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CN 22-1124/P
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  • 地理科学
      2007年, 第27卷, 第6期 刊出日期:2007-11-20 上一期    下一期
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    论文
    中国城市居民出行的时空特征及影响因素研究
    张文尝, 王成金, 马清裕
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (6): 737-742.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.06.737
    摘要   PDF (846KB)
    城市居民交通出行是目前城市地理学和交通地理学日益关注的研究领域,其中,居民出行调查与分析是改善城市交通布局的主要依据。在介绍城市居民出行基本概念和研究内容的基础上,利用收集信息与在北京、成都和大连三市16居住区1400余份调查问卷的数据,分析了城市居民交通出行的基本特征和动态变化以及区域差异,其中重点剖析了交通出行总量、出行目的、出行方式。重点从影响因素的角度,考察了城市居民出行的发生机理,包括城市规模和城市条件、居住区位、居民经济水平等。
    Urban resident trips is becoming a focus in the research fields to urban geographers and transportation geographers,and its survey and analysis are the basis to improve urban transportation.In this paper,the authors induced the conception and studying contents of urban resident trips,then based on 1400 questionnaires from 16 residential districts in 3 cities including Beijing,Dalian and Chengdu,the authors analyzed characteristics,changes and region differences of urban resident trips,especially discussed its trips scale,trips reasons and traffic mode.Besides the author analyzed the developing mechanism of urban resident from the influence factors,including the urban scale and urban conditions,residence location and income of resident.
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    珠江三角洲交通与土地利用空间关系研究
    曹小曙, 马林兵, 颜廷真
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (6): 743-748.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.06.743
    摘要   PDF (872KB)
    利用1990年和2000年的影像及统计数据,分析了珠江三角洲交通与土地利用的空间关系。结果表明,沿交通干线城镇建设用地与耕地呈现明显的廊道效应,离交通线距离越远,耕地所占比例逐渐增加,而城镇建设用地所占比例逐渐减少,空间分异现象明显。城镇建设和居民点建设以交通干线为依托,交通干线发展建设对耕地的冲击较强。通过对综合土地利用动态度和交通干线变化度的相关性分析,交通干线是影响区域土地利用变化的一个重要因素。如果不加控制地发展交通干线,势必对区域的土地利用产生不良的影响,特别是不利于耕地的保护。因此,要适当地控制交通干线的选址和建设规模,以稳定土地变化的速率,使整个珠江三角洲区域向良性、可持续地方向发展。
    The paper analyses the spatial relationship between transportation and land-use,through the remote sensing figures and data statistics in the year of 1990 and 2000.It showed that the town constructed land and cultivated land show a corridor effect obviously along the transportation trunk line.The spatial differentiation is visible and the further the distance from the transportation line,the more the cultivated land,meanwhile the less the town constructed land.Town constructed land and residential area development rely on transportation development which will strike much on cultivated land.Through the pertinent analysis on dynamic degree of comprehensive land utilization and diversification degree of transportation trunk line,it reveals that the transportation trunk line is one of the key factors influencing the regional land utilization diversification.The exorbitant and inconsequential development of the transportation trunk line certainly will make negative effects on the regional land utilization,especially on the protection of cultivated land.Therefore,for the purpose of stabilizing the rate of land diversification,and the sustainable development of Pearl River Delta,the location and scale of transportation trunk line should be controlled properly.
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    区域经济增长时空分异模拟方法——以京津冀都市圈为例
    徐勇, 马国霞, 郭腾云
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (6): 749-755.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.06.749
    摘要   PDF (1175KB)
    区域经济增长是有着丰富时空内涵的动态变化过程,认识和定量分析这种动态变化过程一直受到广泛关注。借助农业区位论、增长极理论和梯度推移理论的学术思想、概念和术语,在量化定义区域经济增长空间概念的基础上,提出了基于GIS技术的区域经济增长时空分异模拟方法,进而以京津冀都市圈为例进行实证研究和专业分析。研究结果表明:京津冀都市圈由城市增长极中心向外围,随着距离的增大,经济增长呈现出了显著的衰减特征,不同城市之间存在着明显的经济低谷地带。1993~2003年期间,都市圈的经济增长时空分异尤以京、津两市的极化增长最为显著;京、津两大增长极除对唐山方向有拉动效应外,对其它地市的带动辐射力度尚较小;都市圈内部的城市等级还未完全展开,尚未形成合理的梯度推移和梯级演化结构。
    Regional economic growth is a complicated dynamic process reflected by two variables of space and time,and quantitative analysis of that process has been always attracting wide attention.On the grounds of the basic concepts and academic thoughts of agricultural location theory,growth pole theory and gradient shift theory,this paper first quantifies the concept of regional economic growth space,then provides one method based on GIS to simulate the spatial and temporal differentiation of regional economic growth,and finally carries out a professional analysis across cities of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei(BTH) Metropolitan Region.Results of the case study are shown as follows: 1) The economic development across different cities in BTH Metropolitan Region decays remarkably with the distance growing from the center of city(which can be seen as the growth pole) to its periphery,and there exist less-developed areas in different growth poles of city.The economic valley zone between the city of Beijing and Baoding is 80-100km to the center of Beijing,and that between Baoding and Shijiazhuang is 80-120km to the city center of Shijiazhuang.2) The characteristics of the spatial and temporal differentiation of economic growth in BTH Metropolitan Region over the 1993-2003 period embodies in the polarized development of the two largest city of Beijing and Tianjin.The pull effect of Beijing and Tianjin as the growth pole of BTH Metropolitan Region to its peripheral cities is comparatively weak except to Tangshan,and the pattern of gradient shift and the structure of gradient evolution in BTH Metropolitan Region have not come into being.3) As predicted,BTH Metropolitan Region would still be in the stage of polarizing growth in the coming 5-10 years,and the characteristics of regional economic differentiation will still embody polarized growth of city.
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    区域产业集聚理论初步研究
    马延吉
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (6): 756-760.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.06.756
    摘要   PDF (724KB)
    区域产业集聚要素主要分析行为主体要素、生产要素、支撑要素、时空要素、社会文化制度。区域产业集聚结构主要包括生产结构、空间结构与组织结构。产业在一定区域集聚发展有一定的功能效益,产业集聚发展有助于竞争力的提高,区域产业集聚的理想状态是促进区域可持续发展。对区域产业集聚机制的分析,从要素流动、区位因素、需求与成本因素、技术进步、分工、贸易等角度展开,侧重分析全球化与市场机制。对区域产业集聚的一般规律进行探讨,包括集聚与扩散的统一规律、周期发展规律等。区域产业集聚是在动态发展变化的,区域产业集聚具有开放性。区域产业集聚体现了产业集聚与区域之间的辨证关系,是人地关系的集中体现。区域产业集聚研究是地理学人地关系系统研究的重要命题。
    The paper puts forward the skeleton of regional industrial agglomeration,including factors,structure,function,mechanism and laws.The factors include main body,producing,bases,time and space,social culture and institution.The structure has three aspects including producing structure,spatial structure and organizational structure.With the development of industrial agglomeration,city or region will improve the competitiveness and sustainable development.Mechanism of industrial agglomeration has many aspects including factors flowing and location selecting,cost decreasing and benefit driving,knowledge sharing and technique progressing,trade pulling and globe responding,planning force and market force.Under the new backgrounds mechanism of industrial agglomeration in old industrial base should be changed.Function of market in collocating resources should be enforced,enterprises’ management and pattern should be changed and knowledge forces should be enlarged.Regional industrial agglomeration should be in harmony with globalization and nation′s development.Regional industrial agglomeration should harmony with population,resources and environment.Territorial production complex should be improved,and many kinds of models of industrial agglomeration should be fostered.The general law of regional industrial agglomeration embodies on periodicity and the systematics of agglomeration and dispersion.The development of regional industrial agglomeration has the characteristic of dynamics and openness.Study on regional industrial agglomeration is an important aspect of human geography.In China,as a response to globalization and foundation of socialist market economy,it is helpful for reconstruction of an agglomeration,and it is a key problem in studying regional industrialization and urbanization.
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    人海关系地域系统探讨
    韩增林, 刘桂春
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (6): 761-767.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.06.761
    摘要   PDF (891KB)
    人地关系是地理学研究的核心内容,海洋作为整个地球表层系统的重要组成部分一直与人类社会的发展息息相关。人海关系是广义人地关系组成部分和延展,开展人海关系研究具有丰富人地关系理论和引导海洋可持续发展的双重价值。阐述人海关系与人海关系地域系统的内涵与特性,并分析人海关系地域系统的空间结构和地域类型。进而从人类对海洋资源的开发利用强度角度,简要论述人海关系地域系统的演化,并分析其演化机制。
    The core content of the geography study is man-land relation.The ocean is a very important component of the earth system as a whole.It has been closely connected with the development of human society.Having reviewed a considerable amount of literature concerning man-land relation and marine studies,this paper attempts to study the interaction between human society and the sea on a geographic perspective,namely man-sea relation.Man-sea relation is part and extension of the man-land relation in a broad sense.Studies carried out in this field are of significance to not only the enrichment of the theories of man-land relation,but also marine sustainable development.In the beginning this paper expounds the meaning and characteristics of man-sea relation and regional system of man-sea relation.Then the spatial structure and areal types of the regional system of man-sea relation is discussed.In the end the evolution of the man-sea relation and its mechanism are briefly analyzed in the terms of man’s exploitation of marine resources.
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    长山群岛海洋农牧化海域环境分区研究
    张耀光, 张岩, 王宁
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (6): 768-773.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.06.768
    摘要   PDF (550KB)

    海洋农牧化就是要在海域中,对贝、藻、鱼、虾类生物资源进行人工养殖、增殖以提高资源量。从捕天然生物资源转变成为以捕增养殖资源为主的生产方式。通过对长山群岛海域发展海洋农牧化的海域环境以及海水的理化因子等进行评价,并对该海域海水增养殖的发展状况、养殖品种及构成变化特征进行了分析,最后,应用主成份—聚类分析方法,将长山群岛海域环境划分为三个海洋农牧化区域,为因海制宜、合理布局海水增养殖生产提供科学依据。


    Marine agricultural-pastoralization is a production mode used in marine region,which exploits resources from reproduction,instead of natural biology,through artificial cultivation of biological resources such as shell,algae,fish,shrimp and so on.At first,this paper appraises the factors such as maritime spatial environment and physic chemistry to develop marine agricultural-pastoralization in marine region of Changshan Islands.Then the authors gave an analysis oh marine reproduction,the developing situation and types of the marine farming,as well as the trend of changes of constitution.In the end,the maritime spatial environment of Changshan Islands is divided to three regions by the method of principal component-cluster analysis,which provides a scientific basis to marine farming for reasonable layout.

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    广州市土地安全预警系统与RBF评估模型的构建
    郑荣宝, 刘毅华, 董玉祥
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (6): 774-778.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.06.774
    摘要   PDF (1040KB)
    土地资源安全预警是区域资源安全研究的重点,通过构建具有实际操作意义的土地资源安全预警系统,可以进行土地资源安全的综合分析,以此来判断城市土地资源安全变化趋势。以广州市为例,应用人工神经网络改进模型(RBF)进行土地资源安全的综合评价,表明广州市土地资源安全已由轻警转为中警状态。实践证明RBF模型对土地资源安全综合评价具有较高的客观性和准确性。
    The land safe pre-warning is the key point of regional resources precaution research.Through constructing an actually operative pre-warning system of land safly,we can analyze and judge the changing tendency of land safety.The hazard degree in Guangzhou was evaluated by the model of Radical Basis Function(RBF).The results indicate that the degree of land safety has changed from light warning degree to middle warning degree.The practice proves that the RBF is an accurate and objective model in evaluating hazard degree of land safety.
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    中国杰出体育竞技人才成长因素的地理分析——以奥运冠军为例
    吴殿廷, 赵江, 刘鸽, 肖敏
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (6): 779-784.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.06.779
    摘要   PDF (689KB)
    在建立奥运冠军数据库的基础上,用多元统计分析的方法总结出奥运冠军分布的时空特征,考察了影响奥运冠军成长的地理环境因素。奥运冠军籍贯分布东多西少;南北平分秋色,但力量型项目主要集中在东北和华北,技术型项目主要集中在江浙、中南和西南。父母生理素质的遗传为子女的成长提供了客观可能,但后天的刻苦训练更为重要;经济不落后的地区,有资金支持体育竞技项目,杰出体育竞技人才培养得较多;家庭经济不太好,父母才舍得让子女从事体育竞技项目,子女才肯于吃苦,更可能在力量型项目上夺得冠军。教练是影响杰出体育竞技人才成材的最关键人物;不同的自然地理环境造就不同类型的运动员;社会舆论对运动员既是压力也是动力,国家政策上的支持及对外交流,也是一个优秀运动员成长的不可缺少因素。
    On the foundation of a database of Olympic champions,the characteristics of spatial and temporal distribution were summarized,geographical factors,which affect the growth of Olympic champion,were investigated,and many valuable phenomena were found out. There are more champions in the eastern China than that in the western China.Generally,athletes in events require more physical strength are usually from the northeastern China and North China and those in items needed more skill come from the southwestern China,Zhejiang,and Jiangsu provinces.There is not a close relationship between parents who were good at sports and the probability of their kids to be champions,while the rate of being champions is high in ordinary family,especially child who was brought up in poor family was more likely to be a champion.For Olympic champions themselves,coach is a key person in his development. Different natural environment nurtures athletes who were professional in different kinds of sports.The public voice is both stress on and motivity to athletes.Support from national policy and communication with aboard were also indispensable factors for a champion’s development.
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    喀斯特山区石漠化成因的差异性定量研究——以贵州省盘县典型石漠化地区为例
    李阳兵, 邵景安, 周国富, 龙健
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (6): 785-790.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.06.785
    摘要   PDF (971KB)
    珠东区的轻中度石漠化主要由人为因素引起,强度以上石漠化则由人为因素和恶劣的自然条件共同造成;保基区的轻中度石漠化主要是人为因素引起,强度以上石漠化则由自然因素造成;红果区的自然条件好于其它两个研究区,石漠化尤其是强度石漠化主要是土地利用强度大造成的,坡耕地发生中度甚至极强度石漠化。喀斯特石漠化土地的成因类型与恢复治理模式密切相关,在确定石漠化土地的治理恢复模式和治理重点时,有必要考虑石漠化土地的土地利用成因和成因的地域差异性。
    Based on land rocky desertification and land use data in 2004(scale: 1:50000),the land use types distribution in different rock types and occurrence ratio of rocky desertification in different land use types at Zhudong,Hongguo and Baoji rocky desertification landscapes which are located in Panxian County,Guizhou Province,were studied quantitatively.Results indicate that slight rocky desertification land is distributed in shrub land mainly,and the rocky desertification in sloping cropland accounts for 11.67% of it;moderate rocky desertification is distributed in moderate coverage grass slopes mainly,intense rocky desertification is distributed in rocky dry-land which is difficult to use,showing that the slight and moderate rocky desertification were resulted from artificial causes,intense and very intense rocky desertification were induced by both of artificial causes and bad natural factors probably in Zhudong area.The slight and moderate rocky desertification lands were resulted from anthropogenic factors and the intense and very intense rocky desertification by natural factors at Baoji area.The natural conditions in Hongguo are superior than other two districts,so the occurrence of rocky desertification,particularly the intense rocky desertification were induced by intense land use,for example,there were moderate and very intense rocky desertification in sloping cropland.Rehabilitation measures correlated highly with different formation causes of karst rocky desertified lands,it was necessary to take the land use genesis types and its spatial difference into consider when design the control emphasis and rehabilitation models.
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    基于集中度与集中期的径流年内分配研究
    刘贤赵, 李嘉竹, 宿庆, 王春芝, 李希国
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (6): 791-795.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.06.791
    摘要   PDF (992KB)
    借鉴年降水量年内分配的向量法,描述径流年内分配的径流集中度和集中期,尝试提出一种计算河川径流年内分配不均匀性的定量新方法。实例研究表明,用月径流量计算的集中度比径流年内不均匀系数有更高的分辨能力和敏感性,用月径流量计算的集中期对应的月份与月径流最大值出现的实际月份完全一致,径流集中度、集中期能够充分定量地表征径流在年内分配的非均匀性。
    Runoff-concentration degree(RCD)and runoff-concentration period(RCP)were defined by means of vector composition computing annual distribution of yearly precipitation.At the same time,the quantification method was proposed to describe and compute the non-uniformity in annual distribution of stream flows.Case study showed that the concentration degree calculated by monthly runoff volume had higher resolving power and sensitivity than that of non-uniform coefficient denoting annual runoff distribution.The month corresponding to runoff concentration period computed by monthly runoff was closely consistent with actual month in which maximum of monthly runoff appeared.It was proved that runoff concentration degree and concentration period could well display the non-uniformity in the annual distribution of runoff.The results above suggested that the method was feasible and the estimated result was believable.
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    中国云贵高原喀斯特地区春旱特征分析
    袁淑杰, 缪启龙, 谷晓平, 邱新法, 周涛, 康为民
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (6): 796-800.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.06.796
    摘要   PDF (1126KB)
    利用1951~2004年54年88个站3~5月日降水量资料,计算云贵喀斯特地区春旱强度指数,对该区春旱强度指数时间序列进行小波分析,揭示云贵喀斯特地区春旱强度指数变化的多时间尺度的复杂结构。结果表明:全区范围内春旱强度指数序列变化具有明显的周期和突变点,春旱强度指数存在22年左右的周期特征。特重区、严重区13~15年的周期也很显著,并存在2~3年的主周期;中旱区和轻旱区还具有9~11年的周期,存在3~4年的主周期。根据主周期进行预测,特重区、严重区干旱程度将加重;轻旱区、中旱区干旱程度将减轻。同时还分析了春旱的分布特征、形成的环流场和物理因子。
    Using the daily precipitation data from March to May of 88 stations from 1951 to 2004 in the karst region of Yunnan and Guizhou Plateau(KRYGP),the indexes of the spring drought intensity(ISDI)are calculated.The temporal series of the ISDI are analyzed by Morlet wavelet function.The complex multi-time scale structure of the ISDI variation is studied.The results show that the ISDI sequence variations have the discontinuity points and apparent 22-yearly periods in all regions.They have obvious 13-15(9-11)-year periods,with 2-3(3-4)-year as the most pronounced period in extra-severe and severe drought regions(medium and light drought ones).The drought degree will get heavier(lighter) in extra-severe and severe drought regions(medium and light drought ones) by period forecast.We also study the spring drought’s spatial and temporal feature,circulation forms and physical factors.
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    近40年来塔里木河流域旱涝的气候变化
    李红军, 江志红, 魏文寿
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (6): 801-807.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.06.801
    摘要   PDF (1003KB)
    以Mann-Kendall检验、z指数变换、最大熵谱和气候趋势系数方法分析塔里木河流域降水突变、旱涝等级、旱涝周期与趋势的时空变化。结果表明:近40年来,流域各段的降水量都有增加的趋势,且存在突变,从源流区至下游突变时间依次提前;20世纪60年代流域干旱多,旱情较重;70~80年代中期属于转换期,出现旱情和涝情较重;80年代后期以后干旱明显减少,雨涝居多,涝情重;90年代中期以来,下游趋势与其余区域不同;准3年周期是流域各段最重要的变化周期。近40年来,上游变湿显著,源流区和中游不显著,下游有微弱变湿趋势;NAO对中上游旱涝影响显著,对全流域影响较大。
    Based on the monthly precipitation of 13 stations in the Tarim River Basin between Apri1 and September from 1961 to 2001,the mann-Kendall method was used to test the abrupt change of precipitation,the Z index,the Maximum entropy transformation and climatic tendency coefficient were used to calculate the grads,cycle and tendency of drought-flood.The results show:(1)the precipitation of source area,upper,middle and lower reaches increased in different periods,and the abrupt changes occurred in the every increase process,the abrupt change time is more and more earlier from source area to the lower reaches,the time was in 1990,1975,1973 and 1969.(2)The drought was frequent and serious in the 1960s,the times of drought decreased and times of flood increased from the 1970s to the middle of the 1980s,while these droughts and floods were serious.The times of drought decreased obviously while the times of flood was dominant from the later period of the 1980s to earlier period of the 1990s,the flood was dominant and most serious,while drought was less and light.Since the middle of the 1990s,the increase of flood was main in source area,upper reaches and middle reaches,but the flood was becoming light in these areas,while the variation of lower reaches was different from the others,its times of flood decreased,while its times of drought increased and drought was becoming serious.(3)The cycles of drought-flood are 2.5 years and 13.3 years in source area,40 years,6.7 years and 2.5 years in the upper reaches,10 and 2.7 years in the middle reaches,2.4 years,6.7 years and 3.3 years in the lower reaches.The tendency of drought-flood was becoming wet,the test show that the tendency was prominent in the upper reaches,faint in the lower reaches and not obvious in the middle reaches.(4)The NAO′s impact on drought-flood is remarkable in the upper reaches and the middle reaches.
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    宛川河阶地的年代与下切机制
    胡小飞, 潘保田, 苏怀, 安春雷, 周天
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (6): 808-813.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.06.808
    摘要   PDF (717KB)
    宛川河是黄河一条小规模支流,在榆中盆地中发育了至少四级堆积阶地。以"古土壤断代法"为基础,结合OSL测年和14C测年,较准确的确定了宛川河四级阶地形成的年代为330、130、50和10 ka。区域构造表明榆中盆地相对下陷,地面抬升不是引起河流下切的主要原因,同时阶地位相说明作为宛川河侵蚀基准面的黄河对宛川河下切影响只限于距河口不远的一小段距离。每级阶地面上都堆积一层古土壤指示宛川河下切于古土壤开始发育时期,对应于气候由冷干向暖湿转换的时期,河流下切的主要原因是气候变化。
    The Wanchuan River,which is a small tributary of the Huanghe(Yellow) River,has developed four staircases of river terrace at least within Yuzhong Basin.Based on "Paleosol-dating",combining OSL dating and 14C dating,we demonstrate that the beginning ages of incision of T4,T3,T2 and T1 were 330 ka,130 ka,50 ka and 10 ka,respectively.Analysis of regional geological structure and terrace feature indicates that tectonic uplift has not played significant role in river incision,and the Huanghe River,the base level of Wanchuan River,has influenced only a short segment of downstream of the river.The paleosal developed on the surface of each river terrace indicates that river incision began in the period during climate transformation from dry cold phase to humid warm phase,when the paleosal development began in the Loess Plateau,so the main cause of river incision is climate change.
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    小兴安岭森林生态系统中营养元素关系及土壤动物的作用
    殷秀琴, 刘继亮, 高明
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (6): 814-819.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.06.814
    摘要   PDF (861KB)
    对小兴安岭森林生态系统6个主要林型的凋落叶、土壤动物和土壤三者之间营养元素关系研究,凋落叶、土壤动物和土壤中营养元素的平均含量不同,它们的变异程度也不同。蚯蚓、线蚓、蜈蚣和其它类群土壤动物体内营养元素的方差分析结果表明,K、Ca、Mg、Fe对土壤动物的生长发育影响较大。凋落叶、土壤动物和土壤之间K、Na、Fe的线性关系较强,反映了凋落叶-土壤动物-土壤间K、Na、Fe联系密切。凋落叶和土壤中营养元素与土壤动物的生物量、密度和类群数的关系密切,平均关联度的顺序为,类群数>生物量>密度。
    This paper studied the relationships of nutrient elements of litter,soil fauna and soil from six major forest types of Xiao Hinggan Mountains.It was revealed that both the average content of elements and the variance from litter,soil fauna and soil in different forest types were not the same.The variance analyses(ANOVA) of nutrient elements from earthworm,enchytraeidae,centipede and other soil fauna showed that K,Ca,Mg and Fe had an influence on the growth of soil faunas.The significant linear relationship of K,Na and Fe with litter,soil fauna and soil indicated that these elements were closely related with litter,soil fauna and soil.Furthermore,the nutrient elements in leaf litter and soil were closely related to the biomass,density,and group of soil fauna.The order of the average relevant coefficient was: group>biomass>density.
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    三江平原水环境中可溶性铁的分布特征研究
    潘月鹏, 阎百兴, 路永正, 杨宗兴, 张凤英
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (6): 820-824.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.06.820
    摘要   PDF (432KB)
    2005~2007年共6次采集了三江平原主要河流和水田集中分布区的地下水水样,分析可溶性铁含量。结果显示:地下水中Fe2+含量普遍高于Fe3+;可溶性铁含量变化于0.03~21.00 mg/L,平均为5.48 mg/L,最大值出现在夏汛期。江河水中可溶性铁的主要形态是Fe3+;可溶性铁含量的变化范围是0.04~2.05 mg/L,平均为0.42 mg/L,峰值也出现在夏汛期;沼泽性河流中可溶性铁含量高于非沼泽性河流。松花江可溶性铁输出通量为240×105kg/a,黑龙江为200×105kg/a,乌苏里江为70×105kg/a。
    River and groundwater samples were collected from Sanjiang Plain in Northeast China in middle Heilong River watershed from 2005 to 2007 to study the temporal and spatial distribution of water-soluble ionic iron(WSIFe,including Fe2+ and Fe3+).It can be concluded that the concentration of Fe2+ is generally higher than Fe3+ in the groundwater.The concentration of WSIFe ranged from 0.03 to 21.00 mg/L,with an average of 5.48 mg/L,and fluctuated with the groundwater level.In the river water samples,WSIFe presented in form of Fe3+,and the concentration of WSIFe ranged from 0.04 to 2.05 mg/L,with an average of 0.42 mg/L.The content reached a peak in the flood season.The concentration of WSIFe in the rivers derived from marsh is much higher compared to the river derived from forest areas.The WSIFe flux of upper-middle Heilong River,lower Songhua River and lower Wussuri River was 200?105 kg/yr,240?105 kg/yr and 70?105 kg/yr,respectively.
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    珠江三角洲地区降水中δ18O的变化特征及与ENSO的关系
    薛积彬, 钟巍, 赵引娟
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (6): 825-830.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.06.825
    摘要   PDF (1615KB)
    根据2004年5月至2005年6月广州降水中δ18O与IAEA/WMO提供的1961~2001年香港降水中δ18O及相关气象资料,分析了珠江三角洲地区降水中δ18O在不同时间尺度下的变化特征及与ENSO事件的关系。在天气尺度和季节尺度下,该地区降水中δ18O与温度、降水量均存在显著的负相关关系;在年际变化上,该地区降水中δ18O与温度、降水量的关系较为复杂。珠江三角洲地区年平均降水中δ18O与Nino3区SST和南方涛动指数具有显著的相关性,表明ENSO事件对该地区降水中稳定同位素的变化具有重要影响。
    The oxygen isotope in precipitation collected at Guangzhou Wushan meteorological station from May 2004 to June 2005 together with the observation by IAEA/WMO are analyzed under different time scales and its relationship with ENSO event is also analyzed in this paper.Under climatic and seasonal scale,the magnitude of δ18O has reverse correlations with the temperature and the precipitation respectively.The magnitude of δ18O in this region has notable precipitation effect but without temperature effect.The seasonal variations of δ18O in precipitation are evident,resulting from the influences of the monsoon climate and different vapor sources on the isotope composition of precipitation.Under annual scale,there are complicated correlations between the δ18O in precipitation and the temperature and the precipitation,i.e.,in different time stages the positive and negative correlations appears alternately,which seems to have some periodicity at a certain extent.Furthermore,there are distinct positive correlations between the SOI,SST in Nino-3 and the δ18O in precipitation in Hongkong station respectively,showing that the strong signal form ENSO has important impact on the variations of stable isotopes in precipitation at the Zhujiang River Delta.
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    东北地区泥炭表土中植硅体的形态特征
    张新荣, 胡克, 王东坡
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (6): 831-836.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.06.831
    摘要   PDF (728KB)
    表土沉积物中植硅体组合研究是恢复第四纪古植被、重建第四纪古环境、划分对比地层的基础。对东北地区41个地点的泥炭表土进行植硅体分析,发现东北泥炭表土中植硅体含量丰富,主要可分为哑铃型、鞍型、扇型、帽型、尖型、齿型、棒型、方型、长方型、梯型和其它11种类型。植硅体表面形态特征不一,表面纹饰多为突起或凹坑,其中哑铃型植硅体可细分为2种,扇型、齿型和棒型植硅体各分5种,帽型和尖型植硅体各分3种。
    The study of phytolith in the surface deposits of different sediments is a basic work of Quaternary researches such as paleobotanic recovery,paleoenvironment reconstruction,stratum contrastion,etc.Through the phytolith study of surface deposits from 41 peat areas in Northeast China,plenty of phytolith are found.They can be divided into 11 types: dumbbell-shaped,saddled,fan-shaped,square-shaped,rectangular-shaped,trapezium-shaped,crenate-shaped,cap-shaped,point-shaped,elongate,and other shapes.The surfaces of each kind of phytolith are different,most of the decorations are concave or protuberant.The Sculpture on the dumbbell-shaped phytolith can be divided into 2 kinds,fan-shaped,crenate-shaped and elongate-shaped phytolith can be divided into 5 kinds,and cap-shaped and point-shaped phytolith can be divided into 3 kinds.
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    面向对象分类在城市地表不可透水度提取中的应用
    孙志英, 赵彦锋, 陈杰, 李桂林, 檀满枝
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (6): 837-842.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.06.837
    摘要   PDF (1037KB)
    以南京市为例,以多尺度分割和面向对象分类方法为主要技术,利用不同层次上表现出的地物信息之间的关系自动提取城市地表不可透水度信息。结果表明,南京市地表不可透水度主要集中在50%~99%间,分布在建邺区、下关区和鼓楼区;不可透水度较低区域集中分布在文教及机关聚集的玄武区等;面向对象分类可实现城市地表不可透水度信息的快速提取,结果稳定可靠。
    In this paper,based on the multi-resolution image segmentation and object-oriented image classification,the information of the impervious degree of urban surface in Nanjing was extracted by using the objects relationship at the different scales.The results indicated that the imperious degree in Nanjing City was mainly concentrated between 50% and 99%,and the area of higher degree was extensively distributed in Jianye District,Xiaguan District and Gulou District,while the lower was mainly in Xuanwu District.The method of object-oriented image classification could realize the quick extraction of the impervious degree of urban surface,and the output was stability and reliability.
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    海岸带浅海水深高光谱遥感反演方法研究
    王晶晶, 田庆久
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (6): 843-848.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.06.843
    摘要   PDF (936KB)
    近红外波段(760~900 nm)反射率对水深最为敏感,通过波段比值方法可以提高与水深的相关性,而711nm处反射率一阶微分值与水深的相关系数高达-0.87。对于近岸混浊度高的样本,单波段和比值模型反演效果不好,平均相对误差均高于30%;而光谱微分模型的精度较好,平均相对误差为17%。研究结果证明:水体反射率的一阶微分可以有效地削弱水质变化给水深反演带来的误差。
    The theoretical basis on the water depth retrieval by optical remote sensing was analyzed based on the research on radiative transfer process of light wave in water.After a summary of water depth retrieval methods of the predecessors,derivative spectra method for water depth retrieval was introduced.Water reflective spectra were collected by using ASD field spectroradiometer,and water depths were measured by a digital echo sounding system simultaneously at yancheng coastal zone,in Jiangsu Province of China.The turbidity was inhomogeneous in the test area and scattered signal from material in the water was also different in spatial distribution.The reflectance of near infrared band(760-900 nm) was most sensitive to water depth(R=-0.73).As simulated in TM band settings,the correlation between water depth and reflectance ratio between TM4 and TM1 is better than others(R=-0.81).The correlation between water depth and the first derivative of reflectance at 711nm is significant(R=-0.87).Single band method,ratio method and derivative spectra method were respectively applied to calculating water depths.The accuracy evaluation of three models showed that the accuracy of single band model and ratio model were low for the points near the shore,which average relative error was more than 30%.The accuracy of derivative spectra model was improved as to the same points,which average relative error was 17%.The results indicated that derivative spectra method was an effective tool for reducing the error bring by variety of water quality.
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    研究报道
    砾间接触氧化反应器中细菌多样性评价
    林山杉, 金玉花, 付丽丽
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (6): 849-852.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.06.849
    摘要   PDF (579KB)
    采用分子生物学手段,通过构建16S rDNA基因文库,对新型剩余污泥减量化处理系统——砾间接触氧化反应器中细菌多样性进行了系统发育分析;通过多样性指数、丰富度指数、均匀度指数及优势度指数,对细菌多样性及优势菌种富集状况进行了系统评价。结果表明:共有80个克隆子,分别代表29个OTU,用于系统细菌分析。其中,石球外膜46个克隆子(17个OTU),石球内泥34个克隆子(12个OTU)。生物膜中细菌多样性及优势菌种富集状况均好于孔隙内泥中的细菌。
    The phylogenetic diversities of bacteria in a gravel contact oxidation reactor,a novel equipment for excess sludge decrement,were studied by constructed 16S rDNA library,PCR-based molecular surveys of environmental 16S rDNA genes.Total 80 16S rDNA gene clones were retrieved and evaluated their phylogenetic diversity.46 clones(17 OTUs) were isolated from the biofilm,and 34 clones(12 OTUs) were from the inner sludge.The measured bacteria diversities were evaluated by diversity indices,richness indices,evenness indices and dominance indices.The evaluation results indicated that both diversity and dominance of the bacteria isolated from biofilm were higher than inner sludge.
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    城市(营业性)娱乐场所空间结构研究
    张波, 王兴中
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (6): 853-858.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.06.853
    摘要   PDF (991KB)
    随着城市居民收入与消费文化的变化,闲暇时间延长,城市内部营业性娱乐场所的数量、类型与结构发生了对应的变化,已引起了国外学术界的关注,但国内地理学者对商业性娱乐场所的空间关注较少。从城市社会地理学的角度、以人本主义的理念为线索,通过对影响城市(营业性)娱乐场所(人本)布局因素的分析,结合当代发达国家研究经验,总结出(营业性)娱乐场所布局几种存在模式以及场所业态间和行业间所表现的空间结构关系,并就娱(乐)圈的结构进行了说明。以期更深入地揭示城市社会生活空间的本质,丰富城市规划的基础理念。
    Western developed countries have come into postindustrial stage since 1970s.With the development of society and economy,the advancement of cultural quality,income and prolonged leisure time of urban residents,a large number of commercial entertainment places have sprung up in urban areas,which drew the attention of the academic field.However,neither domestic nor foreign geographers have paid much attention to the research in this regard.From the perspective of urban social geography and humanism,this paper is based on a brief summary of the studies of the commercial entertainment places in urban areas in Western countries.This paper,through analyzing the location factors,tries to reveal the existing models and spatial structure relationships of the commercial entertainment places in urban areas,to explain its structure rings and farther to discover the special essence of the urban social life thoroughly,enriching the basic concepts of the urban planning.
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    中国人文地理学概论教材评价与建设献议
    汤茂林
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (6): 859-864.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.06.859
    摘要   PDF (1069KB)
    笔者选取国内流行的几本人文地理学概论教材,对教材的内容、组织结构、表现形式、地图使用等方面进行较详细的评述,指出了存在的不足,在此基础上结合以往的研究及美国人文地理学概论教材的长处,提出新世纪中国此类教材建设的总体构想和若干具体编写建议。
    The paper gives us a detail evaluation of the selected Chinese textbooks of introduction to human geography from contents,structure,representation form,map use,the shortcomings and so on.Based on the analysis and the previous related studies,taking into account the good qualities of the American counterparts,the paper brings about the author’s general thinking about the writing of related textbooks and several detailed constructive compiling suggestions.
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