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ISSN 1000-0690
CN 22-1124/P
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  • 地理科学
      2008年, 第28卷, 第4期 刊出日期:2008-07-20 上一期    下一期
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    论文
    转型时期中国城市贫困地理的实证研究——以广州市为例
    袁媛, 许学强
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (4): 457-463.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.04.457
    摘要   PDF (1127KB)
    研究辨析了综合贫困(Multiple Deprivation)与贫困概念、总结综合贫困的指标体系和研究方法,评述国外地理学对综合贫困空间的研究内容。再利用广州市最低保障数据和五普数据构建综合贫困的指标体系,采用因子分析法总结贫困主因子,并求得各街道综合贫困得分。发现广州市内城区和外围局部地区存在综合贫困累积型分布的状况,呈现"圈层+局部放射"的综合贫困空间总体形态,内外城贫困特征有一定差异,是历史、政策和市场等多种力量长期综合作用的结果。研究对拓展中国转型期贫困地理研究视角和指标体系有一定的裨益。
    On review of studies and indexes of geography of deprivation in Western academics, this paper fisrtly highlights the expansion of indexes of urban poverty from economic angle to mutiple facets including income, housing, education and employment, etc. Taking Guangzhou as a case, the paper firstly establishes indicators of multiple deprivation using the MLSP (Mninimum Living Standard Programme) recipients data and Fifth Census data.The paper summarises five key factors of deprivation by the method of factor analysis. There exits an accumulative distribution of multiple factors in inner-city and parts of outer area. Secondly the paper calculates the scores of mutiple deprivation on the level of sub-districts. The spatial morphology of mutiple deprivation is a combination of concentric layers, culsters. Thildly, the paper argues that mechanism of the spatial characteristics of mutiple deprivation is the outcome of historic reasons, public policies and market oriention in transitional era.
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    新农村建设与乡村发展研究——唐山、秦皇岛乡村个案分析
    甄峰, 赵勇, 郑俊, 赵国栋
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (4): 464-470.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.04.464
    摘要   PDF (1128KB)
    新农村建设与乡村发展是目前学术界讨论的热点领域。以唐山、秦皇岛10个村庄为案例,从农业经济、社会结构、社会服务与人居环境、基层组织与个人精英、城乡联系五个方面分析了案例地区乡村发展的主要特征与存在问题。最后,结合当前中国新农村建设,从国家政策与乡村内生发展、基于城乡合作的多样化乡村经济、"空心村"改造与人居环境整治、村庄规划编制与实施四个方面对未来中国的乡村发展进行了探讨。
    New rural construction and rural area development is becoming more and more a hot topic in China. From this new backgrounding, the paper chooses ten villages in Tangshan City and Qinhuangdao City as the empirical research area. The outhers analyze five aspects which are important for rural area development, i. e. rural economy, rural social structure, rural social service and human inhabitable environment, rural social entrepreneur, and urban and rural interaction. Then, the paper discusses something strategic for rural China in future, including national policy and rural inner development, diversified rural economy forms, "hollow village" and improvement of human inhabitable environment, and village planning and implementation.
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    陕西省城市竞争力及其通达性比较研究
    李九全
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (4): 471-477.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.04.471
    摘要   PDF (781KB)
    以陕西省的10个地级市:西安市、铜川市、宝鸡市、咸阳市、渭南市、汉中市、安康市、商洛市、榆林市和延安市为研究对象,选取了社会经济发展水平、人民生活水平、对外经济和联系及基础建设和交通四个方面共24项指标,运用SPSS16.0软件用主成分分析法研究城市竞争力,得到城市竞争力得分的情况,以最短距离原则选择距离指标、时间指标和通达性系数来衡量城市的通达性水平的高低,得到不同速度下通达性水平的空间格局,计算各城市以一定速度在1、2、3、4小时内能到达其他城市的数目,并对竞争力得分和通达性水平的特点进行分析,最后比较分析二者之间的联系。城市竞争力和通达性水平的空间格局基本一致,都是呈现以关中地区为中心的"核心-外围"的格局,核心即西安市和咸阳市,由核心向外围城市的竞争力水平和通达性水平逐步降低。通达性与竞争力水平二者相互促进,实现良性循环。
    The article takes ten cities of Shanxi province for the objects of study: Xian, Tongchuan, Baoji, Xianyang, Weinan, Hanzhong, Ankang, Shangluo, Yulin and Yanan. It selects 4 aspects, such as the level of social and economic development, living standard, external economic and connection, infrastructure and transportation, 24 indexes all together and uses SPSS16.0 software with principal component analysis to study the competitiveness of the cities, obtaining the competitiveness scores. It selects distance index, time index and accessibility coefficient by the principle of shortest distance to measure the accessibility, getting the spatial pattern of the accessibility caused by different speeds and the numbers of cities that can be connected within hours. At last, it analysises the competitiveness scores, the level of accessibility and the relation between them. The spatial pattern of urban competitiveness and the level of accessibility takes Guanzhong region as the center showing "core-external" trend, and the cores are Xian and Xianyang, the competitiveness and the level of accessibility reduce progressively from the cores to surroundings. The level of accessibility and competitiveness enhances each other and achieves virtuous circle.
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    区域知识溢出的计算分析
    滕丽, 蔡砥, 王铮
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (4): 478-482.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.04.478
    摘要   PDF (739KB)
    区域溢出是一种重要的新经济现象。区域知识溢出是其中的一种形式。区域相互作用的可观察事实可能为区域知识溢出提供某种传递机制。基于人口迁移、铁路贸易两种可观察事实,采用CH模型和反事实估计法验证了中国省域尺度上的溢出是否与人口迁移或铁路贸易有关。还考虑了省域之间的产业结构相似性和贸易联系紧密性对区域知识溢出的影响。结果显示区域知识溢出与反映区域相互作用的可观察事实有关,而不是随机发生的。
    Regional spillover is an important new economic phenomenon. As one of the many forms of regional spillover, regional knowledge spillover is special and invisible. The observable facts of regional interaction may become the transferring mechanism of regional knowledge spillover. To confirm this, an expanded CH model is applied in the paper to studying the relationship between regional spillover and regional interaction. The approach of anti-facts estimation is introduced to explore on the Chinese province scale data. Two kind of visible regional interaction facts, population migration of Chinese mainland inter-province and railroad trade, are employed to test the spillover mechanism between Chinese mainland provinces. The industrial familiarity and trade tightness between the provinces are also concerned to study the affection to regional knowledge spillover. The GDP and R&D expenditure are adopted to measure the regional knowledge stock, respectively. It is argued that regional knowledge spillover is not happened randomly, however it is relative to the visible facts which represent regional interactions.
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    主体功能区划与中国区域规划创新
    方忠权, 丁四保
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (4): 483-487.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.04.483
    摘要   PDF (742KB)
    "十一五"规划期间,国家将区域规划工作放在了突出重要的位置,这是解决中国区域重大问题、促进区域协调发展的迫切要求。同时,"规划"提出将国土空间划分为优化开发、重点开发、限制开发和禁止开发四类主体功能区。主体功能区的提出对中国区域规划将产生创新性影响:①完善了区域规划理论体系;②创新了区域规划理念;③丰富了区域规划内容;④重构了区域规划的空间体系;⑤推动了区域规划与其它空间规划的融合;⑥保障了区域规划的实施。
    China will put more emphasis on regional plan in the national"Eleventh Five Year"Plan period, it is the imperative of solving important region problems and promoting regional coordinated development. Meanwhile, The "Plan" divide Chinese land space into four principal functional zones of optimal development, key development, restricted development and prohibited development. Principal Function Area Division will produce effect of innovation on Chinese regional planning:1)perfecting theory system of regional planning;2)creating new idea of regional planning;3)enriching the contents of regional planning;4)Rebuilding spatial system of regional planning;5)promoting Join and coordination between regional planning and other spatial planning; 6)guarantying implement of regional planning.
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    中小企业技术创新行为与创新环境的实证研究——基于广东省785家中小企业的问卷调查
    千庆兰, 陈颖彪, 董晓敏
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (4): 488-495.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.04.488
    摘要   PDF (1212KB)
    基于广东省785家中小企业问卷调查和访谈的第一手资料,揭示广东省中小企业技术创新行为特征,分析区域创新环境的障碍与前景,剖析中小企业技术创新与区域经济发展的互动关系,给出提高中小企业技术创新能力的对策建议。研究表明:① 近年来广东省中小企业技术创新活动活跃,企业的R&D投入水平相对较高,创新产出绩效一般;企业的技术创新战略以合作战略和模仿战略为主。② 供应商和客户在创新网络中扮演重要角色。③ 提高自身的技术、管理水平是中小企业对外技术合作的主要动因,缺乏高素质劳动力和新技术是制约广东创新活动的重要因素;多数企业对广东创新环境的前景持乐观态度,珠江三角洲仍是其未来新项目投资的首选地。④ 中小企业技术创新能力与区域经济发展水平在数量上呈现显著的相关性,在空间上具有耦合性。
    Based on the data analysis of materials collected from 785 question-and-answer surveys in Guangdong ,the paper obtains some main characteristic of technology innovation within Small and middle enterprises (SMEs) and regional environment and draws some conclusions as follow: 1) Technology innovative ability of those SMEs in Guangdong has gained a significant improvement, at the same time, innovation output performance such as patent level is pool; 2) Most of the SMEs choose cooperation strategy and simulated strategy as their own technology innovative strategy; 3) Supplied merchant and custom play an important role in innovative network, but high school, research institution and agency service institution have less role; 4) To improve technology and administration level is the main innovative motivation for those SMEs, but the shortage of skilled work force, new technology and law environment is the restricted condition of Guangdong innovative environment ; 5) Most of the SMEs hold optimism attitude for Guangdong Province and think that Zhujiang (Pearl) River Delta is their first choice for industrial investment in future.
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    塔里木河下游断流河道整治引发的生态问题与重建对策分析
    赵万羽, 陈亚宁
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (4): 496-500.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.04.496
    摘要   PDF (244KB)
    长期断流导致塔里木河下游主河道发育受阻,自然生态系统萎缩。河道治理措施保障了主河道输水的顺畅和水文生态的完整性,实现了上下游补偿性生态大转移(生态回归),但却抑制了河道自然发生规律,改变了原生种繁殖更新环境,河道两侧自然生态过程受阻,可持续维持的生命带变窄,人类需借助外力才能实现生态修复。塔里木河下游断流区生态恢复重建需要尊重客观历史,依托区域原有植被自然发生规律,应选择以柽柳灌丛为主要恢复种类,辅助人工引水渠系设施建设、断根萌蘖、人工补植等辅助手段,逐步实现对退化生态系统修复。
    The long-term lack of water-convey process in the lower reaches of the Tarim River has restrained natural development of main water course and caused serious degradation of the forest ecosystem in the river-bank of desert environment. The engineering reconstruction of the Tarim River carried out conveying of water straightway and maintained the integrality of river water system. It also transferred some ecology effects from the upper reaches to the lower reaches. However, the channel reconstruction brought out some problems. The change of natural flux of the water course has greatly restricted natural process of evolution of plant community in original green corridor of vegetation. To rehabilitate the retrogressive ecosystem in the region, firstly it need to understand the nature process of vegetation evolution, then to choice Tamarix sp. as major species for reclamation in extremely degraded area, and maintained the regeneration of community of desert vegetation and Populus sp. by giving more flooding water from the new building sluice and new channel.
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    冀中平原历史地貌研究与白洋淀成因的探讨
    王若柏, 苏建锋
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (4): 501-506.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.04.501
    摘要   PDF (1328KB)
    使用1926年出版的顺直地形图做历史地貌研究,发现冀中平原、白洋淀流域存在大量的特殊地貌单元"碟形洼地"。研究这些特殊洼地的个体形态、群体分布规律,特别是使用数字高程模型(DEM)分析这些洼地,发现"碟形洼地"可能是分布在第四纪松散沉积物上撞击坑的遗迹。初步推测这种地貌可能是全新世中期以后不久一次规模巨大的陨石雨撞击的结果,白洋淀更可能是一些较大的撞击坑在地表流水的侵蚀、后经人工改造逐步形成的。陨石雨的撞击导致了重大的史前环境灾害,这可能涉及到全新世中-后期自然环境的变化等一系列重大科学问题。
    On the basis of the Shunzhi Relief Map published in 1926, the historic landform in the North China Plain is studied and a large quantity of special geomorphic units-dish-shaped pits are discovered in the Baiyangdian drainage area. In studying the individual appearance and total distribution of these special pits, especially by the digital elevation model (DEM), the authors have realized that the "dish-shaped pits" might be the remains of impact craters on the Quaternary loose deposit and inferred primarily that an impact event of a large-scale meteorite shower might have occurred in this area. After long-time erosion by surface water and artificial transformation gradually, some larger craters finally formed the Baiyangdian Lake.The impact of meteorite shower resulted in a prehistoric huge astrogeological disaster, which produced significant effects on the prehistoric environment and culture development since then.
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    海岸横向沙脊表面风沙流结构的野外观测研究
    董玉祥, P A Hesp, S L Namikas, 马骏
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (4): 507-512.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.04.507
    摘要   PDF (718KB)
    选择中国规模最大、形态最为典型的河北昌黎黄金海岸的横向沙脊,采用野外梯度风速仪和平口式积沙仪对其顶部的风沙流结构进行了观测。观测结果表明,海岸横向沙脊表面的风沙流结构特征基本表现为0~40 cm高程内气流搬运的沙尘物质浓度或质量随高度递减并符合指数分布,20~60 cm高程内符合幂函数分布, 40~60 cm高程内输沙量与高度之间则为多项式函数关系。同时,海岸横向沙脊表面的风沙流结构受风速与总输沙量的影响较大,随风速增大或总输沙量的增加,风沙流下层输沙量相对减少、上层则相应增加。
    On the typical coastal transverse ridge at Changli Gold Coast in Hebei Province, which is one of the most typical coastal Aeolian distribution regions in China and famous for the tall and typical coastal transverse ridges. Here, he structure of wind-sand flow on the top of coastal transverse ridge was measured by use of field vertical anemometer and sand trap. The field measurement results show that basic characteristic of the structure of wind-sand flow on the top of coastal transverse ridge is the sand transport rate in the wind-sand flow decreases quickly with height, which can be expressed by an exponential function at the height of 0-40cm, but which could be expressed by the power function at the height of 20-60cm and polynomial function at the height 40-60cm. The structure of wind-sand flow on the top of coastal transverse ridge has a close relationship with the wind velocity and total sand transport rate. The ratio of sand transport rate at low layer decreases and the ratio of sand transport rate at high layer increases with the increase of wind velocity and total sand transport rate.
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    黄河三角洲土地利用/覆盖变化的微地貌区域分异
    汪小钦, 王钦敏, 励惠国, 刘高焕
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (4): 513-517.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.04.513
    摘要   PDF (687KB)
    黄河三角洲有岗阶地、河滩地、河成高地、平地、低洼地和滩涂地6种微地貌类型。1984~2001年间一直没有变化的土地利用/覆盖类型在各微地貌类型中所占的比例不同,未变化的土地利用/覆盖主要分布在平地。岗阶地土地利用/覆盖类型最为稳定,以耕地为主,但面积总体在减少;河滩地土地利用/覆盖类型多样,分布比较复杂,变化最大;河成高地、平地和低洼地发生变化的面积占2/3左右,耕地所占的比例均是最大的,其面积总体上不断减少;滩涂地的土地利用/覆盖类型以滩涂为主,随着人们对滩涂的开发利用,滩涂所占比例迅速减少。
    Geomorphic type is one of the primary factors for the spatial pattern and the change speed of land use and land cover. Based on the land use and land cover data acquired in 1984, 1986, 1991, 1996 and 2001 of the Huanghe (Yellow) River delta, the land use and land cover changes were analyzed according to different micro-geomorphic types. There are six types of micro-geomorphic types in the river delta, which are terrace uplands, present flood plain, abandoned river courses, embanked former back swamps, isolated depressions and tidal flats. In the 17 years from 1984 to 2001, the proportion of unchanged land use and land cover was 30.04%. The largest unchanged land use was arable land, whose proportion to the all unchanged land use area was 57.49%; the second was tidal flat, whose proportion was 12.6%; the third was unused land, whose proportion was 10.57%; the fourth was residential area, whose proportion was 9.38%. The areas of unchanged land use and land cover from 1984 to 2001 were variable in different micro-geomorphic types. The unchanged land use and land cover lay mainly in embanked former back swamps. More than 50% of unchanged arable land, unused land and grass land were in embanked former back swamps. The change range and speed of land use and land cover were different in each micro-geomorphic type. In terrace uplands, the land use and land cover was most stable, the preponderant land use type was arable land, whose areas was about 80%. But its area decreases as a whole. In present flood plain, the land use and land cover types became more various, and land use and land cover changed most rapidly. In abandoned river courses, embanked former back swamps and isolated depressions, the area of changed land use/land covers was about 2/3, the dominating land use and land cover type was arable land, but the area continually decreased, which mainly changed to residential areas and water body. The areas of unused land and vegetable land cover changed only a little. In tidal flats, the tidal area decreased rapidly with the economic development. In 1984, the tidal area was 72.16%, but in 2001, there was only 36%. Most of the tidal area was developed to aquaculture area. The water body was 2 204 ha in 1984, 4 475 ha in 1991 and increased to 30 346 ha in 2001.
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    近40年来渭干河-库车河三角洲绿洲气候变化特征分析
    满苏尔·沙比提, 胡江玲, 迪里夏提·司马义
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (4): 518-524.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.04.518
    摘要   PDF (842KB)
    利用库车、沙雅、新和气象站1961~2000年日照、气温、降水和蒸发观测资料,分析渭干河-库车河三角洲绿洲近40年来日照、气温、降水和蒸发量年际变化、季节变化及特征。结果显示: 近40年来年均日照总体呈减少趋势,减少倾向率为31.64 h/10a,减少幅度从大到小依次为冬、夏、秋和春季;近40年来年均气温总体呈增加趋势,增长倾向率约0.17℃/10a,年内冬、秋两季呈上升趋势,春、夏两季呈下降趋势;近40年来年降水量总体呈增长趋势,增长倾向率约10.16 mm/10a,年内除秋季外,夏、春、冬季降水均呈增长趋势;近40年来年蒸发量总体呈减少趋势,减少倾向率约149 mm/10a,年内蒸发量减少幅度从大到小依次为夏、春、秋和冬季。
    Using the statistics of sunshine time, temperature, precipitation and evaporation from 1961 to 2000 in Kuqa, Shaya and Xinhe meteorological stations, this paper analyze the annual and seasonal changes of these metrological factors in Kuqa River-Weigan River Delta Oasis during the last 40 years by employing the methods of regression analysis, trendline analysis and 5-year moving average analysis. The result shows that, (1) During the last 40 years, the sunshine time on this oasis has a trend of decreasing, and the deceasing rate was 31.64 h/10 yr. Its undulation scale was smaller during the 1960s and 1970s and larger in the 1980s and the 1990s of the 20th century. The sunshine time has a close correlation with the number of cloudy and rainy days. The sunshine time decreasing scale was varying from season to season. Winter has the largest decreasing rate, following by summer, autumn and spring. (2) During the last 40 years, the temperature on this oasis has a trend of increasing, and the increasing rate was 0.17 ℃/10 yr. Its alteration tendency was in keeping with that of the northwestern China. The change of temperature in a year shows seasonal disparities i.e. increasing in winter and autumn, and decreasing in summer and spring. (3) During the last 40 years, the precipitation on this oasis had a trend of increasing, and the increasing rate was 0.16 mm/10 yr. Its alteration tendency was in keeping with the climatic change of the northwestern China. Except for autumn precipitation change had a tendency of increasing in other seasons. The highest increasing rate took place in summer, following by spring and winter. (4) During the last 40 years, the evaporation on this oasis had a trend of decreasing, and the decreasing rate was 149mm/10yr. Its undulation scale has a negative correlation with the change of average temperature. The evaporation decreasing rate was varying from season to season. Summer had the largest decreasing rate, following by spring, autumn and winter.
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    近50年来河西走廊平原区气候变化的区域特征及突变分析
    贾文雄, 何元庆, 李宗省, 庞洪喜, 院玲玲, 宁宝英, 宋波, 张宁宁
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (4): 525-531.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.04.525
    摘要   PDF (763KB)
    近50年来,河西走廊平原区的气温在20世纪60~80年代偏低,90年代以后明显偏高,其中冬季升温显著,而降水在60年代偏少,70年代最多,80年代又偏少,90年代以后又偏多,2000年以来秋季降水增加显著。在全球变暖背景下,走廊平原区的气温突变明显,而降水突变不明显;区域气温突变比较一致,春、夏、秋季在90年代中后期发生升温突变,冬季在80年代中期发生升温突变,年平均气温在80年代中期和90年代中后期也发生升温突变;降水突变存在一定的区域差异,东、西部降水在60年代中后期发生突变,突变后降水量增多。
    During the last 50 years,the temperature of Hexi corridor was lower from the 1960s to the 1980s, and climate has been becaming warmer since the 1990s by the rise of temperature in winter. While the precipitation experienced a process of being lower (the 1960s), higher (the 1970s), lower (the 1980s), higher (after the 1990s), and the rise of precipitation in autumn has became obvious since 2000. What’s more, the abrupt change of temperature was more obvious than precipitation under the background of global warming. The abrupt change of temperature rise in spring, summer and autumn happened in the late 1990s, and the abrupt change of temperature rise in winter happened in the middle of the 1980s in the Hexi corridor. As result, The abrupt change of annual temperature ascending happened in the middle of the 1980s and in the late 1990s. Spatial difference of precipitation break was obvious. The abrupt change of precipitation rise happened in the late 1960s in the eastern and western Hexi corridor.
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    东北地区最高、最低温度非对称变化的季节演变特征
    孙凤华, 袁健, 关颖
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (4): 532-536.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.04.532
    摘要   PDF (751KB)
    选用东北地区剔除迁站次数较多的观测站后的74个代表站1959~2002年44年的月平均最高气温和最低气温观测数据,建立了东北地区近44年来的年、四季最高气温和最低气温序列。在所建序列基础上,分析了东北地区最高气温和最低气温的年和季节变化规律;采用Mann-Kendall和Yamamoto方法对经过滑动平均的最高气温和最低气温序列进行了突变分析。计算了所有测站的年和各个季节最高气温和最低气温的趋势系数,分析增温趋势在各季节的地域分布特征。结果表明,近44年最高气温和最低气温均表现为明显的增温趋势,最低气温的增温趋势明显高于最高气温,前者的年气候倾向率为后者的2倍; 最高气温和最低气温都表现为冬季增温最强,春季次之,秋季最弱;在研究区域的中心部位,即内蒙古、吉林和黑龙江三省交界处有一范围较大且稳定的最低气温强增温区;最高气温和最低气温的突变点发生时段基本一致,强突变发生在80年代后期,较弱的一次发生在70年代初。
    The date of monthly mean maximum and minimum temperature are obtained in 74 stations in Northeast China, after minimizing the posssible effect of urban heat island from 1959-2002. The time series of maximum and minimum temperature for the area are got by averaging the 74 station values for the period. The temperature time series were further analyzed for the change characteristics on year and season in the area. The climate jumps of annual extreme temperature series, by dealing with slippage, were tested by both Mann-Kendall and Yamamoto method during the past 44 years in Northeast.The coefficients of extreme temperature trends were calculated in all stations and all seasons, and the characteristics of terrain distribution of increasing trend were analysed in each season. The results show that asymmetry is detectable in all seasons.Though both maximum and minimum temperature is increasing for the period. Tmin increase more than Tmax in all parts of Northeast China. The former doubles the latter. Their increases are biggest in winter, second in spring, least in autumn.In the center, there is a strong increasing temperature area, bigger and steadier in range.
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    淮河流域水稻的气候适宜度及其变化趋势分析
    俞芬, 千怀遂, 段海来
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (4): 537-542.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.04.537
    摘要   PDF (953KB)
    淮河流域40个县(市)区水稻日照适宜度、降水适宜度与气候适宜度均呈下降趋势。分析淮河流域水稻温度、降水、日照和气候适宜度的区域差异,将淮河流域分为最适宜区、适宜性区、次适宜区。综合降水、日照、温度三因素,将淮河流域水稻气候适宜度分为分成淮北最适宜区、淮南最适宜区、淮河沿岸适宜区和西部山地次适宜区,分析各区水稻适宜度年际变化规律,结果表明:各区的水稻气候适宜度均呈逐渐下降趋势。
    The interannual change of the sunshine suitability, the precipitation suitability and the climate suitability of rice in 40 counties of Huaihe Watershed are decreasing every year. The article analyzes the difference of the sunshine suitability, the precipitation suitability and the temperature suitability of rice in Huaihe Watershed, then divides Huaihe Watershed into three sub-regions: the highest suitability region, the suitability region, the low suitability region. Synthesizing the factors of temperature, sunshine and precipitation, the four types of climatic suitability of rice in Huaihe Watershed are divided: the north watershed highest suitability region, the south watershed highest suitability region, the central watershed suitability region, the northwest mountainous area low suitability region. Then the article analyses the interannual climate suitability change of rice at these regions. The result shows that the climate suitabilities of rice at these regions are decreasing gradually.
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    地面沉降对上海黄浦江防汛工程的影响分析
    龚士良, 杨世伦
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (4): 543-547.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.04.543
    摘要   PDF (570KB)
    地面沉降导致上海地面高程损失,并降低防汛工程设防能力。1921~2007年地面平均沉降1.973 m,最大沉降3.035 m,市区普遍低于江河高潮位。地面沉降在中心城区外滩黄浦江防汛墙四次加高改建中分别占增高幅度的98.0%,62.6%,30.1%,7.8%,目前防汛墙仍受到地面沉降的持续影响,1994~2006年区域地面沉降占防汛墙总体沉降量的71.9%。地面沉降的长期危害是影响上海城市防汛安全的重要因素,加强地面沉降监测与防治是上海城市灾害防御的重要内容。
    The land subsidence directly threatens the safety of urban flood defence by decreasing the land altitude loss. According to the monitoring results of the land subsidence and the yearly highest tide height of the Huangpu River and all previous heightening and subsidence conditions of the flood defence wall in the Bund, it is shown that the amount of land subsidence in Shanghai was 1.973 m from 1921 to 2007 and the land altitude of center town is about 3.5m at present, and the land altitude of center town almost lower the highest tide height of Huangpu River and brings about the long-term flood defence pressure. The yearly average value of highest tide height of the Huangpu River is about 4.59 m, and the highest tide height gradually raises. The conditions of flood and inundation are intrinsicly link with the development of land subsidence. The land subsidence plays a important role in the four times of heightening of the flood defence wall in the Bund, and the land subsidence amount occupied 98.0%,62.6%,30.1%,7.8% respectively of the heightening of the flood defence wall. Now the existing flood defence installations have been endangered by the land subsidence, the regional land subsidence amount from 1994 to 2006 was 71.9 % of total subsidence of the flood defence wall in the Bund. The land subsidence is an importment factor of endangering the urban flood prevention safety and a key link of urban calamity system, and to give rise to our highly precautions for its long-term harmful effects. The prevention and control of the land subsidence have to be the crucial contents of mitigating and preventing natural calamities.
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    安徽巢湖全新世湖泊沉积物磁化率与粒度组合的变化特征及其环境意义
    王心源, 吴立, 张广胜, 王官勇, 韩伟光
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (4): 548-553.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.04.548
    摘要   PDF (776KB)
    通过对获取的巢湖湖泊沉积岩芯的磁化率与粒度组合特征的分析,结合孢粉及相邻其它区域的环境考古资料,得出该岩芯柱样所反映的环境变化信息。结果表明:(1)巢湖湖泊沉积物磁化率曲线在117 cm以下总体上比较平稳而略有下降,117 cm以上人类活动所导致的侵蚀作用加剧使得磁化率值异常升高;(2)本岩芯柱样117 cm以下样品的磁化率强度与粘土的百分比含量呈正相关,而与粉砂组分的百分比含量成负相关;(3)根据磁化率与粒度组合变化特征,结合孢粉分析及全新世以来区域气候变化背景,9 870 Cal a B.P.以来的巢湖流域古气候环境演变可以划分6个不同的时期:9 870~7 000 Cal a B.P.,气候呈温和略干的特点;7 000~4 750 Cal a B.P.,气候温暖湿润;4 750~2 170 Cal a B.P.,流域气候温和干燥,巢湖湖盆局部地区可能出露水面以上;2 170~1 040 Cal a B.P.,气候总体上温和湿润,但是冷暖波动明显;1 040~2 00 Cal a B.P.流域处在温凉稍湿的时期,人类活动逐渐加强;200 Cal a B.P.至今,流域总体上处于相对温暖湿润阶段。
    A typical lake sediment core from Chaohu Lake was chosen for this study. The vertical distribution of magnetic susceptibility and grain size in the sediments was determined. Based on the analyses of magnetic susceptibility and grain size of the core samples from Chaohu Lake, the paper has probed into the characteristics and environmental significance of magnetic susceptibility and grain size. The results show that from 490 cm to 117 cm, the curves of magnetic susceptibility are stable on the whole, which dropped slightly; from 117cm to top, the increased human activity makes magnetic susceptibility increasing obviously. The magnetic susceptibility is positive proportional to the contents of fine sand, and reversal proportional to the contents of coarse sand and organic materials. By means of magnetic susceptibility and grain size analyses, combined with pollen and the background of global climate change, regional palaeoclimatic changes were divided into six periods since 9870 cal yr B.P.: (1) mild and moderately dry period of 9870-7000 cal yr B.P.; (2) warm and humid period of 7000-4745 cal yr B.P.; (3) warm and dry period of 4745-2170 cal yr B.P.; (4) mild and humid period of 2170-1040 cal yr B.P., and during which climate fluctuated acutely; (5) cool and moderately humid period of 1040-200 cal yr B.P., climate fluctuate gently; (6) mild and humid period of 200 cal yr B.P. to nowadays.
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    基于环境相关法的土壤属性空间分布特征研究——以黄土丘陵沟壑区小流域为例
    连纲, 郭旭东, 傅伯杰, 虎陈霞
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (4): 554-558.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.04.554
    摘要   PDF (386KB)
    在横山县朱家沟小流域采集111个样点,分析土壤属性与地形因子相互关系,进行空间预测分析。结果表明:土壤密度与复合地形指数CTI显著正相关,土壤有机质与复合地形指数CTI、汇流动力指数SPI、沉积物运移指数STI显著负相关,全磷只与坡度β显著负相关。多元线性逐步回归模型对于土壤密度和有机质拟合较好,而对于全磷,预测结果较差;回归-克里格预测有效地减小了残差,消除了平滑效应,预测极差更宽,对于局部的变异及地形、土地利用的关系体现更为细化,提高了预测精度。
    Analysis and forecast on the spatial distribution and dynamics of soil properties is an important element of sustainable land management. Topography and land use are key factors which affect soil properties variability on catchment scale in the loess hilly area. Correlation analyses were carried out between soil properties (include bulk density(BD), soil organic matter (SOM) and total phosphorus (TP)) and terrain attributes. Finally, terrain attributes and land use types were used to predict spatial distribution of soil properties by multiple-linear regression analysis and regression-Kriging, based on data from 111 points in Zhujiagou catchment; Hengshan County of Shaanxi Province. Results indicated that there is a positive correlation between bulk density and compound topographic index (CTI); and a negative correlation between SOM and compound topographic index (CTI), stream power index(SPI) and sediment transport index (STI); and a significant negative correlation was found between TP and slope(β). The correlations between these terrain attributes and soil properties reflected to some degree that soil develops in response to the way water flows through and over the landscape. The regression model for BD had the highest R2 value, followed by SOM and TP. The regression model was precise for the BD, but the variation is rather large and there was a high smoothing effect on the predicted values. For TP, the predicted result is very poor. Such techniques may be applied as a frist step in unmapped areas to guide soil sampling and model development. In order to explain the variations better, combined step-wise regression and residuals interpolated using Kriging was conducted. The results showed that regression-Kriging improved accuracy of prediction.
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    颖河上游全新世黄土古土壤物质来源研究
    李胜利, 黄春长, 庞奖励, 葛本伟
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (4): 559-564.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.04.559
    摘要   PDF (780KB)
    淮河支流颖河上游嵩山东麓丘陵台地与河流阶地一典型全新世黄土-古土壤剖面磁化率、粒度成分和 >0.1 mm粒级百分比含量分析结果显示, 该地黄土磁化率明显偏低, 粒度比黄土高原地区粗, 表明该地黄土具有不同的粉尘源区, 由不同风力系统形成。深入论证分析揭示出颖河上游黄土是近源风尘沉积物, 粉尘主要来源于孟津以东黄河冲积、洪积扇的松散河流沉积物。黄河下游的频繁决口、改道、泛滥沉积为风沙活动提供了丰富的物源, 形成风沙活动的动力是东北风。3 100 a B.P.以后气候趋于干旱, 黄河下游泛滥频率增加, 风沙活动范围扩大, 沙尘暴活动强烈。
    A Holocene loess-paleosol profile is studied on the river terraces, hills and plateau of the east piedmont of the Songshan Mountain in the upper reaches of the Yinghe River as a tributary of the Huaihe River. Higher resolution proxy data of magnetic susceptibility, particle-size distribution and >0.1mm grain-size percentage were obtained from the profile. The results indicate that the magnetic susceptibility of loess-soil sequences in the upper reaches of the Yinghe River was obviously lower than that on the Loess Plateau, but the grain-size was much coarser than that on the middle of the Loess Plateau. It revealed that they were from different dust sources, which belong to different dust transporting systems. On the deep analysis, it is revealed that the loess in the upper reaches of the Yinghe River was dust accumulation mainly from near source, while the coarser dust mainly come from the loose alluvial deposits of alluvial and proluvial fans of the Huanghe(Yellow) River to the east of Mengjin. A rich source of sandstorms were provided by the frequent breaching, diverging and flooding sediments of the Huanghe River. The north-east wind was the driving force of the sandstorm activity. During the late Holocene (3100-0 a B.P.) when the climate was tended to arid, the flooding frequency in the lower riches of the Huanghe River was increasing, the area of dust activity was extending and the sandstorm activity intensity was very strong.
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    黑土区土壤侵蚀的REE示踪法研究
    王宁, 杨春雨, 张刚, 许平芝, 邹婷婷
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (4): 565-570.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.04.565
    摘要   PDF (804KB)
    应用定位小区段面法实验和稀土元素示踪剂检测,选择吉林省长春市净月开发区和永吉县的两块黑土实验小区进行土壤侵蚀过程研究,探讨了稳定性稀土元素示踪法应用于黑土区土壤侵蚀、沉积、分布和发生过程研究的可能性,并计算出坡面不同部位的侵蚀量与相对侵蚀量,较好地描述降雨对坡面的侵蚀过程。实验表明,坡面的土壤侵蚀率随降雨时间而加大;7°~12°坡面的最大土壤侵蚀量出现在坡面中部和下部(为Nd、Sm和Eu所标记的坡段)。降雨时间和地形坡度大小影响土壤颗粒运动的速度和方向,是土壤侵蚀发生的主要因素。
    By using fixed field profile experiment and Rare Earth Elements (REE) tracer technique, we studied the course of soil erosion on two parcels of black soil in Jingyue Economic Development District, Changchun City, and Yongji County, Jilin City, Jilin Province. The stable REE were used in tracing soil erosion, sedimentation, distribution and the possibility of erosion process in black soil area, soil erosion and the relative soil erosion of different parts of the slope were worked out, and effect of rainfall on the slope of soil erosion process described successfully. Experimental method is to trace elements evenly mixed with the soil, laid on the slope of the different terrain under test site, so that the entire process of rainfall runoff silt be done together with the relocation of its acquisition of sediment samples. The content of REE was tested in neutron activation method. Then soil erosion and the relative soil erosion of different parts of the slope were calculated according to concentrations of trace elements added into different parts of the slope and sediment collected after rainfall respectively. The experiment results show that the rate of soil erosion on the slope increases with rainfall period. Rain duration and slope are the two factors influencing soil erosion by affecting the movement speed and direction of soil particles. This paper concluded that: 1) artificial rainfall and natural rainfall field experiment showed that the slope erosion often turned around 10 min after rainfall, after that, the slope erosion rate became more stable, larger with the time increase. It could be considered that 10-15 min after rainfall is the best observation period for slope soil erosion study; 2) soil erosion occurred mainly in the middle and lower slope part (marked with Nd, Sm and Eu in the slope) in 7?-12 ? slope, which indicated that soil erosion is closely related to the slope and bands structure; and 3) the adoption of tracer REE for quantitative determination of the relative erosion in different terrain positions can provide an alternative method for vertical soil erosion. This method can not only monitor slope relative erosion in different terrain positions accurately, but also describes their distribution character objectively. Generally, the paper reveals the law of slope soil erosion intensity and provide new methods for the black soil erosion study.
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    南麂列岛旅游生态足迹与生态效用研究
    周年兴, 林振山, 黄震方, 程春旺
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (4): 571-577.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.04.571
    摘要   PDF (785KB)
    旅游生态足迹与生态效用分析是从全球角度评价旅游业可持续发展的重要方法,两者相互补充。以南麂列岛国家海洋自然保护区为例,计算并分析了2002年的旅游生态足迹与生态效用。结果表明:① 南麂列岛旅游者人均生态足迹为0.031 hm2,是全国平均水平的1/3;② 叠加了旅游者生态足迹后,南麂列岛生态赤字达939.38 hm2;③ 南麂列岛旅游业单位生态足迹产值为14 221元/ hm2,是全球平均水平的1.8倍,却低于其渔业的单位生态足迹产值;④ 南麂列岛旅游业全年标准CO2排放量为2 438.7 t,生态效用为0.128 kg/元;⑤ 南麂列岛生态效用略优于全球平均水平,是全国平均水平的3.1倍,但距全球理想的生态效用仍有一定距离。南麂列岛较低的生态足迹和较好的生态效用主要是由于其旅游开发规模适当,管理到位,倡导生态旅游,同时大部分旅游者为短程游客。旅游生态足迹和生态效用不仅在理论上深化了可持续发展的内涵,在技术上也是可持续发展的重要指标体系。
    From global point of view, tourist ecological footprint and eco-efficiency are the new yardsticks on assessing sustainability of tourism. The two methods are mutual supplementary. Taking Nanji Archipelago as an example, which is the exclusive oceanic protected area in China, the tourist ecological footprint and eco-efficiency have been analysed and discussed. Five characteristics have been summarized: 1)The tourist ecological footprint of Nanji Archipelago was 0.031hm2 per captia in 2002, which is only one third of world average footprint. 2) The ecological deficit sums up to 939.38 hm2. 3) The average tourism output of ecological footprint is 1402 yuan(RMB)/hm2, which is 1.8 times the average output of world, but still lower than that of the fishery output. 4) The total carbon dioxide from tourism on Nanji Archipelago is 2438.7t, and the tourism eco-efficiency per captia is 0.1279kg/yuan. 5) The tourism eco-efficiency of Nanji Archipelago is favorable, which is 3.1 times as much as the world average. But comparing with the ideal emission based on the carbon dioxide of world, it still lacks behind the benchmark. The suitable tourism development volume, effective management, promotion of ecotourism, and short-distance travel contribute to the less ecological footprint and favorable eco-efficiency. The touristic ecological footprint and eco-efficiency will be helpful not only to enlarging the sustainable tourism implication, but also enriching the environmental technique.
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    海滨型旅游地环境承载力评价研究——以江苏海滨湿地生态旅游地为例
    黄震方, 袁林旺, 葛军连, 顾秋实
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (4): 578-584.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.04.578
    摘要   PDF (862KB)
    旅游环境承载力的界定和评价可为生态旅游合理开发提供依据。把旅游环境承载力纳入到资源-环境-社会经济这一复合系统中,给出了旅游环境承载力的定义,分析了其构成体系,构建了兼顾三个维度的旅游环境承载力评价指标体系,基于专家打分的结果,运用准主成份等方法进行了权重分析,并以江苏海滨为例,用模糊综合评价等方法对江苏海滨生态旅游环境承载力进行评价,得出了合理的结果,表明本评价指标体系具有较强的科学性、普适性和可操作性。
    The boundary and assessment of tourism environmental carrying capacity can provide evidences for the proper exploitation of ecotourism. This paper appends tourism environmental carrying capacity to the compound system of resources-environment socio-economy, and defines it with its composition system analyzed. The three dimension assessment index systems are constructed and weight analysis is carried out by principal component analysis according to the outcome of the marks given by tourism experts. Taking coastal wetland of Jiangsu as an example, the paper appraises its ecotourism environmental carrying capacity by fuzzy comprehensive evaluation, and gets proper results which indicate that this assessment index system is scientific, general and operable.
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    学术活动
    中国地理学会2008年学术年会在长春隆重举行
    李秀军
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (4): 585-585.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.04.585
    摘要   PDF (78KB)
    由中国科学院东北地理与农业生态研究所承办的"中国地理学会2008年学术年会"于2008年7月14-15日在长春国际会展中心隆重举行。来自全国地理学界和相关学科的科技工作者以及港澳台和澳大利亚的地理学者1000余人出席了这次盛会。本次会议由中国地理学会、中国科学院东北地理与农业生态研究所、东北师范大学、中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所联合主办,吉林省地理学会、东北师范大学城市与环境科学学院、吉林大学环境与资源学院、吉林师范大学旅游与地理科学学院、长春师范学院城市与环境科学学院、延边大学理学院地理系和白城师范学院地理系协办。本届年会的主题是"地理学与生态文明建设"。
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    第三届全国地理学研究生学术年会会议纪要
    王文刚, 陈英
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (4): 586-586.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.04.586
    摘要   PDF (82KB)
    第三届全国地理学研究生学术年会于2008年7月13日在东北师范大学隆重召开。本届年会由中国地理学会、全国地理学研究生联合会、东北师范大学城市与环境科学学院、中国科学院东北地理与农业生态研究所、中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所主办,东北师范大学城市与环境科学学院研究生会和中科院东北地理与农业生态研究所研究生会联合承办,北京大学、南京大学、中科院各所等30多家单位协办,ESR I中国(北京)有限公司对本次年会提供了赞助,同时东北师范大学暨吉林省自然博物馆给予了大力支持。全国地理学研究生联合会执行主席,东北师范大学城市与环境学院研究生王文刚主持了开幕式。中国地理学会秘书长张国友研究员、东北师范大学副校长薛康教授、中科院东北地理与农业生态研究所副所长张柏研究员、东北师范大学研究生院副院长饶从满教授、全国地理学研究生联合会常务副主席梁育填博士等先后在开幕式上致辞,高度评价了本届研究生学术年会,并对所有与会研究生提出殷切希望。全国地理学研究生联合会常务副主席、中科院东北地理与农业生态研究所博士生姚允龙主持了年会主题论坛。中科院东北地理与农业生态研究所阎百兴研究员做了"东北黑土水土流失及其生态环境效应"的报告;东北师范大学城市与环境科学学院丁四保教授做了"关于区域问题和区域地理研究"的报告;首都师范大学副校长宫辉力教授做了"对地观测技术与国家减灾需求"的报告。这些精彩的报告赢得了与会学子的阵阵掌声,现场反响热烈。
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