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ISSN 1000-0690
CN 22-1124/P
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  • 地理科学
      2008年, 第28卷, 第5期 刊出日期:2008-09-20 上一期    下一期
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    论文
    中国地理学的二元结构
    刘云刚, 许学强
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (5): 587-593.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.05.587
    摘要   PDF (1441KB)
    中国地理学的发展成就有目共睹,但是,在繁荣的表象背后也蕴藏着许多问题,其中最突出是中国地理学的二元结构。中国地理学正在分化为以西方地理学理论和方法论为指导的"外生地理学"和根植于本土实践的"内生地理学"两个部分,而这两个部分之间缺乏交融。中国的内生地理学需要用科学的实证方法进行规范,而外生地理学也需要更扎实的本土实证来进行充实,这其中尤其需要关注建设的是区域地理学。中国需要发展基于本土实证,同时使用科学方法的地理学研究。这是社会发展对地理学的需求所在,也是地理学学科发展之需。
    This paper focuses on the duality of the Chinese geography.In recent years the geographic studies have increased remarkably and the tendency was in parallel with the increase of the number of geographers, papers, research projects, and international conferences, etc.in China.However, the achievement and the progress of Chinese geographic studies are always shown in quantity, not in quality.Almost of the geographic theories and methodologies are not "made in China".The Chinese geographic studies only have limited impact on the stream of Geography.This phenomenon means that some problems exist in the process of development of Chinese geography.Through analyzing these problems, this paper points out the key problem of Chinese geography is‘duality’.Based on the theoretical and empirical impact, this paper evaluates the expansion of Chinese geography and divided it into two parts as "exogenous geography" and "endogenous geography".The exogenous geography goes under the leadership of the western geographical theories and methodology, on the other hand, the endogenous geography plants only toward native projects, without theories.The exogenous geography is in accord with the frameworks of Western geography and lack of the concepts based on local contexts.However the foundation of the endogenous geography is based on the native projects, always set a high valuation on practical significance to local contexts, but lack of the global vision and theories.Compared with the Western geography, exogenous geography and endogenous geography of Chinese geography have develop to the contrary direction and almost have no close link with each other.This paper points out the dualistic structure which is the key problem, is becoming a crucial cause of the under-developed quality of Chinese geography.By analyzing the characteristics of the endogenous geography and the exogenous concretely, this paper considers that endogenous geography should be built on the scientific methods and academic norms, and focus on the subjects, issues of inquiry studies, but not actual projects.On the other hand, the exogenous geography should put the research into local contexts, to do more native field works, but not to transplant the concepts and theories of Western geography blindly.Finally, this paper explains the point of the way to reconstruct Chinese geography is, to develop regional geography, which bases on substantial fieldwork and keeps scientific research norms.This is not only the demand of the social development, but also the way to develop academic Chinese geography.
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    基于活动分析法的人类空间行为研究
    柴彦威, 沈洁
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (5): 594-600.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.05.594
    摘要   PDF (781KB)
    居民日常活动空间和城市日常活动系统是人类空间行为研究中的重要内容,直接反映行为空间形成机制、分布特征及其与实体空间的相互关系,并为城市社会生活及其空间体系研究提供了重要的微观视角。通过行为空间研究中若干关键问题进行探讨,认为基于日常活动空间的活动分析法能够很好的整合和处理这些问题,在对活动分析法相关概念和几个重要方法介绍的基础上,尝试提出基于活动分析法的人类空间行为研究的思路与框架。
    Since the 1960s, along with the transition of developmental focus from economic issues to social issues, geographers realized that human spatial behavior was not as simple as they thought before.The knowledge of aggregate patterns of human spatial behavior helped little to solve new problems, and research addressing micro-level of individual behavior then became one of the main directions of geography.Action space is the kernel subject of behavior geography.Related research puts individual in the context of urban environment and focuses on how they image and interact with the physical environment.As one important part of action space, activity spaces refer to the subset of all locations within which an individual has direct contact as a result of his or her day-to-day activities.They represent a process through which residents gain information about and attach meaning to our environment.What’s more, researches on activity spaces integrated the four key problems of action space:the colligation of time and space, the behavioral mechanism of choice and constraints, the link between activity and travel, and the impacts of socio-economic structure.As a result, such perspective has developed into an activity approach to individual and household travel-activity behavior as well as urban space analysis.Therein, activity patterns are defined by time budget, its location and related travel, and all residents’ activity spaces constitute urban activity system.Both of the two are the main research objects.As to methodology, three important items are mentioned.Time-space budget and time-geography are the most important analysis tools.Besides, recently developed stated preference method has risen to help go deep into behavior studies.In China, although such research has showed up to expanding the field, it is still far from well-developed both on theory and methodology.This paper thus tries to propose a research framework of action space based on daily activity analysis, which is more comprehensive than those of before.Theories of multi-disciplines are emphasized as the base of research, which are including geography, society, psychology, urban planning and urban transportation, etc.Meanwhile, activity dairy survey, revealed preference and stated preference survey should be combined to acquire empirical data source, census data related with both socio-economic and spatial information will also be used to support the whole studies.In such framework, travel-activity patterns will be derived under specific time-space environment.The interaction mechanism between behavior and space will be then discussed considering both individual choice and constraints.Using new computation technique such as GIS, etc., action space simulation is finally realized to help the establishment of relative policies.
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    中国现实地理空间与虚拟网络空间的比较
    路紫, 匙芳, 王然, 韩冰, 吴士锋, 韩瑞玲
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (5): 601-606.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.05.601
    摘要   PDF (1584KB)
    在对传统的地理空间和新的计算机网络空间进行比较的基础上,解析了中国省域为单元的联系频率、基于主干网的联系形式和城市节点间的联系速度三个方面:分别应用主成分分析方法得到两个空间对应的若干基本类型以及特征;应用网络分析方法对两个空间各自的联系形式进行了归纳;应用网络服务器距离衰减方法整理了从全国5个网络测试站返回的程序测算数据,对中国两个空间的联系速度进行了规律性认知。
    The aim of this study is to compare and analyze Chinese traditional geo-space and cyberspace.Some characteristics of the two spaces are compared taking China as an example, including connection frequency in provinces, connection types basing on the main network and connection speed between nodes of cities.Some basic types and characteristics of the two spaces are obtained using the method of principle component, the characteristics of connection types are concluded using the method of network analysis, and by analyzing the program exam data from five exam spots in China using the method of distance attenuation of servers the comparison analysis and rule cognition of connection speed are made.The results show:1) In connection consequence, strong connection area and weak one are corresponding in the rough and the weak connection area surrounds the strong one.Connection consequence of cyberspace is not degression because of far away from the center, which is different from geo-space.2) In connection type, city centripetalism is obvious but center spots are different.The hierarchy of node is relatively accord but the barycenter of main network is not accord.The distribution types of network line include easy and complex ones.The distribution type of flow include one-direction and multi-direction, stability and instability, and continuity and discontinuity.And 3) In connection speed, relation spots of the two spaces appear scatter distributing, but aggregation is still exist in scatter distributing while out the aggregation area, geo-space distance and cyberspace distance is isochronous.Cyberspace distance has the rule of instantaneous and geo-space has the rule of distance-depending.
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    中国A级旅游景区空间分布结构研究
    朱竑, 陈晓亮
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (5): 607-615.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.05.607
    摘要   PDF (3306KB)
    旅游景区是地球表面上一类特殊的景观类型,而A级旅游景区则是具有中国特色的旅游等级分类系统。它的设立和评比对中国旅游产业的发展业已发挥巨大的作用。且自旅游景区评A以来,随着各级政府的日趋重视,旅游景区评A在全国得到广泛认同,进而使A级旅游景区分布的格局发生显著变化。以现有2 286个中国A级旅游景区的数据资料为基础,分析了其分布特征及变化规律。研究发现,看似毫无组织的全国A级旅游景区其实是有其内在的空间分布规律性的。它两端稠密、中间稀疏的整体分布格局是伴随着中国旅游景区的发展而逐渐形成的。无论是在空间组织上还是在时间演变上,A级旅游景区都与人口分布、地形地势间存在着密切的关联性和配比性。虽然中国31个省份的A级旅游景区分布情况各有差异,但其组成结构仍然具有较高的相似性,而且越来越呈现出不断分散的趋势。总体看,中国各省份都存在着旅游景区的组团形态,但这并不能阻止中国A级旅游景区向无序化方向发展。研究对目前中国A级景区的分布状况与资源间的错位问题及未来发展的趋势等进行了讨论。
    Scenic spot is a special scenic style on the surface of the earth.The A-grade scenic spot is a tourist ranking classifiable system with Chinese characteristics and is a national standard of comprehensive evaluation about scenic spot quality and grade in China.The instauration and appraisement of A-grade scenic spot make a great contribution to the development of tourist industry and have a significant impact on marketing, the image of the establishment of tourist destination, tourist perceptive and the economic benefits and so on in the process of tourism development because of the different levels.Given the label of A-grade to the scenic spot has not only been recognized by market but also been widely accepted in China from the beginning since the scenic spot was appraised with all levels governmental regard in everywhere, and it has become a "Jinzizhaopai" (famous grand in English) in the eyes of a vast number of tourists and a highlight of promotional and publicity.Judging from the present effects, that local government pursues the goal of title of A-grade especial higher grade gradually influences the evolving and developing of distribution structure of scenic spot.The quality of scenic spot is divided into five classes with descending order from 5A to 1A according to The Standard of Rating for Quality of Scenic Spot.Sixty-six 5A-grade scenic spots were checked and accepted and came out in the March 7, 2007 that was considered as a result of spread and intense competition among the 4A-grade scenic spots.First, this text analyses the distribution and changing rules of A-grade scenic spot about China based on the 2286 date of A-grade scenic spots, and finds that A-grade scenic spot which seems entirely in-organization has its own internal space rules.The unitary distributing pattern of A-grade scenic spot which is dense in both extremes and sparse in the middle is growing up with the development of scenic spot in our country, and has a nearly relating and matching with population distribution, river systems, transport network and also landform and so on whether in the space organization or time evolvement.Although the distribution status of A-grade scenic spot has some difference in 31 provinces, its configuration has an upper comparability.The primate distribution of scenic spot is obviously in the provincial capital cities and the distributing trend is getting more and more dispersive.Second, the paper gives its explanation from the perspective of the level of socio-economic development, population, traffic condition and rating system.Generally speaking, there are some group configurations in all provinces in China, but it can not hold back Chinese scenic spot to be more disorderly.There is a reasonable side in the distribution structure of scenic spot which hide the irrational elements.This market-oriented structure system triggers two cycles and makes the stronger much better than before and so do the weaker, and go against to the development of scenic spot to a certain extent.So tourism value of the scarcity of resources should be worth more attention under the circumstance that some conditions such as transportation, sightseeing, service facilities and man-made landscape facilities can be copied.Moreover, this paper also studies the dislocation between the distribution of A-grade scenic spot and tourism resources of China, and also discusses the development trend of A-grade scenic spot in the future which is aimed to guide and perfect the rating system to a more reasonable direction.
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    中国中部平原村庄农业生产区位研究——以河南南阳黄庄为例
    李小建, 高更和
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (5): 616-623.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.05.616
    摘要   PDF (1312KB)
    通过对河南南阳黄庄村农户和农业生产调查以及遥感数据分析,发现人口高密度地区的平原村庄,在耕作半径极小的情况下,存在以住宅和村庄为中心的带状农业区位。从村边向外,可分为蔬菜带、蔬菜粮食混作带和粮食带。相应地,作物的劳动密集度逐渐降低,村地块的蔬菜种植面积比例以及农户微地块单位面积的投入和收益随距村庄距离距离的增加而减少,距离对农户农业生产区位的选择具有重要影响。该结果验证了杜能环在耕作半径较小的中国中部农村的存在,但是造成这种空间分异的根本原因并不是物理交通费用的不同,而是作物劳动密集度和地块肥力的差异,基于一定技术条件下的劳动力耕作能力也有一定影响。
    Research on micro-agricultural locations from perspective of farmers at village-level may help us to understand characteristics of agriculture location and its regional mechanism in the special circumstances of China.Drawing on data from remote sensing resolution and our surveys and interviews with the farmers on agricultural land use at Huangzhuang Village, Nanyang City, Henan Province, we found the agricultural belts surrounding the center of the village.In comparing to Tunnen’s agricultural model, the radius of belts was distributed in a very small scale.From the village outwards, the vegetable belt, cropping-vegetable mixed belt and food grain belt were classified.Over the belts, labor-intensity in farming production decreased gradually.Along with the increase of farming distance from the village, the ratio of vegetable land reduced, and accordingly the input as well as the income per acreage delined.Distance played an important role for farmers to decide agriculture locations.The results demonstrated the presence of Thunen belt in the small village of Central China, but the fundamental reasons behind were different from Thunen’s study.In stead of the physical distance and transport cost of goods from production place to the market, the key factor that determined the agricultural locations in this study was the production cost decided by labor-intensity in farming individual crops.Since vegetable production required large amount of labor force and village was the center of labor, the cost of communication from village to farmland should be much higher than the cost of vegetable transportation from farmland to market.This explained the concentration of vegetable production in the land close to village site.The case study is particularly important given the household responsible system that has been practiced since the early 1980s in rural China.It is the households, rather than the village, that decide types and area of crop production.If farmers have different farming behavior, or if the responsible arable land for a household is concentrates in certain areas, it would lead to different spatial patterns in agricultural land use.Accordingly, it should be cautious to use this result in other situations.
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    生态产业园区的循环经济发展框架——以宁波化工区为例
    汪明峰, 宁越敏, 胡萍, 卢姗
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (5): 624-630.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.05.624
    摘要   PDF (1527KB)
    在积极实践循环经济的探索之中,各地在产业集中区建立由共生企业群组成的生态产业园区成为重要的行动之一,并已经取得了显著的成效。整合已有的生态产业园区发展规划思路,以循环经济理论和产业生态学原理为指导,通过园区的产业组织、空间规划、环境管理、公用辅助设施集成和文化认同等五个方面,构建宁波化学工业区在循环经济领域的概念性发展框架,并提出相应的发展策略。
    In the past few years, a growing number of eco-industrial parks (EIPs) which are constituted by symbiotic industrial clusters are planned and developed in the industries agglomerated areas in China.It is one of the most important local actions for exploring the practice of circular economy.Based on the theories of circular economy and industrial ecology, the paper provides a framework of EIP development integrating the existing planning of EIPs.There are five key dimensions summarized in this conceptual model:symbiotic industrial network construction, spatial planning, environmental management, integrated infrastructure design, and cultural identity creation.Furthermore, the development framework was devised and applied in the case study analysis of Ningbo Chemical Industry Zone.Some strategies and suggests for the EIP development are provided.
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    产业多样化与城市增长的理论及实证研究——以中国31个省会城市为例
    任晶, 杨青山
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (5): 631-635.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.05.631
    摘要   PDF (702KB)
    20世纪80年代的经济增长理论强调了技术、知识溢出和人力资本外部性对于经济增长的促进作用。而这种知识溢出效应在城市中将更加显著(城市中人与人之间的信息交流比农村密切的多),因而可以通过收集不同城市的产业经济增长数据来分析验证上述有关知识溢出效应的增长理论。通过对中国31个省会城市及直辖市(不包括港澳台)1997~2006年10年间的城市-产业增长数据进行分析验证,得出结论:城市产业多样化促进创新思想的产生和知识溢出,进而促进了城市增长。
    In the 1980s’, the theory of economic increase emphasized the stimulative functions on the technology, knowledge overflowing and exterior character of the human capital to the regional economic increase.The effects on the knowledge overflowing in cities were more remarkable than that in the towns, because in the cities, the information intercommunion was closer than in the towns.In this paper, the authors tried to testify the above-mentioned results at the theory of the regional economic increase through the data of the industry-economic increase in the different cities.So, the authors collected the data of the city-industry increase of 31 provincial cities in China from 1997 to 2006.Finally, the authors arrived the conclusions that it was the diversification of the industry not the specialization of the industry accelerated the innovate ideology and knowledge overflowing of the cities, and accordingly, it accelerated the economic increase of the cities.In other words, it is the ideology communication nearly brought the mostly innovate thoughts, and those innovate thoughts hoisted regional economic increase.According to the conclusion, we should change the research on the effects of the knowledge overflowing and source of the innovate thoughts from the industry’s inner structure to the ideology communication between each other in the departmental.
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    深圳市土地利用社会经济效益与生态环境效益的耦合关系研究
    梁红梅, 刘卫东, 刘会平, 林育欣, 刘勇
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (5): 636-641.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.05.636
    摘要   PDF (1001KB)
    深圳市是中国经济发展速度最快的沿海开放城市之一,其土地利用效益非常明显,并且具有耦合关系。根据系统科学理论与方法,建立了深圳市土地利用效益耦合模型和相应的指标体系, 当耦合度在0°~90°之间时,土地利用效益系统处于协调发展阶段;当耦合度等于45°时,系统最协调。根据此模型计算了1981~2004年间土地利用效益耦合度。结果表明,1981年以来,深圳市土地利用社会经济与生态环境效益都处于上升状态,前者持续快速上升;而后者总体上升,有所波动。深圳市土地利用效益的耦合度演化可分为4个阶段。1981~1985年间,土地利用效益耦合度从-36.29°快速上升到36.99°,从低级共生状态跃至相对协调状态。1986~1990年间,土地利用效益处于持续、稳定、最佳协调状态,耦合度介于43°~53°之间。1991~1996年间,土地利用效益处于耦合变化状态,耦合度从56.99°上升到79.47°,即从最佳协调状态向不甚协调发展。1997~2004年间,土地利用效益协调程度有所下降,耦合度介于81°~85°之间。
    Shenzhen is a coastal opening city of prosperous economy.Land use benefits are very obvious and pose clear coupling relationship in the city.A dynamic coupling model between land use benefits is set up according to the theory and method of general system science.Land use benefit systems are coordinated when coupling degrees change from 0皌o 90?.The coupling extent is optimum when coupling degrees are 45?.Corresponding indexes and weights are made out in the light of the model requirement and reality of Shenzhen City.The land use benefits are better and better during the period of 1981-2004.The socio-economic benefits rise stably and the eco-environment benefits develop fluctuant.The evolving processes of coupling degrees about land use benefits can be divided into 4 stages.The coupling degrees change from -54.39皌o 34.03癲uring the period of 1981-1986.The land use benefits soar from low-grade symbiosis into relatively coordinated development.The coordinated situation of land use benefits is optimum, continuous and stable from 1987 to 1990 because the coupling degrees are close to 45?.The land use benefits are not very coordinated during the period of 1991-1995 as the coupling degrees arrive gradually at 73.44?.The coordinated extent of land use benefits decreases during the last 9 years because of high coupling degrees which are close to 90?.
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    区域旅游竞争力数字化评价体系研究
    徐淑梅, 陈才
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (5): 642-648.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.05.642
    摘要   PDF (1058KB)
    建立了一套适于中国国情的区域旅游竞争力数字化评价系统。系统以国家和地区权威机构公开发布的统计数据为基本依据及其核心指标,融合旅游学和区域竞争力学说基本内涵,考虑区域旅游竞争潜在能力,以区域旅游竞争业绩、区域旅游环境竞争力和区域旅游竞争潜力作为评价系统三大要素,既包含全面衡量影响区域旅游竞争力的诸多综合因素,又注重选择对区域旅游竞争力有重要影响的指标作为主体,数字化特征和实时动态跟踪能力显著。
    The regional tourism competitive capability is the relative concept concerned with comparison each other for the regions.For knowing the difference among the regions it is effective way to establish quantitative evaluation of the competitive capability by selecting the reasonable specification and statistic method as well as the reliable data.Although there are some research results available in China at present, the shortages are obvious in the research.First is that the contents of the regional tourism competitive capability are not enough.Only present situation is considered and in many cases the costume concept is followed, while the potential ability of the tourism competitive capability is neglected.The second is that some specifications are too soft and the objective evaluation for regional tourism competitive capability cannot be attained.The third is that there are not the core specifications and the grade of the specifications is not clear.The fourth is that the digital characteristics are not obvious and the methods cannot trace the variation of the actual situation.The fifth is that some specifications in the methods are too fuzzy to be understood and employed by other researchers.A digitized evaluation system of the regional tourism competitive capability suitable for China is presented in the paper.Taken the data published by the national and regional authorities as basic and core index on the bottom of the system, the tourism science and the basic principles of the regional competitive capability theory are combined and the potential regional competitive capability is considered in the system.The three key points, including the achievement, the environment competition and the competitive potential in the regional tourism, are employed to construct the system, in which both the general factors as well as the main part influencing the regional tourism competitive capability are considered.The system in the paper is characterized with the digitized characteristics and the real time trace ability.
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    基于空间分析的史前郑洛地区连续文化聚落研究
    毕硕本, 闾国年, 陈济民
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (5): 649-655.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.05.649
    摘要   PDF (2464KB)
    运用空间分析方法,对郑洛地区的史前聚落位置与河流关系的距离进行分析,可知郑洛地区史前四个文化时期60%以上的聚落遗址都在水系4 km半径的缓冲区之内。对该地区四个文化时期聚落遗址的高程分析,发现大部分聚落遗址的高程位于100 m到400 m之间,而高程值小于100 m的遗址点不足10%,并且四个文化时期遗址的平均高程值都在280 m左右。对该地区史前四个文化时期的聚落数量进行增长分析,得出了郑洛地区聚落数量具有由早到晚呈几何状不断攀升的趋势。
    Appling the spatial analysis to the distances of prehistoric settlement sites of Zhengzhou-Luoyang region, we can find that more than 60% settlement sites of the four culture phases are located about 4km to the water system.This means that the selection strategy for habitation is near by the rivers in order to get the plentiful water and convenience transportation in prehistoric society.By analyzing the elevation of the sites of the settlement groups in different culture phases, the most elevation of the settlement sites is among 100 to 400m, and the number of sites whose elevation is lower than 100m is less than 10%.What is more, the average elevation of the settlement sites in 4 different culture phases is about 280m.This illuminates that the selection for elevation of habitation area has some qualification in prehistoric society.It is, the elevation of habitation area is very high, then the living and transportation condition is not convenience; but the elevation of habitation area is quite low, then the danger of floodwater is extraordinary big.The numbers of the settlements went up in a geometrical way from the early ages to the later times using time sequence analysis.In a word, using the case of the prehistoric settlement sites in Zhengzhou-Luoyang region, analyzing the relationship of settlement sites and its entironment features, and by means of spatial analysis method, the research finds the spatial distribution rules of settlement sites, discloses the core problem in geography, the relationship of the people and the earth, and illuminates the laws in the course of historical evolution.The research confirms that the spatial analysis method is a feasible and valid method for the settlement archaeology research.
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    农业技术创新扩散环境的定量化评价研究——以杨凌、关中地区为例
    刘笑明, 李同升
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (5): 656-661.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.05.656
    摘要   PDF (599KB)
    以中国干旱半干旱地区农业技术创新的制高点杨凌农业示范区作为创新扩散源头,以关中地区作为扩散区域,从构建评价指标体系入手,对关中地区各市区农业技术扩散环境进行定量化评价与分析。结果表明:关中地区总体扩散环境欠佳,各市区(除杨凌外)扩散环境差别不大;各个具体的评价因子对各地市扩散总体环境的贡献表现出较大的差异性;关中地区表现为3种不同的扩散环境:杨凌区最优,宝鸡、咸阳、西安市次之,铜川、渭南两市扩散环境最差。
    The external environment greatly influences the diffusion of ari-technique innovation.The study on the diffusion environment is helpful to know the factors which affect the diffusion process, so as to find out the effective countermeasures for the diffusion.Yangling National Agriculture High-tech Industries Demonstration Area is a demonstration area of agri-tecnique innovation in arid and semi-arid areas of China, which serves as a source of innovation with its surrounding areas.Taking Guanzhong as its diffusion region, the diffusion environment of agri-technique innovation are analyzed and evaluated based on the quantitative approach.The results show that the overall diffusion environment of Guanzhong is not good except Yangling area.There is little difference among the diffusion environment of each municipal area.The contribution that every factor asserts to the diffusion environment of every area is varies greatly.There are three different types of diffusion environment existing in Guanzhong area, among them, Yangling is the best one, Baoji, Xianyang and Xi’an come next, Tongchuang and Weinan are the worst.The authors also point out the optimizational direction of diffusion environment for Guanzhong area, and pave the way for the theoretical study on diffusion environment.
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    粤北石漠化过程土壤与植被变化及其相关性研究
    魏兴琥, 李森, 罗红波, 聂磊, 李辉霞, 何巧如
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (5): 662-666.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.05.662
    摘要   PDF (833KB)
    粤北英德市岩背镇典型石漠化区在石漠化从轻度向极重度发展的过程中,土层厚度、土壤覆盖度和土壤有机碳含量均呈显著下降的趋势,土壤有机碳含量在石漠化初期下降幅度更大,而土层厚度、土壤覆盖度在石漠化发展的后期阶段下降程度更为明显;石灰岩植被随石漠化程度加重,向旱生和岩生方向演替,群落结构渐趋简单,植被盖度和现存生物量显著降低;除岩石裸露率与土层厚度、土被覆盖度、土壤有机碳、植被盖度和生物量都呈极显著的负相关关系外,其它各因子之间都呈显著性的正相关关系。
    Yanbei Town of Yingde City in the northern Guangdong Province was selected as a typical site to investigate the soil and vegetation changes in the process of rock desertification.The results show that in the process of rock desertification from light grade to extreme high grade, the thickness of soil layer, the coverage of soil and the content of organic matter reduced significantly, the content of soil organic carbon reduced more in the primary stage of rock desertification than in the later stage, but the thickness of soil layer and the coverage of soil reduced more in serious stage than in the primary stage.The vegetation succession in the rocky area is towards xerophyte and rock plant in the process of rock desertification, and the structure of vegetation is getting more and more simple.The vegetation coverage and standing biomass reduced significantly.There exist significant negative correlations between the rate of uncovered rock and the thickness of soil layer, the coverage of soil, the content of organic matter, the vegetation coverage, and biomass.And there have significant positive correlations among other factors.
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    基于GIS的北京山区优势林分生态位分析
    段晓峰, 许学工
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (5): 667-671.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.05.667
    摘要   PDF (453KB)
    应用生态位理论,以北京山区森林资源为研究对象,分析优势林分的空间分布及其资源利用和环境适应能力的差异。基于GIS方法,建立优势林分空间分布数据库以及资源梯度信息数据库,分别采用Levins公式和Smith公式,在水分、热量、光照和土壤质量4维环境因子梯度上测定了研究区8个优势林分的生态位宽度,采用Pianka公式测定生态位重叠。结果表明:Smith公式考虑资源可利用性,得到的生态位宽度更能客观地反映优势林分资源空间利用程度;研究区各优势林分重叠度普遍较大,反映了对环境要求的相似性及资源共享的趋势性。
    Taking forest resources in the mountainous area of Beijing as the researching object, spatial distribution, resources utilization and adaptive capacity to environment of the eight dominant forests were studied by applying niche analysis.Environmental factors of forest, such as precipitation, sunshine, cumulative temperature and soil quality, were partitioned to five resources gradients.Based on geographic information systems, spatial databases were built for the distribution information of dominant forests and resources gradients of environmental factors.Niche breadths and niche overlaps of eight dominant forests growing on the five gradients of different resources dimensions in the mountainous area of Beijing were measured using Levins and Smith’s indexes and Pianka’s method.The results show that resources availability influences niche matrices greatly.Niche breadths calculated by Smith’s formula which considers resources availability and distribution indicate the capacities of resources utilization and environmental adaptation effectively.Niche overlap between two forests with broad niche breadth is usually great.The average niche overlaps among dominant forests in the study area are widely high, which indicates that the eight dominant forests require similar environmental conditions and resources sharing.
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    渤海莱州湾南岸潍河-弥河三角洲:沉积序列和沉积格架
    薛春汀, 丁东
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (5): 672-676.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.05.672
    摘要   PDF (585KB)
    潍河-弥河三角洲是一个由多条河流共同塑造的三角洲。前三角洲黏土质粉砂是各河流共同贡献的结果;每条河口之外形成各自的三角洲前缘,主要由极细砂组成;河口间湾沉积物是两条相邻河流共同塑造的,主要为黏土质粉砂。由于河口位置的侧向摆动,三角洲前缘极细砂和河口间湾黏土质粉砂会交替出现。7000a B. P. 以来向海进积20~55km,在海岸附近三角州沉积物厚度超过20m。
    Weihe River-Mihe River Delta on the south coast of the Bohai Sea is contributed by the Jiaolai River, Weihe River, the Bailang River, the Mihe River and the Xiaoqing River, and the historical Jishui River existed in 11-1128 A.D.It is a river group delta.The coast line prograteded 20-55 km from 7000 yr B.P.to 1984.The delta thickness along the coast is over 20 m.The distances between two river mouths is approximately 20 km or less.The clayey silt of the prodelta is jointly constructed by all rivers, very fine sand of the delta fronts are made at the individual river mouths.and the inter-mouth bay clayey silt accumulate between two river mouths.The delta has not distinct abandoned delta lobe.The very fine sand and intermouth bay silt alternately occur in sequence in the delta front because of river mouth movement.
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    海南岛东部铜鼓岭岸段港湾岸滩沉积特征
    毛龙江, 张永战, 许叶华, 魏灵, 黎刚, 朱大奎
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (5): 677-682.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.05.677
    摘要   PDF (846KB)
    海南岛东部铜鼓岭岬角南、北两侧的淇水湾和月亮湾海岸海滩均为中粗砂海滩,其中值粒径和平均粒径主要分布在0~2 Ф之间,反映了海南岛东部动力作用整体较强。月亮湾近岸20 m水深处沉积物的中值粒径主要分布在-1~-3 Ф之间,主要以砾石为主;10~20 m水深处沉积物中值粒径分布在-1~0 Ф之间,以极粗砂为主;铜鼓岭南部淇水湾,以粗砂为主,部分区域出现细砂,反映海滩受到的动力条件不如北部月亮湾海岸海滩显著。造成这种差异的主要原因是铜鼓岭岬角对东北向(主风向)风浪的阻挡和岬角南部港湾有宽广的珊瑚礁平台对波浪的消能。而且,淇水湾海岸北部和南部也有差异,北部珊瑚礁平台受到破坏,对波浪的消浪较弱,从而表现同一海滩滩面物质分布的南北差异。
    Through the field investigations such as geological and geomorphology survey, beach and seabed bathymetry, beach profile measurements, grain-size analyses of the sediments of the beaches and seabed, this paper makes some preliminary conclusions as follows:(1) The sands of the Yueliang Bay and the Qishui Bay are coarse-middle sands and medium and mean grain-size diameters are mainly between 1-2 Ф.The grain-size results of beach and seabed sediments indicate that the wave is great in the Yueliang Bay and the Qishui Bay in the eastern Hainan Island.The reason is that the Yueliang Bay and the Qishui Bay face the sea directly and have no barriers, so the wind wave is stronger, which is influenced distinctly by winter and summer monsoon.(2) The coastal geomorphology have great influence on dynamicical condition and sementation environment.The medium grain-size of the seabed sediments is -1--3 Ф near 20-m fathom line, and -1-0 Ф between 10-20 m fathom lines, which shows that the wave function the sea bed at 20 m depth in the Yueliang Bay.However, there are coral reefs in the Qishui Bay, which can remove some energy, so the swash wave is not stronger than that in the Yueliang Bay.(3) Moreover, the different geomorphologies in the same embayment coast result indifferent dynamic conditions.Because of the coral reef damaged in the northern Qishui Bay, the coarse sizes of the sand in the sand beach are distributed in the different parts, which indicates swash wave acts frequently in the different tides, but in the southern Qishui Bay, only at the big tide time, the swash wave can act on the beach.
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    郑州全新世黄土的颗粒形态特征及其环境意义
    庞奖励, 黄春长, 查小春, 祝一志
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (5): 683-687.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.05.683
    摘要   PDF (1715KB)
    用偏光显微镜和图像处理软件对黄土颗粒形态进行观察和定量分析,用激光粒度仪测量黄土的粒度分布。结果表明:郑州地区黄土中颗粒的一般呈次圆状-圆状,具有较高的圆度和球度;矿物组合以石英和长石占绝对优势,但郑州黄土中石英/长石比值和C/F(10 μm)值高于关中黄土;郑州黄土粒度峰值集中在50~80 μm且曲线形态较陡,而关中黄土粒度峰值在20~40 μm且曲线形态较缓。综合分析认为,郑州地区黄土可能来源于孟津以东的黄河冲积扇,应属于近源黄土。
    Using the particle data obtained from the Holocene soil profile at LGT, JYC sites in the Guanzhong area and at PLG, SBLH sites in the Zhengzhou, this article attempts to illustrate the material source of Zhengzhou loess and its environmental significance.The micromorphology was observed under a petrographic microscope, and its image was quantificationally measured by NIKON NIS-ELments BR2.2 software.Particle size distribution was determined by a Malvern Mastersizer-S and with Na4P2O7 as a dispersant.Micromorphological observation of the thin sections shows that the grain-shape of Zhengzhou loess is characterized by sub-round or round, with higher length/width ratio, and that of the Guanzhong loess by sub-angular or angular, with strip, triangular and irregular shapes.Comparison with the Guanzhong loess, the coarse of Zhengzhou loess is characterized by higher Length, Area, EqDiameter, Perimeter, Elongation and Roundness, and K1,K2,K3,K4 value are more than 1.It suggest that the particle in the Zhengzhou loess has higher roundness and sphericity and has gone through stronger hydraulic abrasion.The assemblage of minerals in both loess is mainly composed of Q and Pl.However, Q+Pl content, Q/Pl ratio and C/F10μm ratio are clear higher in Zhengzhou loess than in Guanzhong loess.Research result shows that particle-size of both loess falls in the same range, within particle-size range of aeloian, but peak value of particle-size of Zhengzhou loess ranges in 50-80 μm with steep particle-size curve and that of Guanzhong loess is in 20-40 μm with slow particle-size curve.All the results of this study suggest that Zhengzhou loess is aeolian, which has synchronously both aeolian and alluvium features.However its material source differs from Guanzhong loess, and it came from various loose river sediments at the Huanghe (Yellow) River alluvial fan in the east of Mengjin and transported by northeastern wind.
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    基于数据挖掘的地图质量集对分析模型
    汪明武, 金菊良, 李丽
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (5): 688-692.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.05.688
    摘要   PDF (232KB)
    应用模糊联系度的概念,以探讨对差异度系数进行数据挖掘的改进集对分析方法,实现对不确定性数据信息的数据挖掘和深入分析,提高评价结果的准确性和可靠性。结合实例验证构建模型的正确性和有效性,并与模糊数学方法及专家评价方法的结果进行对比分析,结果表明应用基于数据挖掘的集对分析方法评价地图质量是有效可行的,且操作过程简单。
    The evaluation of map quality is prime importance for the improvement of map design and application.To overcome and avoid the problems of weight determination and large sample size of mining information in the traditional evaluated methods, a novel method using the theory of set pair analysis (SPA) based on data mining are proposed to evaluate the map quality in this paper.The certainty and uncertainty of objective problems are treated as uncertain systems during the process of SPA, and the uncertainties are described by the connecting degree.However, The evaluation of map quality not only need to calculate identical degree, different degree and contrary degree between the evaluated index sets of sample and grade standard sets, but also to mine useful information from the discrepancy coefficient of connecting degree.The approaching degree is introduced to describe the fuzzy connecting degree between the index values, which are located in the neighbor discussed grade, the discussed grade.Then find the maximum membership degree based on the general connecting degree of the sample.To quantify the evaluated result, and the characteristic values are also calculated.Moreover, to confirm the reliability and the versatility of this improved SPA method, the application to a practical example, and the comparisons of evaluated results with the fuzzy mathematic method and expert evaluated method were conducted.The results show that the proposed method used to assess map quality is feasible and effective, and easy to operate.And the method has no limit on specimen modeling.This presented model also has provided the new reference for the evaluation of other uncertainty problems.
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    天津市滨海地区地面沉降灾害风险评估与区划
    胡蓓蓓, 姜衍祥, 周俊, 王军, 许世远
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (5): 693-697.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.05.693
    摘要   PDF (870KB)
    文章对1985~2006年累计地面沉降量及近几年地面沉降速率进行分析和叠加评价,完成天津市滨海地区地面沉降灾害危险性分区图;以人口密度和单位面积GDP为指标进行易损性分析;从每km2水准测量km数和地下水压采量占开采量百分比两方面考虑防灾减灾能力;在此基础上,借助GIS空间分析方法,将危险性分区图、易损性分区图和防灾减灾能力分区图进行叠加分析,完成天津市滨海地区地面沉降灾害风险区划图,分为低风险区、较低风险区、中等风险区、较高风险区、高风险区5等。
    Risk assessment and zoning are very important for risk management.Accumulative total subsidence volume and land subsidence velocity were analyzed and superimposed to create the land subsidence disaster evaluation map.Population density and unit area GDP were analyzed in terms of vulnerability mapping.Response and recovery capability of land subsidence disaster was also assessed.Land subsidence disaster risk zonation by means of GIS automatically was overlaid on the three data layers of hazard, vulnerability and response and recovery capability.Then each grid unit with a resolution of 200m?200m was divided into five categories of the risk:high, slight high, medium, slight low and low.The research can give reference to regional disaster reduction.
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    天目山柳杉树轮δ13C序列所反映的植物水分利用率对大气CO2浓度变化的生理响应
    赵兴云, 王建, 商志远, 王祖良, 钱君龙
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (5): 698-702.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.05.698
    摘要   PDF (1285KB)
    工业化以来,由于大量化石燃料CO2排入大气,引起大气CO2浓度的持续升高。研究表明,植物的光合作用、水分利用率及作物生物量等均对周围大气CO2浓度的增加产生明显的正响应,而植物叶片的气孔导度及蒸腾速率对CO2浓度增加产生负响应。对采自浙江西天目山地区的三株柳杉树盘交叉定年后,测定了三株树轮的δ13C年序列,并利用3株柳杉树轮δ13C序列探讨了天目山地区树木生长对大气CO2浓度增加的生理响应——水分利用率的变化状况。结果是,三株树轮δ13C序列反映的水分利用率均是增加的,且增长趋势基本一致。研究结果反映了工业革命前后,树木生长对大气CO2浓度增加所产生的明显正响应。
    The concentration of atmospheric CO2 has been increased due to the CO2 emission with mass fossil-fuel combustion since industrialization.Many studies indicate that the increasing concentration of atmospheric CO2 is significantly positive correlation with the photosynthesis and water use efficiency and production of vegetable is negative correlation with the connectivity of foliage stoma and rate of transpiration.In this study, the annual series of δ13C of three Cryptomeria fortunei Hooibrenk ex Otto et Dietr (CF) tree disks collected from west Tianmu Mountains, based on cross-dating tree ring ages, were determined.We probe into the physiological response for trees’ growth to the increasing concentration of atmospheric CO2 and moisture condition on the basis of the three δ13C series.The result illuminates that the water use efficiency are all increasing reflected by the three trees and the increasing trend is similar approximately.The result elucidates that the tree growth is significant positive with the increasing of atmospheric CO2 concentration before and after the Industrial Revolution.
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    中坝遗址约4250aB.P.以来古气候和人类活动记录
    史威, 朱诚, 马春梅, 朱青
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (5): 703-708.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.05.703
    摘要   PDF (1450KB)
    重庆中坝遗址地层Rb、Sr、Hg及TOC研究表明:Rb、Sr和Rb/Sr值较好地反映了约4250a B.P.以来气候变化过程,主要干冷期可与敦德冰川δ18O曲线谷值、湖光岩沉积物磁化率和Ti曲线峰值、以及大气14C浓度峰值和太阳活动水平较长期变化的低谷对比,反映出地层中Rb、Sr不易受人类活动干扰的特性。结合考古遗存对比还发现,Hg、P、Ca、Mg和TOC记录了该遗址约4250a B.P.以来人类活动的三个不同演变阶段。进一步研究认为,盐业遗址的衰落可能与洪水事件、盐泉资源的过度消耗以及由此造成的利用难度加大有关
    Stratigraphical research on Rb, Sr, Hg and TOC in Zhongba site, Chongqing indicates that Rb, Sr and Rb/Sr can reflect basically the process of climate change since 4250 a B.P., the major dry-cold periods can contrast to the low values of δ18 O curve in Dunde Glaciar, the high values of magnetic susceptibility and Ti curves from the settings in Huguang Maar Lake, the high values of 14C density in the atmosphere and the low values of relative long term variation on the solar activity, which response the characteristics that Rb and Sr in the stratums are not prone to be disturbed by mankind activities.Combining with archaeological remains and contrast the variation curves of Hg, P, Ca, Mg and TOC, we can still discover that Hg, P, Ca, Mg and TOC record three different stages of evolution that mankind activities go through since 4250 a B.P.Further studying, we think that the decline of salt industry site is probably interrelated with the palaeo-flood events, excessively utilizing the salt wells resources and the increased difficulty of using them.
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    兰州市城区夏季热场分布与热岛效应研究
    李国栋, 王乃昂, 张俊华, 赵力强
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (5): 709-714.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.05.709
    摘要   PDF (1029KB)
    对兰州市城区进行了早、午、晚3个时段各气候要素的流动观测,模拟了兰州市城区夏季3个时段的地面热场。结果显示,兰州市夏季地面热场分布存在明显的规律性和动态演变特征。2006~2007年,在城区和郊区利用两套自动气象站连续进行了气候定点对比观测,结合兰州城区台站近70年和郊区台站近40年的常规气象观测资料,分析兰州市气温、热岛效应及热岛强度的变化特征。热场的时空分布与兰州市城市化过程中土地利用类型、人口密度、城市能耗、建筑容积率和下垫面热力性质等因素的变化有着密切的联系。
    The mobile surveys were conducted by vehicles equipped with meteorological instruments and GPS in Lanzhou.With the corrected data and the method of spatial interpolation, this paper model urban thermal field in three periods of Lanzhou in summer and analyzed the cause of formation.Results show that the thermal field of Lanzhou presents regular distribution.The thermal space distribution characters have directly relations with land use type, urban energy consumption, population density, building volume rate, and thermodynamic properties of underlying surface.Two automatic meteorological stations were used to observe meteorological elements contrastively at urban area and suburb from 2006 to 2007, combining with the routine meteorological data of urban meteorological station in recent 70 years and the routine meteorological data of suburb station in recent 40 years, large time scale temperature variation, heat island effect, and change of heat island intensity.Results show that interannual variation characteristics of temperature are consistent with the large scale oscillation characteristics in last century; urban heat island effect is more remarkable, and urban heat island intensity has become strong gradually from the 1980s, these characteristics have close relations with development of urbanization and industrialization in Lanzhou.
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