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CN 22-1124/P
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  • 地理科学
      2014年, 第34卷, 第4期 刊出日期:2014-04-20 上一期    下一期
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    中国生产性服务业空间集聚特征与模式研究——基于地级市的实证分析
    李佳洺,孙铁山,张文忠
    地理科学. 2014, 34 (4): 385-393.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2014.04.385
    摘要   RICH HTML PDF (540KB)

    2000年以后,中国生产性服务业高速发展,产业格局逐渐形成。利用2000年、2005年和2010年3个年份地级市行业从业人员的数据,通过区位基尼系数和空间自相关性分析,发现中国生产性服务业在地理空间中整体呈现点状集中的模式,进而对不同行业的集聚特点进行比较分析,认为信息服务业和商务服务业是首位城市集聚模式,科研技术服务业和房地产业是位序规模分布的模式,金融业则是均衡分布的模式。最后,结合主要城市行业的相对优势度分析,得出随着从业人员的增加,承担的生产性服务功能更加综合,符合中心地理论的特点,在省域和城市群内各城市具有较好的职能分工和互补性。


    In the past decade, rapid output growth and employment in the producer services of China have interested the academic sphere in spatial cluster and elaboration of locational theory concerning producer services' activities. The article examines spatial clusters and location characteristics of producer services in the Chinese urban system in the years 2000, 2005 and 2010. This study indicates that the location of cities of a large number of employments of service sectors is dispersed in China, comparing to geographical concentration of cities of developed manufacturing industry. Most of producer services experienced a spatially-centralization process in the period 2000-2010. However, there are different cluster modes in various service sectors. According to characteristics of industry agglomeration, these industries are classified into three modes, namely Primate City cluster mode, Rank-Size distribution mode and Balanced distribution mode. Primate City cluster mode means the largest city of industry have overwhelming employment scales, cluster characteristics of information service industry and business service industry. The number of employment of technology and science service industry as well as real estate in the largest cities is slightly more than other classes of cities. Thus these two industries are classified as Rank-Size distribution mode. Although the number of employment of finance and insurance service has increased in the first class cities, the largest city has no advantage of urban system and the number of employ is relatively balanced in urban system. Therefore, this industry is categorized as Balanced distribution mode. Moreover, the analysis of location quotient and scale of employment evidences there is positive correlation between amount of employment and the number of superiority functions. This means that distribution of producer services in China is in accordance with central place theory. Finally, the study also shows there are complementarities and division of labor among of cities in the same provinces and developed metropolitan regions.

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    中国大城市蔓延的测度研究——以杭州市为例
    张琳琳,岳文泽,范蓓蕾
    地理科学. 2014, 34 (4): 394-400.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2014.04.394
    摘要   RICH HTML PDF (599KB)

    从土地不连续利用和低人口密度这两个城市蔓延的核心特征出发,提出了城市土地扩张指标与人口密度指标相结合的蔓延测度方法,利用杭州市1978~2010年的遥感影像,实证测度中国大城市蔓延的时空动态变化。测度结果表明,城市土地扩张与人口密度指标相结合的方法测度效果良好,与实际情况吻合度高。杭州城市蔓延十分典型,主城区蛙跳式开发以及大部分的边缘增长发生在人口低密度区或较低密度区,城市发展不紧凑,蔓延迅速;阶段特性显著,在空间上表现为由单一中心向多核心发展的态势。将城市土地扩张与人口密度指标结合来测度城市蔓延是十分有益的尝试,为中国大城市蔓延的测度研究提供了一种简单、易于推广使用的可选方法。


    With rapid urbanization and economic transition, large Chinese cities have increasingly experienced urban sprawl that has been prevalent in the western countries. Despite of a proliferating literature in the concept, impact, mechanism, measurement and control strategy of urban sprawl, scholars have not reached agreements on its definition and approaches of measuring the sprawl. Based on two commonly accepted core characteristics of sprawl, i.e., the discontinuity of land use and low density of population, we proposed to use land expansion index and population density index to define and measure urban sprawl in large Chinese cities and use the main city area of Hangzhou as a case. Based on the socioeconomic data and land use data derived from four scenes of Landsat MSS/TM/ETM+ images in 1978, 1991, 2000 and 2010, we characterized the urban sprawl of Hangzhou over three periods (1978-1991, 1991-2000, 2000-2010). In particular, this study has employed unsupervised and supervised classification methods to interpret the pattern of urban land, GIS spatial analysis to analyze land patches of “leapfrog” and edge-growth, which reflect the discontinuity of land use in urban sprawl, and statistical analysis to investigate population density on a street (or town) scale. The results reveal that Hangzhou has experienced extensive urban sprawl, with the comprehensive sprawl area amounting to 6.923 km2 during 1978-1991 but dramatically increasing to 137.413 km2 during 2000-2010. Further, population growth rate has lagged behind the land expansion rate in Hangzhou. Moreover, although urban sprawl in different phases displayed distinct characteristics, a polycentric urban development can be identified, with most newly developed urban land concentrated in Binjiang and Xiasha districts. The study indicate that the method of using land expansion index and population density to measure urban sprawl is a simple yet appropriate approach that can be used to other cities in different regions or countries.

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    武汉城市圈城乡道路网结构演化及复杂性研究
    刘承良,段德忠,余瑞林,罗静
    地理科学. 2014, 34 (4): 401-410.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2014.04.401
    摘要   RICH HTML PDF (608KB)

    复杂性是一个系统的自组织水平的度量,当系统被迫远离热平衡状态并通过自组织进入有序状态的时候,复杂性结构常常涌现。作为典型、开放和复杂的巨系统,交通网络复杂性研究受到了各研究领域的强烈关注。以1989~2010年武汉城市圈城乡道路网空间数据库为基础,运用复杂网络理论,多度量系统揭示了城乡道路网拓扑结构演化及复杂性“涌现”过程:城乡道路网是一典型的二维平面图,缺乏“超平面性”,整体呈类随机网络性质;城乡道路网是一介于随机网络和规则网络间的复杂网络,道路网整体表现出随机性和有序性的交互耦合;城乡道路网系统的复杂性演化是自组织和他组织机制共同作用的结果,是局部随机性干扰和规则性调控在作用强度上相互交互、此消彼涨演替的过程。


    Complexity is a measure of the level of organization of the system, when the system is compelled to be far away from the thermal equilibrium condition and enters the ordered state through self- organization, the complex structure appears frequently. As a typical, open and complex giant system, the transport network complexity research received a strong attention of various research areas. At present, the complex research of transport network mainly centralized in road network complex elementary theory (research direction and system), the topology of road network (scaling, small-world, reliability and centricity) as well as the kinetics process of road network. However, few efforts have been devoted to the complexity emergence of road network from dynamic process. Therefore, based on the urban-rural road network spatial databases of Wuhan urban agglomeration ,this article systematically reveals the topological structure evolution and complexity emergence of urban-rural road network with the application of complex network theory. Urban-rural road network is a typical two-dimensional plane picture, lacking of “super planarity”, and overall showing a similar characteristic of stochastic network. Urban-rural road network is a complex network which evolves between random network and regular network so that the whole road network demonstrates a performance of cross-coupling of the randomness and orderliness. Complexity evolution of urban-rural road network system is the result of the joint action of self-organization and hetero-organization mechanism, and the complexity emergence of urban-rural road network is a mutually alternate and ever-changing process in the function intensity, which was mainly influenced by the partial random disturbance and regularity regulation. Transportation network is the material conditions and prerequisites for forming the metropolitan area network system. It is also the main channel of material flow, energy flow and information flow which play important role in the socio-economic development of Wuhan metropolitan area. Urban-rural road network of Wuhan metropolitan area need to strengthen country road upgrading so as to enhance the external connectivity of the nodes. Simultaneously, the size of the node level should be increased and the structure of the road network should be further optimized. The purpose is to improve the clustering coefficient and accessibility of the road and make the road network evolved from tree net to net.

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    陕、甘、宁三省(区)农业现代化水平格局演变及其动因分析
    于正松,李同昇,龙冬平,李献波,孙东琪
    地理科学. 2014, 34 (4): 411-419.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2014.04.411
    摘要   RICH HTML PDF (678KB)

    农业现代化是“四化”同步发展的基础,其时-空分析有助于把握区域农业现代化发展的动因。基于1996~2010年陕甘宁三省(区)农业现代化相关数据计算综合得分,采用相对发展率、区位变异系数及面板数据回归等方法刻画其空间演变特征并揭示原因。结果表明:① 15 a间三省(区)农业现代化水平呈交替上升态势,2005~2010年农业现代化发展速度明显高于1996~2000年和2000~2005年,且日趋均衡。② 2005~2010年28市(区)的格局演变较前2个时期更加显著,陕西省各市排序上升明显。③ 影响农业现代化格局演变的除系统内部要素外,财政支农力度、农业贷款、区域交通网络以及农村人力资本和农业技术的应用等因素也越来越显著。


    The modernization of agriculture is the most fundamental one of “the four modernizations”, and it has significant differences among the east, middle and west China, the same problems are also existed in the medium and micro level. The time-space analysis on the modernization of agriculture can help us to understand the mechanism of the changes about agricultural modernization. Computing the composite scores based on the figures about the modernization of agriculture in Shaanxi-Gansu-Ningxia region, using various methods to describing it’s characters of the space changing and reveal the reasons. The results show that scores of the agricultural modernization in 3 provinces are increased dramatically. The speed of development about modernization of agriculture in 2005-2010 is faster than that in 1996-2000 and 2000-2005 periods, and the trend of development is more and more balanced. It indicates that the policies have carried out by the government already play important roles to foster the agricultural modernization. The changing of the pattern about 28 cities in 2005-2010 is faster than the previous two periods, and the cities in Shaanxi province change more notable. The traditional agriculture changed slowly, but the modern agriculture is becoming more and more complicated, so it changes more frequently. Besides the factors existed in the system itself, there are also some other factors affect the pattern changing about the modernization of agriculture, such as financial support for agriculture, agricultural loans, regional traffic net, rural human capital and the application of the agricultural technology et, and play an more important role. In order to improve the development level of agricultural modernization in northwest region, we should increase the financial investment, promote the spread of agricultural technology and science, enhance the transportation network, and practice water-saving agriculture.

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    基于GIS的北京地名文化景观空间分布特征及其成因
    陈晨,修春亮,陈伟,李程洋
    地理科学. 2014, 34 (4): 420-429.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2014.04.420
    摘要   RICH HTML PDF (930KB)

    将北京市地名作为离散点,以GIS中基于核密度估计法的空间平滑法为支撑,从地理区域这一角度分析地名文化景观空间分布特征,突破了以行政分区表达空间变化的通常框架。通过对北京地名文化景观空间分布特征及其成因研究,一定程度反映出北京元明清时期的城市功能分区,同时对探索北京历史时期社会经济发展状况有借鉴意义。研究发现:北部与西部山区为自然景观类地名集中区,与北京自然地理特征相吻合;中部与东南部人口密集的平原地带为文化景观类地名集中区;各文化景观类地名空间分布具有差异,中部为政治、商业、园林、建筑与工程文化类地名集中区,东南部为经济、水利工程类地名集中区,西北部与东部是军事文化类地名集中区,西北部与东北部为园林文化类地名集中区。


    Place-name landscape, which can reflect the natural environment, national rise and fall, social and economic changes both historically and presently, is an important research branch of Human Geography. This research used GIS to discuss the spatial distribution characteristics of place-name landscape in Beijing and explained their reasons. Firstly, by exploring the origins of place-names, the research carred statistical analysis on them, and classified them into two categories. Secondly, through obtaining Kernel density distribution characteristics of every kind of the place-name through Space Smoothing Algorithm based on Kernel Density Estimation, the research discussed the spatial distribution characteristics of place-name landscape in Beijing. Thirdly, the reasons for the spatial distribution were analyzed. Main conclusions made by this research are as follows: 1)Natural landscape place-names were mainly concentrated in the northern and western mountain areas. 2)By contrast, human landscape place-names tend to centralize in the central and southeastern plains. 3) The spatial distribution characteristics of place-names among human landscape place-names is different. Political, economic, garden, architecture and engineering activities prefer to cluster in the central city, the southeast part of Beijing is proved to be economic and hydraulic engineering activities' concentrated area, military activities tend to centralize in the northwestern and eastern areas, garden construction activities, however, are almost found in the northwest and northeast areas. By studying on the spatial distribution characteristics of place-name landscape in Beijing and their reasons, this research can clearly show the functional zoning in Beijing during Yuan, Ming and Qing, and help to explore the development of social and economic conditions during those historical periods. In addition, this article can enrich research methods and empirical studies of place-name studies in human geography.

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    中国区域旅行社业效率的空间分异研究
    孙景荣,张捷,章锦河,马金海,李莉,张富生
    地理科学. 2014, 34 (4): 430-437.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2014.04.430
    摘要   RICH HTML PDF (473KB)

    运用数据包络分析模型,对2003~2009年中国区域旅行社业效率的空间分异特征及动态变化趋势进行了实证分析,研究结果表明:中国区域旅行社业综合效率总体上呈现出增长的态势,纯技术效率是综合效率变化的主导因素,中国区域旅行社业全要素生产率也表现为增长的态势;中国区域旅行社业效率呈现出东西部高、中部低走势,且中部和东西部差距较大,东部和西部差距较小;在变化趋势方面,东、中、西部地区在旅行社业全要素生产率方面均得到很大的提高,其增长主要得益于三大地区在技术进步方面的突出表现,但在综合效率方面均表现出弱改善的趋势;从效率类型来看,双高类型的省份主要分布东部地区,其他3个类型主要分布在中西部地区,且中国各省旅行社业效率之间的差异呈现出缩小的趋势;从各省旅行社业效率的变化趋势来看,2003~2009年,大部分省份旅行社业综合效率保持增长的态势,少数省份处于下降的趋势,在旅行社业全要素生产率方面,除新疆外,其余省份全部保持增长的态势。


    By using data envelopment analysis method, this article analysed the efficiency characteristics and dynamic change of Chinese regional travel service industry during 2003-2009. The results showed that: 1) In the aspect of overall characteristics, the comprehensive efficiency of Chinese regional travel service industry presented a growing trend, the pure technical efficiency was the dominant factor of comprehensive efficiency changes, and the total factor productivity of Chinese regional travel service industry also manifested as a growing trend; 2) The comprehensive efficiencies of Chinese regional travel service industry in the eastern regions and western regions were higher than in central regions, and the gap between central and eastern as well as western regions was larger, and the gap between eastern and western regions was smaller. This was mostly because the proportion of the provinces above the national average level of the travel service industry in the middle was lower than those in the west and the east. Another factor was that the advantage of the efficiency in the middle could not make up the disadvantage in technique, which caused that the comprehensive efficiency in the middle was lower than the east and the west; 3) The total factor productivity of travel service industry in the eastern, central and western regions have been improved greatly, and the main growth thanked for the outstanding performance of technical progress in three areas, but the aspect of comprehensive efficiency showed weak improving trend; 4) From the types of efficiency, the provinces which show “high efficiency, high stability" were mainly in eastern regions, and the other types were mainly distributed in the Midwest regions; and 5) From the efficiency change trend on travel service industry of all provinces, the comprehensive efficiency in most province's travel service industry kept growing situation, a few provinces in a downward trend, and on the travel agency total factor productivity, in addition to Xinjiang, the rest all kept growth trend.

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    苏南地区乡村聚落空间格局及其驱动机制
    李红波,张小林,吴江国,朱彬
    地理科学. 2014, 34 (4): 438-446.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2014.04.438
    摘要   RICH HTML PDF (681KB)

    基于苏南地区土地变更调查数据,通过空间分析方法,对苏南地区乡村聚落空间格局特征进行深入分析,并从市域和县域两个层面探讨了乡村聚落空间格局形成的驱动力,初步构建了驱动力机制。结果表明:苏南地区乡村聚落分布整体较为集聚,苏锡常地区村庄密度较高,宁镇地区呈稀疏化分布,村庄整体分布与地貌类型具有较高的相关性。规模面积整体呈现出明显的区域差异,各县域单元乡村聚落用地总体较低。在此基础上提炼总结了乡村聚落空间格局形成的影响因子,包括政府调控、城镇化、工业化和交通发展等,并基于社会发展角度构建了驱动力机制。


    Based on the land change survey data of Southern Jiangsu in 2010, by using the related spatial analysis method, the rural settlement spatial pattern characteristics of Southern Jiangsu were analyzed, and on the basis of the district and county aspects the rural settlement spatial pattern was discussed, the driving mechanism of driving force mechanism was constructed. Some conclusions are drawn as follows: The overall distribution of rural settlement is concentrate, Su-Xi-Chang area has a higher density, Ningzhen area is sparse distribution, the overall distribution of rural and landform types has higher correlation. The main factors of rural settlement spatial pattern were summarized. The dynamic mechanism of rural settlement spatial pattern in southern Jiangsu is the formation of many factors. Country renewal development and external factors lead to reconstruction of rural settlement space. In the different stage of transformation development, action condition and function efficiency that influence the rural settlement spatial pattern are different. The quantitative analysis to rural settlement space reconstruction driving force in the regional level and county level indicates that the driving force of influencing rural settlement space reconstruction is mainly economic conditions, urbanization, and industrialization and transportation development. On that basis, the article has constructed dynamic mechanism of the rural settlement space reconstruction, and cleared the dominant force in various stages, as well as the rural settlement spatial morphological characteristics. At last, the main power and the rural settlement spatial mechanism were analyzed.

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    集中连片特殊困难地区村域空间贫困测度指标体系研究
    刘小鹏,苏胜亮,王亚娟,黄越,赵莹
    地理科学. 2014, 34 (4): 447-453.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2014.04.447
    摘要   PDF (367KB)

    在阐述多维贫困和空间贫困概念内涵及其指标基础上,提出了集中连片特殊困难地区村域空间贫困测度指标体系构建的基本原则,即强调科学性和主导性原则、重视数据的可获得性和测度的可操作性、体现减贫与反贫困的新要求、突出区域性和空间刻画能力。据此,构建了包括经济、社会、环境和政策4个维度,收入和消费、市场连通性、人口状况、学有所教、病有所医、老有所养、住有所居、劳有所得、地貌要素、自然灾害、生态安全、农业生态、粮食安全和政策的实效性共13个指标组,27个原始指标或生成指标构成的集中连片特殊困难地区村域空间贫困测度指标体系。进一步讨论了空间贫困测度指标的检验、获取方法和空间化等关键问题。


    On the basis of the exposition about concept connotations and indexes between multidimensional poverty and spatial poverty, basic principles contributing to constructing index system of spatial poverty to monitor in concentrated contiguous areas with particular difficulties were put forward, which are, scientific and dominant principles, the availability of data and the operability of the measurement, embodiment of new requirements on poverty and anti-poverty, emphasis on regional characters and ability of characterizing space. Furthermore, index system of spatial poverty to monitor in concentrated contiguous areas with particular difficulties which is consisting of four dimensions (economy, society, environment and policy), thirteen index groups, for example, income and consumption, market connectivity, demographic situation, education, employment, medical services, a sense of security, housing condition, geomorphic elements, natural hazards, ecological security, agro-ecology, food security, policy effectiveness, was constructed according to the principles above. The index system was totally comprised of twenty-seven initial or generated indicators. Moreover, the key issues such as verification, acquisition methods, spatialization of spatial poverty index system and so on were discussed then.

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    丹霞山顺层洞穴风化特征的试验研究
    彭华,邱卓炜,潘志新
    地理科学. 2014, 34 (4): 454-463.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2014.04.454
    摘要   RICH HTML PDF (1617KB)

    以丹霞盆地丹霞组2段顺层洞穴为研究对象,探讨不同岩性红层抗风化能力的差异,重点关注软岩夹层的风化特征及其对顺层洞穴发育的影响。在野外考察的基础上,选择3个典型顺层洞穴为案例,采集了洞穴剖面不同岩性红层的岩样及夹层水样品,进行一系列的岩矿理化测试和水样分析实验。结果表明:洞穴剖面岩性的不均一性及软岩夹层的风化凹进是形成丹霞山顺层洞穴的主要原因。顺层洞穴发育的软岩夹层一般是粉砂质泥岩,粘土矿物含量高,以泥质胶结为主,吸水性较强,开型空隙率较大,抗压强度小,易于风化破碎;上下岩层主要是砂岩和砂砾岩,以钙质和铁质胶结为主,吸水性较弱,开型孔隙率较小,抗压强度较大,风化速度较慢。在洞穴岩层风化过程中,粘土矿物的胀缩、钙质胶结物的溶解, 及铁质胶结物的水化作用等是导致岩体结构破坏的重要因素,但促使不同岩性红层风化的主导因素有所差别。粉砂质泥岩的风化以粘土矿物的胀缩作用为主,砂岩和砂砾岩的风化则以钙质胶结物的溶解作用为主。此外,酸性雨水渗入岩体后与各种矿物进行的一系列离子交换作用也促进了顺层洞穴岩层的风化。


    This study focuses on the bedding caves developed in the 2nd Member of the Danxia Formation at Danxia Basin. Investigations of differential weathering of red bed rocks were conducted, especially the weathering features of soft interlaid rock layers and how this weathering effects the development of the bedding caves. Based on field investigations, three bedding caves were selected as study cases, followed by a collection of rock samples with different lithologies, as well as interlayer ground water samples, for laboratory test and analysis. The data reveals that primary factors for bedding cave formation at Mt. Danxiashan are the different lithological characters of rock layers in the cave wall and the rapid weathering and erosion of soft interlaid rock layers. Soft interlaid rocks between layers generally belong to silty mudstone with high content of clay minerals and argillaceous cements. Due to strong absorbability, high porosity and low compressive strength, these soft rocks are vulnerable to weathering and easily broken into smaller pieces. The overlying and underlying rock layers are more resistant sandstones or sandy conglomerates, cemented mainly by calcite and iron oxides, with low porosity and higher compressive strength. During the weathering process of rock layers in bedding caves, factors that are responsible for the disintegration of rocks include the expansion and contraction of clay minerals, dissolution of calcareous cements, and hydration of iron oxides. However, the dominant factors contributes rock decay vary in different lithotypes. For silty mudstones, the repeated expansion and contraction of clays is a significant cause of weathering. As for the weathering of sandstones and sandy conglomerates, the dissolution of calcareous cements plays a more important role. In addition, the infiltration of acid rainwater can also accelerate the weathering processes by ion displacement with minerals in red bed rocks.

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    吉林省区域经济空间一体化的生态环境响应演变及其影响因素
    姚丽,谷国锋
    地理科学. 2014, 34 (4): 464-471.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2014.04.464
    摘要   RICH HTML PDF (484KB)

    通过定量分析方法研究了1991~2010年吉林省区域经济一体化的生态环境压力响应演变及其影响因素,得出以下结论:1991年以来吉林省区域经济空间一体化水平不断提高,而生态环境压力水平呈现出“先升后降再升”(N型)的变化态势;吉林省区域经济空间一体化对生态环境压力具有“正响应”的特征,并且响应度具有逐渐增大的态势;由区域产业活动布局、市场同一度加速导致的生态环境压力增大是引致吉林省区域经济空间一体化对生态环境影响逐渐增加的重要内部因素。最后就如何加速实现区域经济空间一体化过程并减小区域生态环境压力,希望对促使二者协调发展提出几点建议。


    This paper puts forward the concept of “ecology and environmental response to the regional economic integration”, and builds response index, response degree model and evaluation system of regional economic integration. By the quantitative analysis of the changes and influence factors on ecology and environmental response to the regional economic integration in Jilin province from 1991~2010, the following conclusions can be drawn: First, the level of regional economic integration continues to increase since 1991, while the level of ecology and environmental reveals a general fluctuation trend of “one up and one down and one up”(N). Second, the ecology and environmental response to the regional economic integration has the “positive response”characteristics. Third, the layout of the regional industrial activity and the accelerating of the market union degree are the main factors which lead to the influence of ecology and environment response to the regional economic integration. Finally,the paper put forward some suggestions about how to speed up the process of regional economic integration and reduce pressure on regional ecology and environmental in order to make the region become healthily, orderly and harmoniously.

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    陇东黄土高原农业生态效率的时空演变分析——以庆阳市为例
    张子龙,鹿晨昱,陈兴鹏,薛冰
    地理科学. 2014, 34 (4): 472-478.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2014.04.472
    摘要   RICH HTML PDF (445KB)

    以地处黄土高原的庆阳市为例,基于世界可持续发展工商理事会(WBCSD)对生态效率内涵的界定,应用数据包络分析(DEA)中的非期望产出SBM模型,对2001~2011年间该地区农业生态效率的时空演变进行分析,结果表明:庆阳市农业生态效率总体上呈现下降趋势,其空间差异在不断扩大。依据生态效率的空间分布状况,基本可以将庆阳市分为2种类型:生态环境较好、水资源较为充沛、农业较为发达的西峰区、合水县、宁县和正宁县的农业生态效率相对较高;而生态环境较为脆弱、水资源短缺的庆城县、华池县、环县和镇原县的农业生态效率较低,主要原因在于要素投入比例失调、资源利用率低和非期望产出的过度冗余。基于此对生态效率较低地区的农业投入要素冗余状况进行了分析,明确农业生态效率改进的方向,为提高农业生态效率提供参考。


    Based on the definition of ecological efficiency raised by World Business Council for sustainable development (WBCSD), the article applied undesired-output SBM model of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) to analyze the spatio-temporal evolution of agricultural eco-efficiency in Loess Plateau of East Gansu Province in 2001-2011. The results indicated that: the agricultural ecological-efficiency in Qingyang City is declining overall, and the spatial discrepancy of eco-efficiency is enlarging. According to the spatial distribution of eco-efficiency, Qingyang can be divided into two regions: 1) The high agricultural eco-efficiency region includes Xifeng, Heshui, Ningxian, Zhengning county which possess good ecological environment, abundant water resource and developed agriculture. 2) The low agricultural eco-efficiency region includes Qingcheng, Huachi, Huanxian, Zhenyuan county which have fragile ecological condition and the scarce water resource. The reasons for inducing low eco-efficiency are disproportional factor inputs, low efficiency of resources utilization and excessive redundancy of undesired outputs. Furthermore, the article analyzed the redundancy of elements of agricultural input in the regions where have lower ecological efficiency in order to put forward the way to improve the ecological efficiency.

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    基于SPI的江苏沿海开发地区旱涝演变特征分析——以盐城市为例
    叶正伟
    地理科学. 2014, 34 (4): 479-487.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2014.04.479
    摘要   RICH HTML PDF (1257KB)

    基于标准化降水指数(Standardized Precipitation Index,SPI)方法,分析了盐城市1960~2009年间的旱涝演变特征。结果显示:① 年降水量呈减少趋势,但年际变幅大,以20世纪70年代、80年代偏低,60年代、90年代偏高。1~3月、6月、11~12月降水呈增加趋势,其余月份为减少趋势。② 多时间尺度SPI皆可监测旱涝变化,SPI3、SPI6对年内旱涝暴发时间与持续影响更为敏感。不同季节SPI的年代际差异显著,SPI冬季呈增加趋势,其余季节及年SPI皆为减小趋势。③ SPI1、SPI3、SPI6的变率较稳定,而SPI12变率显著偏大。年与夏季SPI变率高度相似,但春季与秋季SPI变率的变幅偏大。④ 多时间尺度SPI皆以3~15月的周期为主,但SPI6、SPI12还有较稳定的16~32个月长周期。而年与不同季节SPI则以3 a、6 a左右周期为主,并具10 a左右的中尺度周期及20 a左右的长周期。


    Flood and drought evolution during 1960-2009 in Yancheng City is analyzed using the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI). Results show that large fluctuation amplitude can be seen in annual precipitation with a slightly decreasing trend detected. An upward trend can be found in January, February, March, June, November and December, while the rest months show a downward trend. Flood and drought can be monitored using multi-scale SPI method, SPI3, SPI6 are more sensitive to the occurrence period and continuous effect of flood and drought. Frequent alteration of flood and drought in 1960s and 1990s can be examined both by annual and seasonal SPI, but drought is quite stable in 1980s. A significant difference can be seen in decadal change of seasonal SPI, and SPI in winter shows an increasing trend while decreasing trend in the rest seasons and annual SPI. Variation in SPI1, SPI3 and SPI6 is stable while variation is larger in SPI12. Variation in annual and summer SPI shows a highly similar change process, while it has relatively larger change amplitude in spring and autumn SPI. A period at about 3-15 months can be checked for multi-scale SPI change; however, a period at about 16-32 months is quite stable in SPI6 and SPI12. A period at about 3-6 years is stable both in annual and seasonal SPI which accompanied with 10 and 20 years period.

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    湘江流域中下游长沙地区不同水体中δ18O、δD的变化
    吴华武,章新平,李小雁,李静,张剑明
    地理科学. 2014, 34 (4): 488-495.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2014.04.488
    摘要   RICH HTML PDF (618KB)

    根据2010年在长沙地区所收集的降水、河水、泉水和井水水样资料,分析了取样期间不同水样稳定同位素的变化特征,并结合湘江长沙段水位和相关气象资料,揭示了降水中δ18O、δD因水汽来源不同而其表现出冬半年高、夏半年低的特点;由于降水降落于地表后,地表对降水滞留作用而使得河水、泉水和井水中δ18O、δD的波动幅度明显小于降水中δ18O的波动幅度;在汛期,河水中δ18O算术平均值大于降水,在枯水期河水中δ18O比泉水和井水中δ18O要大;河水线(RWL)的斜率和截距与全球大气水线(GMWL)比较接近,说明该地区位于季风区河流的补给主要来自大气降水,井水线(WWL)的斜率和截距比泉水线(SWL)要小,这表明降水入渗形成井水过程中经历的蒸发作用要比形成泉水要强,井水补给比泉水补给要复杂。这为今后研究该地区地表水-地下水-大气降水之间转换关系提供了科学依据,对掌握“三水”间转换规律和合理开发利用水资源具有重要的意义。


    Based on the collected water samplings of precipitation, river, spring and well water during the whole year of 2010 in Changsha region, the variation characteristics of δ18O, δD in different water samples were investigated combining with the related meteorological parameters and water-level data of Changsha region, the Xiangjiang River. It revealed that the isotopic compositions (δ18O and δD) had a high values in winter year and a low values in summer year due to different moist sources. The fluctuations of isotopic compositions (δ18O and δD) in river, spring, and well water were slower than in precipitation due to retention effect after the precipitation descends to the surface. The arithmetic average δ18O value in river water was larger than in precipitation during the flood period and in spring and well water during the dry period. The slope and intercept of river water line (RWL) was closely to the global meteoric water line (GMWL), suggesting that the river recharge mainly originating from the precipitation in the monsoon region. The slope and intercept of well water line (WWL) was lower than the spring water line (SWL), indicating that the infiltration process of precipitation into well water had experienced stronger evaporation effect than the process into spring water, which is due to the complex recharge sources between well water and spring water. This may provide a scientific foundation for the future investigation of the conversion correlation among the surface water, groundwater and precipitation in this region. It has vital significance for understanding the three-water conversion correlation pattern and properly exploiting and utilizing water source.

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    无锡市土壤重金属富集的梯度效应与来源差异
    李建国,濮励杰,廖启林,朱明,刘丽丽,张丽芳,王琪琪,戴小清
    地理科学. 2014, 34 (4): 496-504.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2014.04.496
    摘要   RICH HTML PDF (522KB)

    人类活动引起的土壤重金属富集已经成为区域主要的环境风险。通过对无锡市主城区表层土壤大面积的采样(1957个),运用空间分析和多元统计工具,对无锡市土壤重金属富集的空间特征及其来源进行分析,结果表明:① 无锡市土壤As、Cu、Hg、Pb和Zn空间变异受人类活动的影响明显,均超出当地的土壤背景值,而Hg已经超过国家土壤环境健康二级标准阈值,成为无锡市最主要的土壤重金属污染因子;② 研究区土壤重金属含量随着建设用地距离的增加,呈逐渐下降的趋势,表现出明显的距离梯度特征;③ 基于不同梯度表现,将无锡土壤重金属分为2种典型距离梯度区间1(0~10 km)和区间2(10~16 km),区间1土壤重金属富集主要受人类活动的影响明显,而区间2受自然和人为双重因素的影响;④ 土壤自然特性(CEC、pH和P)与土壤重金属含量(Co、Cu、Fe和Zn)的富集存在显著的正相关关系;⑤ 无锡市人类活动对于土壤重金属富集的影响范围在10 km左右,本研究的现实意义在于为重金属污染土壤分区治理提供帮助,即对于0~10 km区域内的土壤可以通过以提高土地利用效率、降低废弃物排放等为主的工程措施来解决;而在10~16 km区间则采用以超富集植物修复等为主的生态措施来解决。


    Heavy metals pollution in soil has become an important environmental hazard. At present,anthropogenic activities were the main sources attributing to soil heavy metal pollution. A total of 1957 surface soil samples (0-20 cm) were collected in urban district of Wuxi, and spatial feature and sources of the soil pollution of heavy metals were identified by using spatial analysis and multivariate statistics, the results as follows: 1) Soil As, Cu, Hg, Pb and Zn in Wuxi are all over the corresponding background value caused by anthropogenic activities, even if Hg is over the threshold value of grade II of The Chinese Environmental Quality Standard for Soils, and is the most major pollution factor of soil; 2) Soil heavy metals tend to reduce with the increasing of distance apart from the built-up lands, present a remarkable gradient effect; 3) Two distinct gradient effect zones (zone 1(0-10 km) and zone 2(10-16 km))are divided based on different gradient characters. Anthropogenic activities are the mainly responsible for zone 1, and soil heavy metals concentration in zone 2 are caused by both natural factors and human factors; 4) Soil Co, Cu, Fe and Zn have a positive relationship with natural soil properties (CEC, pH and P); 5) The influence scope of anthropogenic activities on soil heavy metals concentration in Wuxi is about 10km. The positive meaning of this study is helpful for classified management of soil heavy metals pollution that is the strong human-effecting lands can be restored by means of engineering measures (including promoting land-use efficiency, reducing the volumes of wastes as well as the fill and cubage of excavation, etc), as in zone 1 (0-10 km); However, ecological measures (i.e. heavy metal hyperaccumulator plants, etc) may be adopted in zone 2(10-16 km).

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    连环湖马圈泡沉积物重金属污染及潜在生态风险
    关莹,臧淑英,肖海丰
    地理科学. 2014, 34 (4): 505-512.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2014.04.505
    摘要   PDF (515KB)

    通过对连环湖马圈泡柱状沉积物重金属(Cr、Cu、Mn、Ni、Pb、Zn、Cd)等地球化学指标的分析, 对马圈泡沉积物污染历史进行了讨论。根据元素的变化趋势,结合颗粒组成指标,采用相关分析,富集状况及潜在生态风险评价,并辅以210Pb、137Cs测年数据,研究了自1937年以来该湖区沉积物重金属元素污染特征、来源、污染历史及污染程度。结果表明,1987年以前各元素含量变化趋势平稳,1987年至今,7种重金属元素含量均明显增加。重金属元素的来源包括自然来源和人为输入。从单向污染系数来看Cu、Ni、Cr、Pb、Zn属于中等污染强度,Mn、Cd达到了强污染程度;从综合污染系数来看,表层重金属元素主要为中等程度的污染。沉积物重金属污染历史与该区经济发展阶段相吻合可为其湖区生态环境的整治与改善提供基础性的数据资料。


    Sedimentation rates, element concentrations and grain size distributions of core sediments from Majuan Lake are investigated. According to 210Pb and 137Cs dating, the pollution history of Majuan Lake is investigated based on the geochemical characteristics in core sediments. Our findings indicated that Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn and Cd are the main pollution heavy metals, which have different pollution history and pollution degree. The concentrations of heavy metals in sediments varied smoothly before1987. However, the concentrations of all elements increased obviously since 1987, which are mainly attributed the industries development. In recent years, Cu, Ni, Cr, Pb, and Zn in most sediment from upper profile showed moderate ecological risk level, but Mn and Cd showed strong ecological risk in the sediments. Similar results obtained from Eir and RI methods, while the heavy metal content increased rapidly since 1987 with the peak values appeared in the surface, which indicated the strongly potential risk. The history of elements pollution has strong link with the economy development in the catchment of Majuan Lake.

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