Please wait a minute...
 首页  期刊介绍 期刊订阅 广告合作 联系我们 English
旧版网站  
 
优先出版  |  当期目录  |  过刊浏览  |  热点文章  |  阅读排行  |  下载排行  |  引用排行

ISSN 1000-0690
CN 22-1124/P
创刊于 1981 年 (月刊)
  关于期刊
    » 期刊简介
    » 编 委 会
    » 数据库收录
    » 获奖情况
  作者中心
    » 在线投稿/查稿
    » 征稿指南
    » 稿件格式与修改说明要求
    » 论文模板
    » 版权转让协议
  审稿中心
    » 审稿要求
    » 专家在线审稿
  在线办公
    » 主编审稿登录
    » 远程编辑登录
    » 在线生产中心
  • 地理科学
      2007年, 第27卷, 第5期 刊出日期:2007-09-20 上一期    下一期
    选择: 合并摘要 显示图片
    论文
    经济全球化背景下中国经济发展空间格局的演变趋势研究
    刘卫东, 张国钦, 宋周莺
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (5): 609-616.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.05.609
    摘要   PDF (1343KB)
    全球化已经成为对国家、地区和企业制定发展策略产生重要影响的因素之一。参与经济全球化已经对中国区域发展空间格局产生了重要影响。在分析中国国际贸易和利用外资现状及发展趋势的基础上,根据相关理论预测了在经济全球化趋势下中国未来区域发展空间格局的可能情景。中国的比较生产成本和市场规模优势仍将对外商直接投资形成较大的吸引力,将进一步强化中国作为"世界工厂"的地位。随着中国进一步参与经济全球化,外资和外贸的发展将促进和强化中国的"T"型空间格局的形成。在这个"T"型空间骨架上将形成若干个以主要门户城市为核心的、具有一定国际竞争力的大都市经济区。
    Economic globalization has been one of the major considerations in making development strategies for both national and local governments and firms.Essentially,globalization is a set of on-going processes that are interconnected and operated unevenly across space and time.One of the signifiers of globalization is the emerging global production network,which distinguishes the current state of the world economy from its past configurations.Since the spread of production network is territorially embedded,the spatial implications of globalization lie with the interaction between the "global" and "local/place".Many writers have argued that,as a result of globalization and the rapid development of new information and communication technology,the world economy is being restructured towards a system of "flows",connections and networks,which makes "gateway" cities much more significant than ever in attracting those "flows" and channeling them with their hinterlands.Such dynamics have been redrawing the map of the world economy into one of archipelagos—a few of extended metropolitan regions(EMR) with gateway cities as cores across the globe.Since the early 1980s,China has been actively and extensively involved in the process of globalization through attracting huge amount of foreign direct investments(FDI) and growing into a big exporter of manufactured goods.Inflow of FDI and growth of foreign trade,which have taken place mostly in the coastal region,have strengthen the coastal "axle" of the "T-shaped" spatial structure of national economic development in China.This paper,based on an introduction to theoretical arguments on globalization and its spatial implications,first analyzes the trend of FDI inflow into China as well as potential growth of China’s foreign trade in the next two decades or so.It argues that China will keep its attractions to FDI because of the combined advantages of low production cost and sheer market scale there,and will continue to act as a "world factory" in the years to come.Since vertical FDI generally favorites coastal locations for convenience of exports whereas horizontal FDI also tends to go to favorable transport nodes,either coastal or inland,FDI inflow will further consolidate the "T-shaped" spatial structure of national economic development in China,with the coastal regions as one axle and those along the Changjiang(Yangtze) River as the other.In addition,as revealed by theoretical arguments,FDI will "flow" via a number of gateway cities into hinterlands.Thus,FDI inflow may lead to the emergence of several EMRs in China,which tend to be located mainly on the "T-shaped" spatial structure.Therefore,a scenario of the spatial structure of economic development in China in the next two decades is likely to be that economic activities agglomerate into a number of EMRs on the "T-shaped" spatial structure(along the coastal and the Changjiang River).This trend should be one of the major considerations in making future regional development policies in China.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    欧美经济地理学的三个发展方向
    苗长虹
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (5): 617-623.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.05.617
    摘要   PDF (1544KB)
    经济地理学是在与经济学的交融中创新、发展的。基于经济学发展中的三个重要流派:新古典主义、制度主义和演化主义,经济地理学在新世纪将进入前所未有的纷争时代——新古典经济地理学、制度主义经济地理学和演化经济地理学三足鼎立的"三国时代"。在对经济学领域的这三大流派基本特征分析的基础上,探讨了欧美经济地理学领域这三个发展方向各自的理论出发点及其异同,进而分析了其竞争、合作和创新的基本途径以及对中国经济地理学发展的借鉴意义。
    Economic geography has close relationship with economics and there are three frontier approaches in contemporary economic geography which are founded on three approaches of economics: neoclassical,institutional and evolutionary economics.Based on neoclassical economics,’new economic geography’ or’geographical economics’ is bringing the’geographical turn’ back into economics and has attracting many scholars’ attention,both in modern mainstream economics and in geographical sciences.Meanwhile,with the perspectives of institutional economics and other social sciences,the "institutional turn" and "cultural turn" have transformed mainstream economic geography into a more interdisciplinary approach.Recently,the rise of evolutionary economics in mainstream economics is bringing a new approach named as "evolutionary economic geography" to geographical sciences.Although mainstream economics and geography have largely developed separately,those three approaches of’new economic geographies’ will bring a new stage to the innovation and development of contemporary economic geography from the "Quantitative and theoretical revolution" and the "Marxism turn" onwards.This paper introduces the fundamental principals of neoclassical,institutional and evolutionary approaches in economics and explores their effects on the directions of development of contemporary economic geography.We should think much of the great differences between neoclassical,institutional and evolutionary economic geographies,but they also have many commonalities and great complementarities to explain various formal and substantive spaces,so the competition and cooperation between them should be the important direction of developing contemporary economic geographies.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    中国经济地理学发展困境与对策刍议
    焦连成, 陈才
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (5): 624-629.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.05.624
    摘要   PDF (1274KB)
    探讨了当前中国经济地理学发展中出现的哲学、分支体系、理论、方法论、研究方向和高等教育等6方面问题,并从中国经济地理学学科建设角度,分别对中国经济地理学的哲学、学科分支、理论体系、方法论和研究领域进行了梳理,对各自发展作了展望。
    This paper analyzes such six problems in the development of economic geography in China as philosophy,branches,theory,methodology,researching orientation and higher education.In addition,this paper sums up philosophy,branches of economic geography,theoretical system,methodology and researching region in economic geography in China and forecasts their respective development from the aspect of constructing economic geography in China.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    中国近期农村人口迁移态势研究
    王国霞, 鲁奇
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (5): 630-635.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.05.630
    摘要   PDF (2144KB)
    采用第四次、第五次人口普查所获得的人口迁移数据,分析了中国农村人口迁移在全国总迁移人口中的地位变化的省际总体特征和个体特征,探讨了各省级单元农村人口迁移在总人口迁移中的地位在20世纪80年代和90年代随时间变化的原因。进一步重点研究了中国农村人口迁移的时空分布格局,分别从省际、省内两个空间尺度,分迁入、迁出两个角度对中国农村人口迁移的规模和流向态势进行了深入分析。
    The scale of migration of rural population has been a big increase since the reform of China,and the spatial migration distribution has a great change as well.By use of software of ARCGIS and based on the data of the forth and fifth censuses,the paper studies the spatial and temporal change of rural population migration and summarizes the characteristics of migration of rural population in the last 20 years.Firstly,the authors analyse the share changes of the rural population migration to the whole country population migration in the 1980s and 1990s,and divides 31 provinces into four classes according to the average of share of rural population migration to whole population migration further and briefly explores the reasons of change with the time for every province.Then they explore the spatial and temporal changes of rural population migration from the inter-provincial and inner-provincial scales.The scale and flow direction of in-migration and out-migration of rural population are explored in this paper.At last,the authors make a comparison research of activity degree of rural population migration among provinces by use of migration rate.The conclusion are as follows: ① From the viewpoint of whole China,the scale of migration of rural population is increasing,but the percentage to total migration is decreasing for the urban population migration.② Although the rural population take the great parts in whole in China,but it varies in different provinces.The urban population migration plays an important role in some developed provinces.It is found that the rural population both of Middle China and West China are more active in 1990s than in the 1980s not only for inter-provincial migration but also for inner-provincial migration.③ The distance of migration is longer and the direction of migration is clearer in the 1990s than in the 1980s.The rural migrants mainly rushed to the regions of Guangdong,Shanghai,Jiangsu and Zhejiang and mainly came from Anhui,Hunan,Jiangxi,Henan and Sichuan.④ Although it appears that the Middle China and East China are the same level as far as the total scale of migration,the migration structures are different.The migration of East China mainly take place in inner province,while that of Middle China mainly do inter provinces.⑤ Both inner-provincial and inter-provincial migration rate have rises from the 1980s to the 1990s and the rise range is different in provinces for location,history,economy and so on.The province with maximum rural migration is not the province with highest migration rate because of the different rural population base.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    空间集聚与外商直接投资的区位选择——基于珠江三角洲地区的实证分析
    李郇, 丁行政
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (5): 636-641.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.05.636
    摘要   PDF (950KB)
    在揭示改革开放以来外商直接投资在珠江三角洲空间分布呈现向珠江三角洲集聚的基础上,采用动态局部调整模型对1992~2003年外商直接投资在珠江三角洲9个地级城市中的区位选择影响因素进行了实证分析,结果表明外商直接投资在广东省的区位选择,除受到城市区位特性因素的影响外,更为主要的影响因素是外商直接投资的集聚效应,即与城市已有的外商直接投资数量呈正相关,存在外商直接投资的空间集聚效应,进一步的提出了通过产业集群培育和升级促进珠江三角洲城市外商直接投资持续集聚的策略。
    Based on the fact that the distribution of FDI has been aggregated to the cities of the Zhujiang(Pearl) River Delta in Guangdong Province since the implementation of the policy of reform and opening-up,this article makes an analysis on the location selection of FDI in the Zhujiang River Delta by introducing the partial adjustment model.The result of the analysis indicates the location selection of FDI in the Zhujiang River Delta not only regards to the low cost of labor,the basic infrastructure,and etc.,but also has a direct relationship with the FDI stock which is regarded as the spatial accumulation effect.At last,we propose the suggestion that the Zhujiang River Delta should put stress on the cultivation and development of FDI cluster in order to boost an investment accumulation effect.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    近20年来中国滨海地带区域经济分异特点研究
    陈月英
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (5): 642-647.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.05.642
    摘要   PDF (2354KB)
    以地级行政区为地域单元,采用多指标综合作为衡量指标,对中国滨海地带经济地域分异特征即经济发展水平的峰谷相间特征进行了研究。首先研究了峰谷相间地域格局的发育过程;然后探讨了区域产业结构和城市化水平的时序演化特征;最后总结了上述时序过程和空间过程的时空关联特征。研究的结果表明,中国滨海地带已经形成了区域之间、区域组合之间、南与北之间多层次的地域经济分异。
    This paper takes prefectural area as a unit,and studies characteristic of regional economic differentiation of the littoral belt of China with index synthesis in 1984-2003.The characteristic takes on the peak of the level of economic development alternating with the valley of the level.First it makes a detailed study of the growth process of regional economic differentiation.Then it researches the evolution features of regional industrial structure and the level of regional urbanization.At last it discusses the space-time relationship of the regional economic differentiation of the littoral belt according to the above.The conclusion of the study indicates that the littoral belt has various regional economic differentiations between regions,regional combinations,the northern part of the belt and the southern China.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    江苏省主要经济带产业转换与空间相互作用研究
    张可远, 欧向军, 沈正平
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (5): 648-654.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.05.648
    摘要   PDF (1129KB)
    在总结国内外对经济带相关研究成果的基础上,分析了江苏省主要经济带产业与空间结构的现状与发展特征,并运用主成分分析法对四大经济带的产业结构转换能力进行了综合评价,结合引力模式对四大经济带的空间相互作用强度进行了比较分析,结果发现四大经济带的产业结构转换能力和空间相互作用强度存在着明显的区域不平衡;在此基础上,提出江苏省四大经济带产业与空间联动发展的主要对策与措施。
    This paper analyses the current situation and the development characteristics of the main economic belts and spatial structure in Jiangsu Province on the basis of foreign achievement of the economic belt,at the same time,makes a comprehensive evaluation on ability of industry structure adjustment of four economic belt using the analytical method of main composition.Then it makes a comparative analysis of space interactive strengths of four economic belts using gravity model.It was found that there is evident regional disparity in changing ability of industry structure and space interactive strengths in four economic belts.At last,main countermeasures of the interactive development of four economic belts and space were proposed.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    基于耗散理论的城市边缘区土地利用的弹性管理研究
    杨琳, 何芳
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (5): 655-660.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.05.655
    摘要   PDF (755KB)
    城市边缘区是城市郊区化和乡村城市化的结合交会区域,其时空特征表现出十分复杂和不稳定的特征。本文把城市边缘区看作一个可弹性管理的耗散结构,依据耗散结构理论中的熵变模型,剖析了城市边缘区土地利用的弹性管理方法,利用实例论述了城市边缘区的弹性确立方法,并基于熵的视角提出了实现弹性管理的策略。
    Urban-rural fringe lies in transitional region between urban and rural.Its land-use shows the rapid and unsteady characters in different space and time.This paper regards urban-rural fringe as a flexible and dissipative structure,analyzes its flexible management of land-use based on the dissipative structure principle and its entropy model,sets up a subjection function to confirm a urban-rural fringe belt and uses an example to validate the model.At last,this paper puts forward suggestions for the urban-rural fringe belt to change its value of entropy and achieve the strategic keystone of it.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    玉米深加工产业的循环经济模式研究
    王红, 汤洁, 王筠
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (5): 661-665.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.05.661
    摘要   PDF (727KB)
    玉米深加工具有典型的替代能源及循环经济特征。目前玉米深加工行业面临的资源短缺和环境污染的双重制约。从促进经济与环境协调发展的角度,结合玉米深加工产业发展及环境治理现状,对玉米深加工产业的循环经济模式——玉米深加工生态产业园区建设进行了探索。通过对玉米深加工生态产业园上下游原料产业链的延伸、各环节废物的资源化分析、能源与水资源回收利用的设计和生态产业园区外围企业关系的研究,结果表明,通过实施清洁生产和延长产业链,构建闭合循环的玉米深加工生态产业链条,可实现资源、能源的有效节约和副产品、废弃物的综合利用,具有相应的环境、经济和社会效益,在增强企业绿色竞争力的同时可促进玉米深加工产业的可持续发展。该模式对吉林省及同类地区玉米深加工产业的可持续发展有指导和借鉴意义。
    Corn advanced processing has the typical characters of alternative energy and circular economy.With the transform of agricultural structure from adaptable adjustment to strategic adjustment,advanced processing industry of corn that connects agriculture and industry has displayed great marketable potential and vast development space.A lot of successful experiences all over the world have proved that advanced processing industry of corn is "golden industry" that has related effect,collected effect and increased effect.But currently advanced processing industry of corn is restricted by both resources scarcity and environmental pollution.In terms of promoting the coordinated development of economy and environment,as a circular economy model of corn advanced processing industry,to build EIP of corn advanced processing industry is probed into in this paper,in combination with the development actualities and environmental pollution control status in this industry.The analysis results indicate that effective saving of resources and energy and comprehensive utilization of by-production and waste can be gained by designing closed-circuit eco-industrial chains of corn advanced processing industry by means of practicing cleaner production and extending of industrial chain.The study of circular economy model of corn advanced processing industry can promote the sustainable development of corn advanced processing industry while increasing green competition ability of enterprises engaged in corn advanced processing which makes environmental,economic and social benefits.Jilin Province is a hometown of corn in China.And fortunately it is one of the "three golden belts of corn" in the world.Advanced processing industry of corn is one of the pillar industries of Jilin Province,so this study makes great sense to the sustainable development of corn advanced processing industry in Jilin Province and it can be use for reference to the same industry in other region.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    吉林省生态环境建设的困境与政府行为选择
    彭永林, 盛连喜
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (5): 666-671.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.05.666
    摘要   PDF (1264KB)
    加强生态环境建设,改善生态环境质量已成为世界各国推进可持续发展过程中亟待解决的主要问题,也是中国全面贯彻科学发展观和构建和谐社会面临的重大课题。吉林省在生态环境建设虽然已取得初步成效,但仍然存在土地退化、资源利用效率低下、林草地及湿地质量和功能退化、环境污染加剧等问题。而环境投资能力、产业结构、技术创新能力、管理体制、环境吸纳能力等是导致生态环境问题的主要制约因素。并从政府行为的视角提出了推进吉林省生态环境建设的若干建议。
    It is a primary problem that how to reinforce the eco-environment construction and improve the eco-environment quality in the course of promoting sustainable development for all countries in the world.And that is an important task to carry out the scientific development and build Harmonious Society.Some effects have been gained in the eco-environment construction in Jilin Province.But there are still some questions: 1) land retirement is very serious;2) resources utilization efficiency is low;3) the quality and function of forests,pastures and wetlands are declining;and 4) environmental pollution is aggravating.The authors analyse the restricted factors that lead to deterioration of eco-environment in Jilin Province.Those factors are the environment investment capability,industrial structure,technological innovation capability,management system and environmental bearing capacity.At last,the authors put forward some suggestions to promote eco-environment construction form the perspective of government behavior.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    河流阶地形成过程及其驱动机制再研究
    许刘兵, 周尚哲
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (5): 672-677.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.05.672
    摘要   PDF (647KB)
    河流阶地的形成是在内因(河流内部动力变化)和外因(低频和高频气候变化、构造运动、基准面变化)共同作用下的结果。受单一气候变化制约的河流阶地发育模式可以解释由于沉积物通量和径流量变化引起的河流堆积-侵蚀过程,但它难以解释形成多级阶地的逐步(或间歇性)下切过程。多级阶地的形成可能同时受到构造抬升和周期性气候变化的制约。由于下切过程的滞后效应,侵蚀和冰川均衡抬升、河谷的侧向侵蚀过程等影响,山地的构造抬升与河谷的下切之间并非一种简单的线性关系,应当慎用河谷的下切速率来代表山地的抬升速率。
    The formation of fluvial terraces results from the combination of internal factor(change in intrinsic fluvial system dynamics) and external factors(high-and low-frequency climate change,tectonic uplift,and base level change).Models of climate-controlled fluvial terrace formation can explain the tendencies towards riverbed aggradation and degradation resulting from changes in sediment and water supply.However,these models can not explain the progressive(intermittent) incision recorded by several terrace staircases.The formation of river terrace staircases might be the result of combination of climate changes and tectonic uplift.When the resisting power resulting from increment of sediment supply and decrement of river discharge exceeded the stream power resulting from increment of river gradient due to tectonic uplift,river aggradation occursed during glacial periods.However,river channels behaviored in a contrary way during glacial-interglacial periods,when river incision occurred and the effect of tectonic uplift was then released.Due to delay effect of river incision,glacial and denudational isostatic uplift,as well as process of lateral erosion,river incision was not linearly related to tectonic uplift.Utilization of vertical incision rate to represent uplift rate should be done cautiously.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    黄土土壤结皮对产流临界雨强的影响分析
    程琴娟, 蔡强国, 郑明国
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (5): 678-682.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.05.678
    摘要   PDF (735KB)
    依据野外资料,从影响产流的各项因子出发,分析黄土高原典型区土壤结皮对产流临界雨强条件的影响,得出:在该区特殊的超渗产流方式下,土壤结皮降低入渗,使得产流时的临界雨强条件降低,因而大大提高了产流的可能性。但是,在实际情况下,雨强变异很大,应考虑不同雨强情况下土壤结皮对产流量的影响。而在室内条件下,各项因子均是可控的,一般情况下,雨强恒定,产流时的临界雨强条件降低,意味着产流提早,必然带来产流量的增加。
    Soil crust is formed on many soils of the Loess Plateau during rainfall,and a number of researchers paid attention to its effects on infiltration,runoff production and sediment yield.Based on field data,this paper analyzed the factors influencing runoff production(such as infiltration and rainfall intensity) and the effects of soil crust on runoff production in critical condition.It is found that in the condition of the special runoff mode,that is,runoff begins when rainfall intensity exceeds soil infiltration rate of the study area,soil crust reduce infiltration,and so reduce the critical rainfall intensity condition of runoff production and improve the probability of runoff beginning.Under the field condition,rainfall intensity is changeful,high probability of runoff beginning does not induce the increasing of runoff volume,for that the runoff volume is affected by other factors,such as rainfall lasting time and rainfall intensity.However during the indoor experiments,the factors are controllable,for example,rainfall intensity and rainfall lasting time is constant,so the reduction of critical rainfall intensity means the predating of runoff beginning and the increasing of runoff volume.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    基于改进型多流向算法的地形指数空间尺度变化分析
    雍斌, 张万昌, 刘传胜
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (5): 683-688.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.05.683
    摘要   PDF (1241KB)
    地形指数ln(α/tanβ)是流域径流源面积和地下水水位空间分布特征的近似表征,是地形特征参数化的重要指标。基于改进后的地形指数多流向计算方法,在0.5×0.5°的区域气候模式尺度框架下,探讨了地形离散和平滑效应分别对地形指数尺度变化的影响程度;研究了地形指数在100和1000m栅格尺度上的相关性,给出两者在空间尺度上的转换关系;分析区域尺度和全球尺度下地形指数尺度转换的差异及原因。研究结果可以增强地形信息在大尺度水文模型及陆面水文过程中的适用能力。
    Topographic index is an important parameter of topographic characteristics,which is normally used to approximately characterize the spatial distribution of source area of surface runoff and ground water tables in a catchment.Under the 0.5白0.5? regional climate model scoop,scaling effect of topographic index,which is calculated by the modified multiple flow direction algorithm,resulted from the terrain discretization and smoothing effects was explored,the statistic correlations of topographic indexes in 100 m and 1000 m grid size scales were quantitatively analyzed respectively and the transferring relations between these two resolutions in regional scale modeling applications were given.Consequently,differences in mean topographic indexes computed from regional climate model grid-size scale and GCMs were discussed and compared.This result has a practical implication for large scale hydrological model.Especially,this study opens a way to accurate terrain analyses to be used in the land-surface process modeling for regional scale application.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    利用不同方法估测土壤有机质及其对采样数的敏感性分析
    李翔, 潘瑜春, 赵春江, 王纪华
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (5): 689-694.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.05.689
    摘要   PDF (494KB)
    用随机方法从262个采样点中抽取200个点作为已知有机质含量的数据集,将所有采样点的碱解氮作为辅助数据预测有机质的空间分布。利用有机质信息的普通克立格法的方差解释量和预测精度最低,而回归克立格法因在预测过程中加入了回归残差而使方差解释量最大、预测精度最高。为了分析采样数对不同方法预测精度的影响,从上述已知有机质含量的200个点中分别随机抽取40、80、120、160个点构成4个数据集,分别利用它们的有机质信息和不同方法预测了有机质的空间分布,结果表明:对于每个数据集,4种方法的预测精度顺序均为RGK>COK>RG>OK,线性回归法的预测精度随采样点的增加基本不变,而其它三种方法的预测精度却逐渐提高。
    This paper presents four methods for estimating spatial distribution of soil organic matter and examines these methods’sensitivity to the sampling number.The four methods are ordinary kriging(OK),simple linear regression(RG),cokriging(COK),and regression-kriging(RGK).All sampling sites are randomly divided into two groups: interpolation dataset(200 points) and validation dataset(62 points).The organic matter of interpolation subset and alkalizable nitrogen of all observations are used to mapping soil organic matter.Among four methods,ordinary kriging,only using the information of organic matter,yields lowest accurate predictions and smallest proportion of the total variation,while regression-kriging using secondary data(alkalizable nitrogen) yields highest accuracy and largest variation explainable.To examine the effect of sampling number on the performance of four mapping methods,four subsets of 40,80,120,160 sampling sites are randomly selected from the interpolation dataset.For each subset,organic matter is estimated over the study area by four methods,respectively.The results show that the accuracy performances of four methods are RGK>COK>RG>OK.Moreover,the results indicate that the performance of simple linear regression remain stable,and that others perform better when the sample size of organic matter increased.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    排污活动对长江口滨岸潮滩营养元素N累积运移的影响及作用机制
    付金沐, 刘敏, 侯立军, 欧冬妮, 刘巧梅
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (5): 695-700.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.05.695
    摘要   PDF (1329KB)
    选择长江口滨岸潮滩作为典型研究区,研究了排污活动对潮滩营养盐N环境地球化学过程的影响。结果发现排污口滨岸潮滩上覆水、表层沉积物孔隙水和表层沉积物中的NH4+-N、TIN等都有显著累积效应,而NOx--N在长江口滨岸潮滩上覆水、表层沉积物孔隙水和表层沉积物中并未出现累积高峰值,表明外源输入不是潮滩环境中NOx--N主要来源。分析结果还显示,排污口潮滩沉积物-水界面间N分子扩散通量明显大于非排污口,表明排污活动加剧了潮滩沉积物-水界面间营养盐N的扩散过程。
    The influences of sewage discharge on environmental geo-chemical processes of nutrients were investigated in the Changjiang(Yangtze) River estuary in this study.The result indicates that there was obviously enrichment of NH4+-N and TIN in tidal water,tidal surface-sediment pore waters and surface sediments adjacent to sewage outlets in the estuary.The enrichment of nitrogen was considered to be related not only to the inputs of nitrogen from sewage outlets,but also to the changes of environmental factors induced by sewage discharge.In contrast,there was no significant enrichment of NOx-—N in the tidal water,tidal surface-sediment pore waters and surface sediments from the estuary,which showed that external inputs of nutrients was not the primary factor controlling the distribution of NOx-—N.It was also shown that the diffusive fluxes of nitrogen across sediment-water interface was markedly higher at sewage outlets than at the control sampling sites in tidal flats,indicating that sewage discharge not only increased the accumulation of nitrogen in the tidal flat,but also strengthened the exchange process of nitrogen across tidal sediment-water interface.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    基于GIS的长江河口没冒沙动态演变及稳定性分析
    左书华, 李九发, 时连强, 应铭, 徐海根
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (5): 701-706.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.05.701
    摘要   PDF (450KB)
    根据该海区近百年来各个时期海图资料,运用Mapinfo软件分析没冒沙的形成及形成后的演变过程。结果表明:没冒沙的形成和发育经历了局部边滩冲刷、边滩沙嘴发育和沙脊形成三个阶段;无论是其横断面变化,还是平面变化,均反映了其沙头部位冲刷下移(但其移动距离不大);近半个世纪来,沙体中轴位置在稳定强劲的涨落潮流作用下呈现出西北-东南走向,位置基本不变,形态变化不大,其冲淤量在1959年后变化很小,0m沙体变化基本不变,-2m沙体略有冲刷,冲刷量为0.07×106m3/a,反映出没冒沙稳定性比较好。
    Making clear the evolutional process of Meimaosha shoal in the Changjiang(Yangtze) River estuary can provide scientific basis for the construction of a reservoir between the sand ridge and the river bank.Supported by GIS software,15 pieces of charts of the Meimaosha shoal of the South Passage of the Changjiang River etuary were studied.The formation history and evolutional process of the Meimaosha shoal were discussed by the multi-methods.The results showed that,the form and growth of the Meimaosha shoal had undergone three phases which are erosion of local beach,growth of spit and form of sand ridge;the Meimaosha shoal had the character of tidal sand ridge as its middle axes had taken on a good stability along northwest to southeast under the action of steady and driving flood and ebb tides in the passed half century.After 1959,the deposition and erosion of sediment changed very slightly.The volume of 0m sand body change basic invariable,sand body of-2m had been slightly washed out with the erosion rate of 0.07?106m3/a,reflecting the Meimaosha shoal stability is quite good.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    偏振遥感测量中土壤偏振度随太阳高度角的变化规律初探
    杜嘉, 赵云升, 宋开山, 吴太夏
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (5): 707-710.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.05.707
    摘要   PDF (380KB)
    偏振是光的一种基本性质。不同地物或同一地物不同状态产生不同的偏振态,且与波长密切相关,因此探测目标地物偏振信息正成为遥感目标识别的新手段。推导了当光倾斜入射到土壤表面时偏振度与太阳高度角之间的函数关系,总结出其中的变化规律。太阳高度角是影响辐照度的主要因素,研究土壤偏振度随太阳高度角的变化规律,可以为土壤偏振遥感解译提供重要参数,对地物的精确识别和反演有重要的现实意义。
    Polarization is a basic nature of light.Different state of polarization can be generated by different earth targets or different state of a same earth target,which relates closely to the wavelength,therefore the detection of polarization information of earth target has become a new method of remote sensing target recognition.In this paper,we have inferred the function of solar zenith angles and degree of soil polarization.Solar zenith angle is the primary factor affecting the irradiance,therefore studying the rule of solar zenith angle and degree of soil polarization may provide more important parameters for polarized remote sensing interpretation and help to object precise recognition and inversion.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    中国近46年来冬半年日降水变化特征分析
    房巧敏, 龚道溢, 毛睿
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (5): 711-717.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.05.711
    摘要   PDF (1538KB)
    中国总体冬半年降水总量、日降水强度以及强降水日数都有不同程度的增加趋势。西北地区的变化相对显著,其平均降水量、降水日数及日降水强度都呈增加趋势,特别是20世纪80年代后期发生跃变。华北和中部地区降水总量趋于减少。南方3区多为增加趋势,其中东南和华南与冬季风及欧亚遥相关型有显著的负相关关系,而西南地区日降水参数则与温度和北极涛动指数显著相关。东北地区降水指标没有明显的一致趋势。
    Authors analyzed the changes of daily precipitation for 164 meteorological stations in China in winter during the period 1956-2002.According to the trends of seasonal precipitation change,7 sub-regions were determined and details for each sub-region were investigated.China as a whole,the wintertime precipitation,daily precipitation intensity,and the number of extreme precipitation events showed increasing trends.Among all 7 sub-regions,Northwest China experienced relatively significant changes,with a trend of 7.03%/10a in precipitation,of 0.76 d/10a in the number of rainy days,and of 0.04 mm/(d·10 a) in precipitation intensity.Particularly a notable jump-like rise occurred in the late 1980s.In North and Middle China the precipitation amount showed decrease trends.Three southern sub-regions showed notable and same increasing trends.The relationship between daily precipitation variability and temperature was very weak in South and Southeast China,but their links to winter monsoon and Eurasia teleconnection pattern were significant.The daily precipitation variability and temperature in Southwest China showed strong connection to Arctic Oscillation.There was no consistent and notable trend in Northeast China.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    青藏高原纳木错流域夏、秋季大气降水中δ18O与水汽来源及温度的关系
    徐彦伟, 康世昌, 周石硚, 丛志远, 迟妍妍, 张强弓
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (5): 718-723.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.05.718
    摘要   PDF (1543KB)
    根据2005年8~10月在纳木错收集的降水样和相关气象观测,分析该地区降水中δ18O变化特征及其与水汽来源关系,揭示不同水汽来源降水中δ18O与温度之间关系。观测期间水汽来源以西南季风和青藏高原本地气团输送为主。结果表明,纳木错流域夏、秋季节历次降水中δ18O变化主导因素是水汽来源不同。远距离输送夏季风海洋性气团形成的降水1δ8O值较低,而局地大陆性气团降水δ18O较高。对同源的降水事件,气温和δ18O值有一定正相关性,因而可能是次一级的响因素。
    Precipitation samples were collected at Nam Co Comprehensive Observation and Research Station,Tibet Plateau,during August to October of 2005.Relationships between δ18O in precipitation and moisture source are analyzed by using air mass backward trajectories.Difference of moisture source is the primary factor which influences variations of δ18O.While more negative δ18O values occur in precipitation which is caused by moisture originating mainly from Indian Ocean and transported by summer Southwest Monsoon,less negative δ18O values are associated with precipitation by local moistures and westerlies.According to the air mass backward trajectories,precipitation events are divided into two types: continental and marine precipitation.Positive correlations exist between δ18O and air temperature for both types of precipitation events,suggesting secondary affects of temperature on precipitation δ18O.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    山西种子植物区系地理研究
    李跃霞, 上官铁梁
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (5): 724-729.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.05.724
    摘要   PDF (695KB)
    山西省植物种类多样性相对丰富,共有野生种子植物143科、816属和2576种,科内属种分布极不平衡,有趋向大科分布特点;山西种子植物区系以温带分布区类型占绝对优势,共有410属、1540种,分别占总种子植物总属数的50.2%,总种数59.8%;该区系具有一定数量的古老成分;地理成分混杂且具有明显的过渡性,在中国植物属的15个分布类型和31个变型中,该区系就占15个分布类型和16个变型。
    This paper studied floristic diversity of seed plants in Shanxi Province using some basic methods and principles of the floristic geography and based on the composition and geography elements of the families,genera,species of plants from Shanxi Province.The results are as follows: The diversity is abundant in this area,there are 2576 species of seed plants in Shanxi Province,which belong to 816 genera and 143 families(not including cultivated plants).Among them there are about 6 families,13 genera,28 species are in Gymnospermeae;137 families,803 genera,2548 species in Angiosperm,which shows the distribution of plants in Shanxi Province is consistent with the climatic features of the area.Analysis of the floristic elements based on families,genera,and species shows that they are very complex in Shanxi Province.Among the areal-types of Chinese genera of seed plants,there are 15 types and 16 subtypes in this area.Temperate floristic elements are significantly dominant in genera,in which percents of North Temperate distribution is the highest,25.5% in the total number of genera in this area.It is indicated that this area has obvious temperate characteristics of the flora,and it also has the characteristices of permeation,intersection,transition and frangibility.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    综述
    从概念到立法:中国战略环境评价的回顾与展望
    包存宽, 舒廷飞
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (5): 730-735.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.05.730
    摘要   PDF (1282KB)
    总结了国内10年来SEA在理论研究、技术方法、实践、管理制度等方面的成果、经验、存在问题,最后指出SEA的发展趋势与建议,包括建立覆盖决策链所有环节、贯穿决策全过程的环境评价体系,基于强化规划环评与生态规划的联系提出构建相辅相成的规划与评价体系的建议,以及将SEA作为促进决策的民主化与科学化、全面落实可持续发展战略的重要手段等。
    China had spent 10 years since 1995 to build its strategic environmental assessment(SEA) system from conception to legislation.This paper concludes the outcomes,experiences and problems in researching on theories,methods and techniques,practices and management system of SEA and/or SEA for planning/program level in China firstly.Then it prospects the future SEA in China and gives some proposals including to build a complete EIA system covering all sections and the whole process of strategic decision-making,and strengthen the relationship between SEA and ecological planning(EP).The systems of both SEA and EP should be built under this framework,and SEA should be used as an important measure for promoting decision-making more democratic and scientific and finalizing sustainable development strategies.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    书评
    读《中国第四纪冰川与环境变化》
    裘善文
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (5): 736-736.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.05.736
    摘要   PDF (135KB)
    施雅风院士主编,崔之久、苏珍副主编的《中国第四纪冰川与环境变化》的学术专著,全书共19章、91万字,另附有李炳元等编制的《中国第四纪冰川图》,已在河北科学技术出版社于2006年3月出版。这部杰出的综合性专著,无疑是继著名地质学家李四光院士的“冰期之庐山”、世界级的第四纪大师刘东生院士的《黄土与环境》的专著之后,中国第四纪研究的又一项新的重大成果,无疑是对中国第四纪研究的一大重要贡献,它将推动中国新的高水平的第四纪冰川和环境变化的研究。
    Related Articles | Metrics
  编辑部公告 More  
· 声明
  2019-03-04
· 新年贺词
  2018-12-25
· 新春祝福
  2016-12-30
· 《地理科学》影响因子年报(2016版)
  2016-09-18
· 祝贺我刊三篇文章入选“首届最具影响力中国地理期刊优秀论文”
  2016-05-31
· 严正声明
  2016-05-11



  友情链接 More  


版权所有 © 《地理科学》编辑部
地址:长春市高新北区盛北大街4888号 邮编:130102 电话:+86 431 85542324 E-mail: geoscien@neigae.ac.cn
本系统由北京玛格泰克科技发展有限公司设计开发 技术支持:support@magtech.com.cn