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ISSN 1000-0690
CN 22-1124/P
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  • 地理科学
      2003年, 第23卷, 第3期 刊出日期:2003-05-20 上一期    下一期
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    论文
    中国海疆地理格局形成、演变的初步研究
    张耀光, 刘岩, 王艳
    地理科学. 2003, 23 (3): 257-263.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.03.257
    摘要   PDF (369KB)
    中国既是中国海(渤海、黄海、东海和南海)沿岸国家(包括台湾以东西太平洋海域),历史上也曾经是鄂霍次克海和日本海的沿岸国家。帝国主义入侵与清政府不平等条约的签定,使中国一部分海疆与海权丧失,失去了鄂霍次克海和日本海沿岸国的地位。根据《联合国海洋法公约》以及中国颁布的《领海法》、《专属经济区与大陆架法》,对中国海疆地理格局的形成、演变进行研究,从而了解中国的领海、毗连区、专属经济区与大陆架等可管辖海域(海洋国土)的地理格局。
    China not only is the country along the bank of the Sea of China including the Bohai Sea, the Yellow Sea, the East China Sea and the South China Sea, but also was the country along the bank of the Sea of Ochotsk and the Sea of Japan in history. But from then on, because of signing a series of unequal treaties between the government of the Qing Dynasty and some imperialistic countries, China gradually lost some parts of coastal areas and territorial seas and finally lost the sovereignty and the situation on the area of the Sea of Ochotsk and the Sea of Japan. Based upon the United Nations Maritime Convention, the Law of Territorial Sea and the Law of Exclusive Economic Zone & Continental Shelf which are promulgated by Chinese government, the formation and the evolution of the geographical pattern of Chinese coastal areas and territorial seas are discussed and studied. The geographical pattern of Chinese jurisdictional marine territory including territorial sea, contiguous zone, exclusive economic zone and continental shelf is roughly described in this paper.
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    关于景观格局演变研究的几个问题
    张秋菊, 傅伯杰, 陈利顶
    地理科学. 2003, 23 (3): 264-270.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.03.264
    摘要   PDF (987KB)
    针对特定的生态过程,将景观格局与生态过程相结合的格局分析是未来景观格局研究发展的方向。景观格局变化与景观过程改变互为因果,了解格局演变时空规律及其演变驱动机制是结合生态过程进行景观格局分析的前提与基础。文章归纳了景观格局演变分析方法有景观格局指数与景观空间统计特征比较法、马尔柯夫转移矩阵法和主要以细胞自动机理论为基础的景观格局动态模拟。主要分析了景观格局演变的人文驱动力系统,介绍典型相关分析与逐步回归分析两种定量判别景观格局演变驱动力的方法,简要总结景观格局演变的驱动机制。最后提出今后研究所要突破的方面。
    The analysis of landscape pattern is one of the fundamental research scopes in Landscape ecology. Presently, most landscape pattern research only describes its geometric feature. Aiming at a special ecological process, combining ecological process with landscape pattern is the development trend of landscape pattern research in the future. Landscape changes at all time, pattern change is one aspect of landscape dynamic. The changes of landscape pattern and landscape process are each other cause and effect. The spatial and temporal rule of landscape pattern change and which driven mechanical is the foundation of landscape pattern change research combining with ecological. This thesis discusses several problems of landscape pattern change, the methods of landscape pattern change analysis include comparison of landscape pattern index and the landscape spatial statistical characteristic, Markov transition matrix and the simulation of landscape pattern change course.The driven factors of landscape pattern change are systemic. The methods to discriminate the main driven factors of the landscape pattern comprise canonical correlation analysis and stepwise regression analysis. There are some difficulties for the researcher to study the landscape pattern change, including data, scale and the inter-disciplinary collaboration etc.
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    地理环境整体性理论的初步探讨
    潘玉君
    地理科学. 2003, 23 (3): 271-276.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.03.271
    摘要   PDF (1415KB)
    对于地理环境整体性的研究有"实证"与"理解"两个互补的研究途径。地理环境整体性的研究应在"本体论"意义研究的基础上着重于"认识论"和"方法论"意义上的研究。以自组织方法论为指导的地理环境整体性的研究应主要着重于地理环境整体性的形成条件、基本动力、基本途径、基本结构和复杂图景等方面。整体性不仅是地理环境的基本性质之一,而且也(应该)是地理学的基本原理之一。
    Studied by two mutual-complementary methods: demenstration and comprehension, the research of integration of geographical environment should emphasize more on "episte-mology" and "methodology" on the basis of "ontology". Under the guidance of methodology of self-organization, the research should pay more attention to such aspects of integration of geographical environment as the forming factors, basic motivations, fundamental methods, elementary structures, complex prospects and so on, which is not only one of the elementary nature of geographical environment but also one of the basic principle of geography.
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    景观生态学的学科整合与中国景观生态学展望
    郭晋平
    地理科学. 2003, 23 (3): 277-281.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.03.277
    摘要   PDF (546KB)
    分析了国际景观生态学三个相互联系的研究领域,指出了各领域的主要研究内容。在阐述景观生态学三个发展阶段的基础上,指出了景观生态学学科发展的基本趋势。从三个方向的整合、时空尺度的匹配、多学科的整合和三个群体的整合4?个方面,阐述了走向整合的景观生态学的发展方向和途径。介绍了当前国际景观生态学研究的热点问题和热点地区,并就中国景观生态学发展的方向和任务提出了作者的看法。
    This paper analyzed the main themes of three main research fields in international landscape ecology. Based on the demonstrations of the three developing phases of landscape ecology, the developing trend of the discipline was presented. The total development trend of international landscape ecology is toward unified landscape ecology. The approaches toward the unified landscape ecology were illustrated from four aspects. The first is the unification of three main research fields, which include static research, dynamic research and application research; the second is the matching of spatial and temporal scales in researches; the third is the unification of multiple disciplines; and the fourth is the unification of the three partners, which include researchers, management decision makers and landscape users. As an important part, the focal themes and hot places in landscape ecological studies were discussed. There are six focal themes in landscape ecological research. These include spread, dispersion and the effects of disturbance to landscape patterns and process in landscape; the relationship between landscape pattern and landscape process, in other words, the ecological and environmental effects of landscape pattern; experimental study and the scaling-up of the results; landscape simulation forecasting and planning modeling and the coincidence of these models; the evaluation of multi-value of landscape; effects of human activities on landscape and the ecological planning for landscape construction, conservation, restoration and management. The hot places in landscape ecological studies are catchments and riparian system, wetland system, culture landscape, urban-rural ecoton and ecological fragile districts, keystone and important local natural landscape. Finally, some opinions on the developing directions and missions of landscape ecology were suggested to improve the development of landscape ecology in China. The key point is the development of the landscape construction ecology to present characteristic of Chinese landscape ecology.
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    中国县域土地利用总体规划的模式研究
    朱凤武, 彭补拙
    地理科学. 2003, 23 (3): 282-286.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.03.282
    摘要   PDF (500KB)
    近年来,在中国各级土地管理部门主持下,开展了两轮土地利用总体规划编制工作,取得了一定成绩。但现行规划模式在向社会主义市场经济体制转变过程中,显露出与之不相适应的问题。在总结中国经验和不足的基础上,借鉴国外成功经验,试图构建与社会主义市场经济体制相适应的、以土地利用分区下的土地用途管制为核心、以指标控制为手段的县域土地利用总体规划模式。
    In this paper, author tries to set up a scientific, feasible and practical county land use planning model. The former land use planning model was steered by resource. The author thinks that only when the former model change to a model steered by market, the model could meet the need of socialistic market economy. The land use planning is not an ultimate blueprint, but a tactic framework that leaves full space for all kinds of chances and choices. This paper advanced a new planning idea: the core is land use control under zone, the means is index control, and the emphasis is county plan. The planning map should not accurately consistent to the planning control index, because the map's purpose is to ensure the potential construction area of town, but the planning index's purpose is to control the actual use of land. This planning model can make planning index clear and improve the agility of planning. The planning can fit the fluctuation of economic development by super addition or reduction of index. This can avoid the frequent adjustment of land use planning.
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    老工业基地城市对农村劳动力吸纳力的研究——以长春市为例
    李宁, 丁四保, 谢景武
    地理科学. 2003, 23 (3): 287-292.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.03.287
    摘要   PDF (865KB)
    解决"三农"问题的根本途径是实现农村剩余劳动力的有效转移,而农村劳动力转移的主要方向之一是离开农村到城市就业。就全国而言,城市制造业就业比重下降、三产比重上升是我国经济结构转换、升级的一般趋势,但这种趋势在区域之间又存在着差异。老工业基地除面临制造业升级排斥就业之外,其它产业发育也相对不足。在这种情势下,老工业基地城市如何发挥农村劳动力接收器的作用,就此问题以长春市为例,在实地调查的基础上,进行了深入地研究和探讨。
    The essential way to solve the problem of agriculture, village, and peasant is to achieve the effective outflow of rural surplus labor force. While one of the main directions that rural labor force will choose is to leave village for city. For our country, the decline of employment rate of urban manufacturing industry and the rising of tertiary industry is the general tendency of transform and escalation of Chinese economic structure. But this tendency takes on differences between different regions. The old industrial base is also faced with the relatively insufficient development of other industries except the rising manufacturing industry which lead to exclude employment. Under this conditions, how can the old industrial base make the function of rural labor force receiver well? Based on the spot investigation, the paper tries to study and probe into this problem, making Changchun as an example.Clearing the premise that the urban industry of Changchun is almost unable to receive rural surplus labor force, the authors investigated the construction and tertiary industry by paper-surveying, telephone-inquiring, interviewing, etc. The authors found that the construction and the transportation, wholesale and retail trade, food services and services of resident and community still have the potentiality of receiving rural labor force. Based on the investigated data and reference to Changchun Statistical yearbook of 2001, the paper tried to calculate the total rural labor force that Changchun can receive. At the end of the paper, the authors put forward several policies and measures in order to raise the level of receiving rural labor force for the cities of the old industrial base.(1) Further setting up urban and rural labor and services market, enhancing and improving the circulation channels of information, encouraging the development of folk medium, forming positive and effective mediation and guidance, especially paying attention to lowering the threshold of labor's entering market.(2) Improving the organizing level of the exportation of rural labor force and services, reducing the "psychological costs" that rural laborers go out.(3) Reinforcing the system of rural vocational skill training.(4) Encouraging and guiding folk capital investment, vigorously developing tertiary industry and labor-intensive industry, reducing the limits to folk capital investment at fund credit, market entering, operating scope and fiscal levy, etc. Relaxing the conditions of developing tertiary industry, middle and small enterprises (especially labor-intensive enterprises) and no-state owned economy.
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    人的地域属性对区域政策的解释及影响
    孙军
    地理科学. 2003, 23 (3): 293-297.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.03.293
    摘要   PDF (219KB)
    从地区发展及区域政策,分析了目前中国区域政策中政策绩效差和市场失灵两难境地的主导因素,通过对人及其背后地域属性的二元相互关系分析,认为人作为活跃的经济要素,与地域的对应性应该弱化,提出今后区域政策的政策目标应该是引导人群间分配的相对公平,使各地区在生态、景观、文化上保持丰富性和多样性,而不是徒劳地将地区作为政策对象或片面强调缩小地区差距。
    This paper focuses on the study of Chinese regional polices. Through the comparison between the expected goals and the practical results of regional polices, the author regards that many of regional polices can not realize their aims since the concept of region is too wide and general. The paper points out that the regional residents are less and less dependent on the certain region with development of economy and society. Based on this opinion, the paper explains the significance of this kind of change to regional policy making, and concludes that a regional policy should be made to justify the income distribution relatively fair between different interest groups by taking the regional residents as the key factor.The author puts forward that during regional policy making, the regional attribute of residents should be weakened gradually so as to meet the interest of the widest groups. The regional attributes of people include: (1) geographic environment aspect: place of birth and its climate, dialect; (2) social culture aspect: the race (or nationality), religion, cultural conventions and customs, human value; education; (3) Economical develop aspect: average GDP, industrial structure, convenient degree of foreign exchanges. Some of these factors may flow with people immigration, for instance, religion and dialect. Some have local attributes, like climate. Some may change along with people immigration such as education and industrial structure. The weakened human regional attribute have great significance for regional policy making in many aspects including: (1) changing from goals that over-emphasize equilibration of development into multi-goals so as to protect local eco-environment, landscape, and cultures; (2) adjusting regional policies that are unfair to most peoples; and (3) making cores of regional policies various in different regions. The paper then takes Jiangsu Province as an example to show the effect of existing regional policies to the regional gaps. By long-term of designated plan support, the degree of people satisfaction to the government is not increased with enhancement of the government investigation to the less developed regions. On the contrary, new discontent emerges due to the over-dependence to the government. It can be validated through experiences that there are almost no changes in economic gap between regions, but very large changes between different interest layers with changes of regional policies. Along with the globalization, the human-environment relation should be recognized again, for example, the immigration should be encouraged. Based on this idea, the relation between human and environment will be changed from one-dimension into two-dimension. It is noticed that the human immigration and movement make lower and lower dependence of people on the regional attributes.In general, human immigration is bi-directional: on one hand, people will move to cities due to the attractions of cities; on the other hand, people in cities and other developed regions will invest in the regions where labors and land price are relatively cheap. Therefore the emphasis of regional policy making should be put on people so as to adjust the income distribution between different layers and to protect the diversities of eco-environment, landscape and cultures in different regions, other than to blindly invest unsuitable projects in those backward regions.In the end, the paper proposes some suggestions on regional policy making: (1) immigration in-order; (2) promotion of urbanization; (3) transfer financial payment; (4) abolishment of resident registration system.
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    近800年来内蒙古岱海地区古气温的定量重建
    曹建廷, 金章东, 沈吉, 王苏民
    地理科学. 2003, 23 (3): 298-303.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.03.298
    摘要   PDF (1046KB)
    根据对现代湖水、现生介形类壳体以及湖泊沉积岩芯中同一种属介形类壳体的Sr/Ca分析,利用现代湖水Sr/Ca与湖水盐度的关系,确定了不同沉积时期湖水盐度;其次,在室内模拟实验,建立了湖水盐度与湖水氧同位素的函数关系;结合210Pb测定沉积速率和14C测年资料,利用沉积剖面的自生碳酸盐氧同位素及由湖水盐度推算的湖水氧同位素组成,定量恢复了不同时期的湖水温度,进而根据碳酸盐结晶时水温与年均气温关系推测了古气温。结果表明:在近800年内蒙古岱海地区的气温变化序列中,中世纪暖期、现代小冰期以及近百年增温均有明显表现。研究时段内,岱海地区中世纪暖期比当代30年的年均气温高1℃以上;在公元1240年左右突然降温过程表现特别突出,在其后约60年的时段内气温下降1.8℃;小冰期最大降温幅度2℃以上,大于华北其它地区。不同于我国西部古里雅冰芯的记录,岱海地区近百年增温程度仍没有达到中世纪暖期水平,预示气候变暖对我国西部地区的影响将大于东部。
    Combined the analysis of the oxygen isotopic composition of the authigentic carbonates in sediment core of Daihai Lake, establishment of the function between water salinity and oxygen isotopic composition, with the reconstruction of lake water salinity, the temperature of lake water during the carbonate crystallization was reconstructed. Then the yearly average air temperature was deduced according to the difference between the lake water temperature of the carbonate crystallization and the yearly average air temperature. The deduced curve of yearly average air temperature during the past 800 years showed three obvious stages, namely the Medieval Warm Period, the Little Ice Age, and the warming stage of the last hundred years. The temperature of the Medieval Warm Period in the research period was 1℃ higher than that of average temperature of recent 30 years. From 1240 A. D. to 1300 A. D., the temperature decrease 1.8℃, showing abrupt changes of climate. The temperature in the coldest period of the LIA was 2.2℃ lower than that of present. Since 1880 A.D., the temperature have kept warming continuously, and the increasing amplitude reaches more than 1℃. Different from the climate feature recorded by Guliya ice core, in the west part of China, the last hundred years' warming in Daihai Lake area has not reached the warm degree of the Medieval Warm Period, probably suggesting that the influence of global warming on the west China is more heavier than the east China.
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    南京葫芦洞石笋生长速率及其气候意义讨论
    邵晓华, 汪永进, 孔兴功, 吴江滢
    地理科学. 2003, 23 (3): 304-309.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.03.304
    摘要   PDF (855KB)
    一支连续发育4?000年纹层的末次盛冰期葫芦洞石笋的年际生长速率与高分辨率δ18O曲线对比分析表明,年际生长速率在不同时间尺度上对年均温和地表有效湿度的变化有着复杂的响应关系。对该洞内持续发育3~4万年的两支单体石笋实测了33个230Th年龄,其生长曲线显示MIS 2比MIS 3阶段平均生长速率增大了40%以上。以5000年为步长的同一洞穴17支石笋生长频率支持平均生长速率的研究结果,说明在轨道尺度上较大的石笋生长速率并不完全指示较暖湿的气候条件。作者认为,年际尺度的连续生长速率是决定石笋平均生长速率的关键因素。盛冰期条件下本区洞穴内外的温差效应导致了24~14ka B.P.年际尺度的石笋连续生长。
    The timing of growth phase in 17 stalagmites from Hulu Cave, Nanjing, has been precisely dated by thermal ionization mass spectrometric 238U-234U-230Th dating with 69 samples. Based on the comparison between the high-resolution oxygen isotopic records and the thickness of annual layers, we obtained some interesting relationship between the two records. The stalagmite YT which continuously growth for 4000 years during the last glaciation shows the closely and complex relationship between the thickness of annual layers in different time scales and the temperature as well as the effective humidity of the earth's surface above the cave. The growth rate of stalagmite MSD shows the negative variability with the δ18O. That is, the variability of the growth rate abruptly changed in about 28 ka B.P. During 28-18 ka B.P., the average growth rate was 14.27 mm/ka, while it was 9.73 mm/ka during 53-28 ka B.P. So the growth rate of stalagmite MSD was higher during the dry cold marine isotopic stage 2 (MIS2) than during the wet warm marine isotopic stage 3 (MIS3). However, the other stalagmite named MSL during 72-31 ka B.P., which overlapped the marine isotopic stage 3 (MIS3) and stage 4 (MIS4), shows the reversed results. The average growth rate reached to 11.14 mm/ka in the wet warmer period MIS3, while 5.63 mm/ka during the dry colder MIS4. Although the MSD and MSL showed the reversed growth rate feature during the warmer and colder period, but the absolute average thickness of annual layers is comparatively.In progressively, we analyse growth frequency of 17 stalagmites with 5000 year-step in the same cave. The results show the highest accumulative growth frequency during the 25-5 ka B.P., being 52% of the whole growth quantity and the lower accumulative growth frequency during the period 60-30 ka B.P., the wet warmer MIS3, which takes up only 30% of the whole growth quantity. Generally, the growth rate and quantity of the Cave stalagmite could reflect the variability of the outer cave climate. In Hulu Cave, Nanjing, the continuously growth of the annual layer controlled the average growth rate. Difference temperature effects of outer and inner cave results in the continuous growth of stalagmite during 24-14 ka B.P.. So the higher average growth rate could not entirely represent the wet warmer climate.
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    西周沣镐遗址全新世土壤研究
    周群英, 黄春长
    地理科学. 2003, 23 (3): 310-315.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.03.310
    摘要   PDF (264KB)
    根据西安西部西周沣镐遗址附近全新世土壤剖面磁化率、全铁、有机碳、Rb和Sr等指标的测定分析,揭示了与全新世环境变化相对应的成壤过程,阐明西周时代土壤和土地资源状况及人类耕作对成壤过程影响。认为全新世早期气候较温和干燥,风尘堆积速率降低,有一定生物风化成壤作用,土壤发育表现为边沉积边成壤;全新世中期气候温暖湿润,生物风化成壤作用大于风尘堆积作用,随着沉积和成壤继续,土壤层深厚,形成古土壤层(S0);全新世晚期气候恶化,沙尘暴频繁发生,风尘堆积作用大于风化成壤作用,形成现代黄土层(L0)覆盖了土壤(S0),使之成为埋藏古土壤。西周时期(3000~2720a B.P.)气候干旱使环境资源恶化,土壤退化严重,当时的耕作层和古地面位于相当于黄土(L0)下部、古土壤(S0)顶界以上10cm的层位。
    A Holocene soil profile at the Fenghao site of the West Zhou Dynasty to the west of Xi'an City was investigated multi-disciplinarily. The results including magnetic susceptibility, total Fe, TOC Rb and Sr in the soil provide information on the development of the brown soil and the accumulation of eolian dust under the conditions of the monsoonal climatic change. In the early stage of the Holocene, dust deposition was reduced because of the climatic warming, and the biological weathering was beginning. In the mid-stage of the Holocene, climate became warmer and wetter, so the speed of pedogenesis was faster than the dust deposition. The Holocene paleosoil (S0) was formed. In late period of the Holocene, because the climate became dryer, the dust-fall happened frequently, and then the speed of the dust deposition was faster than the pedogenesis, so that the recent loess (L0) was accumulated and covered the soil (S0) and the S0 became a buried paleosoil. The records of cultivation of the West Zhou Dynasty (3000-2720 a B.P.) was found at the turn from the mid to late Holocene. The change from soil formation to loess accumulation indicates environmental deterioration and soil degeneration. Therefore the cultivated layer is situated in the lower part of the recent loess(L0) about 10cm above the paleosoil(S0).
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    小兴安岭森林土壤动物群落多样性的研究
    殷秀琴, 吴东辉, 韩晓梅
    地理科学. 2003, 23 (3): 316-322.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.03.316
    摘要   PDF (915KB)
    对小兴安岭阔叶红松林、次生白桦林、云冷杉红松林、兴安落叶松林、云冷杉林和赤杨林6种生境中的土壤动物群落多样性进行了研究。结果表明,在阔叶红松林生境中,无论大型土壤动物还是中小型土壤动物,多样性都较高,表明其生境条件比其它5种生境优越。土壤动物的多样性与丰富度、均匀度呈正相关,与优势度呈负相关,与个体数没有直接相关关系。土壤动物的垂直多样性分布,随土层深度增加而减少,但递减速率不同,中小型土壤动物表聚性要比大型土壤动物明显。
    Diversity of soil animals community in Xiao Hinggan Mountains has been studied in six different habitats of Pinus koraiensis and broad-leaved mixed forest, secondary birch forest, spruce-fir and Pinus koraiensis forest, Larix gmelini forest, spruce-firforest and Alnus hirsuta forest respectively. The results show that the dominant group of large-size soil animals is Enchytraeidae belonging to Oligochaeta. And it is identical with that in Hokkaido, Japan. But it is different from that in Tianmu Mountains, Hengshan Mountain and Yuelu Mountain belonging to subtropics, and Xiaolong Mountain belonging to warm temperate zone. The dominant groups of middle-small-size soil animals are Acarid and Collembola. And they are similar to those in Japan and other zones in China. The diversity not only of large-sized soil animals but also of middle-small-sized soil animals is higher in the habitat of Pinus koraiensis and broad-leaved mixed forest. The habitat conditions of Pinus koraiensis and broad-leaved mixed forest are superior to the other five habitats. The correlation between the diversity of soil animals community and richness and evenness uniformity is positive, but the correlation between the diversity of soil animal community and dominance is negative, and between the diversity of soil animal community and individual numbers is not direct. The comparability indexes of different habitats are all high. It is shown that the diversities of soil animals in 6 habitats have differences but also have comparability. The distribution of vertical diversity of soil animals is all surface gathering and decreasing with the increase of soil layer depth, but the velocity is different. The surface gathering of middle-small-sized soil animals is obvious.
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    吉林省东南部半山区高效生态农业模式研究——以吉林省柳河县圣水镇为例
    宋凤斌, 杨富亿, 李景林, 邵庆春, 陈国双
    地理科学. 2003, 23 (3): 323-328.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.03.323
    摘要   PDF (888KB)
    根据圣水镇小流域自然和社会经济状况以及区域国民经济发展的要求,以圣水镇小流域为主体,进行试验与示范。开展了水土流失综合治理模式和生态农业模式研究,同时进行生态经济效益监测和评价,在此基础上构成高效生态农业模式,建立具有水土保持兼高效生态经济功能的综合农业复合生态系统,实现半山区小流域开发建设中经济效益、生态效益和社会效益的协调与统一,在半山区及其类似地区有应用前景和推广价值。
    For the demand of national economical development in given region and on the basis of natural and social economical status in small valley of Shengshui Town, the development of integrative restoration and management mode of water and soil loss and ecological agricultural mode were studied, at the same time, the ecological, economical and social benefits were supervised and estimated. On the basis of these, we developed the ecological agriculture mode with high effectiveness, established the integrative and complex agricultural ecological system, and realized the harmonization and unification of ecological benefit, economical benefit and social benefit in small valley of semi-mountain area. These modes have the important appliance foreground and extensive popularization value in semi-mountain area and homoplastic areas.In the mode of ecological economical forest with the function of soil and water reservation, ecological garden had significant benefit with average profit of 7369 yuan (RMB) per hectare, profit margin of 27.53% per yuan cost and labor productivity of 53.61%. Biological output increased to above 18.2-39.2 t/ha in the year of 2000 from 11.8-19.4 t/ha in the year of 1998.The corrasion modulus on slope surface declined above 70% and pathway flux also declined above 50%.The solid exploitation mode with forest, fruit, reservoir, rice has got not only significant economical profit, but also distinctive ecological profit. Before exploitation, the clay inflowing to small reservoir every year make the bottom of reservoir get silt of 3.7-4.2 cm. That is, 1.72 kg/m2 of soil was lost before exploitation, but only 0.49 kg/m2 from 1999 to 2000, declining 71.5%. Because of the increment of vegetation cover degree, the quantity of soil and water loss significantly decreases in the areas of catchments. The ecological environment was protected effectively. In this mode, fish output increased to 556.3 kg/m2 from 375 kg/m2 before exploitation, rice yield increased to 6500 kg/m2 from 5100 kg/m2 before exploitation. On the basis of the characteristics of semi-mountain area, the complex ecological system with the union of fishing, stock raising, grass, forest, fruit and grain was constructed. Within the system every links made up and promote each other, materials and energy was cyclically used in multilayer and many ways. The assistant energy out of system was devoted as little as possible, the production cost was economized and high effectiveness and low cost was realized. Therefore, this mode and technological measures could be extended and applied in analogous areas. Furthermore, the construction of ecological agriculture mode with high effectiveness is the most important content, the sduty group deployed the research work in three sites with an area of 308 ha, at the same time, we used the remote sensing and computer technology for supervising, reviewing, and programming entirely for Shengshui Town, started up the "greenness action" program, these all get actively radiative and driving effect for Liuhe ecological environment construction and other cities and counties.
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    新疆阜康绿洲荒漠过渡带植物群落物种多样性特征
    张林静, 岳明, 张远东, 顾峰雪, 潘晓玲, 赵桂仿
    地理科学. 2003, 23 (3): 329-333.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.03.329
    摘要   PDF (264KB)
    分别采用重要值、盖度、多度计算多样性指数、均匀度指数、丰富度指数、优势度指数,对新疆阜康荒漠地区植物群落的物种多样性进行了研究。结果表明: 1) 各类型群落的物种多样性水平表现为红柳、红砂、梭梭这三个群落较高,肉叶雾冰藜群落、叉毛蓬群落、盐爪爪群落、囊果碱蓬群落和雾冰藜群落居中,无叶假木贼群落和碱蓬群落较低; 2) 研究区总体群落物种多样性水平较低,随着群落演替其物种多样性水平呈现低-高较高的变化趋势; 3) 对荒漠植被,以重要值或盖度为指标计测多样性指数较为可行。
    The richness indices, species diversity indices, evenness indices and dominance indices based on important value, cover and abundance were used respectively to analyze vegetation in Fukang, Xinjiang. The results indicated that: 1) the species diversity order of the vegetation type was as follows: the Tamarix ramosissima community, Reaumuria soongorica community and Haloxylon ammodendron community were the highest, the communities of Bassia sedoides, Petrosimonia sibirica, Kalidium foliatum, Suaeda glauca, and Bassia dasyphylla were middle, Anabasis aphylla and Suaeda acuminata were the lowest; 2) with community succession, species diversity of communities fluctuated in the trend of lower-highest-higher; 3) diversity index based on important value and cover were more properly in arid desert areas.
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    可拓方法在区域易损性评判中的应用——以四川省为例
    李辉霞, 陈国阶
    地理科学. 2003, 23 (3): 334-340.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.03.334
    摘要   PDF (310KB)
    首先介绍了可拓方法的基本原理及其在区域易损性评判中的应用步骤,然后以四川省为例检验了其实际应用效果,探讨了可拓方法在区域易损性评判中的应用。结果表明:四川省承灾能力总体偏低,其中极高易损区和高易损区的面积比重达85.88%;并且易损性区域差异大,基本上呈连续成片分布,各区域存在的主要问题和制约因素也不同。最后指出将可拓方法应用于区域易损性评判中的思路是正确的,方法是可行的,并认为可拓方法在自然系统界线识别和自然要素空间分异等方面的研究中具有广阔的应用前景。
    Regional vulnerability evaluation and zoning is a very complex process, which involves a lot of factors. And the methods of evaluation and zoning are various. Regional economic development and frequent disasters are incompatible in some ways, and extension method is an effective tool to solve incompatible problems. So this essay probes application of extension method to regional vulnerability evaluation and zoning. First, the theory of extension method and steps of application of extension method to regional vulnerability evaluation and zoning are introduced,which includes selection of indexes, defining definition field and classical field of indexes, assignments of weight among the indexes, the first evaluation, calculation of single index correlative degree and synthetical correlative degree, and zoning according to synthetical correlative degree. Factor analysis is used to calculate the weight of indexes: factor analysis of the indexes is carried in SPSS and get the commonality of each index, then deal with the commonality with the formula: where ω is the weight of each index, Ei is the commonality of each index. Since the commonality means how much the index can stand for the factors, it is reasonable to assign the weight among indexes using this method. It is proved that economic vulnerability degree contributes the most to synthetical vulnerability degree, social vulnerability degree is the next, and ecological vulnerability degree means the least. Second, Sichuan Province is taken as an example to test its effect of the application,results show that the area with highest and higher synthetical vulnerability degree takes up 85.88%, from which we can get the conclusion that vulnerability degree of Sichuan Province is high as a whole; in addition, synthetical correlative degree and single index correlative degree show that synthetical vulnerability degree and key restrictive factors differentiate a lot among regions, which means different measures should be taken according to different key restrictive factors.Zoning results show that Chengdu, Panzhihua and Deyang belong to the most slight degree, Zigong belongs to slight degree, Mianyang, Neijiang, Guang'an and Meishan belong to middle degree, Luzhou, Suining, Leshan, Nanchong, Yibing, Dazhou, Bazhong and Ziyang belong to severe degree, Guangyuan, Ya'an, Aba, Ganzi and Liangshan belong to the most severe degree. Last, a conclusion is given that application of extension method to regional vulnerability evaluation is practical, but one disadvantage of this method should be pointed out that Kj(vi) is the distance between vi and (a0i,b0i), which makes it more difficult to compare the regions belong to the same degree. But with the development of calculating method of correlative degree, extension method will supply vast vistas on researches of natural border identification and natural elements zoning.
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    安徽省级资源环境空间信息服务系统研究与开发
    马众模, 陈政, 徐振宇, 周燕林
    地理科学. 2003, 23 (3): 341-346.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.03.341
    摘要   PDF (255KB)
    研究建立一个结构规范、服务便捷的省级资源环境空间信息网,实现资源环境空间信息的网络共享和服务已经是迫在眉睫。安徽省资源环境空间信息网首次在省政府网络上实现了资源环境空间信息的快速访问,具有数据量大、覆盖面全、类型多样的特点,并且采用SuperMap国产GIS软件进行开发,运行稳定、安全可靠,具有很好的可扩展性。系统地介绍了安徽省资源环境空间信息网的系统结构、数据库建设、数据更新和系统的主要功能。
    Everything has its specific spatial position, spatial structure and spatial relation. With the development of network technology and the opening of website of Anhui government, it is extremely urgent to establish a service website of standard structure and convenient to share resources and environment spatial information. By means of data integrating, compressing and so on, the system adopts WebGIS technology to complete resources and environment spatial information web. Special line joins this web and government web, which will first realize visiting a vast amount of data with high speed. Moreover, the system that adopts one of homemade GIS software named SuperMap, runs stably and safely and is easy to expand further. The article introduces the structure, database, and main functions of the resources and environment spatial information web of Anhui Province.
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    大安古河道综合开发生态工程 地质地貌环境可行性论证
    罗新正, 朱坦, 孙广友, 马建平
    地理科学. 2003, 23 (3): 347-352.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.03.347
    摘要   PDF (296KB)
    大安古河道位于中新生代松辽沉降带上的中央凹陷区,第四纪壳运动以大面积继承性缓慢沉积为主。盖层包括白垩纪浅海相砂岩,第三系砂岩、泥岩及厚达143m的第四系碎屑沉积。全新世粘土及粉细砂出露地表,对实施水利工程有利。区域地貌属松嫩冲积低平原,阶地海拔高度140m左右,呈台状高地。古河道的主体嫩江河漫滩一般低于132m,平坦开阔,自然坡降1/5000~1/10000,便于布置水利工程。古河道邻近嫩江和月亮泡,引水十分方便。排水可直泄查干湖,然后回归嫩江河谷;或者从三家子古河道出口排入嫩江河谷,均为可行。
    Da'an paleochannel is located in the central fallen area of Song-Liao subsiding belt which formed in the Mesozoic and Cenozoic, where the earth's crust motion in the Quaternary period was mainly slow and successively extensive sedimentation. The cover layers consist of cretaceous sandstone forming in shallow sea, Tertiary system sandstone and mud stone and Quaternary system fragmental deposit stone, of which thickness is 143 m. That clay and mealy sand of Holocene were exposed to ground is in favor of constructing irrigation works. The area landform belongs to Songnen alluvial low plain. The altitude of terrace, which presented highland, is about 140 m. The main body of paleochannels, namely Nenjiang flood land, is generally below 132 m above sea level, which is even and widen. Natural grade from 1/5000 to 1/1000 is in favor of disposing constructing irrigation works. That the paleochannel nears to Nenjiang River and Moon Lake is convenient for using water, and the drainage can be discharged into Chagan Lake, then into the Nenjiang River,or discharged into the Nenjiang River at the Sanjiazi paleochannel pass.
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    论城市犯罪的空间防控
    王发曾
    地理科学. 2003, 23 (3): 353-359.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.03.353
    摘要   PDF (900KB)
    犯罪是当代城市最大的社会问题,对犯罪实施有效的空间防控是解决城市犯罪问题的重要途径。在对城市犯罪空间防控的必要性和可能性进行理论辨析的基础上,重点论述了城市空间环境的形态布局、空间盲区的综合治理和空间地域的防控管理等犯罪空间防控的主要实施途径。
    A serious social problem in modern cities, urban crime problem, has a very strong spatial background. The properties of distribution pattern, allocation pattern and interaction in urban spatial environment have close ties with urban crime, they are the important influence factors on urban crime. Various spatial blind areas in urban spatial environment build some kinds of relations between the subject and object of urban crime, they are the spatial carrier bearing crime behaviors and consequences. Some spatial area units in cities hardly put spatial management and control into effect, they bring up the soil breeding criminals and the hotbed causing crimes. Therefore, the urban spatial environment is the important backing of urban anticrime, and the "spatial anticrime" is an important way to prevent and control urban crime. This paper debates and analyses the necessity and possibility of the spatial anticrime in cities, and forecasts the evolution of urban crime, builds the comprehensive anticrime system, and establishes the position of the spatial anticrime in this system. Then, the paper advances three enforceable channels of the spatial anticrime: first, the allocation of urban spatial environment morphology, including the anticrime planning of urban functional zones, the anticrime designing of urban building composition, the anticrime designing of urban single building, the anticrime planning-designing of urban traffic, and the anticrime restructuring of urban police organ's allocation; second, the comprehensive treatment of spatial blind areas in urban crime, including the treatment of the private, public, marginal, mobile and virtual spatial blind areas; third, the anticrime management of urban area units, including the functional organization of urban areas, the foundation of safe-civilized urban areas, and the public security edification in city areas.
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    研究报道
    黑土的水土流失及其保育治理
    王其存, 齐晓宁, 王洋, 刘兆永, 鲍强
    地理科学. 2003, 23 (3): 360-364.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.03.360
    摘要   PDF (763KB)
    黑土因其肥沃而闻名,但其退化和水土流失问题往往易被忽略。虽然在人类影响下的现代环境过程开始较晚,但黑土区的环境已发生了较大的变化。对黑土水土流失的现状进行了评价,指出了黑土保育治理的必要性与紧迫性,提出了治理保育措施。
    Black soilsare the most fertile ones in China,but they are suffering from deterioration, which includes water loss and soil erosion. The landform of black soils is undulated peneplain so that the soil is easy to be eroded. In this paper, the authors propose three antierosion measures: 1)Slope erosion prevention includes two parts, the first part is changing the aspect of the ridges of the land from slanting or parallel to vertical to horizontal direction, if the slope is less than 4 degrees; the second part is that if the slope is bigger than 4 degrees, the terrace should be made to avoid erosion. 2)Gully control includes building gully head embankment or dyke or even small reservoir, planting trees and grasses in the middle part; ducks, gooses, fishes and frogs could be raised in the pools or reservoirs to increase the economic efficiency. 3)Planting trees to make forest prevent wind and erosion. The authors also suggest that the management should be improved, the present situation is that there are laws in China protecting the crop land, but the laws can only protect the crop land quantatively.To guarantee the quality of the crop land, thorough study should be made, and the monitoring organization should be established.
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    西藏自治区乃东县生态系统的健康性评价
    刘惠清, 许嘉巍, 吴秀芹
    地理科学. 2003, 23 (3): 365-370.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.03.365
    摘要   PDF (882KB)
    以野外实地调查数据和卫片影像解译为资料,在对乃东县生态系统特征进行定性与定量综合分析的基础上,选取侵蚀强度、功能缺损程度、生产力水平三项指标对乃东县99种生态类型进行健康性评价。以此为乃东县生态社会经济系统的可持续发展提供科学的立论依据。
    Based on field investigation and remote sensing information, this paper carried out both qualitative and quantitative analyses of the characteristics of ecosystems in Ndong County of Tibet. Then taking erosion degree, function lacking degree and productivity level as evaluation indices, the authors assessed the different kinds of ecosystems and divided them into four types: healthy, less healthy, less unhealthy and unhealthy. The authors also pointed out that at present, the main ecological types in Ndong County are sub-healthy and sub-unhealthy ecosystem. Unhealthy systems spot in the sub-healthy and sub-unhealthy ecological systems. It also put the scientific foundation for the sustainable development of ecological social economy system of Ndong County. And it draw the conclusions; (1) Using the intensity of corrosion, the level of the productivity and the function decrease as the indices of evaluation can factually reflect the health condition of Ndong County. (2) At present the main ecological types in the Ndong County are sub-healthy and the sub-unhealthy ecosystem, the intensity of human disturbance must be decided according to the health condition. (3) Unhealthy systems of Ndong County spotted in the sub-healthy and sub-unhealthy ecological systems. As long as human can control effectively, it will not diffuse on a large scale, and can recover step by step.
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    旅游地衰退与复苏的驱动力分析——以几个典型旅游景区为例
    张朝枝
    地理科学. 2003, 23 (3): 371-377.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.03.371
    摘要   PDF (899KB)
    旅游发展到现阶段,部分旅游地面临着衰退的威胁。有些旅游地走向衰退后,外界所做的一些努力未能使它们走向复苏,如七星岩、岳阳楼;有些旅游地走向衰退后,经过外界努力,它们却走向了复苏,如丹霞山、鼎湖山。通过对这些案例的分析与比较研究,运用形象本底分析等方法,得出市场潜在需求是旅游地衰退与复苏的根本驱动力的结论,并在此基础上提出了指导旅游开发的几点建议。
    With the development of tourism, some scenery spots stepped into the stage of decline, but some of them have been rejuvenated by exploiting new attraction and some of them can not. With the methods of comparation and image analysis by internet between the four cases, the paper analyzed the real reason why the scenic spots decline and rejuvenate. The conclusion is that the reason for destination decline and rejuvenation is market demand, not the exterior factors and interior factors of management, although some exterior factors and management problems do affect the development of the destination. This conclusion occasionally proved the psychographic theory of Plog and perfects the theory of Butler.
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    南太行山旅游区空间发展战略研究
    冯德显, 吕连琴
    地理科学. 2003, 23 (3): 378-383.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.03.378
    摘要   PDF (957KB)
    在分析南太行山旅游区资源特色与空间发展问题的基础上,提出了该旅游区空间发展战略布局方案,构建南太行"四区(功能区)、三中心(旅游中心)、一线(观光长廊)、四环(旅游环线)"、内外畅通、主次分明、各有特色、功能明确的空间组织形态,从而将大大提高南太行山旅游区空间组织的合理性和高效性,有力地推动该区旅游业的发展,尽快成为中国重要的旅游区。
    Through analysing the characteristics of the tourist resources and the questions of the spatial development of the southern Taihang Mountains, the authors suggest that for the promotion of the efficiency of the spatial organizing system,four functional regions, three tourist service centers,one tourist passageway and four tourist circular lines should be made.This will speed the tourist development of the sourthern Taihang Mountains areas and make it become the most important scenic region of our country.
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