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CN 22-1124/P
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  • 地理科学
      2008年, 第28卷, 第6期 刊出日期:2008-11-20 上一期    下一期
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    论文
    制造业地理集聚的区域差异研究——江苏和安徽对比研究
    贺灿飞, 朱晟君
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (6): 715-721.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.06.715
    摘要   PDF (946KB)
    产业地理集聚既取决于产业特征,也依赖于区域特性。采用2001年基本单位普查资料企业数据对比江苏和安徽两个差异显著的省区制造业地理集聚。总体而言,制造业在安徽省较江苏省更为集聚,两省最为集聚的产业是一些资本或技术密集型产业,最为分散的产业是需要接近资源或地方化市场或地方保护较强。一些资源加工型产业、资本技术密集型产业以及历史悠久的传统产业在江苏省和安徽省集聚态势差异明显。制造业地理集聚的区域差异可能源于产业在不同省区的技术水平、规模强度以及功能的差异,但区域性因素仍然是主导。两省经济发展水平、城市化水平以及基础设施的差异是安徽省大多数产业较江苏省更为集聚的一般解释,资源区位及其可得性、地理位置、产业传统以及制度性差异等进一步造成了一些产业在两省地理集聚程度的差异。
    Geographical agglomeration of manufacturing employment in China is pervasive. The degree of industrial agglomeration of individual industries depends on both industrial-specific and regional-specific factors. One industry may exhibit different locational patterns in different regions. This paper uses plant-level data collected from the second census of basic units in 2001 to compare the geographical agglomeration of manufacturing employments in Anhui and Jiangsu provinces. Overall, manufacturing employments are more geographically agglomerated in Anhui than in Jiangsu. The most agglomerated industries belong to resources-processing capital intensive and technology intensive industries while the most dispersed ones are those requiring localized resources inputs and market-oriented industries. Heavily protected industries by local governments are also fairly geographically dispersed. Some resources-processing industries, capital and technology intensive industries and industries with long traditions differ significantly in the degree of agglomeration in Anhui and Jiangsu. The regional differences of industrial agglomerations are associated with regional inequalities in economic development, infrastructure and urbanization as well as geographical location, resources accessibility and industrial traditions. In the transitional China, differences in institutional environments also lead to interregional disparities in industrial agglomeration.
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    东北三省区域经济极化的新格局
    李秀伟, 修春亮
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (6): 722-728.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.06.722
    摘要   PDF (1134KB)
    以基尼系数、沃尔夫森指数、崔王指数评估东北三省区域经济差异和极化;利用空间自相关分析识别经济发展的"热点区"。研究发现1990年以来东北三省区域经济的极化有所发展,经济重心不断南移,空间自相关分析中的高值聚集区由散点分布向轴向和面状分布转变;大连、沈阳、长春、哈尔滨四城市是高"极化点",哈大铁路、滨洲-滨绥铁路沿线成为不连续的"极化轴";高值聚集区在辽中南绵延成片,而低值聚集区在黑龙江北部、吉林东部和西部、辽宁西部不断扩大为连续分布。东北三省区域经济系统的层级趋于减少。辽中南经济区、哈长经济区、滨洲-滨绥经济轴带等主要区域经济构造得到程度不同的发展。
    This paper examines the spatial polarization of regional economy in the three provinces of Northeast China. Municipal jurisdiction, city proper and county were respectively used as the basic units of analysis, for each of which the GDP and per capita GDP as collected or calculated. The degrees of inequality and polarization of regional economy for the years of 1990, 1995, 2000 and 2005 were evaluated with Gini Coefficient, Wolfson Index, and TW Index. Spatial autocorrelation analyses were employed to identify the "hot places" of economic development, and explore the patterns of polarization of regional economy, of which city proper and county were basic units.The research reveals that the polarization of regional economy progresses in each of the three units mentioned above in Northeast China since 1990, and the city district economy is the most polarized among them. A spatial trend has been exhibited for economic center of gravity to move southward. The areas with high value in spatial autocorrelation analysis have been turning from scatters to axial and planar distributions. Dalian, Shenyang, Changchun and Harbin, are high "polarizing points", and discontinuous "polarizing axes" are along Harbin-Dalian and Manzhouli-Harbin-Suifenhe railroad. The area with High value covers all the Middle-and-South Liaoning, meanwhile, low value areas extend in North Heilongjiang, East and West Jilin, and West Liaoning, and become more continuous.The polarization results in that in Northeast China, regional economic system tends to become less hierarchical, and the economic growth among prefectural cities, with the Four Cities excluded, tends to become equality. The polarization also brings varying degrees of developments to Middle-and-South Liaoning Economic Region, Harbin-Changchun Region (Harbin, Daqing, Qiqihar, Songyuan, Changchun, and Jilin City), Manzhouli-Harbin- Suifenhe Economic Axial Belt, the major structures of regional economy in Northeast China.
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    社会经济系统空间结构分析的GEO-INFO模式——重庆市实证研究
    汪洋, 赵万民
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (6): 729-735.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.06.729
    摘要   PDF (1293KB)
    以遥感数据及相关空间信息为数据源,通过地理信息系统空间建模的方式来分析重庆市社会经济系统空间结构。采用了表征区域社会经济发展状况的七大社会经济指标,并以空间趋势面的方式构建了各指标的空间数据模型。以此为基础采用空间聚类算法进行聚类分析,划定了重庆市的基本空间类型区。借助空间分形维数、类型优势度等空间结构分析指标,对重庆市市域及其三大经济分区的空间结构进行了分析,明晰了重庆市社会经济系统空间结构的基本特征及区域经济发展基本态势。
    Taking RS and some other related spatial information as data sources, this paper analyzed the socio-economic spatial structure of Chongqing with GIS spatial modeling mode. At first, this paper introduced the related background and analyzed the logical pattern for mapping and inversing soco-economic system with GEO-INFO mode, technical outline of this research had been confirmed at the very beginning. With the help of basic spatial model—trend surface, this paper build seven trend surface models for late analyses, those trend surface included: population density trend surface,population activity strength trend surface,city-town spatial density trend surface, ratio of urbanization trend surface, road density trend surface, GDP density trend surface and average GDP density trend surface. The methods to build trend surfaces included: Kriging interpolate model, density mapping and GIS-software’s grid calculator. Helping with this result trend surfaces, this paper used Fuzzy ISODATA ( Fuzzy Iterative Self-Organizing Data Analysis Techniques Algorithm) techniques algorithm synthetically to analyz those data, and subdivided Chongqing into three regional types:Ⅰ, urban-oriented,Ⅱ, transition region, Ⅲ, rural-first industry-oriented region. Contrasted with the economic regions of Chongqing, the clustered result had some different traits compared with the imagination of local government. To get more information of regional economic spatial structure, this paper used some spatial structure measure models which is come from Landscape Ecology, including: type dominance index(TDI), patch density(PD), edge density(ED), type diversity index(TDI) and mean patch fractal dimension(MPFD). Helped with these indicators, this paper analyzed the detail information of cluster result. Through the calculation process, some useful information can be drawn out. For example, with this calculation process, the proportion basic type area can be confirmed: typeⅠis 9.72% , typeⅡis 36.38%, type Ⅲ is 53.90%, but for part of Chongqing—Chongqing metropolitan area(the most prosperous area of Chongqing) ,the preportion 46.61 %, 42.30 % and 11.09 %. Three Gorge areas(the un-developmental area of Chongqing), the data are 3.84%, 28.84%, 67.32%. So with this basic data, we can understand how many the disparities exist between different regions of Chongqing and the places which the disparity stand out can be confirmed. For the indicators calculation result, the highest values separately for TDI, PD, ED, TDI, MPED are 0.3485, 0.0018, 2.7419, 0.9636, 1.0246, data respectively represent western economic corridor of Chongqing, Chongqing metropolitan area and Three Gorge area of Chongqing. Accordingly, the lowest values separately for TDI, PD, ED, TDI, MPED is 0.1350, 0.0006, 1.6179, 0.7501, 1.0178, this data respectively represent Chongqing metropolitan area, Three Gorge area, and west economic corridor of Chongqing. With this basic data, it can be confirmed that there were two regional economic breadlines generated in Chongqing, one is lies between Chongqing metropolitan area and Three Gorge area of Chongqing, the other is situated at the inner part of Chongqing metropolitan area, belong to the transition area between city and rural area.
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    基于VM-MapInfo的区域开发强度测算研究——以大连市为例
    王利, 韩增林, 李博
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (6): 736-741.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.06.736
    摘要   PDF (1328KB)
    开发强度指一个区域建设空间面积占该区域总面积的比例,是当前主体功能区规划需要测算的关键指标,是政府实施建设用地总量控制、实现空间结构优化的基本手段。虽然开发强度测算的基本思路和算式比较明确,但是基于GIS技术的具体数据支撑、测算技术路线、结论表达等方面都存在许多需要探索问题。以大连市为例,以VM-MapInfo软件为基本支撑,对于全市不同区域的开发强度进行了具体的测算。解决了区域开发强度测算过程中高程限制建设用地扣除、各类农用地扣除以及其他限制建设用地扣除的技术问题。
    The development intensity refers to the ratio of the building area to the total area in one region. It is not only a key guideline which needs to be measured in Major Function Oriented Zoning, but also a basic means to control the total area of construction and to optimize the spatial structure. Although the basic ideas and formula of measuring the development intensity are clearer, there are many issues which need to be exploring, such as specific database based on GIS, measuring technical line, conclusion expression and so on. Based on VM-MapInfo, this paper accounts the development intensity of all regions taking an example of Dalia City. By adopting basic ideas, working process and technique methods, it is a useful method that resolves the technical questions to deduct elevation limit construction, kinds of agriculture and other limit construction uses during the regional development intensity reckoning. It has the important guiding sense to survey the region development intensity. By measuring , Dalian current situation construction land, future construction land, surplus construction land are 1333km2, 3237km2, 1904km2, and the corresponding development intensity, the future potential intensity, the surplus development intensity respectively are10.4%, 25.1%, 14.8%. First, the southern areas of Dalian City, especially the construction land of three districts, Ganjingzi District is developed already "excessive". It also has certain area not suitable for urban and industry building. Second, future construction land mainly distributes in the northeast area of Dalian City. It considers building industrial development area and population gathering area in construction concentrate area. Third, future construction land includes three types which are coast abandoned salt field and tidelands, countryside residential area and unutilized ground. The conclusions instruct Dalian's spatial layout in optimizing and guiding the construction of the industrial park, urbanization overall arrangement, the cultivated land and basic farmland protection.
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    基于体现人自我实现需要的中国主要城市人居环境评价分析
    李雪铭, 李明
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (6): 742-747.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.06.742
    摘要   PDF (628KB)
    已有的城市人居环境评价研究大多基于"生存、生活需要"层次,从人的自我实现需要角度研究城市人居环境评价未见报道。在已有研究的基础上,综合考虑信息时代下城市人居环境的人文因素内涵,构建一套体现人自我实现需要的城市人居环境指标体系。在国内首次将自组织特征映射神经网络模型应用在城市人居环境聚类分析中,根据聚类结果将中国主要城市人居环境分成四种类型,总结城市人居环境空间分布总体特征,归纳不同类别城市人居环境的特点并分析产生这种空间分异的原因。
    Urban human settlement is a critical criterion in judging the developmental level of a city. It is safe to say that it is the reflection of urban economic circulation and environmental construction in the sense of geographical space under urbanization. It is an important subject to evaluate the degree of urban human settlement, to analyse the problems in various cities, to make a classification in the angle of self-realization, and to explore its regional similarities, characteristics and reasons that cause the distinction. The self-organization feature maps network model was firstly applied to the evaluation of main urban human settlements in China. Urban human settlement is not only a critical criterion in judging the level of development of a city, but also a possible tool to make a classified judgment on urban human settlements in 35 of main cities from different angles such as economic realization, digital realization, acquisitive realization, residential realization, transporting realization, security realization, virescence realization, recreational realization and natural environmental realization, to distinguish the differences in different cities, so as to provide basis for construction and management of urban human settlements in different cities. Based on the research, the urban human settlements in China is provided with the particularity of obvious regional distinctions: its quality in littoral cities is mostly higher than that in the middle and western regions. It shows that the geographical elements count fundamentally in urban human settlements, and economic capacity is highly connected with it. The top seven cities in the evaluation of urban human settlements all come from the developed eastern littoral, for the prosperity of the cities provides more job opportunities and better surroundings. Meanwhile, the funds allocated to the construction of the infrastructure and the melioration of environmental conditions need the support of prosperous economy. From the view of classified evaluation, the self-realization of people requires more on economic realization, digital realization, residential realization, transporting realization, security realization, virescence realization, and recreational realization. In other words, in urban human settlements, the economic environment, salary, circulation of information, degree of modernization, virescence condition and the comfort of living are the main ingredients when choosing urban human settlements in the process of self-realization. This model based on the SOM neural network is applied to quality evaluation of main urban human settlements in China. The evaluation value indicates the current situation of urban human settlements and relative levels in China.The run results of the model show that the application on quality evaluation of urban human settlements based on the SOM neural network is convenient, precise and feasible which proves to be a valuable evaluation approach.
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    中国资源型景区旅游空间结构研究
    谢志华, 吴必虎
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (6): 748-753.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.06.748
    摘要   PDF (1111KB)
    选取国家旅游局评定的4A级景区中的509处资源型景区为样本景区,利用地理数学方法的空间分析手段和GIS空间分析工具,从定量和定性两方面分析资源型景区的旅游空间结构。结果表明,资源型景区的空间分布类型属于凝聚型,区域分布均衡性很低,省际差异较大;高密度区域为长三角地区、北京及其周边地区、以西安为中心的关中地区和以洛阳为中心的中原古都区。
    With the rapid development in economy, the tourism industry of China is also booming. Though there are more and more man-made attractions such as Themed Amusement Park, traditional attractions with natural beauty and/or historical sites are still within the most popular choices of tourists. In this article such kind of attractions are named resources-based attraction. Based on former study, the paper makes definition of resources-based attraction. Then it selects 509 resources-based attractions as research samples from 671 National AAAA Tourist Attractions, which were authorized by China National Tourism Administration in 2005. By means of GIS spatial analysis tools and some quantitative analysis methods such as NNI (Nearest Neighbor Index), GCI (Geographic Concentration Index), Gini Coefficient and Lorenz Curve, the paper analyses the spatial structure of 509 resources-based attractions and observes their distribution in 8 geographical regions and 31 provinces in China. The result shows that the value of NNI is as low as 0.57, which means the distribution of 509 resources-based attractions is a type of agglomeration. And the distribution of 509 resources-based attractions in 8 geographical and 31 provinces is asymmetric. According to the Lorenz Curve, more than half of 509 resources-based attractions concentrate in 9 provinces, such as Jiangsu and Zhejiang. Changjiang River Delta, Beijing, Xi’an and Luoyang are the places with a high density of resources-based attractions.
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    区域生态安全评价的熵组合权重属性识别模型
    吴开亚, 金菊良
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (6): 754-758.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.06.754
    摘要   PDF (852KB)
    为合理地确定区域生态安全评价的指标权重,提出把指标的权重结构分为反映评价指标不同属性对生态安全等级的影响程度的主观权重,和反映各区域评价指标样本值差异信息对生态安全等级的影响程度的客观权重,可分别采用层次分析法和熵权法确定这些权重,再用最小相对信息熵原理把它们综合为组合权重;为体现单指标评价过程中的评价作用,提出用属性识别模型进行单指标评价的新思路;对组合权重值和单指标评价值进行相乘并累加,建立了区域生态安全评价的熵组合权重属性识别模型(AR-CWE)。结果说明:用AR-CWE既可利用指标中的专家主观经验信息,又可挖掘各区域评价指标样本值的客观差异信息,权重信息利用全面,评价结果合理,方法通用,在安全系统综合评价中具有一定的应用价值。
    In order to determine indexes weights in regional ecological security evaluation, a weight structure of evaluation indexes consisted of subjective weight and objective weight was presented. The two weights can be computed by using Analytic Hierarchy Process and entropy weight method, and combination weight can be synthesized according to minimum relative information entropy principle. In order to realize the evaluation function of single index evaluation process, a new evaluation method of single index was proposed using attribute recognition model. And then a new model for evaluating regional ecological security, named AR-CWE for short, was established. The result shows that both subjective information of expert experience and objective variation information of samples values can be fully mixed using AR-CWE, and its evaluated results are reasonable. AR-CWE is a general and can be applied to comprehensive evaluation of different security systems.
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    辽中地区矿业城市生态系统脆弱性研究
    顾康康, 刘景双, 王洋, 彭小黎, 王明全
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (6): 759-764.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.06.759
    摘要   PDF (960KB)
    辽中地区矿业城市是中国重要的能源生产和重工业基地,研究其生态系统脆弱性有助于改善该区域环境恶化、生态系统失调的状况,为其可持续发展提供决策依据。基于矿业城市复合生态系统内涵,建立了辽中地区矿业脆弱性评价指标体系,提出生态系统协调度,并设定了其脆弱性和协调性分级标准。结果表明:2005年,辽中地区矿业城市生态系统脆弱性处于亚稳定状态,主要限制因子为资源匹配指数、环境质量指数和经济发展指数;辽中地区矿业城市生态系统间处于亚协调状态,其中本溪略低于亚协调,处于低度失调状态。鞍山的资源匹配指数处于较失调状态,抚顺、本溪的资源匹配指数处于失调状态,抚顺、本溪的经济发展指数处于较失调状态,是限制整个生态系统协调发展的主要原因。该评价模型较真实的反映了辽中地区矿业城市生态系统脆弱性、协调性状况,并且提出了制约其发展主要限制因子。
    Since the mining cities in Central Liaoning have been important energy production base and heavy industry base in China, the research on their ecological vulnerability will contribute to the improvement of environmental quality and ecological harmony, then we would offer academic basis for the decision-making of sustainable development. Based on the meaning of compound ecosystem in mining cities, we established the indicator system about ecological vulnerability of mining cities in Central Liaoning; put forward the ecological harmony degree; and set up the standards of ecological vulnerability and ecological harmony degree. The results showed that: the ecological vulnerability of mining cities in central Liaoning was in the sub-steady state, the main restrict factors were resources matching index, environmental quality index and economic development index. The ecosystem of it was in the sub-harmony state, of which Benxi was inferior to sub-harmony. The resources matching index in Anshan was inferior to maladjusted, Fushun and Benxi, the economic development index in Fushun and Benxi were inferior to maladjusted, which were the main restrict factors on the harmony development of ecosystems. The vulnerability and harmony degree for the ecosystems of the mining cities in Central Liaoning were well reflected by the model, then we offered their main restrict factors.
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    分维模型在土地利用研究中的应用
    刘晓辉, 吕宪国, 董贵华
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (6): 765-769.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.06.765
    摘要   PDF (254KB)
    以美国LANDSAT/TM遥感数据为信息源,采用分维分析的方法,对珠江三角洲土地利用结构和土地利用变化趋势进行研究。探讨了土地利用类型对空间占据程度、稳定性、变化趋势同分维数之间的关系。结果表明:分维数越高,该土地利用类型对空间的占据程度越大,稳定性越差;反之,则该土地利用类型对空间的占据程度越小,稳定性越强。分维数的变化反映土地利用类型的变化趋势:分维数增大,该土地类型越不稳定,则该土地利用类型扩张,相反,则该土地利用类型缩小。通过具体案例分析,表明分维数及其变化成为土地利用类型结构相关研究的有用指标。
    As a case study of the land use types of Zhujiang (Pearl River) Delta, they were based on such data sources as LANDSAT/TM. This paper showed that the value of fractal dimension (D) can be used to effectively characterize the degree of spatial occupation, stability of patch types and change tendency of land use. The results indicated that the values of D of land use types were less than 1.50. With the increase of the value of D, the stable degree of the structure and the spatial occupation degree was decreased and increased respectively. Moreover, the D change of certain land use type reflected the change tendency of this type in different periods from 2000 to 2002. When the D of certain land use type increased, its area also increased; conversely, its area decreased. This paper indicates that D and its change have been effective indices towards the researches of the structures of land use types in Zhujiang (Pearl River) Delta.
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    风沙过渡区土地利用变化及生态效应图谱——以陕北榆阳区为例
    莫宏伟, 任志远, 王秋贤
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (6): 770-775.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.06.770
    摘要   PDF (1023KB)
    以遥感影像资料为依据,运用地学信息图谱研究方法,在RS和GIS的支持下分析榆阳区1985~2000年土地利用及其生态服务价值的时空变化特征。结果表明:该区研究期内最主要的土地利用动态是未利用地向草地的转化,其变化占全区总变动量91.14%;土地利用变化使生态系统的生态服务价值增加了158.59×106元,增幅为8.23%,其中,风沙区占总增量的85.99%,增幅10.88%,黄土丘陵沟壑区占总增量14.01%,增幅3.29%。经过实证分析,利用地学信息图谱进行土地利用变化和生态效应定量研究是一种十分有效的方法。
    Based on the remote sensing data, by using the theory of geographic information images and supported by RS and GIS, the land use/cover change (LUCC) images and the ecosystem services value (ESV) change images about Yuyang District during 1985-2000 were constructed. According to the research of above change images, the character of land use change and its ecological effects in research area were analyzed.The results show that the area of unused land decreased, while the area of rangeland, farmland, construction land, forestland and waters increased from 1985 to 2000, and the increased area of rangeland was the most. The most land use changes was the transformation from unused land to rangeland, whose area was 91.14% of the total changes. The change of land use resulted in the ESV of the research area increased from 1927.34?106 yuan (RMB) in 1985 to 2085.93?106 yuan in 2000, which was up 8.23%. There was 85.99% of the total increased ESV in wind drift sand region where the ESV grew 10.88%, but there was only 14.01% of the total increased ESV in loess hilly-gully region where its ESV raised 3.29%. By the empirical analysis, the way of geographic image was a very effective method in analyzing land use change and ecological effects.
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    基于DEM的洪泛平原湿地数字水系提取研究
    周德民, 程进强, 熊立华
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (6): 776-781.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.06.776
    摘要   PDF (779KB)
    为了研究探索洪泛平原湿地区域基于DEM的地表水要素数字特征,采用ArcGIS9.0的Hydro Arc Tools模块,配合改进升值裂开算法编制的程序在三江平原洪河保护区1:1万比例尺的DEM基础上进行了数字水系提取研究,将研究区划分为6个数字集水区,提取出以沃绿兰河-浓江河为主的数字河网,以及大小82处泡沼和洼地。研究表明,在保持高精度DEM前提下,数字地表水系统可以通过基于DEM自动提取出来,但是存在河道偏移以及河网形态失真等问题,需要在进行数字提取前后进行多次修正。在DEM数字高程预处理过程中保持高程信息的水文特征不丢失,以及发展专业处理平坦区域和低洼地域的有效算法,将是进一步提高洪泛平原湿地区域数字水系提取效率和精度的关键。
    For study of digital surface hydrological elements controlled by DEM in the wetland area of Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China,both the ArcGIS9.0 Hydro Arc Tools module and the module based on the modified Breaching and Flat Area Algorithm are used to extract the hydrological elements from the DEM data at scale of 1:10000. With the digital method, the study area is delineated into 6 catchments, 82 ponds and depressed low-lying as well as a drainage net-work of both Woyalan River and Nongjiang River. The research indicates that the digital hydrological elements can be extracted successfully from high precise DEM, however, it need to be modified for many times before and after automatic digital extraction due to the problems of digital riverways’ excursion and distortion. For improving both precise and efficiency of digital extraction in the wetland area of a flood plain, some key issues need to be carried out such as development of efficient Algorithms professionally for flat areas and an efficient pretreatment on DEM without loss of key hydrological information.
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    苏打盐渍土土壤水分动态及其与浅层地下水的交换关系
    刘强, 何岩, 章光新
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (6): 782-787.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.06.782
    摘要   PDF (1015KB)
    以松嫩平原西部典型苏打盐渍土区为研究对象,以野外定位试验和室内模拟分析相结合,借助于分层土壤水分平衡模型,探讨苏打盐渍土壤水分运移的基本特征和规律,并分析其与浅层地下水之间的交换关系。研究结果表明,研究区内蒸降比较大,一般达到2:1以上,剖面土壤水分随蒸发、入渗过程呈现相应的转化;强烈地表蒸发作用下,地下水对上层土壤水分具有明显调控作用,土壤水分在50cm以下相对稳定,50cm以上受地表过程的影响变化较为显著。
    The soil water dynamics is the precondition to explore the formation and evolution of the sodic soil. Especially, in the shallow groundwater, the exchange of the soil water and groundwater has become one of the main factors to drive surficial eco-environment change. In order to get the dynamics of the soil water in the sodic soil region, the field experiment was conducted in Da’an Sodic Land Experimental Station of China in 2004. The results presented that the ratio of the evaporation to precipitation reached to 2:1 and soil water content changed with evaporation and infiltration processes. As regulated by the shallow groundwater, the soil water was less changeable in the soil layer below 50 cm than in the upper soil layer. Furthermore, influenced by the strong evaporative demand, the exchange between groundwater and soil water reached 11.7:1 and the groundwater has become one of the main water sources to influence the soil water dynamics.
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    区域尺度土壤养分空间变异及其影响因素研究
    杨艳丽, 史学正, 于东升, 王洪杰, 徐茂, 王果
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (6): 788-792.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.06.788
    摘要   PDF (355KB)
    江苏北部5市土壤表层(0~20cm)全氮含量连云港东北部、淮安南部和盐城西部显著高于其它地区;全磷含量呈现由北到南、自西向东升高的趋势;速效磷含量高值区位于北部的灌云县和南部的金湖县;速效钾含量东部沿海高于其它地区。土壤类型和成土母质对土壤养分产生显著影响:对于土类而言,沼泽土和水稻土养分较高;各成土母质中,湖相沉积物发育的土壤养分含量最高。在研究区1:5万尺度范围内,土壤类型对全氮和全磷的变异起主导作用,而速效磷受成土母质的影响较大,土壤类型和成土母质对速效钾的影响较小,土壤类型和成土母质对全量养分的影响要大于速效养分。
    The research on spatial heterogeneity of soil nutrients is considered to be an important topic in utilizing and managing soil resources properly. Based on a 1:50000 soil database, spatial heterogeneity of soil nutrients (including total N, total P, available P and available K) at the surface layer (0-20cm) and their affecting factors in the northern Jiangsu Province were analyzed. The results showed that soil total N in the northeastern Lianyungang County, southern Huai’an County and western Yancheng County were significant higher than those in other areas; the total P content tended to increase gradually from north to south and from west to east; the highest available P content was found in the northern Guanyun County and southern Jinghu County; the available K content in the eastern coastal region was significant higher than those in other areas. Soil properties were significantly affected by soil type and parent material. In terms of soil group, bog soils and paddy soils had high nutrient contents. With regard to parent material, nutrient contents were higher in soils developed from lacustrine deposit than those from other parent materials. It was concluded that, at the scale of 1:50000, soil type was the dominant factor for total N and total P, and parent material was a key factor for available P, while soil type and parent material had a little influence on available K, soil type and parent material had stronger impacts on total nutrients than available nutrients.
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    冀北地区植被指数变化特征及影响因素分析
    陈辉, 刘劲松, 王卫
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (6): 793-798.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.06.793
    摘要   PDF (999KB)
    利用8km分辨率的NOVV/AVHRR NDV I数据、土地利用/覆被变化TM影像解译数据、气候数据、DEM数据和经济统计数据,对冀北地区1987~2000年植被覆被变化特征及影响因素进行了分析,得出主要结论如下:冀北地区土地覆被变化下NDVI平均增加值为0.35,变化特征为集中连片。土地利用变化导致NDVI平均减小值为0.17,变化特征呈斑块状离散分布。土地利用类型变化、错季蔬菜生产等人为因素对土地覆被变化下NDVI变化贡献率较低,降水、特别是生长季降水分布特征是影响NDVI变化的重要因素。
    The study area is located in the north of Hebei Province with a total area of 76 275.6 km2.In recent years, artificial activity changed the land use type and the plant degradation arose the attention of people. This study assessed the trend and spatial-temporal distribution of vegetation index change, which is related with vegetation degradation, in North of Hebei Province using multi-temporal NOAA/AVHRR NDVI data (8 km spatial resolution) from 1987 to 2000 provided by NASA, meteorologic data, DEM data (1:250000) and relative economic data. Results show that the characteristic of NDVI change owing to land cover are concentrative and connective, while the characteristics of NDVI change owing to land use are sparse and scattered. The average change of NDVI is 0.35 for land cover change and the average change of NDVI is -0.17 for land use change and they have contrary change direction. The artificial factors such as the changes of land use or crop type have contribution to NDVI change, but the influence is limited. Precipitation, especially its distribution in growth season is the important influencing factor for NDVI change.
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    中坝遗址地层的Cr/Cu值对干湿环境的指示意义
    李中轩, 朱诚, 朱青, 马春梅, 张广胜, 欧阳杰
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (6): 799-803.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.06.799
    摘要   PDF (738KB)
    将中坝遗址5ka以来连续沉积地层按文化序列分为12层,分别测量Rb、Sr和Cr、Cu含量,对比显示,Cr/Cu比值与Rb/Sr比值明显正相关。Cr与Rb的属性相似,Cr化学活性低,易于在粉砂质沉积物中富集;而Cu和Sr在成壤过程中容易迁移,在粘土质沉积层中含量较高。通过对Cr、Cu元素在表生环境下的化学性质、沉积地层的属性、微地貌特征、与泥炭腐殖化度古里雅冰芯氧同位素曲线等指标对比表明,Cr/Cu比值变化对环境干湿变化的指示具有普遍意义。
    Applying distribution characteristics of chemical elements during soil-forming process to resume palaeo-environmental evolution is a key field in the research of past global changes. This paper divided the continuous strata of the Zhongba site in Chongqing into 12 sub-layers according to cultural sequence over last 5 ka, measuring Rb, Sr, Cr and Cu contents respectively by XRF and ICP-AES methods. Results indicated that Cr has similar chemical nature as Rb with low activity and is apt to deposit in fine sand materials. Meanwhile, Cu and Sr are easy to be transported over the weathering process and enrich in claypan. A linear regression demonstrated that Cr/Cu ratios are positively relative to Rb/Sr ratios. After comparing variation curves of Cr/Cu ratios with climatic records of peat humification in Hongyuan, northeast region of the Tibet Plateau in last 5 ka, they both are well consistent with each other. Therefore, this paper suggested that Cr/Cu ratios as Rb/Sr be a reliable proxy to indicate palaeo-environment even with higher accuratcy. Obviously, Cr/Cu ratios will be significant in geo-archaeological research.
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    近50年南海西沙地区的气候变化特征研究
    柳艳菊, 闫俊岳, 宋艳玲
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (6): 804-808.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.06.804
    摘要   PDF (240KB)
    采用西沙台站1958~2005年基本气象观测资料,系统分析西沙地区近50a来主要气象要素(温度、降水、风速、日照和云量)变化特征。结果表明,近50a来年均地面气温增暖幅度约1.0℃,增温速率0.19℃/(10a),与全国平均的增温率接近。四季的平均气温也都呈上升趋势,其中冬季和春季的上升趋势最明显,秋季次之,夏季的变化最小。降水的波动性很大,年降水量变化趋势不明显,四季中只有春季降水呈明显增加趋势。地面风速主要呈减小的趋势,特别是在近30a年平均风速比常年值明显偏小。四季风速均减小,尤其在秋、冬季。年日照时数、总云量均呈显著下降趋势,而低云量略有增加。
    In this paper, the features of climate change over Xisha in recent 50 years have been systematically examined by using the basic meteorological data in 1958-2005. The results showed that annual mean surface temperature rose by about 1.0℃, with a warming rate of approximately 0.19℃/(10 a), which is close to the average value of whole country. The seasonal mean temperature was also on the rise, with the most obvious ascending trend in winter and spring. The annual precipitation had a big fluctuation and no significant trend was seen. For seasonal precipitation, only spring had obvious linear ascending trend. The surface wind speed had a significant trend to decrease, especially in recent 30 years the annual mean wind speed was smaller than the normal year. The wind speed in four seasons also had significant decrease, especially in autumn and winter. Also, the annual sunshine duration, total cloud amount took an significant decreasing trend, while the low cloud amount had a bit increase.
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    近45年来降水变化和人类活动对潮河流域年径流量的影响
    李子君, 李秀彬
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (6): 809-813.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.06.809
    摘要   PDF (733KB)
    近45a来,随着流域降水量减少,以及修建水利工程、引水、实施水土保持等人类活动的增加,潮河流域年径流量呈明显减少趋势。利用降水-径流经验统计模型,定量评估了潮河流域降水变化与人类活动对流域年径流量的影响程度。结果表明:1981~1990、1991~2000、2001~2005、1981~2005年,受人类活动影响所产生的年均减水量分别为1.32、0.67、1.46、1.09×108m3,占相应时段总减水量的95.1%,98.9%,60.7%和83.2%;受降水变化影响所产生的年均减水量分别为0.07、0.01、0.95、0.22×108m3,占相应时段总减水量的4.9%,1.1%,39.3%和16.8%。人类活动因素的贡献率远大于降水因素。
    In recent 45 years, the annual runoff of the Chao River Basin has declined significantly with decreasing precipitation and increasing human activities such as hydro projects construction, water diversion and implementation of soil and water conservation. Impacts of precipitation variations and human activities on annual runoff of the Chao River Basin are evaluated quantitatively based on the rainfall-runoff empirical statistical model. The results show: During 1981-1990, 1991-2000, 2001-2005 and 1981-2005, the average annual runoff reduction amounts influenced by human activities are 1.32?108m3, 0.67?108m3, 1.46?108m3 and 1.09?108m3 respectively, taking up 95.1%, 98.9%, 60.7% and 83.2% of the total runoff reduction amounts of corresponding period; the average annual runoff reduction amounts influenced by precipitation variations are 0.07?108m3, 0.01?108m3, 0.95?108m3 and 0.22?108m3 respectively, taking up 4.9%, 1.1%, 39.3% and 16.8% of the total runoff reduction amounts of corresponding period accordingly. The contribution rates of human activities to runoff reduction are much higher than that of precipitation variations.
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    温室效应增强背景下城市热环境变化的遥感分析——以广东省东莞市为例
    邓玉娇, 匡耀求, 黄宁生, 黄江
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (6): 814-819.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.06.814
    摘要   PDF (1230KB)
    以快速城市化的典型地区广东省东莞市为例,利用Landsat卫星遥感数据、气象观测数据进行地表温度反演。从城市下垫面最基本的组成元素出发,对典型下垫面类型加以界定,采用NDVI阈值法提取水体-高植被区-建筑密集区的分布信息。通过对地表温度与典型下垫面信息的叠加分析,研究温室效应增强背景下典型下垫面温度的相对变化趋势。研究结果表明,在1988~2005年间,东莞市地表温度的高低顺序为:建筑密集区>高植被区>水体,建筑密集区与水体、高植被区的温度反差明显增大,而且建筑密集区与水体的温差大于建筑密集区与高植被区的温差。
    As a typical rapid urbanization city, the thermal environment in Dongguan, Guangdong has changed much in the past 28 years because of the economy development, the population growth, the underlying surface change, and the greenhouse effect enhancement. Taking Dongguan as an example, the paper retrieves the land surface temperature using Mono-window Algorithm proposed by Qin Zhihao from Landsat/TM data, meteorological measurement data and basic geographical data. Based on the Vegetation-Impervious surface-Soil model which was proposed by Ridd in 1995 according to the basic elements of underlying surfaces in a city, it defines the typical underlying surfaces as water, high vegetation region and dense building region,and gets the distribution information of them from the threshold division of normalized difference vegetation index. It takes an overlay analysis between the typical underlying surface information and land surface temperature data. The result shows that this method can effectively get the temperature differences of typical underlying surfaces. From 1988 to 2005, the land surface temperature of dense building region is higher than that of vegetation and water in Dongguan. The distribution of high land surface temperature region is consistent with the distribution of dense building region, and the low is consistent with the vegetation and water. Under the background of global warming caused by enhanced greenhouse effect, the temperature difference of dense building region and water, as the same as the temperature difference of dense building region and high vegetation region, are apparently increased. The former is bigger than the latter.
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    珠江虎门河口水体有机氯农药的垂向分布及二次污染初步研究
    杨清书, 雷亚平, 欧素英, 麦碧娴, 傅家谟, 盛国英, 谭超
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (6): 820-825.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.06.820
    摘要   PDF (963KB)
    采用5点法对珠江广州河段白鹅潭水域进行垂线采样,并采取表层沉积物的界面水。水样采用GF/F玻璃滤膜过滤分离出颗粒相和溶解相,据美国EPA标准对有机氯农药进行定量分析,结果显示有机氯农药浓度范围是23.89~61.69ng/L;据有机氯农药浓度的垂向分布特征、颗粒相为主要输运方式的DDTs的中下层高浓度跃层的形成、以及有机氯农药在颗粒相和溶解相浓度分布和分配系数表明,水柱上层和下层水体的有机氯农药的输入方式有较大的差异,结合主成分分析结果,在流速增加的动力条件下,表层沉积物存在二次污染的风险。
    Six water samples in different depths in water column from Guangzhou channel of Humen estuary in the Pearl(Zhujiang) River were collected, and were filtered by GF/F glass fiber filter. Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in particulate and dissolved phase were identified and measured based on USEPA 8000 series methods and under quality assurance and quality control (QA/QC). Concentrations of OCPs varied from 23.89 to 61.69 ng/L. The vertical distribution of OCPs, the partition coefficients (Log Kp) of OCPs between particulate and dissolved phases, and the elevated concentrations of DDTs in the deeper sampling locations in the water column indicated that the inputs of OCPs were different between the surface water and the bottom water in the water column. The inputs of OCPs in the bottom water were correlated with the changes of dynamics in the estuary, and it indicated that the resuspension of surface sediment occurred with the increasing of rapid water current in tide estuary; and the resuspension of surface sediment will induce the secondary pollution of OCPs to the aquatic environment. The results of PCA also suggested that the resuspension of surface sediment existed in a certain hydrodynamic condition at Bai'etan in Humen estuarine of the Pearl River.
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    闽江河口感潮湿地入侵种互花米草甲烷通量及影响因子
    仝川, 闫宗平, 王维奇, 曾从盛
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (6): 826-832.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.06.826
    摘要   PDF (379KB)
    2007年利用静态箱-气相色谱仪法对闽江河口湿地外来入侵种互花米草斑块甲烷通量进行测定。结果表明,互花米草甲烷排放通量有明显的季节变化,涨潮前和落潮后甲烷通量平均值分别为13.12和12.94mg/(m2·h);涨落潮过程,互花米草斑块排放到潮水的甲烷通量(3.07mg/(m2·h)大于排放到大气的甲烷通量(2.35mg/(m2·h),差异不显著;涨落潮过程中排向大气和潮水的甲烷通量之和(5.42mg/(m2·h)与涨潮前、落潮后甲烷通量差异显著;互花米草排向大气甲烷总通量86.86g/(m2·a),排向潮水甲烷总通量7.84g/(m2·a)。
    In 2007, the enclosed chamber technique was used and the measurements on methane flux from Spartina alterniflora were taken during three periods (before the flood, in the course of rising and ebbing tide, and after the ebb) in the Shanyutan wetland which is the largest wetland in the Min River estuary region. The results showed that methane fluxes had obvious seasonal variation. The average methane flux from S.alterniflora before flood and after ebb were 13.12 and 12.94 mg/(m2·h) respectively; the monthly methane flux was lower after the ebb in some months, whereas in other months, emission was either higher after the ebb, or there was no difference; in the course of rising and ebbing tide, the methane flux [3.07 mg/(m2·h)]to hydrosphere was higher than that [2.35 mg/(m2·h)]to atmosphere(p>0.05); the total methane flux to atmosphere and hydrosphere from invasive S.alterniflora patches was 86.86 and 7.84 g/(m2·h)respectively. The correlations between methane flux from S.alterniflora and temperature and salinity were lower, and was higher between methane flux and moisture of sediment (0-20 cm).
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    研究报道
    高速铁路地基黄土湿陷性评价中的ANFIS方法
    韩晓萌, 王家鼎, 王煜, 陈永君
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (6): 833-837.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.06.833
    摘要   PDF (801KB)
    文章收集郑西高速铁路地基黄土典型湿陷性试验资料(包括现场大型浸水试验及室内试验),以影响黄土湿陷系数主要因素为基础,运用MATLAB建立黄土湿陷系数的自适应神经网络模糊推理系统(ANFIS)预测模型。通过对样本的训练和预测,表明该模型预测结果与实际黄土湿陷系数十分接近。用多元线性回归法对这些非母体样品进行预测检验,经过对比ANFIS法优于多元线性回归法,证明ANFIS法是一种比较理想的预测方法。
    Based on the main factor influencing the loess collapsibility, the data of collapsibility test on collapsible loess foundation in Zheng-Xi High-Speed Railway are collected and summarized, a model of ANFIS based on the index about the loess collapsibility has been established in this paper. Compared the results with the conclusion by the method of multivariate linear regression, it is shown that the ANFIS prediction model could improve the accuracy of forecasting. The results shows that the prediction result after trained and predicted for the samples is in good agreement with the experimental results, and this method is a relatively optimum method for forecasting, at the same time it provides an important viewpoint to explore the collapsibility law on the loess foundation of high-speed railway.
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    GIS支持下基于支持向量机的滑坡危险性评价
    傅文杰
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (6): 838-841.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.06.838
    摘要   PDF (689KB)
    以仙游县为例,探讨了将地理信息系统技术(GIS)和支持向量机(SVM)算法应用于滑坡灾害危险性评价的基本思路和技术路线。主要内容包括SVM的基本原理和方法、滑坡灾害危险性评价指标的选取和量化、SVM模型的建立以及具体的实现过程。实践证明该方法是一种较好的滑坡灾害危险性评价方法。
    The development of Geographic Information System (GIS) technology provides a new technical method for the evaluation of landslide risk. Support Vector Machine is the hotspot of machine-learning industry research, and has been applied successfully in many areas. By taking Xianyou County as an example, a new method for landslide hazard evaluation based on GIS and Support Vector Machines (SVM) is presented in this paper. It includes the basic principles and methods of SVM, selection and quantification of landslide hazard evaluation index, foundation of SVM model and the way to realize it. According to the actual situation of the research area, the quantification method has been stipulated separately for each of six selected appraisal indexes including the elevation, the gradient, the slope, the gneiss, the rainfall and the vegetation. The system of landslide geology disaster risk appraisal has been established, the special chart of each appraisal index has been obtained by the use of the geographic information system spatial analysis function. From the results of the appraisal, the extremely high-risk danger and the high-risk danger areas are basically located in the central and northwestern parts of the study area; the secondary risk in both sides of them. This distribution result has basically reflected the present situation of geological disaster in the research area. This method can be put in practice in geology hazard investigation.
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    基于生态-经济分析的泰州空间开发适宜性分区研究
    丁建中, 陈逸, 陈雯
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (6): 842-848.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.06.842
    摘要   PDF (1053KB)
    以生态-经济为导向的空间开发适宜性分区,从协调经济、人口、资源、环境相互关系出发,强调因地制宜,让开发成本低、资源环境容量大、发展能力强的地区承担高强度的工业化和城市化等社会经济活动;而让生态价值高、开发难度大的区域承担农业和生态维护功能,这不仅是均衡地域开发、协调空间秩序的重要依据,实现差别化、特色化发展的内在要求,也是进行主体功能分区的基础性工作。基于这样的理念和认识,根据生态重要性和经济重要性指数的评价分析,运用GIS平台将泰州市域划分为不同空间开发强度的类型区,并探讨了分区管制的政策保障措施。
    The regionalization of potential development under eco-economic approach is a useful way to zone the region for different intensity on behalf of spatial balance for the harmony of population, economy, resources, and environment. emphasizing the adjusting measures to local conditions can decide some areas with low-cost, large environmental capacity to be encouraged for exploitation of industrialization and urbanization while others need agricultural and ecological conservation. It is not only an important foundation of balanced regional development and harmonious spatial order, but also a basic project for the main function regionalization. Meanwhile it is the demand for the various and characteristic development. Based on such conception and recognition, the essay illustrates how to divide the assessed units, choose and manage the assessed elements, and proposes the method of classification matrix integrated the ecological significant value with economic significant value, therefore divides the region into kinds of area with the help of GIS. Finally, according to the regionalization, the essay discusses the method of main function regionalization and the policy guarantee of controlling the regional space.
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