Please wait a minute...
 首页  期刊介绍 期刊订阅 广告合作 联系我们 English
旧版网站  
 
优先出版  |  当期目录  |  过刊浏览  |  热点文章  |  阅读排行  |  下载排行  |  引用排行

ISSN 1000-0690
CN 22-1124/P
创刊于 1981 年 (月刊)
  关于期刊
    » 期刊简介
    » 编 委 会
    » 数据库收录
    » 获奖情况
  作者中心
    » 在线投稿/查稿
    » 征稿指南
    » 稿件格式与修改说明要求
    » 论文模板
    » 版权转让协议
  审稿中心
    » 审稿要求
    » 专家在线审稿
  在线办公
    » 主编审稿登录
    » 远程编辑登录
    » 在线生产中心
  • 地理科学
      2005年, 第25卷, 第4期 刊出日期:2005-07-20 上一期    下一期
    选择: 合并摘要 显示图片
    论文
    西藏人口发展的空间解析与可持续城镇化探讨
    樊杰, 王海
    地理科学. 2005, 25 (4): 385-392.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2005.04.385
    摘要   PDF (1621KB)
    改革开放以来,西藏的社会经济发展水平显著提高。但同时人口压力也在不断加大,农村的高自然增长率对城镇化产生一定的负效应,而流动人口成为新时期加速城镇化进程的主体力量。在分析人口增长与人口流动对城镇化作用的基础上,对西藏城镇的"职能-规模-空间"结构变动的综合特征进行了解析,认为经济职能是近年加速城镇规模扩大的重要因素,新镇的设立对城镇化贡献显著,使城镇空间分布逐渐趋于"大分散、小集中"的格局。并进一步探讨了人口发展、城镇化同资源环境、社会经济的冲突,提出可持续的城镇化是西藏人口发展和城镇化进程中需要努力实现的目标。
    The level of Tibetan economy and society has been improved remarkably since the reform and opening-up of China. But the population pressure of Tibet has increased as the same time. High natural growth rates in rural areas produces certain negative effects on urbanization and floating population become the main strength for speeding up the process of urbanization in the new era. At the base of talking about the effect of population growth and floating on urbanization, this article analysed the integrative characteristics of the change in urban structure of function, scale and space. It also pointed out that economic function became important factor to accelerate the expansion of urban scales in recent years and the new towns played an important role in Tibetan urbanization which made the spatial pattern of urban distribution become dispersion on the whole and local concentration. Furthermore, conflicts is discussed between population increase, urbanization, resources and environment, and social economy. Authors brought forward some standpoints: first,the convergence of population and industry makes the urban capacity towards gradual saturation; second,the competition for employment and restricted urban capacity brings great pressure on native farmers' urbanization; third, being held up of a great number of farmers in the land aggravated pressures on resources and environment; fourth, the shortage of construction funds influenced the improvement of urbanization quality, and urbanization process brings certain impacts on the protection and succession of Tibetan characteristic culture. At last, there is a brief conclusion that the sustainable urbanization is the goal which can be pulled off in the process of population development and urbanization in Tibet.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    基于空间分析方法的中国区域差异研究
    孟斌, 王劲峰, 张文忠, 刘旭华
    地理科学. 2005, 25 (4): 393-400.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2005.04.393
    摘要   PDF (1768KB)
    利用中国1952~2000年各省区的人口、土地利用和人均GDP等数据,采用空间分析方法对中国区域社会经济发展差异问题进行了实证研究。对中国大陆的几何中心、可利用土地、人口和GDP总量的空间中心计算表明,空间中心统计是一种简单有效刻画要素空间分布的方法。通过对中国各省区人均GDP的空间自相关系数Moran's I的计算,表明中国社会经济发展主要指标存在强烈的空间自相关,空间分析方法不失为一种深入理解区域经济格局及其变化的重要和有益的方法。对不同年度的Moran's I和Local Moran I的分析也揭示了中国区域经济格局的时空变化规律。
    Based on the social-economic data from 1952 to 2000 in China, the question of regional disparity in China was reconsidered by using spatial analysis methods. Spatial analysis needed in social and economic science for the observed spatial values are not independent each other, i.e., (or) they don't follow the same distribution, and (or) there is a trend along different directions. In this paper, the centrographic statistic was used to estimate basic parameters about the spatial distribution. The geometric center of Chinese Mainland with the centers of arable land area, population and GDP based on provincial level data were compared. The results show that the center of population and GDP had a significant offset with the center of geometry and land use. These are the key to understand the spatial disparity in China. The centers of population have an obviously trend of shift from the east to the west of China Mainland. This may be caused by the family planning and the other polices. But the shifts of the population center will help to improve the development of the west of China. As comparison with population, the shifts of the center of GDP had a different direction. It moved to south since the 1978 while the opening-up policy was adopt in china. In other words, the south of China had more rapid increase than north since 1978. This is not consistent with the opinion that the disparity of regional economic is great from east to west in China. The different shifts of centers of population and GDP also indicates that the economy of west did not increase with the increasing of population. The shifts of population and GDP centers indicate the change of the social and economic pattern in China. The difference of them also indicates that the imbalance of development in China. The Exploratory Spatial Data Analysis (ESDA), which based on the computing spatial autocorelation and spatial heterogeneity, was also used to detect the geographical dynamics of Chinese regional disparity patterns. There are significant positive spatial autocorrelation (Moran's I)of per capita GDP in China. That is, the relatively high (low) developed province tends to be located nearby other high (low) developed provinces more often than expected due to random chance, and then each province should not be viewed as an independent observation. The econometric estimations based on geographical data (i.e. localized data) have to take into account the fact that economic phenomena do not be randomly spatially distributed. We also compared the temporal change of the spatial autocorrelation in China, and found that there is an obviously temporal increase of Moran's I since 1952 to 1995. This means that the disparity is increased in the same periods. But this trend does not keep on since 1990s because we found that the Moran's I soothed with a little fluctuating. Moran's I Scatterplots and LISA (Local Indicators of Spatial Association, LISA) cluster maps were used to test the local pattern of the Chinese economic development. The results of local statistic show that the two types of clusters (High-High and Low-Low) are increasing which means that the heterogeneous is increasing too. And this is the other indicator of the regional disparity in China.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    基于二阶段嵌套锡尔系数分解方法的中国区域经济差异研究
    鲁凤, 徐建华
    地理科学. 2005, 25 (4): 401-407.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2005.04.401
    摘要   PDF (922KB)
    用锡尔系数对1978年以来中国区域经济差异水平进行定量测度。在此基础上,基于三大地带——省(直辖市、自治区)、地区(市、区、自治州)三级结构的地域行政单元,运用二阶段嵌套锡尔系数分解方法对中国区域经济差异进行定量测度,将中国地区差异分解为东、中、西三大地带间的差异和三大地带内省间的差异以及各省区的省内差异,发现省内差异对于中国整体区域差异的影响较三大地带间差异和三大地带内省间差异显著得多,是构成全国整体区域差异的重要组成部分。
    The objective of this paper is to apply an inequality composition method, the two-stage nested Theil decomposition method, which is an extension of the ordinary one-stage Theil decomposition method, to an empirical examination of the Chinese regional disparities. One of the innovation of this paper, compared to those previous studies on the same topic, is its multi-scale approach. First of all, the regional inequalities is measured quantitatively in China from 1978 to 2001 by Theil indices based on province-level mean income. Secondly, based on a hierarchical structure of three-level measurement, region-province-prefecture, the paper decomposes overall regional inequality into three components: between-region, between-province, and within-province inequality components. The method uses a prefecture as the underlying regional unit to measure quantitatively overall regional income inequality, rather than a province that is chosen often by the most researchers, and thus can analyze the contribution of within-province inequalities as well as between-province and between-region inequalities to the overall regional income inequalities in a coherent framework. Thus, this paper applies the two-stage nested Theil decomposition method to prefecture-level income and population data in China in 1995,1997,1999 and 2001, and explores the spatial structure of within-provinces inequalities. In the end, to further analyze the results, the three inequality components in 2001 are analyzed in depth separately.Some interesting findings revealed in this study worth further discussion. The most important contribution of recent Chinese regional disparities has been identified with the Theil sub-index of intra-provincial inequalities, which is far more significant than the inter-province and inter-region inequalities components, thus has been recognized as the first and foremost important contributor of recent Chinese regional disparities.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    城市化与生态环境耦合模式及判别
    刘耀彬, 宋学锋
    地理科学. 2005, 25 (4): 408-414.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2005.04.408
    摘要   PDF (1229KB)
    基于耗散结构理论,演绎出了城市化与生态环境耦合发展的五种模式。在此基础上,通过类型组合和平面几何分析建立了辩识城市化与生态环境耦合发展的判据体系,作为定量评价城市化与生态环境建设协调的依据。最后,以徐州市为研究对象,利用主成分加权合成方法分析了它的城市化与生态环境交互耦合的情况,其结果发现近10年间徐州市不仅城市化与生态环境各自的发展轨迹明显不同,而且二者耦合类型多样,并且以协调和基本协调为主。实例研究证实,该评价方法和判据体系对区域城市化与生态环境耦合模式的判别简单可行、便于应用,对于评价与协调城市化发展与生态环境保护的关系等具有一定的借鉴意义。
    Based on Dissipation Structure Theory and the rule of urbanization and ecological environment interaction, the five coupling models which are coordination, basic coordination, threshold, conflict and degradation types have been deduced. According to the models and its evolvement orders, the development paths and trends of the coupling system can been analyzed and forecasted. The threshold is so subtle that we must pay more attention to, or else, the shift from basic coordination to conflict type is dangerous, and the degradation type is so hazardous that we must control and obviate. Through associated analysis and geometrical process, the judgment system to distinguish coordination development has been also put forward on the basis of the coupling models, which is a criterion of evaluating urbanization and eco-environment coordination. If the urbanization comprehensive index and eco-environment comprehensive index are respectively defined as X(t) and Y(t), and differences and the rate of variation defined as ΔX(t), ΔY(t) and ε, the coupling model can be explained on the on a plane. The classifications can be summed up as follows: (1) if ΔX(t)>0, ΔY(t)>0, the coupling system is coordinative; (2) if ΔX(t)=0, ΔY(t)=0 or ΔX(t)>0,ΔY(t)<0, |ΔY(t)/ Y(t-Δt)| =ε, or ΔX(t)<0,ΔY(t)>0, |ΔX(t)/X(t-Δt)| =ε, the coupling system is situated a critical point or a shift threshold; (3) if ΔX(t)>0, ΔY(t)<0, |ΔY(t)/ Y(t-Δt)|<0 or ΔX(t)<0, ΔY(t)>0, |ΔX(t)/X(t-Δt)|<ε, the coupling system is basically coordinative; (4) if ΔX(t)>0, ΔY(t)<0, |ΔY(t)/ Y(t-Δt)| >0 or ΔX(t)<0, ΔY(t)>0, |ΔX(t)/X(t-Δt)| >0,the coupling system is conflictive; (5) if ΔX(t)<0, ΔY(t)<0, the coupling system is degraded. At last as a case, in terms of the models and judgment criterions, Xuzhou city evolved paths and coupling models have been researched by weighted PCA (Principle Component Analysis) from 1992-2002 in order to develop some suggestion. The studies we have performed show that: there are significantly different development paths of urbanization and eco-environment. In Xuzhou, urbanization comprehensive level has continually been advanced but the eco-environment comprehensive quality curve can be regarded as an inverse "U" figure. At the sametime there are four coupling types involved in Xuzhou City, and the coordination & basic coordination types are main ones. With the case studies, it proved the evaluation method and the judgment system which was simple and effective to appraise and coordinated regional urbanization development with eco-environment protection.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    珠穆朗玛峰北坡东绒布冰川成冰作用的新认识
    康世昌, 秦大河, 任贾文, 张东启, 秦翔
    地理科学. 2005, 25 (4): 415-419.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2005.04.415
    摘要   PDF (541KB)
    冰川成冰作用的研究对于选择冰芯钻取点具有重要的科学意义。前人对珠穆朗玛峰北坡冰川成冰作用的研究,由于缺少高海拔区域的实测资料而具有一定的局限性。文章通过1998年东绒布冰川垭口处(6 500 m a. s. l.)11 m冰芯和海拔6 450 m处20 m冰芯剖面的成冰作用过程研究,认识到由于水、热条件的逐年波动,冰川成冰作用也处于变化之中。珠穆朗玛峰北坡东绒布冰川高海拔区域,在一定的水、热条件下(如气温较低和降水量较大等),再冻结-重结晶作用依然占主导地位,该成冰作用至少在垭口部位是有分布的。而一般在气温较高或降水量较少等条件下,冰川的成冰作用则以冷渗浸-重结晶作用为主。
    Researches in transformation of snow to ice are significant for choosing ice coring site. Due to lacking of observed data at higher elevation, earlier studies on the transformation of snow to ice were very limited in the East Rongbuk Glacier, northern slope of Mount Qomolangma. During September, 1998, the ice coring project has been carried out on the northern slope of Mount Qomolangma. The analysis of an 11 m ice core at the col (6500 m a. s. l.) and a 20 m ice core at an elevation of 6 450 m in the East Rongbuk Glacier indicates that transformation of snow to ice is varying annually, which may depend on variation of air temperature and precipitation amount. In the high elevation region of the East Rongbuk Glacier, the refrozen-recrystallization is dominant in transforming of snow to ice at the certain conditions, such as low summer temperature or high precipitation. In another word, the refrozen-recrystallization zone does exist in the East Rongbuk Glacier (at least at the col of the glacier). The cold percolation-recrystallization is major transforming process from snow to ice when summer temperature is high or precipitation is low. The result clarifies the uncertainties of transformation of snow to ice in the high elevation over the Himalayas. It also encourages us to recover ice cores that have reliable records from the accumulation area of glacier at the high elevation of the Himalayas.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    澜沧江径流量变化与云南降水量场变化的相关性特征
    尤卫红, 何大明, 郭志荣
    地理科学. 2005, 25 (4): 420-426.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2005.04.420
    摘要   PDF (1149KB)
    为了考查气候变化对澜沧江-湄公河流域水文水生态环境变化影响的基本事实,文章以云南境内澜沧江的逐月径流量观测数据和云南的同期月降水量场观测数据为基础,应用相关系数的分析方法,研究了云南境内澜沧江径流量变化与云南降水量场变化的相关性特征。结论为:澜沧江的跨境径流量变化与云南的降水量场变化之间存在有十分显著的相关关系,澜沧江的跨境径流量变化主要是由于云南降水量场的变化造成的。总体来说,云南降水量场变化对澜沧江跨境径流量变化的影响在4个季节内都是显著的,其中显著性最好的是3~5月的春季,其次分别是6~8月的夏季和9~11月的秋季,较差的是12~2月的冬季。
    In order to investigate the basic facts that the climate changes influence the hydrological and water ecological environment variations of the Lancang-Mekong River Basin, this paper studies on the correlation characteristics between the Lancang River flow change and the precipitation field change over Yunnan based on the observational data of the Lancang River flow and precipitation field in Yunnan and using the correlation analysis method. The results show that there is a very significant correlation between the transboundary flow variations for the Lancang River and the precipitation field variations over Yunnan. The main reasons for the transboundary flow variations of the Lancang River are the variations of the precipitation field over Yunnan. In general, the precipitation field variations over Yunnan significantly influence the transboundary flow variations for the Lancang River in four seasons, and the best season is in Spring of March-May, the secondary seasons are Summer of June-August and Autumn of September-November, but the relatively poor season is Winter of December-February.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    LASCAM水文模型在流域生态水文过程研究中的应用——模型理论基础
    胡金明, 邓伟, 夏佰成
    地理科学. 2005, 25 (4): 427-433.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2005.04.427
    摘要   PDF (1019KB)
    LASCAM水文模型是一种大尺度分布式概念水文模型,介于高精度分布式水文模型和集总式经验模型之间,是基于亚流域空间单元建立的中等精度的分布式概念模型。LASCAM模型在亚流域空间单元定义了3个概念性土壤水库,在经验方程的基础上:①建立亚流域各土壤水库与亚流域生态特征(LAI)和气候(降雨)之间函数关系;②通过对亚流域的降雨-植冠截流过程、地表产流过程、表层入渗-亚表层产流过程、亚表层入渗过程的模拟,揭示降雨在亚流域的(地表和亚表层)径流和入渗等环节的再分配过程;③基于亚流域各土壤水库的水量(水位)建立了各土壤水库之间的水通量过程方程;④建立亚流域各库的蒸散发与生态特征(LAI)之间的函数关系模拟各库的蒸散发过程。最后,通过河道径流演算法则,并依据亚流域与流域总体之间的分布式关系,将各亚流域的径流汇总到整个流域,从而将亚流域空间的水文响应扩展到流域整体空间上,实现了大尺度异质性流域的水文过程和水量平衡模拟。
    LASCAM (Large Scale Catchment Model) is a kind of large-scale catchment hydrological model with intermediate resolution between the fully lumped conceptual hydrological model and the fully physically-based distributed hydrological model. LASCAM first develops the lumped conceptual model at all subcatchments which form the building blocks for the hydrological modeling of the whole catchment. Each subcatchment includes 3 conceptual soil water stores: A representing the near-stream perched aquifer, B representing the permanent deeper groundwater store, and F representing the intermediate unsaturated infiltration store. Water balance and water flux processes of and within each soil water store are the most important for model construction.Lumped conceptual model at subcatchment scale is the building block to the catchment model. Water levels of each soil water store will control the main water fluxes and other hydrological processes within the subcatchment. Based on empirical equations resulted from regional case studies in southwest area of the Western Australia, at the scale of each subcatchment, LASCAM: 1) first establishes the functional relationship between each soil water store and ecological (Leaf Area Index) and climatic characteristics (precipitation); 2) constructs a series functions to model precipitation interception through canopy, surface runoff generation processes, processes of surface infiltration and subsurface runoff generation, subsurface infiltration to F store, which unveil the reallocation processes of ground precipitation to runoff (including surface and subsurface) and infiltration within each subcatchment; 3) builds water flux processes between each soil water store based on their water quantity (water level); 4) builds the links between the evaporation of each soil water store and ecological characteristics (LAI) to model evaporation of each store. In the end, LASCAM integrates runoff generated in each subcatchment into the whole catchment through stream network routing subroutine and the distribution status of each subcatchment within the whole catchment, which makes it possible to model the hydrological processes and water balance of large-scale heterogeneous catchment.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    SWAT分布式流域水文物理模型的改进及应用研究
    张东, 张万昌, 朱利, 朱求安
    地理科学. 2005, 25 (4): 434-440.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2005.04.434
    摘要   PDF (973KB)
    SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) 模型是一个集成遥感 (RS)、地理信息系统 (GIS) 和数字高程模型(DEM)技术的先进的分布式流域水文物理模型。为了推动该模型在中国的适应性研究及应用,并改进模型以提高水文模拟的精度,针对模型在中国西北寒旱区的黑河流域和中西部温润的汉江流域的水文模拟中发现的问题进行了扩充和改进,增加了土壤粒径转换模块和天气发生器(WGEN)数据预处理模块,改进了模型中的WGEN算法、潜在蒸散量模拟算法以及气象参数的空间离散方法。利用扩充和改进后的模型对汉江褒河上游江口流域的降雨-径流过程进行了系统的研究。结果表明,不仅模型的使用效率有明显提高,而且改进后模型的效率系数和相关系数也比改进前有较大改善。
    SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) model is an advanced, physically based, distributed hydrological model that is integrated with Remote Sensing (RS), Geographic Information System (GIS) and Digital Elevation Model (DEM) techniques. In order to impel its application study in China and improve the simulation precision of the model in hydrological process studies, some expansions and improvements were made to the modeling system for the real conditions on arid, semi-arid Heihe River Basin in the northwestern China and humid Hanjiang River Basin in middle-western China. Firstly, soil grain size transferring module and data pre-processing module for weather generator (WGEN) were added to original SWAT model to encounter the inconsistent problems existed in data standard utilized in Euramerican and Chinese systems. And then the further improvements to the model were done focusing on: 1) three new spatial interpolation methods, including Inverse Distance Weighing method (IDW), Thiessen polygonal method and DEM-based PRISM method, were used as a new choice to replace the original interpolation method that takes the meteorological data from the nearest weather station as the representative weather data for each sub-basin. 2) An advanced approach was proposed to modify the original method in daily maximum and minimum temperature estimations in SWAT for avoiding the logical mistakes in temperature simulations. 3) An areal evapotranspiration estimation module based on improved Penman-Monteith method was developed to replace the original approaches used in SWAT. At last the offline experiment on rainfall-runoff simulations were conducted using the meteorological, land use/cover and soil data from the Jiangkou Basin, the Hanjiang River by means of the improved SWAT model and its original version. The detailed study suggested a significant improvement of modeling performance by the fact that in model calibration period, the Nash-Sutcliffe Criterion (NSC) and correlation coefficient were improved from 0.47 and 0.79 to 0.92 and 0.98 respectively, while in validation period, they were improved from 0.08 and 0.68 to 0.94 and 0.97 accordingly. The improved SWAT model and its software packs will impel the application studies in the relevant disciplines in China.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    亚洲季风与中国干湿、农牧气候界线之关系
    杨建平, 丁永建, 陈仁升, 刘俊峰
    地理科学. 2005, 25 (4): 441-447.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2005.04.441
    摘要   PDF (498KB)
    基于中国553个气象站点1958~2000年日降水量资料、北方295个气象站点同期(20(cm)蒸发皿资料,界定出半干旱区和农牧交错区各自的范围。利用东亚夏季风强度指数(1951~1995年)与印度夏季降水量(1951~1998年)资料, 分析了半干旱区和农牧交错区东南-西北界10年际空间变化与亚洲夏季风的关系。近50年中国干湿、农牧气候界线的动态变化是影响中国的季风环流强弱作用在空间上的实物表现, 季风环流的强弱变化控制着气候界线空间摆动的范围与方向, 其年代际变化是中国干湿、农牧气候界线呈现出年代际变化特征的根源。分析显示, 在现代情况下, 农牧气候界线位置的空间摆动主要反映人类生产活动强度的强弱差异, 人为因素起主导作用。
    Herein, we use aridity index, isohyet, and correlation analysis methods to decide the locations and ranges of semi-arid zone, agriculture and pasture interlaced zone, East Asian summer monsoon, and Indian summer monsoon, respectively. Daily precipitation and 20 evaporation pans data were collected between 1958 and 2000 at 553(on the whole China) and 295(in northern China) meteorological stations operated by the Chinese Meteorological Administration. We also use East Asian summer monsoon intensity index data in the period of 1951 to 1995 and Indian summer monsoon intensity index data during 1951 to 1998. The semi-arid zone and ecotone between agriculture and animal husbandry lie along the border of the monsoon, and are thus zones that are highly susceptible zone to environmental change in China, with a direction from northeast to southwest in the middle part of China. We analyze the position variations in the dry and wet climate boundaries and agro-pasturing climate boundaries, and the relations between them and Asian monsoon at 101 year time scale. Study results show that the shifts boundary of agriculture and animal husbandry interlaced zone are weaker than those of the dry and wet climate boundaries. The semi-arid climate zone and ecotone between agriculture and animal husbandry in China are the interlaced regions in East Asia monsoon, India monsoon and other circulations. The different types of circulation and the strength of these circulations result in the regional and temporal differences in their spatial locations. When East Asian summer monsoon strengthens, southeastern boundaries in semiarid zone and ecotone between agriculture and animal husbandry shift northwestward. When Indian summer monsoon is strong, southeastern boundaries in both these zones transfer southeastward. When East Asian summer monsoon and Indian summer monsoon are all strong, arid/semiarid and semiarid/humid boundaries shift northwestward. Diagrammatic presentation in natural factors and analysis in human factors show that spatial shifts in positions in boundaries of agriculture and animal husbandry interlaced zone are mainly a human-induced process, which reflects largely the strengths in human production activity in the present period.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    中国北方地区近50年来气温变化特征的研究
    郭志梅, 缪启龙, 李雄
    地理科学. 2005, 25 (4): 448-454.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2005.04.448
    摘要   PDF (1033KB)
    文章分析了1951~2000年中国北方地区(包括东北、华北和西北)的平均气温、日最高气温、日最低气温随时间的变化趋势特征。分析发现:在全球气候变暖的前景下,中国北方地区近50年来平均气温、日最高气温和日最低气温的增温态势十分明显;东北地区的增温大于西北和华北地区;日最低气温的增温比平均气温和日最高气温更加显著;冬季增温比夏季显著。20世纪80年代中后期平均气温、日最高气温、日最低气温大多发生了一次显著的变暖突变。90年代以来中国北方地区的气温明显偏高。但是不同季节、不同区域气温的多年变化特征并不完全相同,具有各自的特殊性。
    This paper mainly analyzed the variation characteristics of the mean temperature, the daily minimum temperature and the daily maximum temperature with the time over northern China, including Northeast China, North China and Northwest China, in 1951-2000. The results indicate: The increasing trends of the mean temperature, the daily minimum temperature and the daily maximum are much more significant over northern China in recent 50 years, in the background of global climate warming. The increasing intensity of temperature in Northeast China is more than that in North China and in Northwest China, the increasing speed of the daily minimum temperature is more faster than that of the mean temperature and the daily maximum temperature, as well as the increasing trends of temperature are more obvious in winter than in summer; in addition, there are significant abrupt changes in the mean temperature, the daily minimum temperature and the daily maximum temperature in the mid and late of 1980's; the temperature has been apparently on the high side since the 1990's. However, it is not absolute same to the multi-year change characteristic of temperature in the different seasons and regions, they have themselves special features.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    塔克拉玛干沙漠公路沿线风沙活动的时空分布
    韩致文, 王涛, 董治宝, 吴奇骏, 姚正毅
    地理科学. 2005, 25 (4): 455-460.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2005.04.455
    摘要   PDF (1407KB)
    利用塔克拉玛干沙漠公路沿线的肖塘、满参和塔中3 个定位观测站1 个自然年的监测资料,对以起沙风和输沙强度为表征的风沙活动进行了分析。选取气象站标准高度10 min风速中大于临界起沙风速(≥6.0 m/s)的风,按16方位分别统计不同级别风的次数及其方位,计算输沙量。结果表明,风沙危害的主风向为偏东风,频率范围48%~76%。风沙活动集中在4~9月;从沙漠边缘向腹地风沙活动加强。向沙漠腹地深入,应加大公路风沙危害防护力度。
    The Taklimakan Desert highway cuts across the simple barchan and barchan dune chain zone,complex transverse dune ridges zone and complex longitudinal megadune zone. Based on a natural year observation data of three meteorological stations (Xiaotang, Mancan and Tazhong) along the Taklimakan Desert highway, we analyzed the blown sand activities that were characterized by intensity of sand driving wind and intensity of sand transport. We select all the winds with velocity greater than the threshold velocity at the standard height of meteorological station as the study winds. We count the frequencies and directions of different level winds by 16 directions and calculate the sand transport according to Bagnold formula of Q=5.2?10-4(V-Vt)3. The study results show that blown sand disaster causing winds come from the north-east (NNE,NE,ENE,E) and their frequencies ranging from 48% to 76%. On time distribution, the blown sand activities were concentrated in spring and summer, especially during the period of April to August. On the spatial distribution, the intensity of blown sand activities were trending stronger from the edge to center of the Taklimakan Desert. The sand transport can reach 6309.5 kg/(m·a) and resultant drift direction is 230?-234癮t the center of the Taklimakan Desert. So we draw a conclusion that the defending measures must be enhanced in the interior desert.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    历史时期广东省旱涝时空分布特征的初步研究
    薛积彬, 钟巍, 赵引娟, 彭晓莹
    地理科学. 2005, 25 (4): 461-466.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2005.04.461
    摘要   PDF (831KB)
    选取史料中1480~1940年间共460年的旱涝灾害记录,采用湿润指数法建立湿润指数(I)序列,并用最远距离法作聚类分析,讨论了广东省在15~19世纪末期间总体和不同冷暖时期的旱涝区域分布状况。结果表明:(1)113°E经线似乎可以看作是广东省一条重要的气候特征线,该经线以东、以西的旱涝分区界线大致分别沿经向、纬向分布;(2)粤西、粤北是广东省旱涝区域分异变化较大的地区,粤东在不同时期也有所变化,珠三角地区则是较为稳定的涝灾多发区;(3)不同冷暖时期的旱涝分区既有大致相同的特征,又有一定的差异。文章认为以上结果可能是由于广东主要受东亚夏季风影响,一定程度上也受印度夏季风影响及东亚气候系统发生改变等共同作用的结果。
    Based on the historical records of the drought disasters and the waterlog disasters during the 15th-19th centuries, the dry-wet regional differentiation changes of Guangdong Province during the historical periods are discussed in this paper, and the dry-wet distribution features of the studied area in the different stages of the LIA are also discussed. From the analyses of the dry-wet index data of the studied area, we can draw some conclusions as follows:(1)The 113癊 longitude line seems to be regarded as an important characteristic boundary of Guangdong Province, and there are different characteristics of the dry-wet regional differentiation patterns in the east and the west area of the boundary.(2)There were some more and bigger changes of the dry-wet regional differentiation patterns of different stages in the west and the north of Guangdong Province, and there were also some changes in the east of the Guangdong Province. (3)By and large, there were some common characters and still some differences in the dry-wet regional differentiation patterns of different cold and warm stages. According to these analysis results, the conceivable reasons are also discussed in this paper.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    黄土丘陵沟壑区地形定量因子的关联性分析
    张婷, 汤国安, 王春, 龙毅, 吴良超, 王峥
    地理科学. 2005, 25 (4): 467-472.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2005.04.467
    摘要   PDF (828KB)
    不同地形因子虽然在语义概念、计算方法等方面均有明显的差异,但各地形因子之间并不是绝对孤立的,它们之间相互关联、相互影响。这种关联的强弱与趋势,都从不同角度揭示着地形起伏变化与地貌发育的本质及内在规律,同时,还在一定程度上映射着地表形态的发育过程。文章以黄土高原丘陵沟壑区的15个样本地区为实验样区,以高分辨率、高精度的1:1万比例尺DEM为基础数据,应用BP神经网络模型,探讨地形定量因子与地面坡度之间的关联性特征,并将神经网络的方法与传统的多元回归方法进行比较。结果表明,相对于传统的多元回归方法,带隐含层的BP神经网络分析方法能更为有效地反映地形因子间隐含的关联特征。该研究方法为进行地貌多定量指标的的选择和多因子之间关联性的量化提供了一种新的方法。
    Terrain factors, although different in the definition and calculation method, relate each other at different extent. Such relationship can be represented by a correlation index, which reveals the process and stage of terrain development as well. This paper focuses mainly on the correlation between different terrain factors and the mean-slope by means of the Back Propagation model of Neural Network with a latent layer. Furthermore, the regression model and the NN model without a latent layer are compared with the NN model with a latent layer. Fifteen loess gully-hill areas are selected as the experimental area, and the relevant 1:10 000 scale DEMs (5 m?5 m grid) are applied as the basic data. From the results of the NN model with a latent layer, it is found that roughness and undulation are the most closely correlated with mean-slope. Compared with others, channel density and mean elevation are the least correlated with mean-slope. Experiment results show the NN model with a latent layer is better than the others and it can effectively evaluate the correlation between the terrain factors extracted from DEMs. This method provides a new methodology in the selection of suitable and available terrain factors and the estimation of the relevancy between these factors.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    泥石流流域集水区面积限值与一级水系数目关系
    胡凯衡, 李泳, 韦方强
    地理科学. 2005, 25 (4): 473-477.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2005.04.473
    摘要   PDF (283KB)
    文章利用ArcInfo的水文分析功能,从不同区域的三条典型泥石流沟的数字高程模型中提取出不同限值下的水系,然后研究了不同集水区面积下限导致的流域水系细节层次的变化,发现一级水系的数目和集水区面积下限成近似于反比的关系,而反比关系的比例系数只与流域面积有关。这种关系反映了泥石流流域的水系在空间尺度变换下的某种自相似性,也说明了泥石流流域在相当宽的空间尺度范围内一级子流域的物质活动能力是一定的。
    Drainages can show more complex structure at the smaller scale, which is the representation of the corresponding basin's self-similarity. The detailed structures for different debris flow basins reflect their ability to transport material, which suggests that the small-scale structure plays an important role in the debris flow formation. Therefore, the paper focuses on the drainage hierarchical characteristic of debris flow basin, and two basin parameters (first-order stream number and area threshold) are used to examine this characteristic because the two are not affected by stream ordering methods and DEM errors. Three typical debris flow basins with different catchment area (Jiangjia, Longdong and Guxiang Ravine) were studied, which respectively located in three distinct regions. Using hydrological analysis tool in ArcInfo software the stream networks with different catchment area thresholds were extracted from these basins' DEM and one set of first-order subbasin was identified. It is obvious that these subbasins occupy the whole basin's fringe region where mass transportation starts. So this suggests that the subbasins play an important role in the initiation and material supply of debris flows. Another point is that the number of extracted first-order stream decreases rapidly with the area threshold increasing. It is found that the two parameters have close relation N=RA(a/m) have close relation, and exponent a equals to-1 and coefficient k only relates to the total basin area, namely for the same basin the product of first-order number with area threshold is constant in a wide scale range. The relationship may show that the ability of debris flow basin to transport material doesn't change in so wide scale range. Further research will be paid more attention to the distinction of exponent a and coefficient k between debris-flow basin and non-debris-flow basin.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    泾河中游地区全新世成壤环境演变研究
    毛龙江, 黄春长, 庞奖励
    地理科学. 2005, 25 (4): 478-483.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2005.04.478
    摘要   PDF (274KB)
    根据长武ETC全新世土壤剖面的测定分析,探讨了该地区全新世成壤环境演变过程,阐明了先周时代土壤特征及人类耕作对成壤过程的影响。研究结果表明,全新世早期气候温和干燥,沙尘暴明显减弱,风尘堆积速率降低,具有轻微生物风化成壤作用;对应于全新世最适宜期,该地气候温暖湿润,生物风化成壤作用大于风尘堆积作用,为典型的黑垆土成壤期。从3 100 a B.P.开始,季风气候格局发生转变,气候干旱化,沙尘暴加剧,风尘堆积速率大于生物风化成壤速率,土壤资源自然退化,形成弱成壤层和黄土层,两层均属于全新世黄土L0。先周时期耕作层对应古土壤层的顶部,土壤具有典型的团粒结构。3 100 a B.P.时的季风转变导致的气候干旱化与土壤退化促使了游牧民族南迁和"古公迁岐"事件的发生。
    Magnetic susceptibility, Total Fe, total organic carbon(TOC), CaCO3 and Rb, Sr, Rb/Sr measurement in the Holocene in this region, have revealed the characteristics of the environmental change of pedogenensis during late 11 500 years, and human activities of the Predynastic Zhou had some influence on the pedogenensis. The results show that dust deposition was reduced because of the climate warming, and the biological weathering is beginning in the early stage of the Holocene. Between 8500-3100 a B.P., pedogenic process was very strong. A layer of Heilu soil was formed on this region. From 3100 a B.P., soil degradation is remarkable. A layer of Loess has been accumulated since 3100 a B.P., which has the Heilu soil buried. This means that the last 3100 years is the dry period with intensified dust accumulation and soil degradation. The cultivating layer of the Predynastic Zhou (180-150cm) was corresponding with the late Holocene Climate Optimum (3350-3100 a B.P.). Monsoon transformation has led to climate aridity and soil degradation from 3100 a B.P., which was the dynamic force of the southward migration of nomads from the steppe of the northern Loess Plateau and the Mongolia Plateau, and the people of the Predynastic Zhou of arable farming community was forced to move south to the Guanzhong Basin, and established their capital city "Qiyi" on the Zhouyuan loess tableland.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    基于RS与GIS的金沙江干热河谷区退化生态系统评价——以云南省元谋县为例
    第宝锋, 杨忠, 艾南山, 张建平
    地理科学. 2005, 25 (4): 484-489.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2005.04.484
    摘要   PDF (335KB)
    文章以元谋县为例,研究干热河谷退化生态系统评价。在对植被指数、斑块分维数、沟谷密度、坡度、水热分带、载畜量、人口密度等因子分析的基础上,通过建立遥感和地理信息数据库进行综合定量评价。评价结果表明,元谋干热河谷生态环境退化较严重,就地形垂直分带而言,坝周低丘陵区生态环境退化最严重;就不同土地景观类型而言,旱地、林地、草地生态系统退化较严重。文章还对元谋干热河谷生态系统退化主要原因、空间分布规律及其恢复重建途径进行研究与探索。
    Taking Yuanmou County of Yunnan Province as the case, an evaluation on the degraded ecosystem is carried out in Jinshajiang Xerothermic Valley. Based on seven appraisal factors-vegetation index, average patch dimensionality, density of gullies, slop, water-heat belt, livestock carrying and population density, this thesis carries on a comprehensive quantitative evaluation by creating RS and GIS database. The conclusion indicates that there has been a serious ecological degradation in Yuanmou Xerothermic Valley. Compared with the different vertical distribution, the mountain region around the flatland has the most grievous ecological degradation. On the other hand, the non-irrigated farmland, forestland and grassland degrade more seriously among all types of landscape utilization. On the illustration of degraded ecosystem evaluation, the main reasons of ecosystem degradation and rehabilitation methods of degraded ecosystem have been taken under full consideration in this thesis.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    氮肥对三江平原沼泽土氧化CH4的影响
    王长科, 吕宪国, 蔡祖聪, 罗勇
    地理科学. 2005, 25 (4): 490-494.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2005.04.490
    摘要   PDF (287KB)
    三江平原新鲜沼泽土添加不同量的NH4HCO3后,在25°C下进行了6次连续培养。首次在大气浓度CH4(约1.8 μl/l)中培养时,供试沼泽土氧化大气CH4速率与NH4HCO3的加入量成反比,表明NH4+最初抑制沼泽土氧化大气浓度CH4。第1次用高浓度CH4(约8 000 μl/l)培养沼泽土时,铵态氮抑制供试沼泽土氧化高浓度CH4,但随着培养的继续,铵态氮的抑制作用逐渐减弱,最终转变为促进供试沼泽土氧化高浓度CH4。经过高浓度CH4培养后,添加NH4HCO3的供试沼泽土氧化大气CH4速率上升2.6~5倍,且与NH4HCO3的加入量呈正相关,表明铵态氮肥最初对沼泽土氧化CH4的抑制作用已经转变为促进作用。铵态氮对沼泽土氧化大气浓度CH4和高浓度CH4的抑制作用都是短暂的,其长期作用将是促进沼泽土氧化CH4
    Wetland, one of the most important ecosystems in the world, plays a significant role in global C and N cycles. Although the majority of studies to date have been centered on wetlands as CH4 sources, wetland soils can however also act as CH4 sinks. It has been recognized that Sanjiang Plain palustrine wetland (45°01'-48°28'N, 130°13'-135°05'E), one of the largest palustrine wetland areas in China, play a significant role in the estimation of CH4 budgets. To find the influence of nitrogen fertilizer on CH4 oxidation in mire soils, the fresh mire soil from Sanjiang Plain was amended with 0, 25 or 50 mg(N)/l NH4HCO3 and incubated at 25℃ over six consecutive periods: first at atmospheric CH4 concentration (about 1.8 μL/L), then at elevated CH4 concentration (about 8000 μL/L) for four times, and finally at concentration of about 1.8μL/L. The addition of NH4HCO3 resulted in reduction in the rate of CH4 oxidation approximately in inverse proportion to the amount of NH4HCO3 added. At ~8000 μL/L, the initial inhibitory effect was gradually released and disappeared during subsequent incubations. Finally, NH4HCO3 addition stimulated the CH4 oxidation. NH4HCO3 addition stimulated the rates of CH4 oxidation by the mire soil at atmospheric CH4 concentration during the final incubation. The initial inhibitory effect of NH4HCO3 addition on CH4 oxidation at both atmospheric CH4 concentration and high CH4 concentration in mire soil is temporary, and the long-term effect of NH4HCO3 addition may be stimulating.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    基于TM和ETM+遥感分析的石家庄市土地利用/覆被变化研究
    肖捷颖, 葛京凤, 沈彦俊, 梁彦庆
    地理科学. 2005, 25 (4): 495-500.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2005.04.495
    摘要   PDF (918KB)
    文章利用Landsat的TM 和ETM+数据,对石家庄市1987年和2001年的土地利用/覆被进行分类,并对这一期间发生的土地利用/覆被变化进行了定量分析。结果显示:研究区主要土地利用/覆被类型可以划分为城市用地、居住用地、农田、菜地、林地、果园、草地、水体、沙地/裸地等9类;研究区域发生的土地利用/覆被变化主要由近年来的快速城市化过程引起。变化较大的土地利用类型为城市用地、农田、菜地和林地;变化较大的区域主要分布在城市的边缘和市区的东部及西北部。
    Land use/cover change research is one of the most important components of the research of global change, and as a focus has attracted more attention among geographers and natural scientists; most of them are on the status, dynamics, mechanism of land use/cover change, and the environment consequences of these changes. The paper, supported by the Landsat TM digital images and ERMaper, analyzed the changing status and features of urban land use/cover from 1987 to 2001, it shows that there are nine types of land use/cover, urban land, resident, arable land, vegetables, wood land, orchards, grass land, water and sands. In this period, urban, vegetables and water areas are increasing rapidly. the urban land, with the increase rate of 81.47%, is dominant at the rim of the old city, and comes from resident, arable land and so on; vegetables, increased with the rate of 73.46%, mainly come from arable land and woods land; water area is increased most rapidly, with the rate of 591.73%, because of the construction of man-made rivers and parks. And the arable land, woods land and orchards are decreasing sharply with the rates of 50.94%, 74.26%, and 53.54% respectively; the urban expansion changed the arable land into urban and resident, and turns the woods land and orchard into vegetables. The grassland is increased from 0 to 2.66 km2 and the sands area is decreased from 2.42 km2 to 0 in the study area. Changed areas are major on the rim of the city (suburban) and the east and northwest part of study area. The study provides: two classification maps of land use/cover about 1987 and 2001, the conversion maps of major types of land use/cover in the period, the distribution maps of land use/cover conversion between some major types. The feature of the land use/cover change is the fast urban expansion around the old city and in eastern part far from center of the city, the vegetable, water area and grassland are increased, and arable land, woods land, and orchards are decreased. other types of land use/cover is changed by the urban expansion, and it is the people lived in the city that decided the distribution of urban expansion. So from this study, we can promote our understanding of land use/cover change in Shijiazhuang.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    旅游保护性开发区划的实施途径与案例研究
    林岚, 赵清, 赵淑玲, 丁登山
    地理科学. 2005, 25 (4): 501-507.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2005.04.501
    摘要   PDF (902KB)
    旅游保护性开发区划是资源环境持续利用和经济可持续发展相结合的应用性区划。本文以广东省龙门县为例,运用数学定量分析和专家集成相结合方法,对县级旅游保护性开发区划的实施途径进行探讨,提出龙门县旅游保护性开发区划方案及可持续发展对策。
    Protective development of tourism regionalization is the applied to regionalization of sustainable utilization of nature environment resources and sustainable development of economy.The paper takes Longmen County as an example.With the support of synthesizing the expert system and the quantitative analysis method,the methodology for protective development of tourism regionalization in county is dealed with,and the programme of protective development of tourism regionalization in Longmen and solutions of the sustainable development are gotten.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    山区生态旅游发展模式研究——以梅州阴那山旅游区为例
    陈义彬, 梁锦梅, 俞万源
    地理科学. 2005, 25 (4): 508-512.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2005.04.508
    摘要   PDF (661KB)
    近20年来,生态旅游逐渐兴起并成为旅游发展的主流。山区具有别于其他地区的旅游发展模式,研究山区生态旅游发展模式对山区旅游发展具有积极和现实的意义。从生态旅游的概念和内涵出发,总结出山区生态旅游发展模式,并以广东省梅州市阴那山生态旅游发展为例,探讨资源品位不高、区位不佳、经济较薄弱的山区发展生态旅游的道路。
    During the past 20 years, ecotourism is gradually on the upgrade and turning into the mainstream of the tourism development. The tourism development of mountainous area is different from that of other regions, so it is positively and practically significant to study the development model of ecotourism for exploiting the tourism resources in mountainous area. On the base of the concept and connotation of ecotourism, the paper summarizes the development model of mountainous area. Furthermore, giving an example of the ecotourism of Yinna Mountain in Meizhou of Guangdong Province, authors initially probe into the development ways of ecotourism in mountainous area where is remote, not developed and the relatively low grade of tourism resources.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
  编辑部公告 More  
· 声明
  2019-03-04
· 新年贺词
  2018-12-25
· 新春祝福
  2016-12-30
· 《地理科学》影响因子年报(2016版)
  2016-09-18
· 祝贺我刊三篇文章入选“首届最具影响力中国地理期刊优秀论文”
  2016-05-31
· 严正声明
  2016-05-11



  友情链接 More  


版权所有 © 《地理科学》编辑部
地址:长春市高新北区盛北大街4888号 邮编:130102 电话:+86 431 85542324 E-mail: geoscien@neigae.ac.cn
本系统由北京玛格泰克科技发展有限公司设计开发 技术支持:support@magtech.com.cn