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CN 22-1124/P
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  • 地理科学
      2009年, 第29卷, 第6期 刊出日期:2009-11-20 上一期    下一期
    选择: 合并摘要 显示图片
    论文
    高级人才空间流动因素分析及建立反区域筛选机制的意义
    罗守贵, 王爱民, 高汝熹
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (6): 779-786.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.06.779
    摘要   PDF (1060KB)
    区域人才筛选是人力资源市场化配置中的马太效应,其空间表现为受区域之间经济梯度力的作用,高级人才从小城市向大城市或从落后地区向发达地区的逆向流动。对440份调查问卷的分析表明,强势地区对高级人才筛选力量十分强大,这种流动在人才年龄段上表现为双峰特征,与家庭状况密切相关,但与距离基本无关。由于区域人才筛选严重影响区域和谐发展,影响民族团结、社会安定及人口质量,必须致力于建立一种反区域人才筛选机制,将弱势区域的经济开发与人才开发有机结合起来;对弱势地区高级人才建立地区年功序列制度;稳定弱势地区初次就业的高校毕业生并为企业吸引高级人才提供制度支持。
    Regional selection of talents is a kind of Matthew effect in the condition of market disposing human resources, which shows as talents’migration shifting from developing regions to developed regions.The analyses of 440 questionnaires show that the selective power from developed regions or large cities is very strong.From the angle of regional shift, among the 147 migrants, the horizontal migration (the West to the West, the Middle to the Middle, the East to the East) makes up 36%, the converse migration (the West to the Middle or the East, the Middle to the East) makes up 52.4%, while the direct migration (the East to the Middle or the West, the Middle to the West) makes up only 11.6%.From the angle of urban shift, the horizontal shift (between same level cities) makes up 67.3%, the converse migration (low level cities to high level cities) makes up 25.5%, while the direct migration (high level cities to low level cities) makes up only 7.5%.Among the 293 persons who haven’t migraten, the subjective desire of converse migration is even stronger.Those who hope to migrate to the East make up 83.5%, while those who hope to migrate to the West and the Middle in all make up only 16.7%.From the angle of cities, among the 293 persons, those who hope to migrate to metropolises and large cities in all make up 81.2%, while those who hope to migrate to medium-sized and small cities in all make up only 18.8%.The analyses also show that the migrant talents distribute in two peak age groups, one is between 25 to 30 years old, another is 45 to 50, that the migration is closely related to talents’families, but unrelated to moving distance.As regional selection of talents seriously affects poor regions, it is important to establish a kind of anti-selection mechanisms among regions.This kind of mechanisms is the important foundation of regional harmonious development, the important condition of the unity of various nationalities, the important avenues to improve the quality of population of poor districts.To establish the anti-selection mechanisms, the central government should combine talents development with economic development of poor districts, should establish a kind of award system according to work years in poor districts, should stabilize those graduating students who obtain their initial employment in poor districts by taking effective steps, should supply a powerful economic support for poor districts to draw high-level talents, and should create favorable conditions for poor districts’talents.It is important to realize that this kind of mechanisms is not planned measures which restrict the flow of trained personnel.On the contrary, even the economic measures, the policies should be based on market to realize rational distribution of high-level talents.
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    区域流动空间整合与全球城市网络构建
    沈丽珍, 顾朝林
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (6): 787-793.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.06.787
    摘要   PDF (1044KB)
    流动空间作为新时期的新空间形式已经开始影响区域空间的结构与城市体系的形成与发展。文章通过区域流动空间的整合研究,发现在流动空间中,连接性弱化物理邻近性,关系论更新区位论,区域空间关系被重新整合。在新的区域空间关系中,流动空间的网络动力与结构表现出集聚与扩散、等级结构与地域差异等特征。这种关系进一步作用于传统的中心地体系,形成流动空间的网络城市体系,进而构筑全球城市网络体系。
    Space of flows as a new form of space for the new period has started to affect the formation and development of regional spatial structure and urban system.The article does the research on the integration of space of flows in regional space, found that in space of flows linkage replaces the physical contiguity, and relationship replaces the location.The relationship of regional space is to be reconstructed.In new relationship of regional space, space of flows has characteristics such as accumulation and proliferation, structure of hierarchy, geographical differences and so on.It acts on the traditional central-place systems and forms network systems of space of flows, and then build network systems of global cities.
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    北京市城乡居民收入差距变化及影响因素分析
    陈红霞, 李国平
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (6): 794-801.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.06.794
    摘要   PDF (1287KB)
    选取1985~2007年的时间序列数据,对23年间北京市居民的收入差距演变规律进行分析,并在对纵向数据分析基础上,综合运用基尼系数反映的收入差距相对水平,和城乡居民收入比较差距反映的比较水平两个指标,对北京市城乡居民收入差距的发展状态和趋势进行科学判断。研究认为,北京市居民收入差距变化大致经历“低收入公平型”“低收入不公平型”“高收入不公平型”的演进过程。进一步的计量模型分析结果揭示,第二、三产业就业人员占总就业人员的比重,城市化水平和二元结构系数三个变量对北京市城乡居民收入相对差距的影响是正向的,而政府财政支农比率对城乡收入差距的影响是负向的,进而探讨了缩小城乡收入差距的对策。
    The object of this paper is to analyze urban-rural income inequality in Beijing.Selecting the time-series data of 1985-2007, the paper analyzes the evolution of urban-rural income inequality in Beijing.Based on the longitudinal data analysis, using two indicators, which are the Gini coefficient reflecting the relative level of income disparity, and the income gap between urban and rural residents, the paper gets some scientific judgments which reflect the state and trends of urban-rural income inequality in Beijing.In the 23 years, the difference between an average annual disposable income of urban residents in Beijing, and an average annual net income of rural residents expands gradually.Studies suggest that changes of urban-rural income inequality in Beijing experience the evolutionary process, which is " low-income-fair-type" "low-income-unfair type" " high-income-unfair type".Further analysis is based on the econometrics model, which contains eight indicators of four categories of variables, revealing that there are many elements cause the results of urban-rural income inequality in Beijing, in these elements, three variables impact positively on urban-rural income inequality in Beijing, which are the employment proportion in the secondary and tertiary industries to total employment, the level of urbanization and the dual structure coefficient, and the Government Financial support for agriculture impacts negatively on the urban-rural income inequality.Based on the study above, the paper gets the countermeasures and proposals.It is significant to study the evolution and major effect factor of urban-rural income inequality in Beijing, not only for Beijing itself, but also for the other cities.
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    中国大陆地区对外贸易差异的演变、成因与收敛路径
    张红霞, 王学真, 陈才
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (6): 802-808.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.06.802
    摘要   PDF (1134KB)
    根据采用因子分析法进行的综合评价结果表明,中国大陆地区对外贸易水平呈现明显的非均衡发展态势。以变异系数度量的对外贸易总量差异表明,1985~2006年间,地带间外贸总量差异呈逐步增大的态势,地带内部外贸总量差异呈趋于收敛的态势。以制成品进出口占全国比重度量的对外贸易结构表明,四大地带中,东部始终占据全国主导地位且占比逐年上升。在地区对外贸易差异的形成过程中,对外开放政策、外商直接投资、人力资本、经济性基础设施、国内投资和地理区位等因素起到了决定性作用。以对数单位模型进行的实证检验表明,加大道路交通建设、提高中央与地方的分权水平、扩大投资规模、改善人力资本状况、提升通讯水平和加强省际外贸合作,是促进地区对外贸易向均衡方向发展的有效路径。
    The synthetic evaluation based on the exploratory factor analysis indicated that the foreign trade development in Chinese mainland presents the unbalanced situation:eastern area heads the list and northeastern, mid-west areas decreases gradually.During 1985-2006, the difference of foreign trade quantity between four major regions increases step by step and the difference in internal regions tends restraining.In finished-product trade, eastern area occupies the national dominant position all the time and the ration rises year by year.In the forming process of foreign trade difference, factors such as open policy, foreign direct investment, human capital, economic infrastructure, domestic investment and geographical position play the decisive role.And the demonstration test which is carried on by the Log Unit Model indicates that expanding the road traffic construction, enhancing the decentralization level between central government and the local government, improving investment scale, increasing human capital condition, promoting communication level and strengthening the inter-provincial foreign trade cooperation, are the efficient paths to guide regional foreign trade development in the balanced direction.
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    基于可达性角度的区域发展机会公平性评价——以江西省为例
    钟业喜, 陆玉麒
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (6): 809-816.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.06.809
    摘要   PDF (1463KB)
    在对可达性评价方法进行综合分析的基础上,提出基于Arcgis的简易可达性评价方法,并结合主成分分析、聚类分析等方法对1997年和2007年江西省一、二、三级中心地进行区域可达性评价。结果表明:经过10a的发展,江西区域可达性得到明显改善;可达性的区域差异有所缩小;高等级的中心地提供更高等级的商品和服务,接近高等级中心地的区域可获得更好的发展机会;交通建设对区域可达性的影响符合边际效用递减原理,增加交通欠发达地区的投资有助于实现区域公平;可达性差的区域获得的发展机会较少,经济发展明显滞后;江西赣中南、赣南、赣西北的可达性发展缓慢,影响到区域发展和区域公平。
    Regional fair is from the perspective of space to examine the question of the fairness of traffic.Traffic development will greatly improve the regional accessibility.Generally, with the high-density, high-connectivity and good-access, well-planned transportation system is good up to the region, is closely linked to the region and the outside, and gives the more opportunity to development.From fair view of the effectiveness, the realization of traffic fair will be more conductive to the realization of fairness to maximize social benefits.According to the principle of diminishing marginal utility, to improve traffic flow in the areas less developed will obtain greater efficiency and higher social recognition than in developed regions.It is important to coordinate the relationship between fairness and efficiency in the regional economic development.The purpose of regional economic development is to achieve the objectives of social equity for efficient growth, to provide equitable regional development opportunities.This paper attempts to take Jiangxi Province as a case, up to the point of view from space to explore opportunities for regional development of the space fairness.It takes a case of geography services for current application of economic and social construction.Thanks to the help of organizing and extracting spatial data, mapping and spatial analysis method of ArcGIS, under the comprehensive analysis of the methods of accessibility evaluation, a simple method be put forward based on ArcGIS.Up to a lot of evaluation methods, this study in order to achieve the accuracy of evaluation, the scope of Jiangxi Province is to be divided into some grids of the size of 100 m?100 m.The accessibility mentioned up in the paper is the shortest time from the grid to the corresponding node.The average accessibility is the average time of all the accessibility of the grids in the scope of corresponding node.The largest accessibility is the largest time of all the accessibility of the grids in the scope of corresponding node.The scope of corresponding node is gained by the function of cost-weighted distance in ArcGIS.Combined with the methods of principal component analysis and cluster analysis, regional accessibility of different levels in 1997 and 2007 has been evaluated.Through the case study of Jiangxi province, some conclusions can be summarized below:(1) The regional accessibility have been improved after decades of development.(2) The regional differences of accessibility have been minified.(3) High-grade center urban can provide a higher level of goods and services, and better development opportunities can be obtained for which closing to it.(4) The effect of traffic construction applicable to the principle of diminishing marginal utility.Increase traffic investment in backward areas contributes to the achievement of the regional fair.(5)The region of poor accessibility has fewer opportunities, and it lags behind economic development.(6)The slow development of Jiangxi Province in south-central, south, north-west resulted an unfair regional development.The innovation of this study is from the perspective of traffic up to discuss regional development opportunities of the fair, and in the process of accessibility evaluation, some problems of closed roads be better dealt with.
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    北京市交通出行环境的空间评价
    高晓路, 季珏, 张文忠
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (6): 817-824.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.06.817
    摘要   PDF (1060KB)
    运用交通出行满意度的调查数据,对北京市交通出行环境的空间分异状况进行了实证分析,并对造成空间分异的原因进行了解析。①空间分析结果表明,北京市交通出行环境表现出显著的地理空间和社会空间分异。目前北京市交通出行矛盾最严重的几个地区包括前门王府井地区,亚运村-北苑-天通苑地区,中关村和回龙观地区,东长安街以南的双井-劲松-南磨房-王四营乡一带,西北五环以外的香山-植物园地区,大兴黄村,通州区。②在交通出行行为方面,北京市居民分化为四个具有明显差异的组群,他们的空间分布呈现出显著的不均匀性特征。③公共交通布局规划对于提升满意度具有明显效果,其中,各地800m范围内公共交通站点布局以及公交线路配置的作用尤其显著。在上述结论的基础上,分析了造成各地区交通出行矛盾的城市空间结构、土地利用规划、交通规划和公共政策方面的主要原因,提出了改善交通出行环境的对策。
    This paper presents an empirical analysis of the micro-scale traffic environment in Beijing.With survey data of the residents’degree of satisfaction with the traffic environment, spatial differentiations were analyzed across both geographical space and social groups, and the influencing factors leading to the differentiations were examined with logistic regression models.Based on the study, the concrete measures for improving the traffic environment were proposed from perspectives of land use, urban infrastructure and facilities, and the planning of public transportation.The main content of the paper is composed of three parts.1) The spatial distribution of the satisfaction degrees was analyzed.The results of analysis revealed that, with respect to traffic congestions, which is the least satisfied part of the traffic environment in Beijing, the dissatisfactions of people are significantly high in six areas, including traditional central commercial area (Wangfujing), large public housing areas (Huilongguan and Tiantongyuan), new IT centers (Zhongguancun), heavy rail-blocked neighborhoods (for instance, Shuangjing, Jinsong and Nanmofang), undeveloped suburban areas (Xiangshan and Zhiwuyuan) and new towns (Daxing and Tongzhou).An exploration of the characteristics of these areas showed that Beijing’s traffic problems are closely linked with land-use planning and public policies, and there are strong interactions between traffic infrastructure and urban activities.Therefore, it is necessary to adjust urban planning in order to realize sustainable urban transport.2) The satisfaction degrees of different people were studied.The traffic behaviors and socio-economic attributes of the residents significantly differ across four social groups, namely, educated and wealthy families, young workers, working class families, and the original inhabitants of Beijing.The last group, which is also the poorest, is significantly vulnerable in traffic.The incorporation of social policies for vulnerable social groups living in remote suburban areas is critical.3) The effects of the planning of public transportation on people’s satisfaction were analyzed.The analysis implied that optimization of the public transportation services, especially the distribution of bus stops within 800 m, would effectively improve the satisfaction of residents.Furthermore, it was found that 25-40 and 50-80 bus stops within the distance of 800 m are the best densities of bus stops in the central areas within the Third Ring Road and in the urban areas outside the Third Ring Road, respectively.Upon the results, the areas uncovered by the 800 m buffering areas of bus stops were identified, and it was suggested to increase new bus stops in these areas.The connection of bus stops with the 30 main places of the city was also found to have a significant impact on people’s satisfaction.The results were used for identifying the places where the connections of public transportation were poor and for optimizing the design of bus lines.
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    近10年来大连城市居住小区时空变动与演化模式
    许妍, 李雪铭, 高俊峰, 郭建科
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (6): 825-832.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.06.825
    摘要   PDF (1686KB)
    城市化进程的加快和房地产业的快速发展使居住小区时空复杂性日益突出,居民的择居行为和居住区位都在不断地发生变化。依据统计资料,结合实地调查和电话访查收集到1998~2006年大连城市居住小区的相关数据,运用GIS的空间分析功能,从实证与定量分析角度揭示出大连城市居住小区10年来的时空演化分为快速增长、缓慢调整和井喷式膨胀三个阶段;在趋向于城市边缘、沿交通干线、自然资源优美地区布局与临近高新技术园区、大学园区布局四种区位指向性下,居住小区的空间演化模式呈现出圈层外溢、扇面拓展和组团聚集三种模式。
    The expansion of urban residential space is a continuously dynamic process, and displays different spatial characteristic in the different stage of urban development.Along with the rapid development of urbanization and real estate, the temporal-spatial complexity of residential quarter is prominent day by day, and residents’behavior of choose residence place and residential location are constantly changing.First, based on statistical information, combining with the field surveys and telephone visits collects the relevant data of urban residential quarter from 1998 to 2006;using spatial analysis function reveals the time-space evolution of urban residential quarter in the last ten years from empirical and quantitative angle;the process of evolution could be classified into three stages:rapid growth, slowly adjustment, and expansion of blowout type.The former two stages, residential space expansion takes the release of rigidity demand on the initial marketability and the guidance of transportation infrastructure construction as the main driving force, the town center plot is a mainstream, and in the later period the obvious residential quarter suburbanization phenomenon appears.On the third stage, as the non-native population gradually increases, the transportation network gradually improves and the private vehicle massive emergences, the expansion of residential quarter is faster than infrastructure construction, the community environment and the natural landscape become the most important factor of the residential quarter layout, the suburbanization become the mainstream.Second, the article analyzes the "location direction" rule which is followed by the characteristic of space-time dynamic change.The development of residential quarter is influenced by the location condition, the region infrastructure condition (transportation, education, health and so on), the environment condition (nature, society, humanities environment) and presents different location directions.Dalian mainly has following four kinds of situation:the urban fringe layout, traffic road layout, and approaching hi-tech garden and natural resources layout as well as near university layout.At last, Dalian is the city which develops unceasingly along the harbor, and is limited by multi-mountain terrains;the residential space expands along the old city with circle structure while spreads to city fringe area, meanwhile depends on the traffic artery to extend to the hinterland in sector and to form the relatively concentrated spatial structure of the residential group.The residential spatial expansion urges the formation of new urban business center, impels city space restructuring.The development of residential space has accelerated the suburbanization of residence and residential space differentiation.
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    改革开放以来延吉市城市空间扩展过程与演变趋势研究
    李明玉, 黄焕春
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (6): 833-839.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.06.833
    摘要   PDF (1707KB)
    基于1976、1992、2001、2008年的遥感影像,利用“等扇分析法”和基于不等时距的灰色系统方法,分析了延吉市近32年的城市空间扩展过程。在自然、经济、政治、交通等四个主要因素作用下,延吉市城市形态已由团块状转变为星状,城市空间扩展主要沿“布尔哈通河”东西两向、“烟集河”向北三个条带扩展,且这三个条带扩展强度较高;2001~2008年间,城市空间在各方向的扩展差异减小,改变了以往过分集中于少数几个方向的状况。从不等时距的灰色预测结果看,2015、2020年延吉市城市建成区的面积将分别达到106.621和149.516km2,仍将保持快速扩展趋势,且扩展数量较大,而目前延吉市除农业、生态保护用地外,周围可供城市化的土地资源较少,因此建议积极进行规划管理,集约利用土地,实现科学发展,避免城市过分膨胀。
    In this article,it has been analyzed the characteristics of the expansion trend of the Yanji urban form from 1976-2008, by the methods of "equal fan-analysis" and different time-distance of gray system, mainly based on remote sensing image data in 1976,1992, 2001, 2008.Yanji urban form has changed from mass into a star;the three expansion bands of urban form, expand along the east-west Buerhatong River and the northward Yanji River, the strength of extend of the three bands is highest,by four factors of natural, economic, political, transportation;from the forecast results of different time-distance methods, Yanji urban form will maintain a trend of rapid expansion.But Yanji City has limited available land resources for the urbanization.So it is proposed to take measures early to cope with.
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    乡村景观遗产地保护性旅游开发模式研究——以浙江龙门古镇为例
    孙艺惠, 陈田, 张萌
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (6): 840-845.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.06.840
    摘要   PDF (778KB)
    近年来,伴随旅游市场生态、文化诉求的日益增强,世界范围内乡村景观遗产旅游备受青睐。中国广袤的地理环境空间中拥有丰富多彩的乡村景观遗产资源,正在成为推动现阶段特色化乡村旅游业发展的重要力量。然而,快速发展的旅游产业也引发了遗产地过度商业化、超负荷接待等问题,威胁到遗产保护和可持续利用。以浙江龙门古镇为例,在借鉴传统开发模式相关经验的基础上,构建了一种保护性旅游开发模式,以实现保护前提下乡村景观遗产资源的合理开发和有效利用。
    With increasing demand for ecological and cultural tourism in recent years, rural heritage tourism becomes more and more popular worldwide.As the representation of local culture, folk custom and architectural art reflecting the evolvement of historical culture and social development, it is of great significance to be protected and made good use of the rural heritage.In China, the vast geographical land has nurtured colorful rural heritage, which promoted cultural tourism development greatly.However, with the rapid development of tourism, problems such as over-commercialization and tourism urbanization occurred which threatened the protection and sustainable development of the rural heritage resources.On the one hand, urbanization and rural modernization have a great impact on traditional landscape and make the cultural identification gradually lose.Furthermore, the traditional mode of tourism development is resources-oriented, which focuses on the protection of core area or primary buildings especially.So the protected area becomes more and more limited while the core area shrinks and traditional landscapes are changed.This "centralized" mode brings many conflicts between rural heritage’s protection and tourism development.In view of these problems, it is necessary to develop a new way for managing the local cultural resources in tourism.Taking Longmen ancient town for an example, this article discussed the effective way to protect and further exploit rural heritage resources aiming for sustainable tourism development:First, to identify the culture features and the extent of ancient villages and towns, based on which a cultural landscape zoning approach can be applied.Second, to define a cooperative function area to relax the pressure on core areas and to protect their authentic cultures by extending tourism space.In addition, to balance the tourism development with traditional industries to enhance the sustainability of community economies.
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    基于遥感技术的黑龙江上中游河道特征研究
    张树文, 蔡红艳, 匡文慧, 张新乐, 张养贞, 吕妍
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (6): 846-852.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.06.846
    摘要   PDF (637KB)
    以2000年Landsat-7ETM+影像、地形图、数字高程数据等为数据源,从河道平面形态及河流纵剖面形态对黑龙江上中游河道特征进行分析。从河流动力特征、流域自然环境条件及人类活动方面探讨其对河道形态特征形成的影响。研究发现:黑龙江上中游河道曲折系数均值为1.20,属于微弯顺直型河道,整体相对稳定,但局部河段河道形态复杂,河流纵剖面形态为下凹型曲线;河流形态的形成遵循一定的河流动力学规律,是水流和河床在自然因素与人类活动影响下相互作用结果。
    Based on Landsat-7 ETM+ images in 2000, relief maps, Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and other related data, this research investigated the channel characteristics of the upper and middle Heilongjiang River, from the channel plane configuration and longitudinal profile morphology, to discuss how river dynamics, natural environmental conditions and human activities influenced the Heilongjiang channel characteristics.Methods used in the study included remote sensing technique and GIS spatial statistical analysis.The result indicates that the mean sinuosity over the upper and middle Heilongjiang River is 1.20, and the whole river is relative stable, though in partial reaches the channel plane configuration is complicated.The longitudinal profile of the upper and middle Heilongjiang River is concave.The channel characteristics follow the river dynamic character and it is the result of the interaction of water and river bed which is influenced by natural environmental conditions and human activities.Integrating RS and GIS technologies is an effective way to identify the channel characteristics and further research should be made in combination of multi-temporal RS images, hydrological data and other measured data to reveal the evolvement of Heilongjiang River.
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    沿海区域水灾脆弱性及风险的的初步分析
    石勇, 许世远, 石纯, 孙阿丽
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (6): 853-857.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.06.853
    摘要   PDF (814KB)
    在理清自然灾害风险系统构成的基础上,总结其风险评估的三种方法:基于历史数据、指标体系和情景模拟。文章采用由果及因的演绎思路,据历史灾情参考全球尺度灾害风险评估国际计划做脆弱性的评估,探讨水灾脆弱性的区域分异规律,并分析其社会经济因素。由于历史数据局限,引入信息扩散的模糊数学方法,对沿海各省区的受灾率进行风险评估,并将区域风险与脆弱性的次序进行对比,表明:脆弱性是风险的重要组分,减少脆弱性可有效降低风险,但探寻灾害发生规律、降低人类社会的暴露性,也是减少灾害风险的必要环节。
    The paper discusses the structure of the disaster risk system.There are three main methods in risk assessment about natural disasters:the historical disaster data based method, the indicator system based method and the method based on scenario simulation.The paper deducts the register of historical disasters, according to the idea in international risk assessment programmes about natural disasters.The paper concludes some regional differentiation rules of flood vulnerability and discusses the reasons of these phenomena in order to find out the origin of disaster vulnerability from the human society.There are not enough historical disaster data, so an information diffusion based fuzzy method is introduced to optimize the historical data and proved to be a practical method for risk assessment of natural disasters.After the order of risk and vulnerability are compared, vulnerability is proved to be a pivotal tache to risk.It is also important to find out the rule of floods and reduce the exposure of human beings to decrease the risk.
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    泾河流域不同时间尺度洪水序列频率分析对比研究
    查小春, 黄春长, 庞奖励, 李瑜琴, 古明兴
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (6): 858-863.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.06.858
    摘要   PDF (876KB)
    以泾河中游彬县至礼泉段的JH-CJC沉积记录的古洪水信息,结合实测洪水和历史洪水资料,比较了泾河流域不同时间尺度洪水序列频率。研究结果表明,将古洪水研究成果加入到历史洪水和实测洪水资料序列中,可大大延长洪水序列的时间长度,提高洪水频率分析的精度,说明河流沉积记录的古洪水信息,对于水利工程建设和防洪减灾具有重要的意义。
    Flood frequency analysis was the main methods to calculate the design flood in water conservancy construction.Based on palaeoflood recorded in JH-CJC sedimentological profile between Bin County and Liquan County in Jinghe River channel, the flood frequenciies of the gauge flood, gauge flood+ historical flood and gauge flood+ historical flood+ palaeoflood were analyzed in this paper.The results showed that the palaeofloods data were connected with the historical flood and gauge flood data, the flood data sequence were prolonged and the credibility of flood frequency result was greatly advanced.So, studying the palaeoflood recorded in sedimentological evidence was very important to the conservancy construction, mitigate flood hazard and develop water resources.
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    嫩江流域近45年来径流演变规律研究
    唐蕴, 王浩, 严登华, 唐克旺
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (6): 864-868.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.06.864
    摘要   PDF (1244KB)
    采用随机水文学方法对嫩江流域1956~2000年的年径流量序列演变特征进行分析。结果表明,嫩江流域径流的水文周期是32a,整体而言,45a径流序列不存在明显的趋势性。此外,对嫩江流域用水性消耗程度进行分析。结果表明,人类用水性消耗量对流域水循环整体影响程度为5%,但是在流域内部影响程度存在较大差异。洮儿河子流域影响因子达到16%,反映该地区人类取用水消耗量较大。从年际分析,整个流域在70年代的影响因子要高于其它年段,呈现出越是枯水年段人类用水影响程度越大的现象。
    This paper analyzed evolutionary features of annual runoff of the Nenjiang River Basin during the 45 years between 1956 and 2000, by applying random hydrologic method.The research indicated that hydrologic cycle of runoff in the basin was 32 years.On the whole, there existed no apparent runoff trend within the 45 years.Furthermore, the paper also studied consumable water usage of the basin, and it showed that the general impact extent of mankind water consumption to basin water cycle was 5%, but it varied greatly within the basin, such as the case of the Tao’er River Basin, rising to as high as 16%, showing greater mankind water consumption there.In terms of annual runoff analysis, impact factor during the 1970s in the whole basin was higher than any other decades, reflecting the fact that mankind water consumption exerted greater impact on water cycle during low flow period.
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    松嫩平原西部土壤盐碱化空间变异与微地形关系研究
    杨帆, 章光新, 尹雄锐, 李秀军
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (6): 869-873.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.06.869
    摘要   PDF (1130KB)
    以松嫩平原西部具有典型微地形变化的苏打盐渍土小区为试验区,运用经典统计学和地统计学相结合的方法研究了小区盐碱化指标土壤电导率(EC)、盐分含量(SC)、pH和SAR的空间变异特征,绘制了4种指标的空间分布图。结果表明:受结构性因素和随机性因素的共同作用,4种指标均具有强空间相关性。4种指标空间分布在一定范围内均存在空间上的相似性。四种指标与相对高程呈极显著相关,相对高程在40cm范围内,四种指标随着相对高程的增加,呈二次函数曲线增加趋势。该研究为苏打盐渍土区植被恢复和盐碱地利用提供依据。
    Soil salinity content(SC), electrical conductivity(EC), pH, SAR were studied and analyzed by using statistics and geo-statistics in saline-sodic soil land in the West of Songnen Plain.The result indicated SC, EC, SAR, pH were strongly spatial autocorrelation resulting from compound impact of structural factors.The spatial distribution maps of interpolated by Kriging interpolation showed apparently that the spatial distribution of SC, EC, SAR and pH were similar.Through Peason correlation,the result showed four indexs of salinity and alkalization were significant correlation with relative height.With increasing of relative height, four indexs were increased based curve of quadratic objective function.So salinity and alkalization was mostly controlled by microtopography in saline-alkali land.The research results can serve as a theoretical and technical basis for vegetation restoration and utilization of saline soils in the saline-alkali land.
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    基于GIS的三江平原退耕还湿空间决策分析
    黄妮, 刘殿伟, 王宗明, 张柏, 宋开山, 任春颖
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (6): 874-879.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.06.874
    摘要   PDF (926KB)
    以三江平原为研究区,探讨了利用遥感和GIS技术确定退耕还湿的数量及其空间分布的可行性。通过建立土地利用、现有沼泽湿地缓冲区、环境背景因子(高程、土壤类型、地貌类型、河流缓冲区)、耕地生产力数据等栅格GIS数据库,选取具有区域特色的退耕还湿指标,利用各指标构建了基于GIS的一、二级退耕还湿决策模型及其空间复合模型,并且得到一、二级退耕面积分别为525652hm2、194029hm2,分别为现有耕地面积的8.76%和3.23%。最后,将其分别与研究区行政区数据进行空间叠加统计分析,得到各县级行政区退耕还湿情况。研究结果可以为三江平原的湿地恢复提供科学依据。
    The 50 years’development and construction leads to the great reduce of wetland area, the whole function degradation of wetland and a series of serious ecological environment problems in the Sanjiang Plain.The Sanjiang Plain evolving from development to conservation is an inevitable choice for the sustainable development of socio-economy and environment.On the basis of re-recognization of wetland importance in the Sanjiang Plain, the implementation of returning farmland to wetland project can recover integrity, naturalness and diversity of regional ecosystem, improve its fragile ecological environment, and make contribution for ecological environment improvement of China and the whole world.This paper chooses the Sanjiang Plain as research object, discusses the feasibility of using the remote sensing and GIS technologies to determine the farmland number and spatial distribution of returning farmland to wetland.Four steps are included.Firstly, the GIS database platforms for making decisions are established including land use, DEM, wetland buffer, river buffer, lake buffer, administrative area, soil types, geomorphological types and farmland productivity which are created by remote sensing and GIS technologies.All data are referenced to the same projection and coordination and interpolated as grid data with a resolution of 100 m.Secondly, the low yield farmland data from farmland productivity is overlain with river buffer data, wetland buffer data, elevation data and lake buffer data.Thirdly, the expert knowledge about returning farmland to wetland is collected, and the models for finding a suitable place for being returned back to wetland are formulated based on ARCGIS.There are 525 652 ha and 194 029 ha of farmland to be gradually converted into wetland on the basis of the models, which respectively accounted for 8.76% and 3.23% of the farmland in 2005.Finally, the distribution of the place suitable for wetland in administrative area is obtained by using the overlay and spatial statistic analysis.The research shows that, with this method, considerable manpower, material and financial resources can be saved.The result can not only be presented in table form, but also in graphic form, which is very useful for planning, executing and managing the returning farmland to wetland and provides scientific basis for ecological environment establishment in the Sanjiang Plain.
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    江苏里下河地区洪涝灾害演变趋势与成灾机理分析
    叶正伟, 许有鹏, 徐金涛
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (6): 880-885.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.06.880
    摘要   PDF (669KB)
    江苏里下河地区是相对封闭的水网地区,洪涝频繁。研究该地区洪涝演变趋势和成灾机理对区域防洪减灾具有重要意义。里下河地区洪涝演变趋势表现在洪涝类型的多样性,高水位日益频繁、高水位发生机率加大,致灾暴雨频率增大等方面。在自然成因方面,流域暴雨是成灾的主要原因,锅底洼的形态是洪涝发生的地貌大背景,水系的复杂格局也加剧了洪涝的程度和频度。在人类活动方面,不合理的圩垸垦殖导致湖荡萎缩,减弱了水体调蓄能力;闸坝建设引起河道淤积、排涝能力降低致使洪水位趋高;城镇化改变下垫面性质的水文效应也是洪涝频繁的主要因素。
    Located in the north Jiangsu, East China, Lixiahe region is a relatively closed region with frequent flood, it is of great importance to discuss flood changing trend and flooding mechanism for the mitigation strategy in Lixiahe region.Results based on the analysis of the historical flood in the region show that flood types are complex, which have a diverse characteristics, high water level occurs frequently, recently, especially with high reoccurrence interval of flood water level, and frequency of the causative storm is increasing significantly.We view the flooding mechanism of the Lixiahe region a coupling effect of the natural factors and human factors.For natural factors, certainly the storm precipitation plays the most basic role in the flooding mechanism, the bowl-shaped topography is the main background of flood, and the interlaced complex water system makes flood appear more easily.And more, irrational anthropogenic activity is another part for the flooding mechanism, the building of dyke and embankment greatly decreases the lake area, which evidently weakens the capacity of the lake and water body, accumulation of mud resulting from dam construction and the low standard of drainage system makes the continuance of high flooding water level, and the increase of runoff coefficient caused by hydrological effect of urbanization like the increase of imperviousness with the sprawl of urban also leads to great flood in Lixiahe region.Therefore, to ensure the sustainable development for this region, both natural and social factors for flood mitigation should be considered scientifically.
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    九寨沟保护区植被景观变化与生境破碎化研究
    郝云庆, 江洪, 王金锡, 金静, 马元丹
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (6): 886-892.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.06.886
    摘要   PDF (1034KB)
    根据1974、1994和2002年三个时段卫星影像,将土地覆盖类型划分为针叶林、针阔叶混交林、落叶阔叶林、灌丛、草地、裸地和水体7个类型。研究发现,九寨沟森林面积、特别是针叶林面积减少,各景观类型破碎化程度也在增大。与1974~1994年间森林丧失平均速率相比,1994~2002年间森林丧失速率明显放缓。第二期灌丛面积平均增长速率是第一期的3.5倍。随着生境破碎化的加剧,许多珍稀保护生物的前景变得难以预测,应以审慎的态度来对待所谓的“生态旅游”。
    The protection effect of Jiuzhaigou Nature Reserve has received considerable attention, especially in view of its stimulating tourism after the 1990s.Remote sensing data from 1974, 1994 and 2002 were chosen for the analysis of this reserve, and landcover was divided into 7 types, i.e.Conifer Forest (CF), Conifer and Broadleaf Mixed Forest (CBM), Deciduous Broadleaf (DB), Shrubland (SL), Meadow (MD), Bareland (BL) and Water Area (WA).We find that the quality and quantity of the forest in Jiuzhaigou Nature Reserve continues to decline, owing to the conifer area and whole forest area constantly shrinking, as well as the landscape fragmentation increasing.The rate of loss of forest in the second period (1994-2002) had showed down much than that in the first period (1974-1994), due to nature protection.Shrubland area continued to increase throughout the two periods, with an increased speed in the second period which was about 3.5 times that in the first period.Along with habitat loss and fragmentation, the future of endangered creatures is uncertain.We suggest that people should consider the influence of the so called ‘ecotourism’by cautious insight.
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    近800年来巢湖沉积物营养元素富集特点及其环境演变意义
    贾铁飞, 张卫国, 俞立中, 余铁桥
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (6): 893-899.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.06.893
    摘要   PDF (1069KB)
    通过对巢湖CH1孔沉积物进行年代学、粒度和营养元素(TOC、TN、TP、C/N比值)分析,可将巢湖近800a来的环境变化划分为4个沉积时期:沉积年代1177~1271a A.D.是气候暖湿高湖面阶段;1271~1747a A.D.,总体上为湿润环境下有机质快速积累阶段,其中1477~1747a A.D.显示“小冰期”气候特点;1747~1865a A.D.气候开始转暖,湖面上升;1865a A.D.至今,气候转干旱。1880’s以来的TOC、TN非自然水平富集,1660’s以来的TP非自然水平富集,是巢湖历史时期开始出现富营养化的征兆。
    According to an analysis of the age data, granularity and magnetic in deposits of Chaohu Lake, and based on the foundation of chronological studying pole, core CH1 could be divided into 4 sedimentary chronological sections during the last 800 years:① 1177 A.D.to 1271 A.D., matched along with the records in deposits of the depth from 141 cm to 125 cm, is proven to be a wet /warm period and the lake level became higher.② 1271 A.D.to 1747 A.D., matched along with the records in deposits of the depth from 125 cm to 44 cm, is proven to be a stage in which the organic matter accumulated in a general wet environment.From 1477 A.D.to 1747 A.D.in this stage, the records in deposits of the depth from 90 cm to 44 cm, reflect the variable characteristics of climate during the Little Ice Age (LIA) in eastern China, which indicates a general wet environment despite of some dry/cold alternative action during the period, including the drought maximum of the oscillation in 1747 A.D.③ 1747 A.D.to 1865 A.D., matched along with the records in deposits of the depth from 44 cm to 24 cm, the last 100 years, still stayed in the LIA, but the climate of Chaohu Lake became warmer and the lake level uplifted.④ 1865 A.D.to the present, matched along with the records in deposits of the depth from 24 cm above, is proven to be a dry period and climate became drier.After the Enrichment Indices of the chemical elements and mineral nutrients content in the last 800 years are calculated by taking normalization, it is seen that the TOC/TN has increased with unnatural levels since the 1860s, while the TP has enriched with unnatural levels since the 1660s.These facts can reflect the environmental change impacted by human activities, and is also the evidence of the beginning of eutrophication during the history epoch in Chaohu Lake.
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    黑河下游径流量与额济纳绿洲NDVI的滞后模型
    葛晓光, 薛博, 万力, 胡伏生
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (6): 900-904.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.06.900
    摘要   PDF (853KB)
    将黑河下游年度均流量作为激励,将由NOAA/AVHRR卫星数据处理得到的归一化植被指数NDVI指标作为响应,建立起线性系统模型,从区域尺度模拟了额济纳绿洲植被发育相对于来水量的滞后过程。模型显示出,黑河来水对当年及后5a的绿洲植被产生显著影响,其中对次年影响最大,并逐年递减,6a后滞后效应不明显。分析认为滞后效应受含水层、包气带结构、绿洲范围等物理与几何参数因素控制,是绿洲生态系统具有自维持功能的一个体现。
    A linear system modeling for Ejina oasis vegetation was established by regarding lower downstream annual volumes of the Heihe River, the second major inland river of China, as exciting inputs, NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) of the oasis interpretated from NOAA/AVHRR data as the system’s responses.The model can simulate vegetation lagged development of the oasis behind of Heihei River’s runoff at regional scale, and shows that downstream runoff of the Heihe River each year can significantly affect the oasis vegetation development in current year and subsequent 5 years in which the most remarkable effect appeares in second year, and declines year by year.It is recorgnized that lagging effect is adjusted by structure of aquifers and vadose zone and oasis scale, and is the concrete embodiment of sustainability of the oasis ecosystem.
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    黄河河龙区间河流泥沙对相关重大事件与政策的响应
    张世杰, 焦菊英, 李林育, 黄晓华
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (6): 905-910.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.06.905
    摘要   PDF (1618KB)
    利用径流-输沙量双累积曲线与单位降雨侵蚀力输沙量(输沙量负荷)的分析表明,河龙区间泥沙变化与相关重大事件与政策密切相关。“大开荒” 时期输沙量负荷平均值最大,是输沙量负荷多年平均值的1.8倍;“大跃进”、“农业学大寨”和“文革”时期的输沙量负荷均值也较大,为输沙量负荷多年平均值的1.4~1.5倍。改革开放后,输沙量负荷下降明显,输沙量负荷平均值较改革开放前减少了55.7%,特别是在1999年实施“退耕还林(草)”后,输沙量负荷平均值下降到整个时期的最小值,仅为输沙量负荷多年平均值的33.3%。
    The analysis by using double-mass curve of cumulative runoff and sediment discharge and sediment decoupling indicator shows that, there is a significant relationship between the variation of sediment loads and correlative significant events and policies of Hekouzhen and Longmen region in the Huanghe (Yellow) River Basin.The maximum average sediment loads appeared in "Reclaiming Wastland" period,which is 1.8 times larger than the annual average sediment loads in 1951-2006.The average sediment loads are also larger in "Great Leap Forward" Movement, "Emulating Dazhai on Agriculture" and "Culture Revolution" period, which is 1.4 to 1.5 times more than the annual average sediment loads in 1951-2006 respectively.After the Chinese Reform and Opening, sediment loads decreased significantly, the average sediment loads reduced 55.7% compared to that before Reform and Opening, especially after "Grain for Green" project in 1999, the average sediment loads reached its minimum level in the whole period, which is only 33.3% of the annual average sediment loads in 1951-2006.
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    季节变化对全球气候变化的响应——以湖北省为例
    陈正洪, 史瑞琴, 陈波
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (6): 911-916.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.06.911
    摘要   PDF (770KB)
    根据湖北省10个代表站1951(或建站)~2006年逐日平均气温,计算分析了四季初日和长度及其变化趋势,以揭示气候季节对全球气候变暖的响应。结果表明:(1)湖北省平均春、夏、秋、冬四季初日分别为3月22日、5月27日、9月27日、11月27日,四季长度分别为65.7、122.8、60.9、115.6d,且时空差异明显;(2)56a来湖北省平均入春、入夏分别提前2.8、1.6d,入秋、入冬分别推后4.0、6.1d;(3)56a来湖北省平均冬季缩短8.9d,夏季延长6.3d,秋季延长2.0d,春季无变化;荆州夏季延长21.1d,武汉冬季缩短17.0d。
    In the last 100 yr especially in the last 50 yr, the earth is getting warmer in most part of the world and China, which leads climatic belts moving northward and higher, and the change of the phenological period and growing season.The changing of climatic seasons are also observed in some parts of China.The climatic seasons are adopted that means the 5 d-moving averaged temperature ≤10.0℃ as winter, ≥22.0℃ as summer, and 10.0-22.0℃ as spring or autumn.For revealing the responding mode and degree of climatic seasons to global warming systematically, the daily average temperature of 10 representative meteorological stations in Hubei Province during 1951-2006 are used to calculate and analyze the elemental properties and changing trends of beginning dates and lengths of four seasons.The results show that:1) The provincially averaged beginning dates in spring, summer, autumn and winter are respectively Mar.22, May 27, Sept.27, and Nov.27, and the averaged length is 65.7 d, 122.8 d, 60.9 d and 115.6 d, respectively, and their spatial and inter-annual variations are obvious.2) In last 56 yr, the provincially averaged beginning dates of spring and summer were advanced for 2.8 d and 1.6 d, respectively, and those of autumn and winter were delayed for 4.0 d and 6.1 d respectively, and only that of the winter was changing significantly, which means the seasons in the first half of a year were getting earlier, and the seasons in the second half of a year were getting later with more significant change.The extreme examples included 9.7 d advanced for spring in Wuhan in 56 yr, 6.7 d advanced for summer in Macheng in 48yr, 15.0 d delayed for autumn in Jingzhou in 54 yr, 11.4 d delayed for Macheng in 48 yr.3) In last 56 yr, the provincially averaged length of winter was shortened for 8.9 d, those of summer and autumn were prolonged for 6.3 d, 2.0 d, respectively, and that of spring varies little.That means more change in winter and summer than in spring and autumn.The extreme examples included 21.1 d prolonged for summer in Jingzhou in 53 yr, 17.0 d shortened for winter in Wuhan in 56 yr.4)There were larger change of climatic seasons in the eastern and middle parts of Hubei Province due to larger warming effect,while lighter change of climatic seasons in the western mountainous area corresponding to little warming effect.And also larger change in climatic seasons in the urban area of the larger cities such as Wuhan were observed.It is obvious that the climatic seasons show some distinct variations or trends in Hubei Province, that will affect agricultural activity, crop growing, even our daily life such as outgoing, dressing, shopping and selling and so on.Some countermeasures must be taken as soon as possible.
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    雅鲁藏布大峡谷羚牛牙齿珐琅质碳、氧同位素组成及其环境意义
    李玉梅, 刘东生, 洪冰, 储国强, 洪业汤, 朱咏煊, 彭建华, 董丽敏, 韩家懋
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (6): 917-922.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.06.917
    摘要   PDF (1046KB)
    以雅鲁藏布大峡谷的羚牛为主要研究对象,讨论其牙齿珐琅质羟基磷灰石结构碳酸盐的碳、氧同位素组成与生活环境之间的关系。羚牛牙齿的碳同位素组成分布范围相当宽,且随着栖息地海拔高度的增加而变重,反映了食谱中C4植物从无到有、由少到多的变化趋势。C4植物含量最高可能达到70%。这一变化与当地自然带的划分相吻合。羚牛牙齿珐琅质结构碳酸盐的δ18O值分布范围较窄,与海拔高度之间没有明显的相关性。氧同位素分馏可能与水源和物种均有关。
    This paper addresses the δ13C, δ18O values and paleoenvironmental significance of modern Asian takins(Budorcas taxicolor), yaks and cattle-yaks tooth enamel from the Yarlung Zangbo Grand Canyon, and tooth enamel of modern reindeers (Rangifer tarandus) from Svalbard, the Arctic.The Yarlung Zangbo Grand Canyon has a length of about 496.3 km and cuts its way through the eastern Himalayas.Its climate ranges from subtropical to arctic.The takin (Budorcas taxicolor) is a large ungulate belongjing to the Bovidae.There are four subspecies:B.taxicolor taxicolor, B.taxicolor bedfordi, B.taxicolor tibetana and B.taxicolor whitei.B.taxicolor taxicolor is found in the eastern Himalayas, such as the Yarlung Zangbo Grand Canyon.Stable carbon and oxygen isotopic composition of tooth enamel has been established as a valuable tool for reconstructing paleoenvironment.In this paper, tooth enamel samples were obtained from modern Asian takins, yaks, cattle-yaks and reindeers for C and O isotope analysis.δ13C values of takin tooth enamel range from -19.3‰ to -2.2‰.The takins living at an altitude of 1300 m have δ13C values ranging from -19.3‰ to -18.9‰, with an average δ13C value of -19.1‰;δ13C value of takins living at an altitude of 1700 m is -10.7‰;δ13C values of takins living at an altitude of 1830 m are from -10.7‰ to -10.3‰, with an average δ13C value of -10.5‰;takins living at an altitude of 3000 m have δ13C values of -4.6‰ to -2.2‰, with an average δ13C value of -3.4‰.There is a direct correlation between δ13C values of takin tooth enamel and the altitude, a higher altitude equaling a higher δ13C value.This could be due to an association with C4 plants.Higher δ13C values such as -3.4‰ could suggest consumption of large amounts of C4 plants by the animals.It is more likely attributed to the abundance of C4 plants in this area.The lower enamel δ13C values such as -19.1‰ indicate that the takins were feeding predominantly on C3 plants, consistent with the dominance of C3 plant in the lower elevation.δ13C values of reindeers live in Svalbard are -20.2‰ to -17.8‰, with an average δ13C value of -19.0‰, in conformity with the absence of C4 plant in the Arctic.The yak teeth have δ13C values ranging from -15.0‰ to -8.7‰.Cattle-yaks have δ13C values of -12.5‰ and -9.3‰.Maybe these domestic animals were feed with some artificial diet.δ18O values of takin tooth enamel range from -9.8‰ to -5.7‰.The takins live at an altitude of 1300 m, 1700 m, 1830 m and 3000 meters have average δ18O values of -8.1‰, -5.7‰, -6.7‰ and -6.8‰, respectively.The δ18O values of takin tooth enamel do not show a trend with increasing elevation.Average δ18O values of yak tooth enamel are -11.7‰ and -13.6‰.Average δ18O value of cattle-yak tooth enamel is -5.3‰.There are variations among the different species.
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    江苏兴化DS浅孔沉积物地球化学元素与粒度所揭示的古环境意义
    舒强, 赵志军, 陈晔, 张茂恒, 李吉均
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (6): 923-928.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.06.923
    摘要   PDF (690KB)
    选择位于东亚季风典型区的苏北盆地沉降中心附近湖沼沉积为研究对象,进行了AMS14C、粒度、地球化学元素的综合分析。分析表明,末次冰消期以来苏北盆地古气候经历了冷干、暖湿、温湿、冷暖波动剧烈、暖湿的变化过程。苏北盆地DS钻孔沉积物所揭示的气候变化与贵州董歌洞石笋氧同位素数据和格陵兰冰芯数据所揭示的气候变化总体变化趋势大体一致,但在一些细部上还是存在着差异,较好的响应了区域环境和全球气候变化。
    A sediment core of the typical area of East Asian monsoon from North Jiangsu Basin was chosen for the study.Based on the analyses of geochemistry elements and grain size of DS core sediments from the basin, the paper probed into the characteristics and the environmental significance of geochemistry elements ratios and grain size.The results show that regional palaeoenvironmental changes were divided into five periods:cool and dry period of 13,700-11,310 cal a B P, and include Younger Dryas Event;warm and moist period of 11,310-9,100 cal a B P;temperate and moist period of 9,100-7,710 cal a BP;temperature and humidity fluctuated high frequency period of 7,710-6,480 cal a B P;warm and moist period of 6,480-0 cal a B P.The records of climatic and environmental evolution of DS core were in accordance with the GRIP oxygen isotope record and Donggedong’s stalagmite oxygen isotope record approximately.It responded to regional environmental and global abrupt climatic changes.
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    从祠堂视角看明至民国初期佛山宗族文化景观的流变和社会文化空间分异
    李凡, 朱竑, 黄维
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (6): 929-937.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.06.929
    摘要   PDF (1541KB)
    明以来佛山逐渐形成八图土著宗族文化景观和侨寓宗族文化景观并存的格局,对佛山城市空间发展产生影响。通过从古地图和文献中提取历史时期基本空间数据和祠堂等文化景观地理信息,建立佛山历史GIS数据库。以此为基础,通过景观复原、地图再现、空间分析和景观分析等方法,以祠堂景观为视角,解读明至民国初期佛山宗族文化景观时空演变及其所意涵的社会文化空间意义。结果表明:①宋元时期祠堂主要集中在佛山南部大塘涌沿岸,反映出宋代涌入佛山的移民早期多定居在南部;②明代佛山镇祠堂数量急增,表现出聚落空间由南部向中部扩展的趋势,祠堂景观基本形成了以南部的锦澜、东头、栅下铺和中部的祖庙、黄伞铺为中心的空间格局;③清以后祠堂景观总体空间格局没有大变化,但八图土著宗族内部产生的裂变促使土著祠堂景观发生空间扩散。土著祠堂与侨寓祠堂景观空间上既互补又相互混杂,说明随着侨寓的大量进入,土著传统血缘空间被打破,地缘、业缘等因素增强,这正适应了佛山城市化发展的大趋势。
    Since the Ming Dynasty, co-existence of two types of clan cultural landscape, eight Tu aboriginal clan cultural landscape and immigrant clan cultural landscape, has gradually formed in Foshan and influenced the development of urban spaces in Foshan.The paper, by extracting geographical information on cultural landscape such as the ancestral halls and basic spatial data of different historical periods from ancient maps and historical literature, establishes a historical GIS database for Foshan.Based on it and a review of historical literature, the paper takes the perspective of the ancestral halls in the interpretation of socio-cultural spatial meanings connoted in the temporal-spatial changes occurred in clan cultural landscape in Foshan from the Ming Dynasty to early Republic of China by the means of landscape reconstruction, map revisualization, spatial analysis and landscape analysis.The paper finds that:(1)most of the ancestral halls during the Song and Yuan Dynasties were concentrated along the shores of Datangchong , south of Foshan, which indicates that immigrants pouring into Foshan in the Song Dynasty were usually settled down at first in the southern part;(2)ancestral halls in Foshan in the Ming Dynasty increased quickly in number and displayed a south-to-centre tendency in the expansion of gathering space, which resulted in the primary spatial patterns of the ancestral hall landscape, with Jinlan, Dongtou, Shanxia Pu in the south and Zumiao, Huangsan Pu in the centre;(3)since the Qing Dynasty, there has seen little change in the general spatial patterns of the ancestral hall landscape, though cracks from the inside of eight Tu aboriginal clans sped up the expansion of the ancestral hall landscape of the aboriginal clans in space;the phenomenon of the spatial complementation and alternation in the ancestral hall landscape of the aborigines and of the immigrants illustrates that with the entrance of a large number of immigrants, the traditional blood tie space was broken and geographical and business related factors were more emphasized, which just coped with the macro-tendency of urbanization in Foshan.
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    书评
    读《中国沙漠及其治理》
    裘善文
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (6): 938-938.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.06.938
    摘要   PDF (148KB)
    中国著名沙漠学家吴正教授,作为1959年中国科学院组建治沙队的首批队员,从20世纪50年代末开始潜心中国沙漠的调查研究和室内外观测试验,取得丰硕成果,成绩斐然。新世纪以来,继出版风沙地貌与治沙工程学(科学出版社,2003)科学专著后,今又出版了中国沙漠及其治理(科学出版社,2009)一书。这是一部全面、系统总结中国沙漠50年的科研与实践成果写成的经典科学论著,由科学出版社于2009年4月出版发行。
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