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CN 22-1124/P
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  • 地理科学
      2005年, 第25卷, 第2期 刊出日期:2005-03-20 上一期    下一期
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    论文
    从城镇体系的演变看清代东北地区的土地开发
    方修琦, 叶瑜, 葛全胜, 郑景云
    地理科学. 2005, 25 (2): 129-134.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2005.02.129
    摘要   PDF (667KB)
    清代东北地区的土地开发与城镇体系演变是两个互相促进、互相作用的过程,东北地区州、道、府、县等各级民事行政管理机构是为了管理从事农业开发的汉民而设立的。从城镇体系演变及城镇密度空间变化过程来看清代东北的土地开发,得出结论:清代东北地区城镇体系的发展可区分出4次城镇设置的增长时期;清代城镇体系在空间上呈现出从南向北、从中间向东西两侧的阶段性扩张的特点。与此相对应,清代东北土地开发也经历了几次规模较大的浪潮并发生了垦殖界线的北移;重点开垦区域是沿今沈阳-吉林、长春-哈尔滨一线不断往北的,且自该线往东西两边扩展,体现出自然区位条件、地形因素及政策等对土地开发的限制和影响。
    The development of town system may be used to indicate the land exploitation in the Northeast China during the Qing Dynasty because the towns were set to be the location of the administrations such as counties, districts, or provinces that managed the farmers who exploited the land.There were four phases in the course of town system development during the Qing Dynasty when the towns were set quickly in the Northeast China, which indicated there were four times tidal waves of land exploitation.The town system expended spatially from the south to the north, and from the middle part along the Shenyang-Jilin, Changchun Harbin to the east and the west parts of the Northeast China, corresponding to the four fast increased phases in town numbers, which indicated the exploited area jumpingly extended from the south to the north.And the land exploitation in the Northeast China Plain was earlier than other sides, which is similar to the evolvement of town system.It shows that the land exploitation is limited and affected by natural area’s conditions, landform and policy.
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    山东省城市人口-城区面积的异速生长特征探讨
    刘继生, 陈彦光
    地理科学. 2005, 25 (2): 135-141.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2005.02.135
    摘要   PDF (676KB)
    基于不同的城市定义标准,对山东省城市体系的城市人口和城区面积进行分析,发现只有地级市明确地服从异速生长定律,而县级市的关系则不够明朗。研究表明,山东省城市人口-城区面积异速生长的标度因子均小于1,而且定义的城区越小则标度因子越大。由此可见,山东省城市体系的城区扩展速度整体上比较合理,不过在中小城市郊区地带的土地利用比大城市郊区地带要浪费一些。山东城市人口-城区面积异速生长关系的状态不是很好,这暗示城市体系的发展存在许多不协调的因素,借助数学模型变换揭示了其中结构退化的实质所在。文章指出,只有通过自组织方式在城市之间形成一种自下而上式竞争-合作关系,才能进一步完善城市体系的时空结构。
    In this paper, the relationship between urban population size and land area of urbanized area of Shandong Province, PRC, in 2000 by is analyzed means of the fifth Census data.Without an accepted definition of urbanized area in China, we define the urbanized area by means of variable thresholds and two lower limit values are adopted: one is about 500 person/km2, and the other is around 600 persons/km2, taking into consideration the scale invariance of urban form.The system of cities is divided into three cases: first, larger cities without the towns of counties;second, the towns based only on counties;third, whole cities including both larger and smaller ones.Four simple functions in common use are tested:① linear, A=a+bP;② exponential, A=aexp (bP);③ logarithmic, A= a+blnP, and ④ power, A=aPb.Where A represents the urbanized area, P denotes the population in the corresponding urbanized area, both a and b are parameters regarded as constants under given conditions.Among the four functions, the power, which is most widely used in the literature on fractal and self-organized criticality, fits best for both the data based on different thresholds without considering the counties.However, if the smaller cities based on counties are taken into account, the results make a difference and then the logarithmic one fits better than the power.This implies that only the larger cities in Shandong Province conform to the law of allometric growth.The cause that the smaller ones fail to obey the law can be explained demographically: the data are not based on cities strictly but on districts for administrative purposes.The scaling factor of allometric model,b, is computed such as b =0.711 and b=0.794 for different thresholds, negative allometry results implying that A increases at a slower rate than P.In addition, the data based on non-agricultural population and built-up area are also fitted into the power function, which gives the allometric coefficient as b =0.854 <1, a negative allometry result still.Although the statistical results of the allometric equations in some cases are not satisfactory, we can still draw a clear conclusion that the Shandong urban system is rational state where the urban area-population relationships are concerned.The suggestion is made that self-organizing theories can be employed to optimize the urban system in the studied area.Sometimes the allometric relationships retrogress from the power to the logarithmic one, just as it does in Shandong systems of cities.This phenomenon is interpreted theoretically in the light of mathematical transformation.As a matter of fact, if we suppose that the growth rate of urbanized area is restricted without reason, the allometric equation will inevitably change into the reverse-exponential relationships.
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    北京城市居民的空间感知与意象空间结构
    冯健
    地理科学. 2005, 25 (2): 142-154.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2005.02.142
    摘要   PDF (1125KB)
    对北京城市居民的空间感知进行了问卷调查,从323份感知地图中提取和统计相关数据,并据此分析北京城市居民空间感知的基本类型、构成和发展阶段,以及各种差异性特征。研究表明,北京城市居民的空间感知类型与西方的研究结果大体一致,但存在一定差异;居民居住地域、性别、学历、收入以及出生地的不同,感知地图类型的级别也不相同。感知空间的构成要素在居住地域、年龄、收入和出生地方面差异明显,而发展阶段主要与性别、收入和出生地有关,社会角色和经济收入水平在决定居民感知空间发展阶段方面起到巨大作用。文章最后还根据各种地物和构成要素出现的频率,概括了北京城市意象的空间结构,并发现它与现实中北京城市空间布局的重点极为相似。
    The author selects 10 districts of Beijing and try to investigate the cognitive maps of urban residents in Beijing by questionnaire.He get 323 cognitive maps, which are classified and counted, and as a result, correlative statistical data are obtained.Based on the above-mentioned work, the author analyzs the basic types, constitutive factors, development phases and the characteristics of differences of cognitive maps of urban residents in Beijing.The research shows that although the types of spatial cognition of Beijing’s residents are similar to those of the western cities of China, they are a little different.The grades of cognitive maps are concerned with residential area, sex, educational level, income and birthplace of urban residents.The constitutive factors of cognitive maps are concerned with residential area, age, income and birthplace of urban residents, while the development phrases are concerned with sex, income and birthplace of urban residents in Beijing.The research also shows that social role and economic income level play important roles in the development phrases of spatial cognition of Beijing’s urban residents.At last, the author generalizes the spatial structure of Beijing’s urban image based on the location and frequency of elements recorded on the cognitive maps of urban residents, and find that it is similar to the emphases of spatial distribution of Beijing.As a result, some theories of urban image of Lynch are proved in Beijing.
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    广州市白云区的发展与空间控制研究
    方中权
    地理科学. 2005, 25 (2): 155-160.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2005.02.155
    摘要   PDF (2836KB)
    广州市提出取消北部发展大组团,实施“东进西连、南拓北优”的规划发展战略具有“生态城市”和景观生态控制的科学内涵,其科学价值集中体现在白云区的功能定位上,即构筑大都市区及大尺度背景中经济发展的生态支撑系统,体现“生态经济”的实践意义和广州建设山水型生态城市的发展理念。然而,白云区经济相对落后,城市化水平较低,与其作为经济发达的广州市的一个区的地位不相符。广州发展重心的转移,又削弱了白云区原有的优势,人才、资金、技术等生产要素将向东南部流动,使白云区面临着发展与控制的双重挑战。根据白云区的地域特征、面临的困境和所担负的功能,通过构筑三个片区、形成高效的工业组团、建设生态住宅区和廊道,解决控制与发展的矛盾冲突。
    The development strategy of "extending to east and opening up to south" which cancelled northern groups has scientific meaning of "eco-city" and landscape ecology control.Its scientific values are embodied by the function of Baiyun District, which is constructing ecologic supporting system of economic development of the metropolis and big scale background, embodying the practical meaning of eco-economy and the development idea of constructing landscape city for Guangzhou.However, the economic development of Baiyun District is weaker than that of other districts of Guangzhou, and its urbanization level is lower, which is not according with the status as and administrative area of Guangzhou.The change of development focus weakened the superiority of Baiyun District, and the production factors of talents, capitals, techniques etc.are flowing to southeast.So, Baiyun District confronts double challenges of controlling and development.According to the district characters, plight and function, this paper suggests to settle the conflict of controlling and development through constructing three blocks, forming industrial groups, building ecologic residential districts and corridors.
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    新疆城乡建设用地动态变化的时空特征分析
    雷军, 张雪艳, 吴世新, 张小雷, 鲁奇
    地理科学. 2005, 25 (2): 161-166.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2005.02.161
    摘要   PDF (645KB)
    利用20世纪80年代末和90年代末两个时期的LandsatTM卫星影象,运用空间分析和统计分析方法,分析了新疆城乡建设用地变化的时空特征。结果表明:①在这10年的时间里,新疆城乡建设用地扩展明显,其中城镇用地增长迅速。城乡建设用地类型及其结构变化在东疆、南疆和北疆三大区域和县(市)级区域存在明显的差异。②新疆城乡建设用地扩张以占用耕地和草地为主。③新疆城乡建设用地变化驱动因素主要是人口增长、国民经济的增长、第三产业的发展。
    The paper, based on remote sensing, GIS and Landsat TM digital images and the methods of spatial analysis and statistical analysis, analyzed the spatial-temporal characteristics of the rural-urban construction land use changes in Xinjiang from the end of the 1980s to the end of the 1990s.The primary findings show as the fowlling: 1) The rural-urban construction land use has been increased in many area.The expansion speed of the urban land use has been accelerated during the 10 years.The sub-land use changes of the rural-urban construction land use are characteristics by conspicuous regional differentiation among the three main region and among the 85 counties of Xinjiang.2) The change of rural-urban construction land use is mainly transformed from cultivate land and grassland.At the same time, the change of each kind of land use is characteristics of conspicuous regional differentiation.3 ) The force of rural-urban construction land use changes in Xinjiang is still the expansion of urban land and the rural settlement land, undoubtedly affected by the natural environment and social and economic conditions, which is main in the population increasing, GDP development and the third industry improvement.
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    中国东北地区及不同典型下垫面的气温异常变化分析
    孙凤华, 任国玉, 赵春雨, 杨素英
    地理科学. 2005, 25 (2): 167-171.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2005.02.167
    摘要   PDF (477KB)
    利用6个代表站1905-2001年较长时期的月平均气温,对缺测年代的数据进行了插补,建立了东北地区近百年平均季、年气温序列。对所建温度序列与同一区域内26个代表站平均温度序列的近46年同期资料做了相关分析,检验了序列的代表性。在所建序列基础上,分析了东北百年气温的年代、年和季节等不同时间尺度变化特点和地域分布特征,采用谱分析方法探讨了序列的周期性变化特征,并采用Mann-Kendall和Yamamoto方法对经过滑动平均的气温序列进行了突变分析。结果表明,东北近百年年平均温度表现为明显的增暖趋势,但为起伏式增暖;冬季增温非常强烈,夏季在1995年以前不仅没有升温,反而有明显降温趋势,但1995年以后夏季气温明显升高,春秋季的升温趋势与冬季类似,但幅度小得多;在区域内,增温强度似乎并不随纬度增大,纬度较低的沈阳增温最强;三种典型下垫面中以山地的增温幅度最强;功率谱分析表明了百年气温变化的2.3年和4.2年的主周期,其中2.3年周期比较显著。
    The air temperature data used for the study come from six weather stations in Northeast China from 1905 to 2001.These stations all have temperature observation records for about 100 years, which include Shenyang, Dalian, Yingkou, Changchun, Harbin and Qiqihar.The average temperature time series for the areas are obtained by simply averaging the six station values in the period.In order to check the representation of the series, correlativity between the six station time series and the twenty-six station time series is made, and it shows a very significant correlative coefficient.The temperature time series were further analyzed for the changes on varied time scales in the area.It is found that a marked warming occurred in the area over the past 100 years, with the wanning much more obvious in winter than other seasons.A slight cooling trend in summer can be detected, though temperature in warm season began to rise after 1995.Spectrum analysis indicates a 2.3-year period and a 4.2-year period for the average temperature series.In addition, climate jumps for annual mean temperature are also checked by applying the Mann-Kendall and Yamamoto methods, and two significant jumps in temperature time series have been detected in the beginning of 1920’s and the late 1980’s.
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    近50年来东北地区降水的时空分异研究
    唐蕴, 王浩, 严登华, 王水生
    地理科学. 2005, 25 (2): 172-176.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2005.02.172
    摘要   PDF (468KB)
    以ARCGIS8.3为关键数据处理平台,通过编制相关AML程序,对东北地区近50年来(1951-2000年)降水的时空分异特征进行了分析。东北区多年平均降水量为489mm,从东南向西北递减,多年平均东部区、中部区和西部区的降水分别为635mm,481mm,355mm。整体上看,东北区降水还有显著的周期性,东部区和西部区的降水周期均为11年,中部为32年。东北区降水整体上呈现下降趋势,但下降趋势不明显。
    By applying ARCGIS8.3 as a key data processing platform, this paper analyzes the spatial-temporal differentiation of precipitation within a duration of 50 years (1951-2000) in Northeast China.The mean annual precipitation in Northeast China is 489mm, successively decreasing from southeast area to northwest area, which is 635mm, 481mm, and 355mm, respectively, in the east, central, and west regions.Another prominent feature of precipitation in Northeast China is its periodicals, with a period of 11 years in the east and west area, and 32 years in the central area.
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    东北三江平原全新世火演化及其与植被和气候的关系
    李小强, 赵宏丽, 闫敏华, 王升忠
    地理科学. 2005, 25 (2): 177-182.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2005.02.177
    摘要   PDF (2691KB)
    通过勤得利泥炭剖面碳屑、花粉记录,重建东北三江平原地区全新世火演化与植被变化的历史;研究火演化与植被、气候的关系;探讨人类火活动及其环境效应的信息。三江平原最近9700aB.P.以来,疏林草原植被时期(9200-8500aB.P.)和疏林植被时期(9700-9200aB.P.)对应了暖干气候阶段,碳屑浓度出现峰值,而湿润时期的碳屑浓度均很低。显示在暖干气候阶段,火灾发生的频次高、强度大;湿润或相对湿润阶段。火灾力度相对较小或频次较低。同时,自然植被状况和植物类型同样制约了天然火发生的频次和强度。20世纪50年代三江平原开发与垦荒对火演化和环境产生重要影响。
    The records of charcoal and pollen from peat section at Qindeli, NortheastChina help us to reconstruct the fire variation and the vegetation history in the Holocene at Sanjiang Plain and to study their relationship among fire, vegetation and climate.The reconstruction of fire history also discusses the human activity of fire and the impact on environment.Two peak values of charcoal concentration appeared in the two periods of spares forest and grassland (9 200-8 500 a B.P.) and spares forest (9 700-9 200 a B.P.) corresponding to two climate epochs of warm-dry and relatively warm-arid respectively.In the wet period the charcoal concentration shows the low values.The frequency and intensity of fire are high in the dry period and low in the wet period.However, the characteristic of vegetation and the types of plant also restrict the frequency and intensity of fire in the Holocene at Sanjiang Plain.In the mean time, the exploitation to Sanjiang Plain influenced the fire variation and environment greatly after the 1950s.
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    黄河河口延伸与下游淤积关系研究中的问题分析
    师长兴
    地理科学. 2005, 25 (2): 183-189.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2005.02.183
    摘要   PDF (2856KB)
    阐明了黄河河口延伸与下游淤积关系问题的实质,指出了黄河河口延伸与下游淤积关系对时间尺度的依赖性,进而深入探讨了以前研究这一问题所用论据的合理性题。分析结果揭示,那种认为黄河下游淤积由河口延伸控制和河口延伸作用局限于近口河段的说法都缺乏令人信服的证据。
    With a high sediment load, the lower Yellow River has been aggrading rapidly for a long time.The causes of the aggradation became a hot topic among Chinese scholars in recent decades.Opposite opinions on the issue were raised.Some attributed the aggradation mainly to base level control, and some others associated it mainly with watershed control.Changes of base level control in the lower Yellow River are caused by the extension of the river mouth.This study reveals that different opinions on the issue were advanced because the issue was investigated on different time scales and some impertinent methods and evidence were employed by some previous studies.A certain time scale is necessary for studying this issue because there exist complex and constant changes in upriver inputs, mouth extension, and other factors influencing the sedimentation in the lower Yellow River with time as well as the hysteresis of channel adjustment of the river to these changes.A period of tens to hundreds of years seems to be a proper and practical time scale on which to discuss the issue.In order to back up the argument that the aggradation associated with base level control dominates in the lower Yellow River, some previous studies try to prove that the slope of the lower Yellow River is large enough for transporting the sediment inputs if the river mouth does not extend or that the aggradation in the river takes the form of headward aggradation.However, the author finds that all the evidence provided by those studies for this argument is untenable.The change in water level or deposits thickness along the river in a period is among the evidence.In piece of telling and concrete evidence, it has a good performance in determining the effects of base level control on aggradation on many other rivers, but the existence of great yearly variations of upriver inputs and concomitance of aggradation due to upstream and downstream controls in the lower Yellow River make it unsuitable in this case.As a fact, this evidence was also used by some other studies to claim the dominance of aggradation due to upstream control.Moreover, through flume experiments or calculation based on hydraulic models some studies disclose that the slope of the river is much lower than the graded slope under the current upstream inputs even if the river mouth does not extend.The methods and evidence used by studies to support the argument that the effect of base level control on aggradation has been limited in a reach close to the river mouth are also examined and disproved.Thus, both the arguments that the aggradation in the lower Yellow River has been dominated by the base level control and that the effect of mouth extension has been limited in a reach close to the river mouth for all time scales are not acceptable.
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    沿三条水汽输送路径的降水中δ18O变化特征
    章新平, 田立德, 刘晶淼, 姚檀栋
    地理科学. 2005, 25 (2): 190-196.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2005.02.190
    摘要   PDF (2719KB)
    分析和比较了沿三条水汽输送路径降水中稳定同位素的变化。沿南方水汽路径,低纬度地区取样站降水中平均δ18O的季节差异较小。自曼谷起,降水中δ18O的季节差异明显增加。沿北方水汽路径,郑州以西取样站暖半年与冷半年平均δ18O的季节差异均大于零。随着经度的增加,降水中平均δ18O的季节差减小。沿高原水汽路径,印度次大陆南部降水中的δ18O相对较高,随着纬度的增加,降水中δ18O逐渐减小。在翻越喜马拉雅山后,由于强烈的洗涤作用,降水中δ18O急剧下降。
    The variations of stable isotope in precipitation along three vapor transport path are analyzed and compared.Along the south vapor path that is from the equatorial areas through the southwest vapor passage in the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau towards to the mid-lower reaches of the Yangtze River, the seasonal differences of mean δ18O in precipitation are small in the sampling stations located in low latitudes, but increase from Bangkok toward north.The δ18O values in precipitation fluctuate on the whole, showing the different vapor origins.The appearance of the minimum δ18O at Kunming is related to its high altitude.Along the north vapor path from west to east under westerlies, the seasonal differences of the mean δ18O in precipitation, between the warm and the cold half-year, are all greater than zero for the stations in the west of Zhengzhou, and then decrease with the increasing longitude.During the cold half-year, the mean δ18O in precipitation reaches its minimum in Urumqi with the minimum temperature, influenced by the wide Cold-High Pressure over the Mongolia, then increases with longitude gradually and keeps at a roughly same level from Zhengzhou towards east.However, the δ18O values in precipitation are lower in the east than in the west during the warm half-year, influenced by the summer monsoon o-ver East Asia markedly.Along the plateau path that is from the tropics through the Indian Subcontinent and the Himalayas to the northern Tibetan Plateau, the mean δ18O values in precipitation are correspondingly high in the south parts of the India Subcontinent, and then decrease with latitude gradually.A sharp depletion of the stable isotopic compositions in precipitation takes place due to the very strong rainout of the stable isotopic compositions in vapor in the process of the lifting on the southern slope of the Himalayas.The δ18O in precipitation is kept at a low level from Nyalam to the Tanggula Mountains during the rainy season all the while, but increases with increasing latitude persistently from the Tanggula Mountains to the northern Tibetan Plateau because of the replenishment of vapor with the relative heavy stable isotopic compositions originating from the inner Plateau.The situation in the dry season is different: the mean δ18O values in precipitation decrease basically along the path from south to north.Generally, the mean δ18O in precipitation during the rainy season are lower than in the dry season for the regions controlled by the monsoons over South Asia or the Plateau, but contrary for the regions without monsoon or by weak monsoon.
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    祁连山东段河流阶地的形成时代与机制探讨
    高红山, 潘保田, 邬光剑, 李吉均, 李炳元, Douglas Burbank, 业渝光
    地理科学. 2005, 25 (2): 197-202.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2005.02.197
    摘要   PDF (581KB)
    第四纪期间祁连山东段发育了多级洪积台地与河流阶地,它们是研究区域构造活动与气候变化良好的载体。对该区主要河流阶地序列的野外考察,利用ESR、TL、IRSL以及14C等测年方法,研究表明,第四纪期间石羊河上游的各大支流普遍发育了5-6级阶地,其中南营村附近金塔河五级河流阶地的形成时代大致为1.24MaB.P.(T5)、0.78MaB.P.(T4)、0.14MaB.P.(T3)、0.06MaB.P.(T2)和0.01MaB.P.(T1),完全可以与该区沙沟河、黄河兰州段以及长江三峡段的阶地序列相对比。从各级阶地砾石层的堆积时代以及阶地的沉积特征分析,我们认为,即使在构造活动区域,气候变化在河流地貌演化过程之中起着重要的控制作用。
    Based on field investigation, we find that the rivers generally developed 5-6 terraces in the east Qilian Mountains during the Quaternary.According to the ESR (Electron spin resonance), TL (Luminescence), IRSL (Infra-red stimulated luminescence) and 14C dating methods, the ages of the Jinta River terraces are 1.24 Ma B.P.(T5), 0.78 MaB.P.(T4), 0.14 Ma B.P.(T3), 0.06 Ma B.P.(T2), and 0.01 Ma B.P.(T1)from up to down.The Xiying River developed 6 terraces near the Xiying Reservoir, some ages are 0.84 Ma B.P.(T6), 0.25 Ma B.P.(T4), 0.14 Ma B.P.(T3), 0.06 Ma B.P.(T2).These terrace sequences can be roughly correlated with the stepped landforms found in upstream Yellow River and Yangtze River watersheds.After careful analyses on the ages of gravel bed accumulations and the ages of channel down-cuttings, we propose that climate variations play significant roles in controlling river terrace evolutions even within the tectonic active regions.
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    土地利用/覆盖变化对黑土生态环境的影响
    韩晓增, 王守宇, 宋春雨, 乔云发
    地理科学. 2005, 25 (2): 203-208.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2005.02.203
    摘要   PDF (594KB)
    应用时空转换的方法,研究了黑土区自然草地开垦为农田后,在随后2-100年的耕作中1m土层土壤持水能力、C、N储量的变化。结果表明:由自然土壤-植被系统转化为人工农田系统后,黑土储水量减少17.6%-30.8%;对土壤碳库影响是缓慢的,1m土层的碳库储量100年来减少了23.71%;在0-50cm土层中氮素变化与碳库变化相似,但在50-100cm土层氮库100年来变化不大。土地利用与覆盖变化对水土流失效果显著,人工农田系统较自然生态系统多流失水27t/hm2,土为38t/hm2。在这些变化中,时间的作用是缓慢的,不占主导地位,仅起辅助作用,而土地利用/土地覆盖方式起到决定性作用。
    Black soils, located mainly in Heilongjiang and Jilin provinces of China, cover a broad area from 43皌o 48癗 and from 124皌o 127癊, with a total area of 5.93?106 ha.The black soils were cultivated about 200 years in south, 50 years in north and 100 years in central parts of the black soil area.These soils are one of the most fertile soils in China.These soils were cultivated for a relatively short time as compared to the soils in southern China.The vegetation changed from natural vegetation to crop-weed, to rotation of corn-soybean-wheat, or to rotation of corn-soybean.Steppified herbosa were flourished in black soil area under the proper weather condition for plant growth where the precipitation of about 500mm to 600mm mainly from April to September is synchronized with heat.The water status has changed dramatically with the use of land.If we take the water storage in the depth of 1m in spring in natural soil under the Steppified herbosa vegetation as control, the water storage under crops decreased to 20.4%, 20.6%, 22.6%, 27.2%, 29.3%, 27.3% after 2, 8, 15, 30, 50, and 100 years cultivation, respectively.The decrease of water storage was around 17.6% to 30.8% in summer investigation and about 19.7% to 29.9% in autumn measurement.According to the data from the three times measurement, we make a simulated calculation.The result showed that, the storage of water in this area was as high as a 24.9?109t reservoir in spring.The storage of water has decreased to 19.2?109 t after a hundred year cultivation.The impact of land use/cover on the soil water status is great.The capacity of land for storing water is decreased by 20% when cultivated for crops in contrast to natural soil.After the second year when the land was initially cultivated, the capacity decreased 6.9% every year with the cultivated time.So we concluded that the effect of soil use/cover is bigger than the time effect.The effect on black soil C pool of land use method and land cover is decisive, the C pool has a increase trend under original soil condition and steppified herbosa, it will decrease when black soil were reclaimed from its original state to farmland covered with crops.Compared with the capacity on soil C pool in 1 m soil layer under original soil condition and steppified herbosa, however, the organic C pool were decreased slowly by 23.71% on farmland after cultivation of 100 years.Plants need nitrogen as a macro-element.Method of land use and land cover affected the N pool in black soil in the same trend as for the C pool.Nevertheless the change in C pool in the layer from 50cm to 100cm is not significant in the period of 100 years;it is expected that much longer time is needed to have a significant change.It is land use/cover that makes tremendous influence on water and soil losses, but there is a litde relationship of water and soil losses with the cultivation time.Compared with the original soil and natural vegetation, the annual water loss of reclaimed farmland increased 27t/( ha·a);and there are as much as 50.93?106 t of water loss for the whole black soil area.Also the annual soil loss of reclaimed farmland increased about 38 t/ha;and there are 78.87?106 t soil loss for the whole black soil area.The over-cultivation not only resulted in the soil and water loss but also deteriorated the human living environment.
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    区域生态安全综合评价模型分析
    左伟, 王桥, 王文杰, 吴秀芹, 杨一鹏, 杨丽静, 朱晓华
    地理科学. 2005, 25 (2): 209-214.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2005.02.209
    摘要   PDF (626KB)
    区域生态安全评价需通过评价模型实现。而此类模型的构建则要克服理论、技术、方法、数据等方面的巨大障碍。文章根据生态环境系统的本质特征,对层次分析方法、灰色系统方法、模糊数学方法、变权方法等常用区域生态安全评价模型进行优化的复合,以期获得更加贴近实际情况的评价结论。在此基础上,构建层次分析-变权-模糊-灰色关联复合模型,作为区域生态安全综合评价的评价模型。
    Regional ecological security assessment can be attained by assessing model, the establishment of which has to overcome theoretical, technological, methodological, data difficulties.According to the essential characteristics of ecosystem, the paper optimally compounds the comprehensive models of regional ecological security assessment such as hierarchical analysis, gray system, fuzzy mathematics, variable weight, etc., thus a-chieving the assessing conclusions which closely reflects the real situations.In this paper, the composite models of hierarchical analysis-variable weight-fuzzy-gray correlation are constructed and used as the assessing model for regional ecological security.The case study here shows that this model is the relative best one for regional ecological security assessment at the current stage and conditions.
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    山东省产业结构的生态合理性评价
    任丽军, 尚金城
    地理科学. 2005, 25 (2): 215-220.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2005.02.215
    摘要   PDF (524KB)
    产业结构决定了一个地区的经济效益、资源利用效率和对环境的胁迫,对产业结构合理性评估是极为重要的。从对生态环境影响的角度构建了产业结构合理性评价指标体系,采用统计分析及综合评价方法对山东省17个地区的产业结构生态合理性进行了评价,结果表明山东省产业结构合理性属Ⅲ级,今后产业结构调整的重点是在经济高速发展的同时提高资源利用效率,缓解和减轻对生态环境的压力。
    Industrial structure decide the economic benefit, the resources utilizing efficiency and the pressure on environment of a region, so the assessment of industrial structure rationality is very important.This paper establishes the indicators system of the ecological rationality assessment of industrial structure.The assessment indicators system comprises 17 indicators that reflect the present situation of economy and society, the utilizing rate of resources, and the situation of environment.The criterion of assessment includes five grades.Then, the paper applies the fuzzy mathematics evaluation method, and assesses the ecological rationality of industrial structure in different regions in Shandong Province.The results of different regions and systems are compared and analyzed.On the whole, the present situation of economy and society is not very good, the utilizing rate of resources is low, and the environment is facing serious challenge in Shandong Province.The assessment results prove the ecological rationality of industrial structure of the whole province belongs to Ⅲ grade.The industrial structure’s impact on the assessment conclusion of ecological rationality is discussed.At last, the paper puts forward some basic countermeasures to optimize industrial structure and to promote the sustainable development in Shandong Province, such as decreasing the proportion of primary industry and transferring the large number of people of farm to secondary and tertiary industries, reforming the traditional industry and trying to develop the high-technology industry, increasing the proportion of tertiary industry.
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    近2000年古里雅冰芯净积累量与南疆盆地南沿的干湿变化
    冯松, 张拥军, 朱德琴, 汤懋苍, 高晓清
    地理科学. 2005, 25 (2): 221-225.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2005.02.221
    摘要   PDF (2645KB)
    利用1951-1991年古里雅冰芯净积累量、1951-2000年南疆盆地南沿的降水资料和1958-2000年NCEP/NCAR再分析的大气环流资料,讨论了它们之间的相互关系,并对其机理进行了初步分析,在此基础上建立了南疆盆地南沿近2000年高分辨率的干湿变化序列。
    Using the Guliya ice core accumulation from 1951 to 1991, and the precipitation data in south part of the south Xinjiang basis form 1951 to 2000, and the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data of atmospheric circulation from 1958 to 2000, their correlation have been discussed and their mechanism also have been analyzed.Based on these analyses the high resolution of the dry and wet change sequence in the past 2000 years was established.
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    综述
    区域产业集聚研究进展
    马延吉
    地理科学. 2005, 25 (2): 226-232.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2005.02.226
    摘要   PDF (683KB)
    区域产业集聚研究是人文地理学重要的研究领域,是人地关系地域系统研究的重要方面,在全球化背景下,区域发展要响应全球化,促进区域产业集聚形成,培育区域发展优势,提高竞争力,融入到全球生产网络。文章重点回顾了近10年来区域产业集聚的研究进展。区域产业集聚的理论研究取得了很大进展,集中体现在新产业区理论、新经济地理学理论、产业簇群理论、点-轴理论、公司地理论等方面。学者们从不同侧面,对区域产业集聚机制进行了研究,注重集聚经济、贸易与市场拉动、企业联系、知识传播等方面的研究。区域产业集聚研究是对全球经济一体化的重要响应,区域企业集群与推进企业的培育是区域产业集聚的关键。要不断调整区域产业集聚要素,以形成产业集聚的最佳状态和效果,要加强传统工业基地的产业集聚研究。既要培育合理的产业集聚,又要注重与区域人口、资源环境相协调。
    Study on regional industrial agglomeration is an important aspect of human geography.It is important even in the study of regional system of human-land relationship.Since the 1970’s, some important theories were developed, including new industrial district, new economic geography, and competitive advantage of nation and diamond theory.LU Dadao’s theory of Pole &Axis system was the important basis of nation and region’s industrial distribution.In Li Xiaojian’s theory of company geography, many important methods were given on study of enterprise.Many scholars analyzed the mechanisms of industrial agglomeration, mainly on agglomeration economy, trade and market, enterprise linkages, knowledge communication.In China, indexes of industrial agglomeration and FDI were studied specifically, and industrial cluster was the focus.Case studies are mainly on the cities or regions in Southeast China and Beijing.New industry and labor-intensive industry are mainly selected.In China, as a response to globalization and foundation of socialist market economy, it is helpful for the reconstruction of old industrial bases, also it is a key problem in studying regional industrialization and urbanization.Using for reference of theories and practices of studies on regional industrial agglomeration at home and abroad, we should studied the theory of regional industrial agglomeration systematically.The study includes mechanism and laws of industrial agglomeration, relation of industrial agglomeration and regional development, conversion and controlling of regional industrial agglomeration.Some researches should be done on the industrial agglomeration in old industrial bases, including conversion and controlling of regional industrial agglomeration, fostering of multinational corporation and industrial cluster, coordination among the areas in or out industrial agglomeration body.In addition, when cultivating the industrial agglomeration, regional sustainable development should be emphasized.
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    研究报道
    基于PRISM和泰森多边形的地形要素日降水量空间插值研究
    朱求安, 张万昌, 赵登忠
    地理科学. 2005, 25 (2): 233-238.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2005.02.233
    摘要   PDF (593KB)
    以黑河流域河西走廊中段地区为例,利用该研究区年、月降水与地形间较强的相关性特点,在PRISM方法的基础上对该地区日降水量进行了空间插值计算。文章提出了以月降水量的PRISM空间插值结果为该月逐日降水空间分布的参考本底,利用泰森多边形方法确定空间日降水的概率,从而实现黑河流域河西走廊中段地区日降水的空间制图方法,并对该方法得到的日降水时空数据集进行了误差分析和评估。分析结果表明,这一方法简单可靠,满足分布式水文模型或相关陆表过程分布式模拟对分布式日降水数据时空精度的要求。
    The spatial interpolation of monthly and daily precipitation over the Heihe region in the middle range of the Hexi corridor was systematically studied, and a new methodology based on PRISM approach in association with the utilization of Thiessen polygon analyses to counter the problems existed in daily precipitation spatial interpolations was proposed and validated with the meteorological data obtained in 1988 from 28 stations in the study region.In order to upscale the precisely interpolated yearly or monthly precipitation results derived from PRISM applications to the daily ones in the study region, a transferring algorithm was developed based on the fact that spatial regime of the specific day’s precipitation in the specific month is generally similar to that of the monthly precipitation spatial patterns of that month under study except some difference for some specific locations without precipitation in daily precipitation spatial distributions.For accurately locating the area where no precipitation take place in specific days over the study region, Thiessen polygon approach was utilized to determine the probability of daily precipitation in each pixels.The performance of the proposed methodology was validated for 6 stations, and the derived daily spatial precipitation over the study region was statistically analyzed in both temporal and spatial scales.The detailed analysis indicates that the method is simple and reliable and is able to meet the precision need of the distributed daily precipitation in the distributed hydrological process studies or relevant distributed land surface process simulations.
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    苏北地区新石器时代考古遗址分布特征及其与环境演变关系的研究
    顾维玮, 朱诚
    地理科学. 2005, 25 (2): 239-243.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2005.02.239
    摘要   PDF (484KB)
    苏北地区7000-6500aB.P.青莲岗文化时期重要新石器遗址有18处,主要分布在苏北废黄河泗阳至涟水段南北两岸。6000-5200aB.P.刘林文化时期重要遗址有9处,主要分布在涟水、邳县和高邮等地。6300-4400aB.P.大汶口文化时期主要遗址有8处,4100-3800aB.P.龙山文化时期主要遗址有23处,这两个时期遗址主要分布于连云港-沭阳-泗洪一线以西。以上遗址分布与气候和海面变化密切相关:7000aB.P.前的全新世最大海侵使江苏沿海普遍遭到海侵,故本区未发现7000aB.P.前的新石器遗址;青莲岗文化遗址多分布在基本未受海侵影响的陆相环境区;刘林文化遗址的锐减预示着5500aB.P.前后苏北全新世高海面的到来;龙山文化时期苏北大部分成陆,使得遗址数量增加更为显著。
    This paper discusses the spatial-temporal distribution of Neilithic sites and the relation with environmental variation, that is, climate and sea level change in North Jiangsu Province.Since the 1980s, Chinese scholars have made a lot of research on the relation between the spatial-temporal distribution of Neilithic sites and the Holocene sediment stratum,transgression, coast evolution,and get lots of achievements.However, the correlative research on the spatial-temporal distribution of archaeological sites, stratigraphy and micropaleontology are few.North Jiangsu Province, the most important part of Jiangsu Plain, has vast area, dense river, warm climate, abundant rain fall, and is one of areas with the clear-cut prehistoric culture series and prevailing Neolithic culture during 7.0-4.0 ka B.P.based on many archaeological finds.The Neolithic culture series that includes Qingliangang culture, Liulin culture, Dawenkou culture and Longshan culture has been established basically.There are 58 culture sites in total in North Jiangsu Province.The number of Qingliangang culture sites reaches 18, accounting for 31.0% of total sites.The number of Liulin culture sites is 9, being 15.5% of total number of culture sites.The number of Dawenkou and Longshan culture sites is 8 and 23 respectively.Qingliangang culture sites are mainly located on the plain from Siyang to Lianshui along the abandon Yellow River.Liulin culture sites are mainly located on Lianshui, Pixian, Gaoyou and so on, and there is no culture sites found around Hongze Lake, Liulin culture sites decreased sharply.Dawenkou and Longshan culture sites are mainly located on the west of Lianyungang, Shuyang and Sihong, the number of culture sites increased greatly.The distribution of prehistoric culture sites is limited by environment, and has internal and exterior law.According to correlative research on the spatial-temporal distribution and geomorphology, the authors draw the conclusions as follows: The distribution of above culture sites has close relation with climate and sea level change.Prior to 7000 a B.P., the largest Holocene transgression invaded North Jiangsu coastland, so there are no Neolithic sites found in this area.During 7.0-6.5 ka B.P., the climate was warm and wet, Qingliangang culture become flourishing, the archaeological sites are mainly located on the land, where does not be affected by Holocence transgression.During 7.0-6.5 ka B.P., terrestrial area reduced and the number of Liulin culture sites decreased sharply, it indicated the arrival of Holocence high sea level around 5.5 ka B.P.in North Jiangsu Province.During 4.1-3.8 ka B.P., the climate was mild and dry, sea-level was fall-off and terrestrial area enlarged.Most of North Jiangsu area became dry land, it made Longshan culture developed well, the number of culture sites increased greatly.Therefore, the above variation of geomorphology evolution and hydrology affected succession of archaeological culture types greatly, that is, culture developed and number of sites increased with trend of transference to low lands owing to warm and dry climate and higher terrain suited to habitation.On the contrary, the warm and wet climate enlarged water area and went against the development of ancient culture showing few cultural sites.
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    坡面泥石流发生的坡度阀值研究
    曾凡伟, 徐刚, 李青
    地理科学. 2005, 25 (2): 244-247.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2005.02.244
    摘要   PDF (377KB)
    对重庆市北碚区的21个坡面泥石流的实地调查表明,坡度对坡面泥石流发生具有重要的控制性作用。在对坡面泥石流流域大量原始坡度进行统计分析后发现,各坡面泥石流的坡度服从正态分布规律。根据这一分布规律,将本区坡面泥石流发生的坡度阀值确定为三类。文章从定量的角度阐述了坡度阀值与坡面泥石流发生的关系,为生态脆弱区的划分、工程建设、防灾减灾和政府决策提供服务。
    The investigations on 21 debris flows on mountain slope in Beibei District, Chongqing makes clearly that gradients are very important to debris flow on mountain slope.After counting and analyzing a great deal of the drainage area of debris flow on mountain slope, we find that the distribution of gradients is the normal distribution.According to the distributive laws of the average gradients of the drainages areas of debris flow on mountain slope, we make sure that the critical gradients can be classified into three kinds.The average of the first kind of the critical gradients is 32.4 degrees.The debris flows belonging to the first kind of the critical gradients are apart from residential areas and human being’ activities are feeble, and at the same time, their vegetation rates are higher.The average of the second kind of the critical gradients is 27.3 degrees.The debris flows belonging to the second kind of the critical gradients are located in woodlands and farmlands, and human being’ activities are acute and the vegetation rates are lower .The average of the third kind of the critical gradients is 36.8 degrees.The debris flows belonging to the third kind of the critical gradients are in the Guanyin gorge.They are controlled by the terrain condition.We have quantitatively explained the relationship between the crucial gradients and the debris flow on mountain slopes.It can afford services to the dividing ecological frailty sections, engineering construction, preventing and decreasing disasters, and the government decision-making.
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    基于旅游场理论的区域旅游空间竞争研究
    章锦河, 张捷, 刘泽华
    地理科学. 2005, 25 (2): 248-256.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2005.02.248
    摘要   PDF (887KB)
    旅游场是旅游活动存在的一种基本形式,具有能量、动量和质量,影响和作用于其中的旅游流的产生、集聚与扩散,反映场内各源点之间的相互作用关系。通过提出了旅游场的概念体系,构建了基于旅游场的区域旅游空间竞争分析模型与测度方法。并以皖南旅游区为例,从单一源点的场强、一对源点的位势、多源点的相互作用三个角度,对近1000份调查问卷资料进行统计分析,探讨了其区内旅游场核、旅游场位势、旅游场等级结构、旅游流等级扩散和旅游流空间行为的一般特点,揭示了区域旅游空间竞争的基本规律。
    Tourism field is a basic existence of tourist activities, which has energy, momentum and quality, operates and affects on the generating, centralizing and expanding of tourism flows, reflects the interaction relationships among the different places in tourism field.This paper offers an analysis model of spatial competition among tourism regions based on the theory of tourism field and a conceptual system of tourism field.It puts forward an idiographic analysis method of tourism field from three aspects, namely the intensity of single place, potential energy of several places and interaction among many places in tourism field.It takes the tourism region of South Anhui as an example, by using the theory and methods of tourism field, discusses the general character of tourism nucleus, hierarchic structure of tourism field, hierarchic structure of tourism flows spreading and spatial behavior of tourism flows in tourism region of South Anhui.Finally, this article draws some basic principles of spatial competition among tourism regions and discusses the use of the theory of tourism field.
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