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ISSN 1000-0690
CN 22-1124/P
创刊于 1981 年 (月刊)
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  • 地理科学
      1999年, 第19卷, 第4期 刊出日期:1999-07-20 上一期    下一期
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    论文
    我国河流水化学研究进展
    陈静生, 夏星辉
    地理科学. 1999, 19 (4): 290-294.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1999.04.290
    摘要   PDF (2738KB)
    河流水资源是我国水资源的最重要组成部分,本文从我国河流水质监测站网的发展、河流水化学特征和30a来河流水质变化3方面,总结我国学者对我国河流水化学的研究进展。
    River water resources are the most important part of water resources in China.The progress in the researchof quality of river water resource is summarized, which includes the development of river water quality monitoring system, chemical characteristics of river water and water quality changes in the last 30 years in China.
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    青藏高原地理环境研究进展
    郑度, 李炳元
    地理科学. 1999, 19 (4): 295-302.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1999.04.295
    摘要   PDF (2891KB)
    第三纪青藏地区曾二次隆升与夷平,3.4Ma以来经历了高原强烈隆起、现代季风形成,高原山地抬升、进入冰冻圈,环境剧烈波动、高原内部干旱化及全新世环境波动变化等古地理演化阶段。由高原山地垂直带类型系统及其分布模式、独特的地生态现象及其空间格局以及高原自然地域系统研究,阐明了青藏高原地理环境的分异,2ka以来高原温度降水特征,近代气温、降水的时空变化及高原冰川、积雪和冻土对气候变化的响应,表明其与全球环境变化关系密切。
    The Qianghai-Xizang Plateau area was subject to twice cycles of uplift and planation in the Tertiary.Intense uplifting of the plateau area has given rise to drastic changes and differentiation of physical environment ofthe plateau proper since 3.4 Ma B.P..The plateau area rising to an elevation of 2000m a s1 at 2.5 Ma B.P.had enhanced Asian Monsoon and resulted in lOess dePOsition.The tectonic movement during 1.1 - 0.6 Ma B.P.might raise the plateau area up to 3000 - 3500 mas and led the plateau entering the cryosphere and formingthe maximum glaciation.Significant environmental changes with dry tendency of the plateau proper occurredduring the last 150 ka B.P.By comparative study on several mountains of the plateau, two systems of the structure-type of the altitudinal belt are identified and may be subdivided into nine groups.A distributional model diagram relevante to highland uplift effect has been generalized.According to expeditions and studies in the 1980’s , a number of strikinggeo-ecological phenomena and their spatial pattern such as moist corridor, dry valleys, high-cold shrub-meadowzone, and a high-cold arid core area are investigated and discussed.Based on the thermal conditions, moistregimes and variation in landforms, the plateau is sequentially demarcated.A tentative scheme of 2 temperaturebelts, 10 natural zones and 28 physical districts has been proposed, but not including southern slopes of the EastHimalayas.Characteristics of temperature and precipitation of the plateau since 2 ka B.P., temporal variation and spatial differentiation of air temperature and precipitation during the fifties and nineties of this century, and changes of glaciers, snow deposit and frozen ground of the plateau as well as their response to global change are dealt with in the present paper.
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    中国山地垂直自然带研究的进展
    彭补拙, 陈浮
    地理科学. 1999, 19 (4): 303-308.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1999.04.303
    摘要   PDF (541KB)
    中国是一个多山的国家,山地占全国陆地面积的33%.喜马拉雅运动基本奠定了山地格局,东西季风环流定格了自然地带的水平结构,为山地垂直自然带确立了基础。从山地垂直自然带基带的性质出发,一般可以分为18种主要类型,分别属于季风性带谱系统和大陆性带谱系统。同时也论述了山地垂直自然带的区域分异规律,并提出山地垂直自然带研究中有重大意义的若干前缘问题。
    There are many mountains in China, About 33% of the terrestrial part of the country are mountain region.Himalayas Himalayan movement establishes the layout of the mountains in general.Circulation of Eastern AsianMonsoon settles the horizontal structure Of physical zonation.They lay the groundwork of the mountain verticalzonation.The authors think they could be divided into 18 principal types, which belong to the system of monsoon ary zonal spectra and the System of mailand zonal spectra.The paper discusses the regular pattern of themountain vertical zonation and provides a lot of significant forward problems of the mountain vertical zonation.
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    试论资源科学的发展与任务
    陈百明
    地理科学. 1999, 19 (4): 309-312.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1999.04.309
    摘要   PDF (342KB)
    归纳了资源的三类定义,回顾了资源概念中的时间尺度和价值理论问题,并对我国资源研究工作进行了总结,最后认为资源科学在21世纪将会得到长足发展,为此需要开展10个方面的研究工作,并应尽快使资源科学进入国家学科体系。
    This paper concluded three types of definition on resources and reviewed the progress of forming resourcesconception, and discussed the timeliness and value theory of resources conception.It also briefly summed up theresources researches in China.The author thinks that the resources science will be quickly developed in the nextcentury.To this end, we should do the researches in ten sectors and make resources science be a discipline recognized in the Chinese academic systems.
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    中国绿洲研究之进展
    韩德林
    地理科学. 1999, 19 (4): 313-319.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1999.04.313
    摘要   PDF (2750KB)
    绿洲是干旱区独具特色的生态景观。近10多年来,中国绿洲研究取得长足进展,在绿洲与绿洲系统、绿洲形成演变、绿洲的建设、调控与可持续发展等研究领域取得一批重要成果。创建中国绿洲学是我国干旱区大规模开发建设的迫切需要,时机条件均已成熟。要明确其研究对象与学科性质,紧紧围绕主要研究内容,进一步推动我国绿洲研究向更高层次发展,尽快占居国际前沿阵地。
    Oasis is a special ecological landscape of arid land.In the past two decades, certain progress has been madein research of Chinese oases and a series of achievements have been attained on system of oasis, evolution of oasis, maintenance and construction of oasis, regulation and control of oasis, sustainable development of oasis.Ispressingly necessary to establish the science of Chinese oasis for the development on a large scale of arid land andthe opportunity which is coming.We should specify the object of study and the nature of this science, and pushforward it to more advanced level so that we could occupy the international leading position in this field.
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    改革开放二十年来中国城市地理学研究进展
    顾朝林, 徐海贤
    地理科学. 1999, 19 (4): 320-331.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1999.04.320
    摘要   PDF (3241KB)
    改革开放20a来,中国城市地理学研究队伍不断壮大,研究领域不断向纵深拓展,新技术在城市研究中获得了广泛应用。对这一时期中国城市地理学领域的研究进展、研究方法和技术作了综述,并对其发展趋势做了展望。
    This paper reviews the process of Chinese Urban Geography.Urban Geography, as an new branch of Human Geography in China, have developed and expanded very quickly since 1978.Researches, research contentsand research approaches have made great progresses.Chinese urban graphical research fields include: (1) City -regional Study; (2) Urban planning; (3) Urbanization; (4) Urban system; (6) Urban development policies; (7)Urban spatial structure; (8) Sustainable cities.Urban social geography, urban modernization, urban governance and digital city will be new research fields in the Chinese near future.
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    改革开放以来中国工业地理学研究进展
    李小建
    地理科学. 1999, 19 (4): 332-337.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1999.04.332
    摘要   PDF (2645KB)
    从三方面评述了改革开放以来中国工业地理学的研究进展:不同观点的引入与融合;结合中国经济转型的实践研究;以及实践基础上的理论总结。为了继续提高中国工业地理学的地位,应注意:思维方式的转变;理论研究与应用研究的协调;中国特色和国际主流兼顾。近期中国工业地理学研究方向上,应该关注工业可持续发展研究;工业区域发展中的公平与效益关系研究;工业公司与区域发展;经济活动全球化与区域工业发展。
    This paper reviews industrial geography research in China since the 1980s from three perspectives: introduction and use of various theories and methods from the Western world, practical research on the topics emerging after the open-door and economic reform, and theoretical construction based on China’s special background.Some suggestions were then proposed to enhance China’s industrial geography research and to promote Chinesegeographer’s presentation in the international academic platform.
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    近年我国文化地理学研究的新进展
    朱竑, 司徒尚纪
    地理科学. 1999, 19 (4): 338-343.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1999.04.338
    摘要   PDF (2709KB)
    对改革开放以来中国文化地理学的进展作了综述。在评述了其理论体系构建及主要通论性着作的基础上,按文化景观、文化生态、文化扩散及文化整合、文化区等几个主要领域对我国文化地理学的发展进行了全面阐述。指出,在加强文化地理学的基本理论建设的同时,应重其实用性研究,为社会经济和区域发展规划服务,以促进我国文化地理学的振兴。
    This paper focused on the systematic and overall literature review on China’s cultural geography in recentyears, especially paying attention to the progress in the main theory books and formation of the cultural theorysystem.The main themes involved in the paper are as follows: 1.Main theory books-their functions and contributions to China’s cultural geography, the process of China’s cultural geography development resulted fromthe publishing of several main books, which are the very books that formed the frame of China’s cultural geqraphy theory and made it develop steadily.2.Cultural landscape, cultural ecology, culture diffusion and culturesynthesis, cultural area are the main contents of cultural geography.3.Prospects, the transformation of economic system and development of high science and technology will effect China’s culture.The studies on culturalgeography have to adapt to the changes.A lot of new cultural things appear now, such as internet.Whilestrengthening the forming fundamental theory of cultural geography, the practice studies should be emphasized.So cultural geography may be served for social economy and plan of regional development and really promote itself development.
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    地球系统科学与数字地球
    王心源, 郭华东
    地理科学. 1999, 19 (4): 344-348.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1999.04.344
    摘要   PDF (2604KB)
    数字地球将为地球系统科学研究带来研究方法、研究手段和信息获取渠道的革命。因对地观测和数据资源共享技术的发展将使传统的野外地学作业逐步走向现代化,从而使地球系统科学的建立真正成为可能。本文简要回顾了地球系统科学的发展历程,分析了“数字地球”与地球系统科学的紧密关系,展望了“数字地球”带给地球系统科学研究发展的广阔前景,呼吁尽快建立中国的“数字地球”.
    The concept of "digital earth" is raised by Al Gore in January, 1998.Now, it is one of the hot topics in theworld.Digital Earth will play a very important role in many fields in our society.Digital earth is one of researching objects for Earth system science in knowledge-economic times.Digital earth will lead to researching methodrevolution in Earth Science.Due to developments of earth-observing techniques and worldwide data share, theywill reduce traditional geo-science’s field work to a great extent, and bring about the modernization in geosciencestudy."Earth system science" may be truly established at that time.In this paper, the authors simply reviewthe development history of geo-sciences, and analyse relationship between "digital earth" and "Earth system science", and picture good future of Earth system science given by digital Earth.At last we appeal to Chinese government for constructing China’s own digital earth as soon as possible.
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    试论知识经济时代的地理学
    徐建华
    地理科学. 1999, 19 (4): 349-352.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1999.04.349
    摘要   PDF (2444KB)
    近几年来,知识经济(Knowledgeeconomy)这一概念在全世界范围得到迅速传播,引起了社会各界的强烈反响。尽管,对于知识经济时代究竟何时到来,学者们虽有争议,但是大家都不约而同地认为,知识经济这一概念恰当地概括了当今世界经济的特征和发展趋势,知识经济将改变人类社会经济生活的各个方面。对于知识经济所引起的这一历史性的变革,已经引起了我国有关地理学家的关注[1~5],他们从不同的视角论述了知识经济时代的地理学有关问题。探讨了知识经济时代的地理学的几个问题:①知识经济的由来及地理学家的贡献;②知识经济对于传统地理学理论的冲击;③地理学怎样面对知识经济的挑战。
    The concept of knowledge economy has being known and transported all over the world in recent years. Though there are some different judgments on the problem when the era of knowledge economy comes, all scholars think that the concept of knowledge economy appropriately summarizes the tendency and character of economy development in the world. Knowledge economy will change all aspects of people's life and development patterns. The revolution caused by knowledge economy has being noticed by the geographers of China. They have discussed some problems on the geography in the era of knowledge economy. In this paper, the author studies three parts of problems. The first part sums up the initiation and contibutions of geographers of knowledge economy. The second part discusses the impacts of knowlege economy on traditional geography theory. The third part deals with the problem that how geography face to the challenge of era of knowledge economy.
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    对我国产业发展战略的若干新思考
    陈国阶
    地理科学. 1999, 19 (4): 353-357.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1999.04.353
    摘要   PDF (474KB)
    当前,我国经济发展面临经济全球化、生态化和知识经济的新挑战,在区域发展战略中,必须确立下列新思维:①在产业布局中充分考虑生态与环境因素的影响和作用;②将产业结构调整的重点由一、二、三产业的调整转向产品结构的调整;③将确定支柱产业的重点由产业门类或行业转向产业集团和名牌产品;④我国东西部的互补与协调重点是产品和市场,而不是资源;西部发展战略不能过分估计自身的“资源优势”,而就应该着力于开拓西部产品优势和市场潜力。
    At present China is facing challenges from economic globalization, ecological economy and knowledge economy in its process of economic development.The following ideas may be heuristic in establishing China’s regional development strategies.1) In industries allocation, the impact of industries on the ecological environmentshould be fully considered.2) Industrial restructuring should be focused on the restructuring of products, notonly on the restructuring of the three traditional industries (primary, secondary and tertiary industries).3) Theestablishment of key industries should be focused on large-scale corporations or famous brand products, not onlya particular industrial sector.4) The complementarity and cooperation between the east and the west of Chinashould be on products and markets, not only natural resources.The advantages in natural resources for the westof China can not be over-estimated.The advantages in products and market potentials for the west of China maybe explored.
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    区域科学学科地位、体系和前沿
    杨开忠
    地理科学. 1999, 19 (4): 358-363.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1999.04.358
    摘要   PDF (539KB)
    区域科学虽然产生于大约半个世纪以前,但其在中国的正式亮相则是90年代初的事情。通过论述影响区域科学在中国发展的几个基本理论问题,即:通过弄清区域科学与地理学、经济学、管理科学等学科的关系进一步明确区域科学独立的学科地位,明晰区域科学学科划分。探讨新区域科学的特点、指出其前沿领域。
    Although regional science came into being about half century ago, its debut in China was at the beginning ofthis decade.This paper aims to discuss several radical questions which influence the development of regional science in China, namely, to confirm regional science’s independent subject status, to definite its subject division,to probe into new regional science’s characteristics and point out its research frontier by making clear the relations between regional science and such subjects as geography, economics, management science.
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    中国新生代地理学的进展
    李容全, 赵烨, 邱维理
    地理科学. 1999, 19 (4): 364-367.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1999.04.364
    摘要   PDF (2412KB)
    回顾了近40年来自然地理学的分支学科──新生代地理学的创立、发展历程,分析了该学科在强化地理学基础理论研究、拓宽应用研究以服务于国家社会经济建设的作用,揭示了新生代地理学研究与全球变化研究的密切联系及其未来发展的方向。
    Cenozoic geography is an important branch of physical geography, the aim of Cenozoic geography is to reconstruct the geographical environment change processes during Cenozoic Era, which help us to understand thedevelopment and evolution process of the physical geographical environment, so as to forecast its evolution trendin the future.This paper has reviewed the progresses in the research of Cenozoic geography in China.ProfessorZhou Tingru published his famous paper in 1960, "The differentiation of the zonality and non-zonality in Chinaduring Tertiary and Quaternary".In this paper many geographical questions (i.e.the effect of QiangtangPlateau uplifting on the geographical environment, the formation cause of the loess in northern China, the Quaternary glacier in eastern China, the relationship between the human and the environment in Holocene.) werediscussed.Over the past decades, the scientific research in Chinese Cenozoic geography has advanced our understanding of the characteristic of Chinese geographical environment and global change.Also, this paper expoundsthe trend of the research: (1) to describe and understand the interactive physical, chemical and biological processes that have regulated the environmental change in the eec-sensitive area in China; (2) to develop the prediction of future global change and the relationship between the Chinese geographical environment and the globalenvironment; (3) to understand the interaction processes between the human and their geographical environment during Holocene.
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    当前古气侯研究的几个问题
    任国玉
    地理科学. 1999, 19 (4): 368-378.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1999.04.368
    摘要   PDF (1074KB)
    近年来古气候学研究的迅速发展,大大增进了人们对全球气候系统或地球系统的了解。对国际上古气候研究最新进展的几个侧面作了介绍,对目前这些方面研究中存在的若干问题进行了讨论。
    last years saw a rapid development in paleoclimatology.New characteristic feature has appeared in theresearch, which is mainly reflected in the close combination between modern climatic dynamics and paleoclimatology.They go ahead hand in hand.Paleoclimatological research enhanced the understanding of climate system,and climate change research helped in the prosperity of paleoclimatology.This paper reviews the major developments of paleoclimatology in the last few years internationally.These progresses could be best seen in: (1) detection and attribution of global climatic change using high resolution paleo-data series; (2) tropical temperatureanomalies of the LGM and climate system sensitivity; (3) rapid climate changes in the glacial and post glacialperiods and the possibility of future "surprises" in a warming world; and (4) paleo-vegetation reconstruction ofspecific time slices (e.g.6000 a B.P.and 18000 a B.P.) and the applications in studies of the past bio-geophysical feedback.Some problems relative to the studies of the four aspects are discussed.
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    论现代景观科学的形成与发展
    肖笃宁
    地理科学. 1999, 19 (4): 379-384.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1999.04.379
    摘要   PDF (2581KB)
    论述了景观科学的形成与发展,从科研认识的角度对景观生态学的核心概念做了介绍。
    Landscape geography came from a geographical clique of German and Russia.It has a long history.After acentury’s development, fully absorbing the important thoughts of ecology, system science and anthropology,gradually getting rid of the 3tale and bringing forth the fresh, it has formed the new generation landscape sciencewhich is delegated by landscape ecology until the 1980’ s.Lnadscape ecology merges the study of relationship between structure and function, and human function process in geography, forms the theory frame which focuseson the concepts of pattern and process in different scale and the human-dominated landscape evolution, etc.Itemphasizes practical applied field, such as landscape planning and management.Landscape architecture embodiesthe cross of landscape science and engineering, combines the creature and engineer steps, construct human-habitat environment which can fully reveal multiple value of landscape.The paper discusses the formation and development of modern landscape science systematically, introduces the core concepts of landscape ecology at the pointof scientific research epistemology.
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