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CN 22-1124/P
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  • 地理科学
      2007年, 第27卷, 第3期 刊出日期:2007-05-20 上一期    下一期
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    论文
    中国地区制造业竞争力的时间变化和空间分异解析
    千庆兰, 陈颖彪
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (3): 289-295.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.03.289
    摘要   PDF (1407KB)
    地区制造业竞争力是地区制造业在区域之间的市场竞争中表现出来的综合实力、所提供的有效产品或服务的能力及其未来的发展潜力大小。利用构建的地区制造业竞争力评价模型,以省区为基本单元,分析了近20年来中国地区制造业竞争力的时间变化特征和空间分布格局,并对这种变化和差异的动因给与解析。研究表明,从1985年到2003年的近20年来,中国地区制造业竞争力呈现出一定的时空演化规律:①随着改革开放进程的加速和地区经济实力的提高,地区制造业的综合竞争能力普遍抬升;②中国地区制造业竞争力的地域差异明显,由东部沿海向中、西部内陆逐渐递减,且差距随时间的推移呈扩大趋势;③地区制造业竞争力与其驱动因素关系密切。驱动因素的时空分布格局决定了地区制造业竞争力的时间过程与空间格局演变趋向。
    Industrial competitiveness in regional manufacturing is compositive capability of regional manufacture industry between different regions which include effective product and service ability and predictive development capability.Based on the evaluated model of industrial competitiveness in regional manufacturing,the paper analyzes spatio-temporal distribution of China′s regional manufacturing industrial competitiveness in recent 20 years and explains the reason of regional differences.The research result demonstrated that China′s industrial competitiveness in regional manufacturing has distinct space and time law in recent 20 years.① industrial competitiveness in regional manufacturing has greatly raised with the reform and open-up increasingly and region economic growth,but the general level is still low;② It has distinct region difference,and the development level is reduced from the eastern coastal region to the western interior region and has the enlarged trend with the past time.③ It has intimate relation with the drive force.The temporal change of drive force determines the change of regional manufacturing industrial competitiveness.The spatial difference of drive force determines spatial distribution pattern of industrial competitiveness in regional manufacturing.
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    中国城镇非密集地区城乡发展的空间创新研究
    余斌, 曾菊新, 罗静
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (3): 296-303.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.03.296
    摘要   PDF (1958KB)
    经济全球化加剧了中国城镇非密集地区的"边缘化";城乡互动发展模式是城镇非密集地区城乡发展的理性选择;通过空间结构创新能够有效推动城乡互动发展。空间福利经济学研究空间消费形态与空间效用分配之间的关系;基于空间福利经济学的区域空间结构创新意在寻求区域空间结构的形态优化和层次提升,以实现空间公平与总体效率兼容发展。在中国城镇非密集地区城乡发展的空间创新过程中,政府的空间安排塑造区域空间结构的基本架构,企业的区位选择构成区域空间结构创新的基本推动力量。
    The urban-rural development of non-dense-town region involves both spatial equity and general efficiency.The spatial effects of economic globalization maybe accelerate "marginalization" of non-dense-town region.Therefore,this region should choose the mode of urban-rural interaction development which its essence is the spatial connection of regional economy,including the spatial connection of the economic subjects,organizations,resources,information,etc.The spatial welfare economy studies the relationship between the spatial consumption form and the spatial utility distribution.The spatial consumption form refers to the spatial utilization way depending on the regional collocation of the economic resources,and the spatial utility distribution refers to the spatial segmentation of the economic resources efficiency.The essence of regional spatial structure is the consumption form of some certain regional space and the spatial welfare economy mode based on the regional spatial structure can provide the urban-rural development in the non-dense-town region with theoretical foundation.Both the urban-rural interaction development and the spatial structural innovation in the non-dense-town region are compatible to the regional development principles embodying both the spatial equity and general efficiency.The spatial structural innovation can effectively facilitate the development of the urban-rural interaction,in which the selection of enterprises location is the basic impulse in forming the regional spatial structure.The spatial intervention and administration of local government constitutes the leading force of the spatial structure.
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    “全球城市”极化与上海社会空间分异研究
    李志刚, 吴缚龙, 高向东
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (3): 304-311.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.03.304
    摘要   PDF (1906KB)
    采用2000年全国第五次人口普查的统计数据,对上海社会空间分异的当前趋势进行探讨,结合中国崛起的历史性、地域性,针对上海城市经济结构、产业结构的转型问题,对全球化下我国城市社会空间发展的趋向进行分析,发现上海目前的社会经济结构尚未出现社会空间极化。通过对社会空间因子空间分布的实证分析,进一步揭示上海社会空间分异程度尚不明显。
    Sociospatial polarization of Post-Fordist cities,especially the ‘global cities’,has undergone a decade of intensive debates.It is debatable that whether the sociospatial polarization in global cities will be paradigmatic to other globalizing cities on lower level of the global city hierarchy.It is argued that social stratification under market-oriented reform in urban China is producing a new urban space.Therefore,this paper examines the emerging sociospatial restructuring in Shanghai,one of the most ‘globalizing’ cities of transitional urban China.Using data of the 5th national census,this study finds out important evidence of sociospatial differentiation on the subdistrict level in terms of attributes of employment sectors such as primary sector,secondary sector,and service sector,as well as migrant status and educational attainments.However,no social polarization is found.Although the social structure is largely stratified along the lines of global cities,Shanghai at this stage did not present evident tendency of polarization.No severe sociospatial differentiation is identified.The reason is attributed to the specific developmental status of Shanghai,it is at the preliminary stage of post-industrialization.In addition,it is found that social legacy has largely kept in effect in Shanghai,as workers still live near to their working places,especially intellectuals.It indicates that historical legacy in the socialist era is still shaping socio-spatial structure.The impact of the state is also highlighted.As a state project,Shanghai is restructured by policies of the central government.Just as Tokyo and Soul,Shanghai also shows the ambitious of the developmental state to mould a domestic city to the global status.It is argued that the global city debates should pay more attention to different social and political contexts.
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    以生态-经济为导向的江苏省土地开发适宜性分区
    陈雯, 孙伟, 段学军, 陈江龙
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (3): 312-317.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.03.312
    摘要   PDF (1315KB)
    随着城市化和工业化进程的加快,经济发达地区大量的农业及生态保护用地被侵占,开发可持续性受到威胁。从协调经济、人口、资源、环境相互关系出发,空间开发强调因地制宜,即让开发成本低、资源环境容量大的地区承担高强度的工业化和城市化等社会经济活动;而让生态价值高、开发难度大的区域承担农业和生态维护功能。土地开发适宜性分区,以生态-经济为导向,借鉴已有区划方法,采用要素层-关系层-逻辑层-应用层的技术路线,评价适宜各单元的开发强度,划分开发与保护空间。将这一方法运用于江苏省的案例研究之中,以县和省辖市市区为基本评价单元,通过选择自然生态与经济社会两方面的指标,综合分析生态和经济重要性指数,将江苏全省划分为优先开发区域、适度开发区域、适度保护区域、优先保护区域和灰色区域等五大类型区。这一结果可以作为引导空间开发秩序、实施区域建设空间管制的重要依据。
    Along with the highly speedy urbanization and the industrialization in China,the contradiction between economic growth and ecological protection is more evident than ever before.The disordered land utilization has led to land overuse and natural ecological destruction.However,the regionalization of potential land use is a useful path to provide the scientific groundwork and guide of land exploitation and protection,i.e.,some areas shine in exploitation of industrialization and urbanization while others may need agricultural and ecological conservation.According to the technical route from factor layer,to relationship layer,to logic layer and finally to application layer,the method of regionalization,such as how to choose and analyse the ecological and economic factors and how to integrate the ecological and economic significant value by the method of classification matrix,has been discussed.After that,Jiangsu Province has been taken as a case for the regionalizaion of potential land use.Taking the counties and cities as the basic evaluating unites to apply the evaluation of ecological and economic significant value,Jiangsu Province is divided into feasible development area,limitary development area,moderate conservation area,prohibited exploiting area and elasticity gray area by the methods mentioned above,and then the spatial development direction and the management demand for each area has been advanced.That is a very important base for leading the order of spatial development and controlling the regional space.
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    近期气候波动与LUCC过程对东北农田生产潜力的影响
    徐新良, 刘纪远, 曹明奎, 张树文
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (3): 318-324.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.03.318
    摘要   PDF (1724KB)
    利用1991~2000年逐日气象资料以及20世纪80年代末和90年代末土地利用数据,估算了东北地区气候波动和LUCC过程对农田生产潜力的影响。结果显示:90年代东北地区由于作物生长季内气候变暖和降水减少,生产潜力普遍降低6.45%,其中降水量变化的区域差异是导致生产潜力变化区域分异的主要原因。在LUCC过程的影响下,东北地区生产潜力总量净增加2 402.79×104t。从气候波动和LUCC过程对生产潜力的影响程度看,气候波动要低于LUCC过程的作用,LUCC过程所导致的生产潜力的增长趋势抵消了气候波动所带来的降低趋势,10年间东北地区农田生产潜力总量净增加992.23×104t。
    This paper estimated the impact of recent climate fluctuation and LUCC process on potential productivity in Northeast China.The results show that from 1991 to 2000 the potential productivity generally decreased 6.45% because of climate warming and precipitation decreasing.The land-use change made potential productivity take great changes in the region that land-use change took place.The changes were mostly driven by LUCC conversion process,in the 1990s the total potential productivity increased 24.03?106 t.Comparing the influence of climate fluctuation and LUCC process,the impact of climate fluctuation was less than that of LUCC process,the increased trend of potential productivity that leaded by LUCC process counteracted the decreased trend leaded by climate fluctuation.Under the integrated influence of climate fluctuation and LUCC process,total potential productivity increased by 9.92?106 t in the 1990s.
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    内蒙古生态系统服务价值遥感测量
    王爱玲, 朱文泉, 李京, 陈云浩
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (3): 325-330.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.03.325
    摘要   PDF (1066KB)
    生态系统功能是地球生命系统的支持系统,为人类创造赖以生存的生态环境条件,有巨大的直接与间接经济价值。利用遥感技术,通过对生态系统类型、植被覆盖度和净第一性生产力的测量,建立生态系统服务价值遥感定量计算模型,结合前人的研究成果,对内蒙古生态系统服务价值进行定量的计算。
    The biosphere of the Earth is essential to human survival and development.The services of ecosystems are critical to the functioning of the Earth’s life-support system.They contribute to human welfare both directly and indirectly.An estimation model for ecological service value based on remote sensing is presented in this paper.The parameters in the model are quantitatively measured using MODIS and other ancillary data,including the land cover types,the vegetation coverage,and the net primary productivity(NPP) of terrestrial ecosystem.A case study is conducted in Inner Mongolia.We encountered most of problems and uncertainties,but it could reflect the special distribution of ecological service value in a way,and could offer the basis of scientific layout for region ecological construction in Inner Mongolia.
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    长白山白河林区森林资源间接经济价值评估
    吕弼顺, 佟守正, 朱卫红, 李春景
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (3): 331-336.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.03.331
    摘要   PDF (1027KB)
    以长白山白河林区的森林资源为研究对象,探讨了森林资源间接经济价值的资产评估方法与计量:森林涵养水源价值评估与计量、森林CO2固定价值评估与计量、土壤保护价值评估与计量、污染物降解的评估与计量、森林病虫害防治价值的评估与计量、营养循环价值的评估与计量等,并对此进行了量算,为本区和国内实现森林资源资产化管理和林业可持续发展提供了科学依据。
    The asset estimate for forest resources is one of the important parts to the estimate trades for social assets.The asset estimate is conducted for special purpose under the guidance of objective economic law and the principle of fairness.Also the estimate follows the national standards and the legal procedure of China,and it is carried out for valuing a subject of forest resources with the same nature and the anticipated profits with scientific methods and unified monetary unit.The estimators assess the market value for the forest resources according to the reality of forest,market situation and analysis on some more elements predicable and unpredictable.In this case the estimate method and measure for indirect economic values of forest are presented.Data are from authors’ field work and some achievements of foreign studies.The forest in Baihe is the sample in this case study.The indicators of indirect economic values include conserve water in forest,carbon dioxide fixation,soil conservation,pollutant degradation,pest control in forest and nutrition circulation and so forth,and the authors give the measuring for those indicators a trial.
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    青海高原冻土退化驱动因素的定量辨识
    张国胜, 李林, 汪青春, 王振宇, 朱西德
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (3): 337-341.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.03.337
    摘要   PDF (408KB)
    利用G IS技术、主成分分析和关联度等定量方法,分析了1981~2000年青海高原冻土退化的空间特征。研究表明:1981年以来青海高原冻土呈现出多年冻土减少、季节冻土增加的总体退化趋势,其中季节冻土由1981~1985年占全省总面积的37.5%增加到了1996~2000年的41.7%;在人为活动和气候变化对季节冻土退化的驱动作用当中以人类活动的作用更为显著,气候变暖是造成季节冻土退化的主导气候因素。
    By using GIS technique and principal component analysis as well as association limitation,the spatial characteristics of frozen ground degeneration in 1981-2000 was analyzed,and different function of human activity and natural factor upon frozen ground degeneration was identified,and the main causes of frozen ground degeneration were finally confirmed.The results show that the multi-year frozen ground in Qinghai Plateau has been decreasing but seasonal frozen ground increasing since 1981,among which the seasonal frozen ground increased to 41.7% in 1996-2000 from 37.5% in 1981-1985;comparing the driving function of human activity with climate change upon frozen ground degeneration,the former one is much more significant,and the association sequence of climate factor and frozen ground degeneration is mean temperature,annual total cloudiness,annual low-level cloudiness,annual sunshine duration,annual precipitation and annual snow-cover hours,which shows that the climate warming is the main cause of frozen ground degeneration.
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    黄河流域有效辐射拟合研究
    曾燕, 邱新法, 刘昌明, 潘敖大
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (3): 342-347.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.03.342
    摘要   PDF (1452KB)
    在深入分析有效辐射理论公式的基础上,利用日射站和常规气象站观测资料,确定有效辐射拟合的经验函数式;利用数据集群技术,建立一系列不同时空尺度的有效辐射估算模式;通过误差分析,最终确定适用于全国范围有效辐射计算的拟合模型;采用确定的有效辐射拟合模型,结合黄河流域及其周边常规气象站观测资料,对黄河流域1960~2000年有效辐射进行计算,利用ArcG IS将站点有效辐射拟合结果进行空间内差,获得黄河流域有效辐射的空间分布。
    Under thoroughly analyzing on the theoretic formulation of effective radiation as well as referring similar studies carried before,a series of effective radiation models of different temporal and spatial scales were developed,with the technique of data integration.The accuracy of different models was analyzed thoroughly.Monthly effective radiation simulation models for China were selected.By virtue of the selected models together with routine meteorological data of 164 stations,in and around the Yellow River basin,monthly effective radiation of the Yellow River basin from 1960 to 2000 were estimated.Using the interpolation function of ArcGIS,spatial distribution of effective radiation of the Yellow River basin was generated.
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    黄河三角洲地区土壤水盐空间变异特征研究
    杨劲松, 姚荣江
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (3): 348-353.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.03.348
    摘要   PDF (1113KB)
    运用传统统计学和地统计学相结合的方法研究黄河三角洲地区表层土壤盐分、pH与含水量的空间变异特征。结果表明:土壤盐分较高且呈一定的碱化趋势;盐分与含水量为中等变异强度,pH为弱变异强度。受结构性与随机性因素的共同作用,盐分、pH与含水量均表现为中等空间相关性。分维数与Moran′s I系数分析均表明,盐分、pH与含水量的空间依赖性小,随机性因素是引起空间异质性的关键原因。Kriging插值与相关性分析表明,盐分和pH的分布存在着空间负相关性,且盐分与pH、含水量均呈显著负相关,盐分过高是导致pH降低的重要因素,含水量可为判断旱季表层土壤盐分高低提供一定参考。
    The spatial variability of soil salinity,pH and moisture in the surface layer of the Yellow River Delta was analyzed by using traditional statistics and geo-statistics.The results indicate that soil salinity was generally high and showed the trend of alkalization to some extent,the variation in salinity and moisture was moderate while the variation in pH was rather weak.Soil salinity,pH and moisture all exhibited moderate spatial autocorrelation resulting from compound effect of structural and stochastic factors.Fractal dimension and Moran′s I coefficient both proved that soil salinity,pH and moisture showed weak spatial dependency,and stochastic factors were the crucial reason of resulting in the spatial heterogeneity of salinity,pH and moisture.The Kriging interpolation and correlation analysis showed that the distribution of soil salinity was inversely correlated with that of pH,and soil salinity showed negatively significant correlation with both pH and moisture,which signified that excessive salinity contributed to pH decrease and moisture could provide a reference for the diagnosis of salinity in the surface layer during the drought season.
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    分布式水文模型结合遥感研究地表蒸散发
    刘三超, 张万昌, 高懋芳, 柳钦火
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (3): 354-358.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.03.354
    摘要   PDF (1266KB)
    地表蒸散发是研究土壤-植被-大气系统水热平衡的关键因子。用改进的DHSVM分布式水文模型对汉江上游子午河流域蒸散发进行模拟。根据流域特点,主要进行TM遥感数据的大气校正和几何校正,在此基础上得到叶面积指数和土地覆盖等地表参数;再利用GIS技术基于DEM求出坡度、坡向和地形指数等因子。分析了蒸散发时空分布特征,表明日尺度蒸散发空间分布差异较大。初步验证了结果,表明模型在中国典型湿润区小流域取得较好效果。
    Evapotranspiration(ET) is the key factor to the research on water circulation and heat balance in the soil-vegetation-atmosphere system.In this article,a pixel based adapted DHSVM distributed hydrological model that integrates remote sensing and geographic information system was applied in the Ziwuhe River watershed in the upper Hanjiang River basin.The modeled pixel is 60 m large.Our study focused on the atmospheric and topographic correction on optical remote sensing data and utilizing 30 m resolution Landsat TM data to obtain leaf area index and the land use and land cover data.Some useful terrain factors as slope and aspect and topographic index could also be derived from digital elevation model.The results showed that the spatial pattern of ET was similarity in different temporal scales,moreover,it was found that daily ET spatial differences were more evident.The result also showed that the distributed model could be used in small basin of humid climate.
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    基于VIC模型的逐日土壤含水量模拟
    吴志勇, 陆桂华, 张建云, 杨扬
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (3): 359-364.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.03.359
    摘要   PDF (1388KB)
    基于VIC(Variable Infiltration Capacity)大尺度水文模型,采用实测的日降水和日最高、最低气温数据,模拟了近35年(1971~2005)全国范围30 km×30 km分辨率的逐日土壤含水量。文章利用43个流域的实测流量资料,率定模型水文参数,建立和验证水文参数移用公式,确定无资料地区的水文参数。选取全国范围内的28个站19年的土壤含水量实测值,对模拟的土壤含水量进行了验证。结果表明,VIC模型较好地模拟了土壤含水量,尤其是在湿润和半湿润地区。模拟的0~100 cm的土壤含水量多年平均值与实际的全国土壤水分分布较为一致。
    On the basis of Variable Infiltration Capacity(VIC) land surface macroscale hydrology model and observed maximum and minimum air temperature and precipitation this paper simulated daily soil moisture values over China for the period January 1,1971 to October 31,2005.The model was applied over a grid of 10,458 points with a resolution of 30 km?30 km.The model was first calibrated and validated by using observed hydrographs over 43 catchments.In situ soil moisture measurements from 28 sites over the country were also used for model validation.VIC performs well over both calibration and validation catchments especially in humid and semi-humid regions.The 35-yr soil moisture climatology for the 0-100m from VIC is consistent with known soil moisture conditions in China.
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    基于GIS的澜沧江下游区滑坡灾害危险性分析
    闫满存, 王光谦
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (3): 365-370.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.03.365
    摘要   PDF (1605KB)
    澜沧江流域是中国西南地区滑坡灾害较为严重的地区。对澜沧江下游区滑坡灾害及其控制因素分析,建立基于G IS的滑坡灾害危险性评价模型,实现澜沧江下游区滑坡危险性区划,为该区滑坡灾害防治和生态环境保护等提供重要决策依据。
    Landslide hazards are an inherent but dangerous and costly element of mountainous environment in the lower Lancang River watershed.Conventional hazard map provide useful inventories of hazardous sites but provide little insight into the potential area of the hazards.In the paper,based on the spatial analysis of driving and triggering factors promoting the occurrence and development of landslides in the Lancang River watershed a correlation of the occurrence of landslides with slope gradient,vegetation cover and precipitation presented for providing multivariate statistical data available for assessing risk of the landslide in the area.Using ArcGIS grid module the data including contour,vegetation cover and precipitation were transformed into TIN data and DEM and further into raster gradient,vegetation and precipitation were with a raster of 100 m ?100 m.The classification of gradient,vegetation and precipitation were with five ranks,in agreement with five risk ranks of landslides of highest,high,moderate,less and none are implemented on ArcGIS platform.A risk map with the potential zones of the landslide with different risk ranks in the lower Lancang River watershed was shown.It can be sure that the highest and high risk zones are compatible to the high occurrence of landslide hazards,indicating that the index selected and methods are rational and credible.The result will be base for controlling the landslide disasters and promoting sustainable eco-environment development in the area.
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    陕西渭河下游湿地环境风险因素分析
    李景宜
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (3): 371-375.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.03.371
    摘要   PDF (960KB)
    运用统计计算和RS/G IS方法,分析渭河下游湿地环境的水文特性、水污染特征、土地利用/覆被状况及其演变特征等湿地环境风险因素,结论为:①渭河下游水沙量年际变化大、年内水沙量分配不均,且呈现减少趋势;汛期黄河洪水倒灌渭河,降低了由于水沙供给变化而导致的湿地水文环境风险度;②湿地水环境日趋恶化的变化趋势降低了湿地的生态净化功能,增加了湿地水环境风险度;③1989~2000年渭河下游新增湿地12.76km2,年均增长率2.70%;湿地裸地化和盐碱化形势严峻;④以加强湿地保护立法、完善流域水污染治理、重建河岸植被带、强化湿地管理等重点措施确保湿地环境安全和湿地资源的可持续利用。
    By statistical computation and RS/GIS method,the environmental risk factors,including hydrological characteristics of wetland,water pollution,land-use/cover and their evolution in lower reaches of the Weihe River,were analyzed.The results are as follows.(1) The quantities of the water and sand are changing dramatically in recent years,and their distribution with the decreasing tendency are not even.In flood season water from the Yellow River flows backward to the Weihe River,which relieves the threat resulted from the decreasing of water and sand supply,and reduces the risk for wetland brought by the changing mentioned above.(2) The degeneration of the hydrological environment of wetland lowers its purification capability,and increases its hydrological environment risk.(3) From 1989 to 2000,in the lower reaches of the Weihe River,the area of the wetland increasesd 12.96 km2 with an annual increase rate of 2.7%,and there were 2.002km2 and 0.94km2 of wetland become bare and saline land,respectively.In addition,0.03 km2 wetland was occupied by urban construction.(4) By some measures,such as strengthening lawmaking,fathering water pollution,reconstructing vegetation and enhancing management,environment safety and resources sustainable use will be come tuer.
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    从微体古生物研究探讨良渚文化突然消亡原因
    张玉兰
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (3): 376-379.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.03.376
    摘要   PDF (520KB)
    对广富林遗址05SGIT1240探方样品、马桥遗址05MMT4探方样品进行了孢粉、藻类研究,并根据孢粉、藻类成分特征,发现在良渚文化后期样品中水生植物花粉香蒲(Typha)、莎草科(Cyperaceae)、禾本科(Gramineae)中的芦苇及水生的蕨类植物槐叶萍(Salvinia)等有较多数量,淡水生的藻类环纹藻(Concentricystes)、双星藻(Zegnema)也相当丰富。结合有孔虫研究及前人巳有的资料,我们推测太湖地区良诸文化突然消亡的原因是由水泛造成的。
    According to the study on sporo-pollen and alga form 05SGIT1240 in Guangfulin relics and 05MMT4 in Maqiao relics,some Typha,Cyperaceae,Phragmites,and Salvinia of hydrophytes were found in the upper samples of Liangzhu culture.In addition,there were also plenty of Concentricystes and Zegnema,which lived in fresh water.Combined with the former information and foraminifera,the causes of the disappearance of Liangzhu culture in Taihu Lake area came from the flood water.
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    河北坝上地区湖泊沉积物记录的中全新世干旱气候
    朱江玲, 刘鸿雁, 王红亚
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (3): 380-384.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.03.380
    摘要   PDF (962KB)
    根据位于典型草原带的河北坝上地区白诺尔及毗邻的内蒙古乌兰诺尔湖泊沉积物的K、Na、Ca、Mg等化学元素组成、总有机碳(TOC)与氧同位素(δ18O)的分析,以(K+Na+Ca+Mg)/(Fe+Mn)值指示干旱度,1δ8O值指示夏季风的强弱,TOC值指示湖区植被状况,探讨了该地区14C测年9.8~5.3 ka B.P.以来的气候变化与环境变迁。结果表明:两个剖面所记录的气候变化趋势相近,14C测年7.0~5.7 ka B.P.为偏干期。反映夏季风强弱的氧同位素指标与干旱程度的变化没有明显的对应关系,说明夏季风引起的降水量变化不是气候干湿变化的主要影响因子,温度升高导致的蒸发加强可能对气候干旱化的影响更加明显。
    Based on the analyses of chemical elements(K,Na,Ca,Mg,etc.),total organic content(TOC) and oxygen isotope(δ18O) of two lacustrine sediment sequences from Bashang area of Hebei Province and its surrounding,(K+Ca+Na+Mg)/(Fe+Mn) was demonstrated to well indicate aridity change.δ18O and TOC were adopted as proxies of intensity of summer monsoon and vegetation cover respectively.Climatic changes of this area during 9.8-5.3 ka B.P.were reconstructed.It is shown that climate changes of both sequences were quite similar and an arid stage from 7.0-5.7 ka B.P.was detected.However,the intensity of summer monsoon did not necessary correspond with the changes of aridity,implying that precipitation brought by summer monsoon in the study area was not the major factor of aridity change.On the other hand,evapotranspiration in the marginal area of Pacific monsoon,also called summer monsoon,was deterministic to the climatic aridity.
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    天堂寨泥炭地层的磁化率、Rb/Sr值及其反映的古气候意义
    黄润, 朱诚, 王升堂
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (3): 385-389.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.03.385
    摘要   PDF (482KB)
    天堂寨泥炭地层记录了大别山北亚热带地区全新世中晚期以来气候变化。通过对地层剖面磁化率、Rb/Sr值测定和分析,结合14C测年,结果表明:大别山北亚热带地区中晚期以来气候变化可划分5个阶段:(1)5 700~5 050 cal.a B.P.,气候暖湿为主;(2)5 050~4 300 cal.a B.P.,以暖干为主,期间气候波动剧烈,气温出现过短暂而急剧的下降;(3)4 300~2 500 cal.a B.P.,气候总体上处于相对冷湿状态,波动不大;(4)2 500~1 400cal.a B.P.,气温有所回升;(5)1 400 cal.a B.P.至今,气候冷干;至现代,气候又有所回升。磁化率和Rb/Sr比值可作为泥炭恢复古气候古环境的代用指标,但与黄土剖面中所指示的环境意义正好相反,即低磁化率和Rb/Sr比值指示气候湿热,高磁化率和Rb/Sr比值指示气候干冷。
    A typical peat profile of Tiantangzhai in the Dabie Mountains was chosen for this study.The vertical distribution of magnetic susceptibility and Rb/Sr elements in the sediments of the profile was determined.Its implication for the palaeoclimatic change of the north subtropics in the Holocene were discussed.By means of magnetic susceptibility and Rb and Sr concentration analyses, combined with 14C dating,regional palaeoclimatic changes were divided into five periods since the middle and late Holocene:(1) warm-wet period of 5700-5050 cal.a B.P.;(2) warm-dry period of 5050-4300 cal.a B.P.,and during which climate fluctuated acutely,druing which abrupt climatic change occurred in 4600-4500 cal.a B.P.;(3) relatively cool-wet period of 4300-1400 cal.a B.P.,climate fluctuated gently;(4) relatively warm-dry period of 1400-800 cal.a B.P.;(5) cool-dry period from 1400 cal.a B.P.to nowadays,but temperature ascends again in modern times.Magnetic susceptibility and Rb/Sr ratio can be used as palaeclimatic proxy to identify peat records.Low magnetic susceptibility and Rb/Sr ratio indicate cool-dry climate condition,by contraries,high magnetic susceptibility and Rb/Sr ratio indicate warm-wet climate condition.
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    长江口北槽深水航道工程对周边滩涂冲淤影响研究
    杜景龙, 杨世伦
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (3): 390-394.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.03.390
    摘要   PDF (814KB)
    采用长江口深水航道治理一、二期工程实施前后的地形资料,在G IS软件及相关的统计分析软件的支持下,分析治理工程对九段沙(包括江亚南沙)和横沙东滩冲淤演变的影响。结果表明:工程建设6年来两岸滩涂面积增长了97 km2,其中横沙东滩优先采取了促淤工程,淤积规模较大,滩地面积累计增长了46 km2,是工程前的1.68倍;九段沙的淤积主要是受整治工程南导堤的影响,其中九段上沙及江亚南沙淤积最为强烈,工程后的面积分别是工程前的1.83倍和2.34倍。
    Based on the topographic maps drawn before and after the deep-water channel project of north pdzcassage and supported by the GIS software and correlative Stat.Software,this paper has described the influence of the regulation project on Jiuduansha Shoal and Hengsha East Shoal.The results show that the area of the shoals around the dykes has increased about 97 km2 since 1998.Hengsha East Shoal has increased about 46 km2 and become 1.68 times larger than before.The area of Jiuduanshangsha Shoal and Jiangyanansha Shoal has also increased greatly.They are 1.83 times and 2.34 times larger than those in 1998 respectively.The sudden accumulation of Jiuduanshangsha Shoal and Jiangyanansha Shoal attributes to the south bank of the project;at the same time,that of Hengsha East Shoal to the north bank of the project and the siltation-promoting project.
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    长江三角洲地区土壤重金属污染特征及潜在生态风险评价——以江苏太仓市为例
    钟晓兰, 周生路, 赵其国
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (3): 395-400.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.03.395
    摘要   PDF (761KB)
    太仓市表层土壤Zn、Cu属强变异强度,呈对数正态分布;Cd、Ni、Hg、As、Cr和Pb属中等变异强度,呈正态分布。Cu、Hg、Zn、As显著高于当地背景值,以As累积指数和超背景值率最高;8种重金属除As自表层向下递增外,其余元素均为表层向下递减。土壤复合污染严重,土壤潜在生态风险达中等水平,黄泥土生态风险高于沙夹垅;重金属生态风险以印染厂最大,其次为电镀厂和养殖场,产生潜在生态风险为Hg、Cd,而As、Cu、Zn、Cr、Ni、Pb等多属轻微水平。
    In this paper,soil contamination characteristics of 8 heavy metals(Cd,Cr,Cu,Ni,Hg,Pb,Zn and As) in the topsoil(0-20cm) from Taicang City,a typical region of the Yangtze River Delta,were analyzed,and ecological risk of soil heavy metals was evaluated by means of the potential ecological hazards index.Zn and Cu were distributed lognomally,strong in variability,while Cd,Ni,Hg,As,Cr and Pb were distributed nomally,medium in variability. The concentrations of Cu,Hg,Zn,As exceeded their background levels significantly,and As ranked first in contamination index and over limit rate.Except that As increased from the top down,all other soil heavy metals dropped off accordingly in the soil profile.Compound heavy metals contamination of the soil in Taicang was quite severe.The soil ecological hazard of Taicang was moderate,and the risk of well drained soil was higher than that of the sand with ridge.The soil heavy metals contamination was the most serious in the dyeing factories,followed by electric plating factories and breed factories.Hg and Cd brought the dominating potential ecological hazard,while As,Cu,Zn,Cr,Ni and Pb did slight hazard.
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    城市化进程中平原河网地区河流结构特征及其分类方法探讨
    袁雯, 杨凯, 吴建平
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (3): 401-407.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.03.401
    摘要   PDF (1022KB)
    平原河网地区河流结构发育受到自然条件和城市化的双重影响。依据遥感解译数据,围绕城市化水平、河流形态、河流结构和河流调蓄功能四个维度,就建成区面积比例、河流长宽分布、河系分维、河流调蓄能力等具体指标,分析了城市化水平和土地利用特征不同区域的河流空间形态、结构特征和功能状态,探讨了城市化进程中平原河网地区河流结构的可能演化轨迹,尝试建立了城市化影响下平原河网地区河流结构分类方法,提出了城市河流综合整治过程中应充分重视保护自然河流结构,注重发挥河流综合功能等观点。
    Stream structure development in river network regions was both affected by physical conditions and rapid urbanization.Based on remote-sensing data,four measuring dimensions including the degree of urbanization,river patterns,stream structure and river functions were brought forward to be used as tools for stream structure classification.Twelve indicators such as the percentage of urbanized area,river length and width distribution,river fractal dimension,river flood storage and control capacities were designed for explaining the four measuring dimensions and describing the characteristics of stream structure type.The characteristics of three kinds of stream structure that were defined as the mainstream type,and the "#" type and the natural type were discussed based on the classification system developed in the paper.The results showed that the mainstream type was formed mainly because of high level of urbanization and branches were engineered out for the sake of urban construction and expanded.The natural type was maintained mostly in the area with lower lever of urbanization,which always reflects the local physical features.The "#" type stream structure was a sort of result caused by intermediate level of urbanization under spatial distribution of mainstreams in a catchment.Generally,following the urbanization process,stream structure might be changed from the natural type to the "#" type and at last,to become the mainstream type.The paper further discussed the qualitative and quantitative criteria that could used to guide differentiating structure status in river network regions.The authors thought it was valuable and important to maintain natural stream structure and plan and restore multi-functions of rivers in the process of urbanization.
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    长江口崇明东滩潮间带甲烷(CH4)排放及其季节变化
    杨红霞, 王东启, 陈振楼, 陈华, 王军, 许世远, 杨龙元
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (3): 408-413.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.03.408
    摘要   PDF (925KB)
    2004年5月至2005年4月在长江口崇明东滩湿地采用原位静态箱法对甲烷(CH4)排放通量进行了现场测定。结果表明,崇明东滩潮间带(CM)是大气CH4的排放源,且CH4排放具有明显的季节变化规律,中潮滩(CM-2)7月CH4排放最多,其通量为9.27 mg/(m2·h),在次年4月排放最少,只有0.03 mg/(m2·h)。低潮滩(CM-3)在春季5月CH4排放最多,通量为0.09 mg/(m2·h);冬季2月CH4通量值最低,只有0.002 mg/(m2·h),中、低潮滩CH4年平均排放通量分别为2.06 mg/(m2·h)和0.04 mg/(m2·h)。
    CH4 emission flux was measured in Chongming east intertidal flat(CM) of the Yangtze River estuary by static closed chamber technique from May 2004 to April 2005.The results show that CM is the source of atmosphere CH4;and its emission had significant seasonal variation.Emission flux was highest in July from middle flat(CM-2),its flux was 9.27 mg/(m2穐),while the lowest CH4 flux was 0.03 mg/(m2穐) in April In low flat(CM-3) CH4 emission was maximum in May and its flux was 0.09 mg/(m2穐),while the minimum flux was 0.002 mg/(m2穐) in February.The annual average CH4 emission flux of was 2.06mg/(m2穐) from CM-2 and 0.04 mg/(m2穐) from CM-3 respectively.CH4 emission flux from CM-2 was higher than that from CM-3 obviously,and vegetation,temperature and contents of sediment organic carbon(OC) are major factors which control the CH4 emission.There were significant positive relationships between CH4 flux and temperature and illumination.The photosynthesis of the tidal flat plant,Scirpus mariqueter,increased the CH4 emission in CM-2,but the photosynthesis of bethonic alga and respiration of Scirpus mariqueter restrained the CH4 emission.
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    明代以来大陆泽与宁晋泊的演变过程
    石超艺
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (3): 414-419.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.03.414
    摘要   PDF (286KB)
    采用历史文献及地名学的研究方法,对明代以后海河南系平原地区的湖沼演变过程进行分析。结果表明,明代至16世纪后期,该区主要有南起任县、北至宁晋的广阔湖泊——大陆泽。17世纪初,大陆泽分解成南泊大陆泽与北泊宁晋泊。分解时,大陆泽比宁晋泊更为深广。此后大陆泽不断缩小,宁晋泊却持续扩大。至19世纪初,宁晋泊已3倍于大陆泽。19世纪二三十年代之后,两湖泊同时发生显著萎缩。19世纪末,大陆泽就已走向消涸,宁晋泊此时也已"不显泊形",并在20世纪初同样走向终结。
    The lakes once distributed all over the plain in the southern part of the Haihe River valley have now disappeared completely.As for the evolution and dry-up of these lakes,there are only general findings and conclusions, in need of further researches of higher resolution.Based on almost exhaustive historical archives and with the help of toponomy methods,this paper carries out an in-depth analysis to the evolution of the major lakes and clearly maps out the important evolving process from prosperity to extinction of these lakes.The principal findings are: During the Ming Dynasty to the late 16th century,there was the Daluze Lake,which extended from Renxian County at the southernmost to Ningjin County at the northernmost(both present location).In the early 17th century,the Daluze Lake disaggregated into two parts,with the Daluze Lake at the south and the Ningjinpo Lake at the north.On disaggregation,Daluze was deeper and wider than Ningjinpo.However,Ningjinpo thereafter continued to expand and,in the early 19th century,it became three times as large as Daluze,which was continuously shrinking.The two lakes simultaneously presented significant and rapid shrinkage since the 1820s or the 1830s.By the end of the 19th century,Daluze dried up entirely,while Ningjinpo could be hardly called a lake and at last became dry land by the end of 20th century.
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    长春市不同土地利用生境土壤甲虫群落结构特征
    吴东辉, 张柏, 陈鹏
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (3): 420-425.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.03.420
    摘要   PDF (1066KB)
    在长春市郊区天然次生林、农田、防护林和市区公园绿地等典型土地利用生境共捕获土壤甲虫32科598只,其中幼虫13科312只,成虫25科286只。应用个体密度、类群数量、群落多样性、丰富度和均匀度等指数,研究土壤甲虫的群落生态结构特征,了解土地利用差异对土壤甲虫群落结构的影响。研究结果表明:长春市不同土地利用生境凋落物的移除对土壤甲虫群落结构没有产生显著影响;农田土壤甲虫群落类群数、个体密度和多样性的降低源于生境作物品种单一和周期性的农田生产活动,防护林在空间上起着相邻农田物种交流廊道的作用;提高生境土壤甲虫群落类群数、个体密度和多样性的关键之一是保持生境类型的复杂性。
    The soil coleopteras in Changchun City were investigated with the emphasis laid on the species richness and abundance in relation to the types of land-use,i.e.,farmland,mangrove forest,Three-North Forest Shelterbelt and natural secondary forest in July and September in 2003.The soil coleopteras were hand-sorted and were identified to the families level with the aid of microscope.A total of 598 soil colepoterous individuals was captured and fell into 32 families.These results suggest that the litter removal of land use habitats affect negatively the communitiy structures of soil coleopteras.More and more simple crop type and seasonal agricultural activity reduced group number,individual density and biodiversity of soil coleopteras communities of crop field.Forest shelterbelt was the main corridor that soil coleopteras contact each other in different farmlands.These findings also suggest that keeping complex vegetation can improve group number,individual density and biodiversity of soil coleopteras communities in a habitat.
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    昆明世博会效应的定量估算:本底趋势线模型
    戴光全, 保继刚
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (3): 426-433.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.03.426
    摘要   PDF (971KB)
    对重大事件活动效应的估算是事件及事件旅游研究的重要问题。以往的研究提出了很多方法,由于财务统计资料不完整和相关影响难于界定,这些方法往往难于进行量化计算。以本底趋势线模型方法为依据,在对其进行改造的基础上,用通行的SPSS和Excel程序包进行统计分析,对1999昆明世博会的经济和旅游效应进行了定量评估。
    In the field of event impacts assessment(EIA),there are many quantitative methods given in western event and event tourism existing literatures.Like the general EIA method,the classical method assessing the economic effects of World Fairs(Expo) is "cost-benefit analysis",and the basic technique is "input-output method" or called "inter-industrial relations analysis". These methods are usually not easy to calculate because the financial statistic data are always imperfect and most indices of effects are difficult to quantitatively define.Furthermore,it is more difficult to extract the event′s effects from multi-factors that affect the destination′s development just as to extract the tourism′s impacts alone from multi-factors affecting the changes of economies,environments and societies.Taking the 14th International Horticulture Exposition in Kunming 1999(i.e.Expo′99 Kunming) as an one-time mega-event case,the paper deals with the problem of imperfect financial data and the difficult extraction of event′s impacts from multi-factors of socio-economic development using the method of Background Trend Line Model(BTLM) presented by SUN Gen-Nian.With SPSS and Excel packages,the paper calculates the affected values, the contribution values and corresponding ratios of the Expo to Kunming′s tourism industry and GDP.Resulted from the quantitative analyses,the conclusions are that the Expo′99 Kunming made the position of its tourism industry in the national economy development,the ratios of the tourism added values to GDP and the tierary industry’s added value improved in 1999,the hosted year of the Expo. But after the Expo ended,these increasing trends stopped,all indices reduced from 2000 and fluctuated from 2001,and dropped down acutely due to SARS in the year 2003.Thus the Expo is just an irregular event and it has not influenced the long-time total pulsating trend of Kunming′s tourism industry and its position in the national economy.
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    旅游者空间行为及其国内外研究综述
    林岚, 许志晖, 丁登山
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (3): 434-439.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.03.434
    摘要   PDF (868KB)
    学者们对于旅游者空间行为往往是基于这样的理解:旅游者空间行为是旅行行为地域移动的游览过程。以动态分析视角,对旅游者空间行为概念进行重新界定,认为旅游者空间行为有广义和狭义之分,并对其国内外相关研究进行系统总结和评价。
    To the spacial behavior of tourists,scholars think it is a sight-seeing course drived by special behavior.Based of dynamic analyzing,the authors newly define the meaning of the spacial behavior of tourists,and think the spatial behavior of tourists has broad and narrow sense.The paper tries to summary the work of researchers on the spatial behavior of tourists,hoping to offer some references for researches on the behavior of tourism.
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    国家标准“城市火险气象等级”的研制
    陈正洪, 杨宏青, 张强
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (3): 440-444.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.03.440
    摘要   PDF (760KB)
    比较各地城市火险气象预报因子、方法和等级标准,选取普遍采用的5个气象因子;日最小相对湿度、连续无降水日数对城市火险的贡献最大,指数范围分别为0~40和0~30,日最高温度、日最大风力0~20,日降水量0~-20,综合指数范围一般为0~100进行等间隔划分,得到从低到高5级城市火险气象等级标准。通过两项试验来优化等级划分效果:1)从北到南选取5个城市,比较上述方法与各地方法计算的2001年1、4、7、10月逐日火险等级,经过反复调试,使两套方法计算的等级完全一致和相差一级合计在85%以上;2)统计全国31个中心城市2000~2003年逐日城市火险气象等级5级分布的概率,使之基本符合正态分布。从而得到各气象因子的划分范围、对应城市火险气象指数值以及综合城市火险气象等级标准,给出相应名称和指示意义。
    After the comparing of the weather factors,predicting method and ratings standard for urban fire research and operation all over the country,five weather factors are selected for the research: daily minimum relative humidity(index 0-40),number of consecutive days without precipitation(index 0-30),daily maximum air temperature(index 0-20),daily maximum wind strength or velocity(index 0-20) and daily rainfall(index 0-20),and the complex index generally range from 0 to 100 and can be divided to five ratings from low to high.Two experiments are designed to optimize the effect of ratings division: 1) daily fire-danger ratings in four typical months of 2001 for 5 cities from north to south in China are calculated by using above method and local method and compared,and the index with factors are adjusted to make coincidence ratio of two daily rating sequence higher and the correct ratio of ratings ≥85%(supposed that the predicting value has only one or no rating error with actual rating;2) the total number of every rating for thirteen central cities in China from 2000 to 2003 are calculated and made to fit with the normal distribution.Then,the dividing range of weather factors,corresponding urban fire-danger index and ratings are determined,and the ratings are named.
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    清代泾河中游地区洪涝灾害研究
    刘晓清, 赵景波, 于学峰
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (3): 445-448.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.03.445
    摘要   PDF (729KB)
    频谱分析发现泾河中游地区洪水发生具有周期性,比较显著的周期有101年、11年、3.4~2.2年周期等,其中101年和11年周期可以和太阳活动的周期相对应,3.4~2.2年周期则可能与热带海气耦合规律有关,说明太阳活动和低纬海洋大气活动对该地区洪涝灾害都有影响。每个世纪中期是该地区洪涝灾害较为集中的时期。
    We have done the reanalysis on the data of flood hazards in the mid-reaches of Jinghe River from 1646 to 1949,using the historical document.As a result,it is found that the flood hazards in this area are mostly local ones in a small scale.It is worth to point out that the flood hazards in the study area happened more frequently in the middle of the 20th.Spectral analysis on the flood sequence indicates that there exist periodicities of 101 years,11 years and 3.4-2.2 years in the mid-reaches of the Jinghe Rive.The centennial and quasi-decennial periodicities can be well correlated respectively to those of solar activity;the periodicity of 3.4-2.2 years is probably associated with the activity of tropical air mass,which indicates that both the solar activity and the atmospheric activity in the area of low latitude ocean can influence the frequency of flood hazards in the study region.
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