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ISSN 1000-0690
CN 22-1124/P
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  • 地理科学
      2005年, 第25卷, 第5期 刊出日期:2005-09-20 上一期    下一期
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    论文
    中国粮食生产的区域格局变化及东北商品粮基地的响应
    程叶青, 张平宇
    地理科学. 2005, 25 (5): 513-520.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2005.05.513
    摘要   PDF (1038KB)
    依据近10年的统计数据和实地调研资料,运用区域差异分析方法,对中国粮食生产的区域格局变化特征及其规律进行探讨,研究表明:中国粮食产量总体呈增长态势,年均增长率为3.43%;粮食生产重心进一步由南方向北方和由东部向中部推移,北方和中部地区成为新的增长中心;粮食生产地域变化的差异明显,南北绝对差异和相对差异变化较大,八大产区和省区间变化较小。农业生产条件、技术、宏观经济环境和土地利用方式变化是粮食生产地域格局变化的主要原因。东北作为国家粮食安全战略性基地,应对全国粮食生产的地域变化趋势,必须加强商品粮基地建设。通过农业生态环境建设、农业结构调整、商品粮基地空间布局优化等举措,促进粮食生产,保障国家粮食安全。
    Grain security is one of the severe challenges to the world,especially to China in 21 century.According to statistical materials and investigation data in recent 10a,regional pattern changes of grain production in China was discussed with the methods of regional difference analysis,such as concentration index,absolute different index and relative different index.The study showed that China’s grain production kept increasing as a whole,and the annual average ratio was about 3.43%.With the change of agricultural production condition,technology,macro-economic circumstance,market condition and land use,main gain production centers have been moving from the south to the north and from the east to the central in the last decade,so that the north and central areas become new grain production centers for the future China.Also,the difference of regional change was very evident,the biggest difference emerged between the north and south China,but the differences among provinces and the eight main production regions were not considerable.The Northeast China is one of strategic bases for national grain security,where the amount and proposition of commodity grain are both in the leading place among regions.However,grain production in this region is not stable and represented considerable fluctuation periodically,which was caused by environmental degeneration,serious natural disaster,onefold agricultural structure and farmer’s unwillingness to promote grain production.Corresponding to the nationwide shifts in grain production,the construction of commodity grain bases in Northeast China becomes a strategic policy for the national grain security.Key countermeasures are to improve agricultural ecological environment,to adjust agricultural structure,and to optimize distribution of special commodity grain bases etc.
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    区域制造业集群的辨识——以北京市制造业为例
    贺灿飞, 梁进社, 张华
    地理科学. 2005, 25 (5): 521-528.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2005.05.521
    摘要   PDF (1032KB)
    辨识产业集群的定性方法,过于依赖专家的主观判断,存在诸多局限性。基于投入产出表构建一个反映产业之间功能联系的矩阵,采用主成分分析定量辨识基于经济技术联系的区域产业集群。此外,设计了几个衡量集群内产业联系强度的系数来判定被辨识集群的合理性,并通过相关系数衡量集群内产业的空间集聚特性。以北京市1997年投入产出表上74个制造业行业为例,采用主成分分析方法辨别出14个产业集群,包括钢压延加工集群、有机化学制品集群、电子元器件集群以及棉毛纺织集群等。集群内产业功能联系紧密,相关产业内的企业在空间上集聚,符合产业集群的理论定义。
    Recently, industrial cluster has been a hot focus in economics, management and geography. Regional and industrial policies are also oriented towards the promotion of industrial clusters. The identification of local clusters, however, is still poorly established. Qualitative methods of identifying industrial clusters, such as Industry Perception Method, rely heavily on the experts' subjective judgments and lack strict rules to make decisions, therefore confine to a number of limitation. For example, the regionally dominant firms may mislead the researchers' judgments. The cross-sectional comparison of industrial clusters in different regions could be difficult. This paper demonstrates that industrial clusters can be recognized using principle component analysis (PCA). Based upon a correlation matrix, which is derived from the input-output table and measures backward and forward industrial linkages, this paper applies PCA to identifing industrial clusters. Several indices are further developed to evaluate PCA's performance in identifying regional industrial clusters. Correlation analysis is then applied to testing the spatial agglomeration of related industries. Taking Beijing as a case, this paper identifies 14 industrial clusters based on the 1997 inputing output table. Industrial clusters are formed around smelting and pressing in ferrous metals, chemicals, electronics, textiles and car production etc. Industries in those clusters are strongly tied with each other through sale-purchase linkages, and agglomerate in similar locales.
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    跨省区域治理:中国跨省都市圈经济整合的新思路
    陶希东
    地理科学. 2005, 25 (5): 529-536.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2005.05.529
    摘要   PDF (1312KB)
    跨省都市圈日益成为中国区域经济发展的战略单元,如何处理行政区划与区域经济一体化之间的内在关系,实现空间经济整合是当前中国政界和学术界关注的焦点。通过辨析城市群、大都市区、大都市圈、大都市带等基本概念的基础上,界定了跨省都市圈的概念,并提出了成熟型跨省都市圈必须具备的6个基本条件。借助"行政区经济"理论,分析了当今限制中国跨省都市圈空间整合的瓶颈,认为各自为政的行政区划及其管理体制,极大地制约着跨都市圈经济的区域融合与一体化进程,在中国现有的政治管理体制下,单纯依靠传统的行政区划管理或政府管理,难以从根本上解决跨省都市圈内部存在的行政分割问题。根据西方较为流行的"治理"理论,提出了"跨省区域治理"的空间整合新思路,并按照市场经济的内在要求和规律,构建了"跨省区域治理"的基本框架体系,主要包括: ①跨省都市圈成员省市政府的现代区域治理理念体系;②跨省都市圈现代区域政治体系;③跨省都市圈现代区域市场经济体系;④跨省都市圈现代区域社会体系;⑤跨省都市圈现代城际合作体系。
    With the development of economic globalization, some trans-province metropolitan circles such as Yangtze River Delta, Jingjintang, Pearl River Delta,have become the most important spatial unit of China regional economy development. Today, how to deal with the relationship between administrative region and economic region, and to achieve trans-province metropolitan circle' spatial conformity, are the focuses of government and academic research. Based on the discrimination of four concepts of city cluster, metropolitan district, metropolitan circle and metropolitan belt,the article puts forward concept of trans-province metropolitan circle and its six basic mature conditions. Through the theory of 'administrative region's economy', the paper considers system of administrative region's division and government management is the bottleneck of trans-province metropolitan circle conformity under present system. Finally, based on the governance theory, it puts forward a new conformity thought —'trans-province region governance’and builds up a basic system of trans-province regional governance, which including: ①modern region's governance system of member governments of trans-province metropolitan circle;②modern political region system of trans-province metropolitan circle;③modern region's market system of trans-province metropolitan circle;④modern region society system of trans-province metropolitan circle;⑤modern inter-city cooperation system of trans-province metropolitan circle.
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    区域中心城市生产性服务业的外向功能特征研究——以广州市为例
    闫小培, 钟韵
    地理科学. 2005, 25 (5): 537-543.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2005.05.537
    摘要   PDF (1134KB)
    广州的生产性服务业经历了改革开放后20多年的发展,目前已具有基本经济活动功能。通过对广州的生产性服务机构的抽样问卷调查,阐述其在服务范围、服务对象及服务销量分布三方面的特征。并根据广州生产性服务业目前的发展水平,以及对珠三角制造业企业市场的抽样问卷调查,从供给水平和市场需求两个角度对广州生产性服务的外向功能特征进行了阐释。
    Guangzhou is the central city of one of the developed regions, Pearl River Delta (PRD), in China. The level of producer services in Guangzhou is better than most of the other cities in China. To study the characteristics of the external function of the producer services in this central city will be helpful to understand the current level of producer services in China. According to the literature review, a conclusion was drawn that producer services have the function of the basic activities. After analyzing the statistical data, this paper proves that the producer services of Guangzhou have the same function. In order to find out the characteristics of the external function at present, a face-to-face survey to the producer services organizations that located in Guangzhou was done. The spatial scale of the market, the type of the clients and the distribution of the services are focused in the survey. There are five findings. ①Though the share is low, PRD is the biggest part in the external market of the producer services of Guangzhou. ②The share of external market declining with the distance, means that the farther away from Guangzhou, the lower the market share of the producer services from Guangzhou. ③The clients involve the primary industry, the secondary industry and the tertiary industry, and the tertiary industry consumes the most part of the producer services. ④There is gap between the share of the distribution of the clients and the services, which means that in one market area, the market share for the clients is different to that for the producer services. It shows that the insufficiency of the market exploration by the producer services organization in Guangzhou, though the spatial scale of the external market of it is extensive. ⑤PRD and Guangdong Province, the two nearest markets to Guangzhou, will be the most dominating areas for the producer services organization of Guangzhou to exploit in the coming three years. And another survey to the manufacture companies in PRD was done. The findings explain why the effect of the producer services in Guangzhou is so limited to the manufacture in the PRD currently.
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    长山群岛区域发展的地理基础与差异因素研究
    栾维新, 王海壮
    地理科学. 2005, 25 (5): 544-550.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2005.05.544
    摘要   PDF (1102KB)
    从海岛区域陆海面积比较、海岛生态系统组成特点、群岛区域基础设施共享可能性、群岛区域产业竞争力等四个方面具体分析了群岛区域差异的特殊地理基础。通过比较具体的分析了在群岛区域内部各海岛乡镇间存在的经济发展水平、人口分布、海洋水产业、海上交通运输及财政投资上的差异。认为,①技术进步是改善海岛区域发展环境的前提条件;②政策是形成海岛间差异的重要影响因素③自然资源要素对群岛区域的影响仍然十分明显;④区位条件对海岛的影响在加剧。研究结果对指导长山群岛区域发展有重要现实意义,同时也谋求把区域发展的理论应用到群岛这类特殊区域的研究上。
    This paper takes Changshan Islands region in Dalian City of Liaoning Province as study object.The authors make a concrete analysis on the archipelago of regional differences in four respects,i.e.the comparing of land and sea area in island region,the constitutional characteristics of island ecosystem,the feasibility of infrastructures sharing and the competitive power of industries in archipelago region.In this paper,we analyzed more concretely the differences from economic development level,population distribution,marine aquaculture,maritime transportation and finance investment among all island villages and towns of the archipelago region.We think,①The technological progress is a precondition of improving regional development environment of islands;②The policy is an important influeoce factor to form the differences among the islands;③The impact on archipelago area of natural resources is still very obvious;④The impact on island of location condition is being enlarged.The result of study not merely has important practice meanings to guide the regional development of Changshan Islands,and this paper seeks to apply regional development theories to studying special area like archipelago at the same time.
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    西北高寒民族地区生态环境问题及农牧业发展——以甘南藏族自治州为例
    李志刚, 段焕娥
    地理科学. 2005, 25 (5): 551-555.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2005.05.551
    摘要   PDF (642KB)
    甘南藏族自治州是江河上游重要水源涵养区和生态屏障。草场"三化"严重,森林遭到破坏,水资源日益紧张,生物多样性锐减,水土流失加剧。其原因主要是脆弱的自然环境基础上,人类对自然资源不合理利用的结果。生态恶化严重制约着农牧业的发展。生态建设和农牧业发展,必须贯彻可持续发展战略,树立生态经济思想,追求生态效益和经济效益有机结合,探索符合高寒生态规律的资源利用方式和地域农牧业体系。最后,从治理草场"三化"、建设牲畜集中育肥基地、建立有效的生态建设机制、依靠科技、调整农牧业地域结构、发展特色农牧业和推动产业化与城镇化进程等6个方面,提出了对策建议。
    Gannan Tibet autonomous prefecture is situated in the southwest part of Gansu Province and the transition zone among Tibet Plateau, Loess plateau and west Qinling Mountains, where the average altitude is 3 000 m. It has an area of 45,000 km2 and a population of 670,000. The area is an important water resources conserving area and an ecological protective screen area in upper reaches of Yangtze and Yellow rivers. However, there are many serious eco-environmental problems in this area at the present time: the fearful degeneration, desertification and salinization of grasslands, the tremendous forest destruction by human hag, and subsequent low forest coverage, the obvious shortage of water resources, the quick decrease of bio-diversity, and the increasing water and soil erosion. All of these are caused by both natural and human factors. Facing above problems, it is necessary for sustainable developmental strategy and eco-economic idea to be established in human economic activity of the area so as to combine ecological efficiency organically with economic efficiency, and to search for a rational resources utilization ways and a locality livestock farming and agriculture development model which would well adapt to local ecological laws. Thus the corresponding countermeasures to this area are suggested as follows: (1) controlling eco-environments by laying stress on managing the degeneration, desertification and salinization of grasslands, and implementing enclosure treatment and rotational grazing in pasturing region; (2) utilizing the local forage and grass resources reasonably by building and collocating some livestock fattening bases; (3) innovating the institution of grassland use and livestock farming management by advancing grassland circulation through the forms of subcontract, rent, sublet, exchange and co-management, promoting grassland and livestock to be transferred to people or groups who well understand the livestock farming technology and management method, enlarging livestock farming management scale, and founding an effectual ecological construction mechanism; (4) enhancing the scientific and technological contents for eco-environmental construction and livestock farming and agriculture development by developing and introducing some applicable technology such as selection and breeding of superior species for livestock, control of rodent damage and insect pest, and the grass-crop rotation system in soil and water loss region. (5) adjusting traditional territorial structure of agriculture and optimizing land use form according to spatial ecology differentiation regularity; (6) exploiting superiors resources to develop special livestock farming and agriculture, pushing forward the process of rural urbanization and the industrialization for livestock farming and agriculture.
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    长春都市地域“点轴”产业圈层化空间结构整合调控
    曹传新, 张全, 李诚固
    地理科学. 2005, 25 (5): 556-560.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2005.05.556
    摘要   PDF (758KB)
    通过长春市都市地域形成发展的资源支撑系统的分析诊断,系统地论述了长春市都市地域第一产业、第二产业、第三产业"点-轴"圈层化空间结构,科学地提出了长春市都市地域"点-轴"圈层化空间结构整合调控的具体策略和方向。
    By analyzing and diagnosing the resource supporting system of the forming and developing of Changchun metropolitan area, systematically scrutinized the point-axis layered spatial structure of the first industry, the second industry and the third industry in the area, scientifically advanced detailed strategy and orientation for systemization and control.
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    东北气候和生态过渡区近50年来降水和温度概率分布特征变化
    张耀存, 张录军
    地理科学. 2005, 25 (5): 561-566.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2005.05.561
    摘要   PDF (723KB)
    文章从中国160个站的观测资料中选取位于东北气候和生态过渡区内9个测站的冬、夏季降水和温度资料,分析该地区近50年来冬夏季降水和温度的年际变化及其概率分布特征,结果表明,东北气候和生态过渡区的冬夏季降水和温度有明显的年代际变化特征,在不同的年代际变化阶段,降水和温度的总体概率分布特征差异较大,这种概率分布形式的差异与高温、干旱等极端天气气候事件的频繁发生具有密切关系。20世纪80年代以来降水处于平均值减小的总体分布中,温度则处于平均值增加的总体分布中,因此该地区冬季发生暖冬和少雨(雪)的机会增大,夏季出现严重干旱和高温的可能性增大。
    Changes in the occurrence frequency, strength and location of the extreme weather and climate events will occur with global warming. It is of interest to study if the frequent occurrence of extreme weather and climate events is related to change of the climatic background. In this paper, the winter and summer precipitation and temperature data in the climatic and ecological transition zone of Northeast China are used to investigate the interannual variation and probability distribution characteristics of precipitation and temperature in recent 50 years. Results show that there exist significant interdecadal variations in winter and summer precipitation and temperature, and the probability distribution characteristics are different in different periods. The probability distribution differences are probably related to the frequent occurrence of extreme weather and climate events such as high temperature, drought, flooding in recent years. Since the 1980's, precipitation has been in the probability distribution of low ensemble average, and temperature in the probability distribution of high ensemble average. Thus, occurrence probabilities of warm-dry winter and hot-drought summer will increase in the climatic and ecological transition zone of Northeast China.
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    近44年来中国西北降水量变化的区域差异以及对全球变暖的响应
    靳立亚, 符娇兰, 陈发虎
    地理科学. 2005, 25 (5): 567-572.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2005.05.567
    摘要   PDF (846KB)
    利用中国西北地区(75~105°E、35~50°N)最近44年(1958~2001年)77个气象台站观测的降水量、气温资料以及NCAR/NCEP再分析资料,采用回归分析与合成分析等方法研究了西北干旱区降水量的时空变化特征及其与全球气温变化的关系。结果表明,西北干旱区的降水量偏多(偏少)与全球平均气温升高(降低)存在一定的对应关系,但降水量随气温的变化存在地域差异,主要表现为干旱区的西部(93°E以西)区域年降水量随全球气温升高呈现增加趋势,而东部(93°E以东)区域年降水量呈减少趋势。
    Based on climatic data of precipitation and temperature of 77 meteorological stations covering 1958-2001 in the northwestern China (the area is within the north of 35癗 and west of 105癊 in China) as well as the NCAR/NCEP reanalyzed data, and by using the methods of regressive analysis and composition analysis, the inter-annual variation of the precipitation over the northwestern China as well as its relationship with global warming were studied. The results show that there exists relationship between the anomalies of precipitation over the northwestern China and that of the global mean temperature. However, the trends of precipitation with temperature are different in west (west of 93癊) and east part (east of 93癊) of the northwestern China. In west part the precipitation has increased with global warming in the past 44 years, while in east part the precipitation declined.
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    西藏生态环境稳定性评价研究
    钟诚, 何宗宜, 刘淑珍
    地理科学. 2005, 25 (5): 573-578.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2005.05.573
    摘要   PDF (1293KB)
    通过建立西藏生态环境稳定性评价指标体系和利用AHP 法确定评价因子权重,构建西藏生态环境稳定性综合评价模型,采用栅格GIS 的叠加分析功能生成评价结果图,根据结果对西藏生态环境稳定性的空间分布特点做出分析,并提出相应对策。研究表明,西藏生态环境稳定性的总体状况良好,稳定性差的区域主要分布在雅鲁藏布江中下游地区,约占全区面积的9.78%,因此,对该地区要加大生态环境建设力度,防止生态环境的进一步退化。
    By making a evaluation index system and using AHP to determine the evaluation factor's weights, this paper builds the valuation model of eco-environmental stability of Tibet and uses the overlay function of raster-GIS to make a result map, and finds the distribution characteristics of eco-environmental stability of Tibet based on the analysis of result map. The study shows that the eco-environmental stability of Tibet is almost good and the unstable area that is only 9.78% of the total area of Tibet is distributed in the middle and low reaches of the Yarlung Zangbo river. To protect the eco-environmental of the unstable area from farther degenerating, the government should pay more attention on the eco-environmental construction work on this area.
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    基于"压力-状态-响应"框架的县级土地质量评价指标研究
    郭旭东, 邱扬, 连纲, 王静
    地理科学. 2005, 25 (5): 579-583.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2005.05.579
    摘要   PDF (853KB)
    以陕西省安塞县为例,针对其水土流失问题,建立了基于PSR框架的土地质量指标体系。压力指标包括地形、农用地、人口、收入及格局指标,状态指标包括土壤侵蚀、土壤肥力和粮食作物产量指标,响应指标包括土地利用和政策指标。运用GIS、模型模拟和统计分析的方法计算土地质量指标的数值,采用分级赋值、综合打分的方法评价土地质量。结果表明,安塞县土地的压力较大,整体状态偏低,响应措施也不积极。探讨了指标在土地质量管理中的应用性并提出今后土地质量可能的研究方向。
    Huge press to land resources with economic development and land quality degradation and ecological environment deterioration urge to build up the land quality indicators based on"press-state-response" framework, which can reflect distinctly the reasons and results of land quality changes and correspondingly adoptable strategies. By taking Ansai County, Shaanxi Province, in the northern China as an example, land quality indicators based on "press-state-response" framework for soil degradation by water erosion were built up. Press indicators include topography, farmland, population, income and spatial pattern indicators. State indicators include soil erosion, soil fertility and crop yield. Response indicators include land use and policy. The values of land quality indicators were got by the application of GIS, model simulating and statistical analysis. Based on land use map of Ansai County in 1998, the values of press, state and response were got respectively by giving values to different grades of indicators and computing the average. The results showed the press to land in Ansai County came mainly from topography and disturbance of human activities. The land whose slope is more than 25皁ccupied about 47.11% of total land area, while the land of slope less than 5癷s only 4.59%. The proportion of farmland and crop seeding area to whole area is respectively 52.48% and 47.96%,the proportion of cultivation income is also higher, which indicated higher dependence of farmers on land. The average soil erosion is estimated about 6268t/km2 by using USLE model. The soil fertility and crop yield is low, so the state of land quality is also low. Response of Land quality is not active, the evaluation value is only 1.75. This paper also discussed the applicability of indicators in land quality management practice and proposed it is probably one of the most important trend for land quality research to build up the land quality indicators and methods system based on PSR framework, which is supported by "3S"technology combined with field investigation and relative basic geographical information.
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    景观格局分析空间取样方法及其应用
    郭晋平, 张芸香
    地理科学. 2005, 25 (5): 584-589.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2005.05.584
    摘要   PDF (655KB)
    详细介绍了在关帝山森林景观生态研究中提出的景观格局分析空间取样方法,即统一网格样方取样法和统一网格样点取样法,并介绍了相应的样方数值计算方法。在此基础上,介绍了这两个取样方法在景观空间趋势面分析、景观要素空间关联度分析、景观异质性分析、景观要素空间分布模式检验、景观动态过程模型建立等方面研究中的应用。并阐述了取样方法的有效性及其可能的潜在应用价值。
    Because of the comprehensive effects of multiple environmental factors to landscape pattern and ecological processes, mathematical methods are more eagerly needed in landscape ecological researches to explore the general distribution pattern of landscape elements in highly heterogeneous and changing landscape. A great challenge to improve the mathematical landscape pattern analysis is providing a satisfied spatial sampling method. Many quantitative landscape analysis methods cannot be used because lacking of a moderate spatial sampling method. This paper introduces two spatial sampling methods proposed and used in Guandishan forest landscape ecological research. They are Uniform-Grid-Square sampling method and Uniform-Grid-Point sampling method. These sampling methods used to provide data for landscape pattern analysis. The quantification method of sample-square is respectively proposed in the paper. As examples, the usage process of two spatial sampling methods in landscape trend-surface-analysis, landscape element spatial correlation analysis, landscape element dominantness analysis, analysis of landscape element spatial distribution pattern, and landscape dynamic modeling are introduced respectively. Based on the examples, availability of the methods is demonstrated, and the potential usages in other spatial analyses are also prospected.
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    淮河中下游洪泽湖湖泊沉积物粒度特征及其沉积环境意义
    何华春, 丁海燕, 张振克, 施晓冬, 李书恒, 毛龙江
    地理科学. 2005, 25 (5): 590-596.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2005.05.590
    摘要   PDF (1105KB)
    以淮河中下游洪泽湖湖底沉积物为研究对象,将放射性核素计年与沉积物粒度分析、粒度平面分形研究以及历史文献资料相结合,初步探讨了洪泽湖湖底沉积物粒度特点及该区域近300年来的气候变化,为恢复百年尺度的气候干湿变化提供了一条新途径。研究发现,湖区气候的干湿变化大致可分为三个阶段。进一步说明沉积物粒度参数的变化不仅与自然环境改变有关,也与人类活动如黄河改道、湖泊周围建闸等关系密切。
    As a main lodging of surface substances, lake sediments continuously and sensitively record information of regional climate and environment with annual to decadal resolution. The sediment core of HLC with a length of 112 cm was taken from deep water location in Hongze Lake in 2003,the sediment were cut at interval of 2 cm and were measured for grain sizes by the particle-size analyzer "Mastersizer 2000"made in England. Based on accurate dating by 210Pb,the authors reconstruct the dry-humid transformation history of the regional climate according to the vertical profile of sediment particle sizes, which provides a new effective way for recovering the century-scale climatic changes, the following conclusions are drawn: (1) By the analyses of the grain-size parameters of the Hongze lake sediments, three stages of environmental changes since 300 years ago have been distinguished. They are:Ca.1720-1795A.D., the amount of rainfall was less and weather was drought; Ca. 1795A.D.-1890A.D., as a whole, the average grain-size was decrease, the weather was drought in this stage but Ca.1886 A. D. the flux of water into Hongze Lake was increased; Ca.1890 to current, the changes of grain-size parameter was acute and frequent and this changing phenomenon perhaps instead of the environment fluctuate in shorter periods. (2) During long time-scale studies, lake level is the most important factor domination sediment grain size. Sediments are finer during the humid period of high water level because coarse particles cannot be transported to the lake's deep-water part. On the contrary, during short time-scale studies within a given climate period, rainfall change becomes the key factor determining sediment grain size because the level is basically constant. When rainfall is heavy, runoff flow is strong enough to bring coarse terrestrial particles to the sampling location, resulting in large grain sizes. (3) Grain-size parameters changes is relate not only with the natural environment changes but also with the human activities such as Huanghe(Yellow) River changing channel and some brakes were built up around the lake.
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    哈尔滨2002年3月20日沙尘暴沉降物的粒度特征及其意义
    何葵, 谢远云, 张丽娟, 周嘉, 康春国
    地理科学. 2005, 25 (5): 597-600.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2005.05.597
    摘要   PDF (608KB)
    哈尔滨2002年3月20日的沙尘沉降物以粉砂(4~63 μm)为主,占71.18%,砂粒组分(>63 μm)占 21.7%,粘土(<4 μm)组分含量最少,仅占7.13%。哈尔滨2002年3月20日沙尘沉降物的粒度是迄今为止有见报道中最粗的。沉降物粒度为多峰态分布,29.16~34.67μm粒级的粗粉砂组成第一主峰,含量约占7.4%,420.45~500 μm粒级的中砂组分组成第二主峰,含量约占1.29%,而0.69~0.82 μm粒级的细粘土组分形成第三主峰,含量约占0.52%。沉降物的平均粒径Mz为28.4 μm,分选系数为1.81,偏态为0.044,峰态为1.494,粉粘比为7.3。粒度特征显示,哈尔滨沙尘沉降物是不同来源沙尘远距离和近距离搬运的混合体,粗颗粒为低空气流搬运的近源物质。哈尔滨沙尘源区的生物状况和生态环境较为恶劣,该地区沙尘暴工作的重点应放在哈尔滨周边沙尘源区的治理上。
    The collection and grain size analysis were carried out for sand dust sedimentation in Harbin, 20th March 2002. The result indicated that sand dust sedimentation gave priority to silt (4~8Φ), occupying 71.18%, sand composition (>4Φ) is 21.7% and clay composition (<8Φ)only 7.13% at Harbin. The granularity of sand dust sedimentation was the coarsest in the reports so far. The sedimentation granularity distribution was charactered by multi-peak states, coars sand silt of 4.85-5.10Φ grain grade composed first main peak, occupying about 7.4%, medium sand of 1-1.25Φ grain grade composed second main peak, occupying about 1,29%,and clay composition of 10.25-10.5Φ grain grade composed third main peak, occupying about 0.52%. The average grain diameters of sedimentation (Mz) was 5.14Φ, sorting coefficient, 1.81, Skewness, 0.044, and Kurtosis, 1.494, silt and clay ratios, 7.3. The granularity features shown that sand-dust sedimentation was admixture, derived from different sources both far distance and short distance, and coarse particle was near-sources material that was transmitted by low altitude airflow. The biology status and zoology environment of sand-dust sedimentation source area are relatively inclement. Nudity infield, wasteland and plain, river bed and floodplain fine alluvium, bareness lakes and dust of city earths surface and construction sites, and so on, may be material fountainhead. The keystone of weather projects for preventing sand-dust in Harbin should put to controlling sand-dust fountainhead around Harbin.
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    北京郊区不同土地利用类型起沙起尘的特征研究
    王升堂, 赵延治, 邹学勇, 程宏
    地理科学. 2005, 25 (5): 601-605.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2005.05.601
    摘要   PDF (527KB)
    沙尘天气分沙尘暴、扬沙、浮尘三种,北京扬沙天气的沙尘源以就地起沙为主。为有效地进行北京地区的防沙治沙,在2003和2004年连续两年的春季里,对北京郊区不同土地利用类型进行了起沙起尘的实地观测,同时对各土地类型进行了土壤采样,分析了土壤的粒度特征。得到的初步结论为:京郊地区裸露地表的起沙风速为6 m/s左右,不同土地利用类型起沙起尘特性有很大不同,在同等风速条件下,可起沙性从大到小分别为翻耕地、留茬地、经济林地、荒地、防护林地和草地。不同土地利用类型起沙特性不同表明,调整土地利用结构是北京防沙治沙的重要途径。
    Sand-dust weather can be divided into dust storm, sand blowing and dust haze. The sources of sand-dust during sand blowing weather mainly come from Beijing outskirts. For effectively combating sand blowing in Beijing region, we have finished a series of field observations of sand blowing on different utilizing land types in Beijing outskirts during the spring of 2003 and 2004. At the same time, soil samples of each type of land were collected, and the samples were analyzed in the lab later. The primary conclusion is that wind velocity to blow sand on bare land surface in Beijing outskirts is about 6m/s, and the characteristics of sand blowing are quite different to each land using type. Under the condition of the same wind velocity, sand blowing intensity of each type of land in the order of degree is ploughed land, land with crop residue, orchard land, unused land, forest land and grassland. Different land use types have different sand blowing properties, which indicates that adjusting land use structure is an important method to control sand blowing in Beijing.
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    岩溶山区不同植被群落土壤生态系统特性研究
    李阳兵, 高明, 邵景安, 谢德体, 魏朝富
    地理科学. 2005, 25 (5): 606-613.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2005.05.606
    摘要   PDF (1456KB)
    自然植被演替成为次生植被、人工林或人工开垦利用后,岩溶山地土壤物理性能退化;沙化现象明显;坡耕地土壤长时间持水供水性能、抗旱性能降低;土壤种子库中草本种子比例大,木本植物种子少,土壤种子库退化更严重。研究区土壤有机质和全N受植被类型和土地利用强度影响明显,坡耕地土壤有机质较林草地系统低,退耕还林还草后,土壤有机质含量稳定增加。与自然植被相比,人工林、次生林系统土壤有机质含量仍较低。从弃耕地→灌草坡→次生林地的演替过程中,土壤种子库生态优势度呈降低趋势,物种丰富度和多样性增加。研究结果认为,岩溶生态系统土地退化的实质是土壤作为水库、养分库和土壤种子库功能的差异退化。
    In this study some typical karst mountainous regions in Chongqing were selected to discuss the essential characteristics of soil degradation during vegetation change processes. The results showed that: (1) After the vegetation turned into secondary vegetation or man-made vegetation, or reclamation, soils would be degraded in physical properties in the karst mountainous environment. Compared with the abandoned field, shrub-grassland, secondary forest and natural forest, in the surface soil layer of sloping cropland, the contents of >2 mm-sized water-stable aggregates dropped obviously to 52.1%, 24.7%, 29.9%, 22.8%, and those of 1mm-to 0.05 mm-sized particles increased, but those of 0.05mm-to 0.001mm-sized particles decreased, demonstrating apparent sandification; in slopping cropland soils, the capillary and aeration porosities, long-term soil water-retention and water-supplying capacities and soil resistance against drought were reduced as well, and their field water-holding capacity accounts for 79.3% of that of the forest land soils. (2) The contents of soil organic matter and total nitrogen are controlled completely by vegetation type and land-use intensity. The contents of SOM (soil organic matter) in sloping cropland are lower than in woodland and grassland. After the land was converted for forest and pasture, the contents of SOM would increase steadily, though this trend of increasing is rather slow in the early days when over-reclamation is stopped and the land is converted for forest and pasture. The contents of SOM in man-made woodland and secondary forestland are still lower than in natural forestland. (3) Herbaceous species increase and woody plants species decrease with increasing land use intensity, therefore, the soil seed banks degrade more seriously. With the process of evolution from abandoned field, shrub-grassland to secondary forestland, the ecological dominance will be reduced and the Richness index and diversity index will increase in soil seed banks. Based on the above research results, it is suggested that land degradation in the karst ecosystem is essentially characterized by the degradation of soil functions that are served as water banks, nutrient banks and soil seed banks, and the degradation rates of these three banks are different.
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    人类活动对苏北潮滩发育的影响
    吴小根, 王爱军
    地理科学. 2005, 25 (5): 614-620.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2005.05.614
    摘要   PDF (700KB)
    江苏北部潮滩宽阔而平坦,历史上就是人类活动比较频繁的地区。随着对潮滩开发利用强度和深度的增加,人类对潮滩发育的影响越来越显著。潮滩剖面自然发育的均衡形态为上凸型;潮滩被围垦并建堤后,改变了原有的水沙动态平衡关系,潮滩剖面形态发生了调整,海堤附近的潮水沟则不断被淤积。大米草和互花米草等植被的引种改变了潮滩生态结构,由于植被能降低水流流速和波浪能量,起到捕捉沉积物的作用,因此能增加潮间带滩面的淤积速率,改变潮滩分带结构;此外,植被的存在还影响到滩面潮水沟的形态。港口工程的建设改变了沉积物的输运方向。
    Tidal flat in North Jiangsu Province is very extensive, where human beings take activities strongly and frequently in history. With the incrising of exploisive intensity of tidal flat in North Jiangsu Province, the impacts of human beings' activities on tidal flat evolution are more markable. The natural equilibrium shape of tidal flat section is protruding, but the section will be adjused because of the changing of equilibrium relationship between water and sediments after tidal flat reclamated and sea wall built, and tidal creek near the sea wall accumulated. The ecosystem structure on tidal flat changed after introducing plant such as Spartina anglica, Spartina alterniflora. Beacuase plant decreases current speed and weakens wave energy, the plant plays the role of catching sediments. These impacts increase the accretion rates on tidal flat and change the zonable structure on tidal flat, moreover, the shape of tidal creek in inter-tidal flat changed because of the existence of plant. Besides, the sediment transportation direction would be changed after port engineering built.
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    水坝工程建设与生态保护的利弊关系分析
    马小凡, 郭晓泽, 王菊, 韩振宇, 于连生
    地理科学. 2005, 25 (5): 621-625.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2005.05.621
    摘要   PDF (759KB)
    针对当前世界范围内对水坝政策的转变,提出了水坝工程建设与生态环境资源保护的利弊关系概念并建立了指标体系,通过进行利弊关系分析来论证水坝工程建设的可行性。文中以某水坝为例作了利弊关系分析,得出了弊大于利的结论。
    Recently the attitude to dam has significant been changed, man never pursues the short-term benefit of dam but pays more attention to the ecological problem caused by dam project. Aiming at the current understandings towards the social and environment problems caused by the dam construction in the worldwide and the external fact that the policies for dam have been changed in many nations, this article analyzes the status of dam constructing, presents the concept model of advantages and disadvantages relations between the water conservancy resources developing and eco-environment protection, establishes an advantages and disadvantages relation index model for the dam construction project(α=√|A|2+|B|2/EC) and the coefficient model for compensation advantages and disadvantages(P=√|EC|2+|A|2/EC), demonstrates the feasibility of the dam construction according to the analysis of advantages and disadvantages of dam projects. When disadvantages excess advantages, the dam isn't feasible. The compensation of loss what the dam produces must be added in order to maintain the feasibility of dam that is to say to turn its exterior cost into its interior cost. The ration method is dynamic and it essentially embodies the sustainable development. This article selects a certain dam for instance to analyze the advantage and disadvantages relation. The result is disadvantages excess advantages and 8.55623 billion yuan must be compensated in order to maintain the feasibility of the dam construction. At last, this article points out that the opposite relation between developing and protecting could transform according to the sufficient compensation for the eco-environment loss in dam construction.
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    金华市水资源的丰枯变化特征
    冯利华, 张行才, 桑广书, 王敏, 周江
    地理科学. 2005, 25 (5): 626-630.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2005.05.626
    摘要   PDF (586KB)
    金华市属于湿润地区,但水荒问题已经悄然逼近。根据1470~2003年534年的历史和实测资料分析,得出了金华市水资源丰枯变化的频数特征、持续特征、周期特征、响应特征和风险特征,这对金华市社会经济建设具有一定的指导意义。
    In order to gain reliable and complete precipitation serials, textual research is made to local records such as Jinhua Official Records and Quzhou Official Records respectively, then based on the precipitation data at Jinhua Station from May to September during 1980-2003, protracted the precipitation year at Jinhua Station to 2003. Based on the analysis of the historical and measured data in 1470-2003, the characteristics of high and low water resources change in Jinhua City can be achieved as follows: (1) The 17th century is the frequent period with high and low water resources change in Jinhua City, 1642-1671 of them is the most concentrated time of high and low water years, and there is the special high and low water years of 16 times in 30 years. (2) The greater the high and low water resources change, the shorter the sustained years, the fewer the times it appears. There is 8 years in the medium water year of the longest sustained time (in 1893-1900). (3) There are varied cycles of high and low water resources change, and the cycle change of 20-22 years is very clear. The curve of high and low water change has descended to the lowest point currently and started rising gradually, therefore within the future 20 years, it will keep on rising, namely turning from high water predominated stage to low water predominated stage. (4) The high and low water change responds evidently to sunspot activity and El Nino event. The anomalous annual precipitation of 3 years average at Jinhua Station around the transformation year of the magnetic cycle is all positive. The years of annual precipitation R>1550 mm at Jinhua Station mainly appear in the same or next year of El Nino. (5) The May-September precipitation occurring once 5 years in low water year in Jinhua City is only 604 mm and that occurring once 10 years is only 550 mm.
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    地下水降深的未确知风险分析
    李如忠, 钱家忠
    地理科学. 2005, 25 (5): 631-635.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2005.05.631
    摘要   PDF (978KB)
    地下水资源系统具有未确知性特征。在定义水文地质未确知参数的基础上,运用未确知数学理论建立了地下水位下降量预测的未确知数学模型。根据该模型不仅可以得到地下水位下降量的可能取值区间,也能够得到相应区间的主观可信度分布。通过将地下水位下降量超过某一给定限值定义为未确知事件,又建立了度量这一事件发生可能性的未确知可靠性计算模型。实例研究表明,所建模型对地下水降深风险的可靠性分析具有很好的适用性,研究成果有效地弥补了以往确定性模型的不足。
    As one of the important environmental elements, groundwater is a kind of valuable natural resources. With the development of social economics, the requirement for groundwater is more larger than ever in the cities of the northern China. Because of drop of groundwater level arised from the excessive exploitation, the groundwater quality is faced to be polluted. Therefore, how to determine the drop value of groundwater level scientifically is of importance for the protection of groundwater quality. In practice, the drop value is often calculated using a certain model, which neglects the uncertain characteristics of hydrogeological parameters. In fact, as many other things, the groundwater resources system is also a system with the characteristic of unascertainty. On the basis of defining unascertained parameters of hydrogeology, an unascertained model for forecasting drop value of groundwater level is established in the paper. According to the model, not only the probable drop value interval of groundwater level but also its corresponding distribution of faith degree can be obtained. The study result shows that these models proposed above are suitable for risk assessment of groundwater level drop, and the research achievements also overcome the defects of traditional evaluation method effectively. In order to reflect the probability of drop value of groundwater level exceeding a certain standard, an unascertained event is defined. On the basis, a model for calculating the faith degree what the unascertained event happens is provided.
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    上海城市地貌环境的致灾性
    戴雪荣, 师育新, 俞立中, 李良杰, 何小勤
    地理科学. 2005, 25 (5): 636-640.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2005.05.636
    摘要   PDF (791KB)
    随着城市化和再城市化的快速发展,上海城市地貌环境呈现出明显的致灾性。通过从地貌物质、地貌过程和地貌形态三方面进行了剖析,认为地貌物质中含水沙层广泛发育和层数多是地貌灾害发生的重要因素,其横向上的不连续性、成因和形成时间的差异性更为地貌灾害的发生埋下阴影;地势低平及中心城区碟形洼地的存在使得洪水构成对上海城市安全的最大威胁;高强度人类活动不仅改变城市自然地貌面(下垫面)的性质、特征和规模,而且直接导致它的沉降变形,从而使城市地貌环境更为脆弱和致灾机制的复杂化。特别是地貌形变过程的不可逆性,已引起城市自然地理其它要素(如水文、气候等)的一系列变化和造成城市生态环境的恶化,对城市规划建设起到明显的制约作用。上海只有重视城市地貌资源的合理利用和城市地貌环境的有效保护才能走上健康、持续的发展道路。
    With the rapid development of urbanization and re-urbanization, the urban geomorphic environment (UGE) of Shanghai has ever been featured with obvious catastrophabilities. The latest disastrous and representative case is the water-seeping incident happened on July 1st 2003 in constructing the No.4 metro line (underground), which has caused a huge economic loss of 150×106 Yuan (RMB). In deed, this incident includes three continuous catastrophic stages—water seeping, land collapse and local flooding. It implies that the Shanghai's UGE has become sensitive, fragile, and therefore catastrophic under conditions of high pressure of human activities. Viewing from the geomorphic materials, geomorphic forms and geomorphic processes respectively, this paper discusses the catastrophabilities of UGE in Shanghai proper in relation to man-land interaction. From the geomorphic materials, the most catastrophic factor is the wide spread water-bearing sand-to-silt layers formed in different ages in Quaternary, which may cause water-seeping incidents under conditions of frequent engineering activities. They are well developed in this area and exist in different depths within the extent of the activities. From the geomorphic forms, Shanghai is an extremely flat land with low elevation as just emerged from the sea (the Yangtze delta). Since 1921 the central city has experienced strong land subsidence and formed a huge depression covering an area of 850 km2. Flood, therefore, has become the biggest threatening to the city both at present and in the future. And from the geomorphic processes, the high pressure of human activities has caused not only the tremendous changes of character, feature and dimensions of the physical landform, but also the deformation of the land surface due to land subsidence. The former, as we known, has given rise to changes in many aspects of urban climate and hydrology. The latter has led to a more serious sedimentary accumulation in the water channels (e.g. the Suzhou Creek and the Huangpu River etc.). The fragile and catastrophic UGE (especially the irreversible land deformation) will exert influences on the future urbanization and re-urbanization of Shanghai. Facts tell us that the Shanghai's UGE must be protected effectively and used rationally to keep us on the way of healthy, sustainable urban development.
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