎传海
    地理科学. 2005, 25 (1): 113-118.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2005.01.113
    摘要   PDF (871KB)
    风景名胜区景观生态评价可以为风景区规划、建设和管理提供重要的依据,也是实现风景区可持续发展的有效途径之一。以南京幕燕风景名胜区为例,对幕燕风景区的景观生态评价与规划进行了研究。在大量野外工作的基础上,建立了幕燕风景区次生植被分类系统,并以植被为标志,拟建了风景区景观生态分类系统,调绘了风景区景观生态现状图;选取多样性、代表性等8项指标对风景区的景观生态进行了评价,并根据景观综合评价指数将类景观类型划分出4个等级;以景观生态评价结果为依据,提出了风景区景观生态规划的关键措施,研制了风景区景观生态规划图;最后,根据景观生态学原理和方法,进一步提出了风景区可持续发展的建议。
    Landscape ecological evaluation of scenic spot may serve as a basis for the planning, construction and management of scenic areas, which is also an effective way for sustainable development of scenic areas. Taking Muyan Scenic Spot an example, this paper discusses the landscape ecological evaluation and planning of Muyan Scenic Spot. Based on the field survey, the vegetation classification system and landscape ecological classification system are established, the map of current landscape ecology made. The landscape ecology is evaluated according to diversity, representatives and other five indexes. On the basis of landscape ecological evaluation, each landscape component is divided into four grades, and important planning measures and landscape ecological planning map of the scenic spot are made. Suggestions on the sustainable development of the scenic area spot put forward.
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    综述
    河流健康:概念、评价方法与方向
    赵彦伟, 杨志峰
    地理科学. 2005, 25 (1): 119-124.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2005.01.119
    摘要   PDF (659KB)
    人类不合理的社会经济活动严重干扰了河流生态系统,河流健康问题引起广泛的重视。在详细概括了有关河流健康概念的不同认识基础上,介绍了河流健康评价的生物监测法与综合指标法的优缺点与发展历程,并就有关河流健康评价的发展趋势提出建议。认为今后的重点是评价标准确定、河流对干扰敏感性、生态过程性指标及流域尺度上的健康评价的研究。
    Disturbance from irrational anthropogenic socio-economic activity has influenced river ecosystem seriously and intensive attention has been paid on issues concerning river health. Various understanding on river health concept is generalized and the difference between them is distinguished in detail, the development process, advantage and disadvantage of river health assessment methods, including biological monitoring and integrated indicator are introduced. Furthermore, Some suggestion on research direction of river health assessment, including assessment standard establishment, river's sensitivity on disturbance, ecological process indicator and health assessment on watershed scale is put forward in the paper.
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    学术活动
    合浦海上丝绸之路始发港理论研讨会在广西北海召开
    韩北
    地理科学. 2005, 25 (1): 125-126.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2005.01.125
    摘要   PDF (362KB)
    2004年12月27-29日,由广西文化厅和北海市政府主办在广西北海市合浦县举行了合浦海上丝绸之路始发港理论研讨会。中国科学院资深院士、中国地理学会名誉理事长吴传钧教授等近50位来自全国各地的专家、学者参加了会议,考察、研讨了北海(合浦)在海丝路历史上的地位、作用和相关的自然生态、人文地理、旅游资源开发利用问题。会议收到论文50多篇,通过交流、研讨,取得两方面共识:合浦作为中国古代海丝路的最早始发港,文献和实物确证无可置疑,且比同为最早始发港的徐闻重要和繁荣;北海(合浦)应充分利用海丝路丰富的文化遗产与资源,抓住机遇,促进经济文化的繁荣与发展。
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    书评
    如何认识东北怎样振兴东北——评《东北老工业基地新型工业化之路》
    刘继生
    地理科学. 2005, 25 (1): 127-127.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2005.01.127
    摘要   PDF (52KB)
    党的十六大报告中明确提出“支持东北地区等老工业基地加快调整和改造,支持以资源开采为主的城市和地区发展接续产业”,“国家要加大对粮食主产区的扶持”等的重大决策,为东北老工业基地的振兴提供了难得的机遇;报告中提出的“走新型工业化道路”,为东北地区完成上述历史任务指明了方向。
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