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  • 地理科学
      2009年, 第29卷, 第5期 刊出日期:2009-09-20 上一期    下一期
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    论文
    中国自然地理学的发展趋势与优先领域
    蔡运龙, 宋长青, 冷疏影
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (5): 619-626.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.05.619
    摘要   PDF (866KB)
    科学研究需要把握学科的发展趋势和优先领域。影响自然地理学发展的主要因素包括社会需求、学科自身性质和其他学科的影响。自然地理学当前发展态势包括积极参与多学科研究计划、新思维和新领域的出现、模式(model)作为重要手段、在认识自然演变机理的基础上解释空间格局、成果得到更广泛应用等。未来自然地理学将出现更加综合、在全球变化的高度上进行研究、更深入地揭示过程及其动态变化的机理机制、更多运用高新技术武装、更加密切地为实现区域可持续发展服务等趋势。中国自然地理学未来的优先领域是:人类活动对全球变化的影响及适应,土地变化过程及其生态环境效应与调控,城市化过程及其资源环境效应与调控,流域地表过程与综合管理,土壤演变过程及其对土壤质量的影响,资源与生态的可持续性,污染物的区域环境过程、健康风险与控制,灾害形成机制与综合风险管理,生态系统服务功能综合评估。要加强特殊自然地理区域的综合研究,包括区域综合理论研究,寒区现代地表过程对气候变化的响应,干旱化过程与人地关系演化,湿地生态过程、服务功能与恢复模式,风成环境与风成过程及其调控,喀斯特生态系统的演变过程与可持续性,青藏高原生态屏障作用及区域生态安全,山地灾害与环境相互作用及区域生态安全。
    Scientific research needs to grasp the trends and priority areas. Main factors affect the development of physical geography include the needs of society, the subject's own nature and the impact of other disciplines. At present the development of physical geography has shown such situations as participating actively in a multidisciplinary research project, the emergence of new thinking and new areas, models as important means of research, the interpretation of spatial pattern based on the understanding of mechanism of natural evolution, and wider application of the research outcomes. In the future, physical geography will be more integrated, and researches on the height of global change reveal more in-depth process and its mechanism of dynamic changes, increase use of high-tech to arm its self, and serve more closely for regional sustainable development. The future priority areas of physical geography in China are: human activities impact on and adaptation to the global change, the process of land change and its eco-environmental effects and control, the process of urbanization and its environmental-resources effects and control, surface process and integrated management of river basin, the evolutionary process of soil and its impact on soil quality, sustainability of resources and ecology, the regional environmental process, health risks and control of pollutants, formation mechanism and the comprehensive risk management of disaster, and integrated assessment of ecosystem services. The comprehensive study on special natural geographical regions should be strengthened, including theoretical study on regional integration, the response of modern surface processes in cold regions to climate change, the process of drought and the evolution of man-land relationship, wetland ecological processes and their service function and recovery model, aeolian environment and aeolian processes and their regulation, evolutionary process and sustainability of Karst ecosystems, ecological barrier role and regional ecological security of Tibet Plateau, and interactions between mountain hazards and environment and mountain ecological security.
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    城市紧凑度的综合测度及驱动力分析——以江苏省为例
    毛广雄, 丁金宏, 曹蕾
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (5): 627-633.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.05.627
    摘要   PDF (1169KB)
    根据紧凑城市的核心内涵,从经济紧凑度、城市用地及形态紧凑度、交通紧凑度和人口紧凑度等方面,构建城市紧凑度的综合测度模型。运用熵值法,对江苏省13中心城市紧凑度进行综合分析后认为,各中心城市紧凑度总体水平不高,且空间差异明显,大致由南向北渐次减弱,根据差异可将江苏省中心城市紧凑度划分为紧凑、较紧凑和不紧凑三类。在此基础上,提出城市紧凑度主要是制度调控力,市场拉动力、人口推动力和交通引导力共同驱动的结果,结合回归模型对主要驱动力进行比较分析,认为制度调控力,市场拉动力和人口推动力对江苏城市紧凑度影响显著,交通引导力还需要进一步强化。
    The thirty years of reform and opening are thirty years for China cities’ quick development, during which many problems appeared such as the disorder of city space, inequality and deterioration of internal and external environment, and so on. Compacted city theory was advanced by European scholars to resolve such problems as city decline, city expansion as well as limiting factors of land resources, which mainly involves theoretical ideas of high density city exploitation, mixed land use, decentralized convergence, prior development of public transportation and constructing harmonious city condition. This article analysed and generalizes the definition and characters of compacted city, summarized the synthethical measurement methods, and put forwards the advantages and disadvantages both of the single index measurement and multi-index measurement. From the basic concept of compact city, the paper discussed the measuring way for city compactness. It is of great guiding significance for theory and practice for improving intensive degree of Chinese city space utilization, avoiding disorder spread of space and promoting the sustainable development of urban to grasp the developing current situation of compact city and to establish an effective pushing model for compact city.The paper believed that compact city includes the compact of city form, the compact of function and the compact of population. The core connotation of that means a high definition state of city and is a strategic mode of efficient and high quality of urban development.Based on the related theories about core meaning of compact city both at home and abroad, the paper constructs the appraisal index system of the synthesis level of the city compactness embarking economic compactness, land compactness, traffic compactness and population compactness. With the method of entropy, the paper researched the comprehensive city compactness of 13 central cities of Jiangsu Province. and finds out that all the city compactness of the cities are low, and the spatial discrepancy of compactness is obvious. At the same time, the article also classified city compactness into three grades: compact, less compact and non-compact. On the basis, the article drew the conclusion that the impetus of city compactness involved the system forces, the market forces,population forces, the traffic guide forces and nature forces. The multiple linear regression models show that system forces, market forces and population forces promote the city compactness obviously. But the traffic guide forces should be improved rapidly.
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    基于最终需求的中国出口贸易碳排放研究
    魏本勇, 方修琦, 王媛, 张学珍, 杨会民
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (5): 634-640.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.05.634
    摘要   PDF (764KB)
    以2002年为例,采用投入产出模型,从最终需求的角度对中国出口贸易引起的碳排放(包括直接和间接排放)进行了评估。结果表明,2002年中国为满足对外出口需求而在国内和国外引起的碳排放约288.22~330.49 MtC,其中国内出口排放261.19 MtC,约占当年国内一次能源消费碳排放量的23.45%;大部分部门的出口碳排放主要是由国内排放所贡献,进口再出口排放对总出口排放的平均贡献率在9.38%~20.97%之间。中国单位产值出口的平均碳排放为0.093~0.106 kgC,其中0.084 kgC是在国内排放;碳密集部门多集中于重化工业、交通运输和部分轻工业。将来一方面,中国不宜增加高耗能行业的出口;另一方面,国外发达国家也应积极向中国等发展中国家转让先进生产技术,以减少全球温室气体排放,实现全球减排行动中公平与效率的双赢。
    International trade is also an important factor influencing the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of an economy. As the continuously increasing of export trade, a part of Chinese carbon emissions had been used to produce exported goods satisfying the consumption demands outside China. The foreign consumers, especially from developed countries, have also the responsibility to Chinese carbon emissions. Knowing about the situation of carbon emissions embodied in Chinese international trade clearly is important in responding the international negotiation and trying to win more development rights in the future. In view of this, based on the input-output table (2002) with 122 sectors and 44 sectoral energy consumption data, this paper estimated the national and sectoral carbon emissions embodied in Chinese exporting trade from the view of final demands. In order to understand the carbon emissions embodied in exports accurately, the imported input was distinguished from domestic input and, the emission imported and later exported was also included in this paper. The results showed the production of Chinese exports required the carbon emission generation of 288.22-330.49 MtC within and outside China, most of it (261.19 MtC) being generated in domestic production processes. In this way, the domestic production of goods for exporting accounted for about 23.45% of Chinese total emissions from the consumption of primary energy in 2002. For most sectors, over 80% of their exported carbon pollution was generated in domestic production. Exported carbon emissions from the manufacture of communication and electronic equipment, the one of raw chemical materials and chemical products, and the one of textile were most significant in all industries, and their exported emissions generated in domestic production processes were also the biggest in all sectors of China. Looking at the ratios of imported and later exported emissions to the total exported emissions in the minimum scenario, there were 13 sectors whose ratio values were higher than the average of Chinese economy, and the sectors mining and processing of ferrous metal ores, production and supply of water, production and supply of electric power and heat power showed the highest values. However, in all sectors, the manufacture of raw chemical materials and chemical products, manufacture of communication and electronic equipment, smelting and pressing of ferrous metals, extraction of petroleum and natural gas had the highest imported and later exported emission. The production of Chinese exports per unit output generated about 0.093-0.106 kgC in China and abroad, 0.084 kgC of which was generated in domestic production. The most significant carbon-intensive sectors were mining and processing of ferrous metal ores, production and supply of electric power and heat power, and production and supply of water. Given the pressure of carbon emission reduction and national energy security, it is not appropriate for China to increase the exports of goods with higher energy consumption, and it is necessary to improve the production technology to decrease the intensities of sectoral energy consumption in the future; On the other hand, the developed countries should actively provide advanced production technologies to China and other developing countries to reduce global emissions of GHG, which will be helpful to get a win-win situation of equality and efficiency in the action of global carbon emission reduction.
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    长三角城市群旅游经济结构的分散化和均质化趋势
    冒宇晨, 王腊春
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (5): 641-645.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.05.641
    摘要   PDF (581KB)
    针对长三角旅游发展战略选择上的不同观点,根据从长三角15个城市1999~2008年历年发布的经济和社会发展公报中收集的各市旅游收入和GDP数据,借鉴经济学中衡量社会收入分配均衡程度的基尼系数方法,设定了城市旅游重要度、区域旅游收入首要度、区域旅游收入集中度和城市旅游经济密度等4 个指数进行统计分析,从长三角城市群区域旅游收入首要度的降低、集中度的减弱、上海以外其他城市旅游重要度的上升、各城市旅游经济密度的普遍增加和逐步接近,揭示了长三角城市群旅游经济的分散化和均质化趋势。并进而分析了这一趋势的现实动因。
    In terms of different points of view in the strategic choice of Yangtze Delta tourism development, this paper makes a statistical analysis on such indicators as city tourism importance degree, regional tourist income primacy degree, regional tourist income concentration degree and city tourism economic density, by the use of data on tourist income and GDP of all Yangtze Delta cities in economic and social development over the years from 1999-2000. It exploites Gini Coefficient approach to measure the evenness of social income distribution from economics, thus finds that there is a decrease in its regional tourist income primacy degree and concentration degree, an increase in tourism primacy degree of all cities except Shanghai, a prevalent increase and growing approximation among tourism economic densities of all cities, reveals decentralization and homogenization of tourism economy of Yangtze delta city group, and further analyzes the cause of dynamics. Based on these tendencies, tourism development strategy of Yangtze delta should be to transfer from ring model centering on Shanghai to polycentric networked model and give priority to the development of waterscape resources, tourism diversity and ecotourism as well.
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    建设项目环评循环经济指标体系研究
    车秀珍, 陈晓丹, 谢林伸, 沈一青
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (5): 646-650.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.05.646
    摘要   PDF (211KB)
    循环经济是可持续发展的重要途径,建设项目是落实循环经济的有效载体,建设项目环境影响评价是从源头实现循环经济的重要环节。以循环经济理念为指导,建立了一套操作性强、适用于建设项目环评的循环经济水平评价指标体系,在建设项目环评和 "三同时"制度中推动循环经济的落实。指标体系综合考虑了社会经济发展、资源能源效率、生态环境效益和循环特征4个专题要素,并将所建立的指标体系应用于深圳市建设项目环境影响评价进行实证研究。
    Recycle economy is an important solution to sustainable development, while environmental impact assessment(EIA) is an important link for realizing recycle Economy from the beginning. Leading by recycle economy, an exercisable and appropriate indicator system of recycle economy is built to put recycle economy into environmental impact assessment and three simultaneousness system of construction projects. In addition, the indicator system takes account of four elements, which were economic development, resources efficiency, ecology benefits and circulation. Besides, empirical researches were conducted in Shenzhen.
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    基于可拓学的生态市建设评价——以哈尔滨市为例
    黄辉玲, 吴次芳
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (5): 651-657.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.05.651
    摘要   PDF (1009KB)
    生态市建设的评价是衡量生态市规划、建设和管理成效的主要依据。在诠释生态市概念的基础上,基于EES模式和层次分析法构建生态市建设评价指标体系,运用可拓学的物元分析方法构建生态市建设评价的综合评判模型,并以哈尔滨市为例进行了实证研究。结果表明:①从2005年到2008年哈尔滨市生态市建设整体上呈现出由较差向合格跃升的趋势;②噪声环境质量、人口自然增长率成为制约哈尔滨市生态市建设水平的因素;③评价结果与现实情况比较吻合,表明物元分析方法在生态市建设评价中具有较强的可信度。
    The evaluation on eco-city construction was the basis for assessing the effect of planning, constructing and managing eco-city. After analyzed the concept of eco-city, an index system was established based on Economy-Environment-Society framework and analytic hierarchy process (AHP), and an integrated assessment model was constructed with the support of matter-element model on extension theory. The assessment model was applied to Harbin City. The results indicated that: ①The whole level of eco-city construction in Harbin City had showed the improved trends, jumping to qualified condition in 2008 from bad condition in 2005; ② Environmental noisy quality and the rate of population growth were key factors limiting the level of eco-city construction in Harbin City; ③It was concluded that the matter element model is reliable for the evaluation of eco-city construction because the results were coincident with actual situations.
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    经济发达区内大都市用地空间的理性扩展
    姚士谋, 张落成, 陈爽, 彭立华
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (5): 658-665.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.05.658
    摘要   PDF (498KB)
    城市化是当今时代社会经济发展的主旋律与经济发展实现现代化的主要目标之一。在经济发达地区,工业化水平高、城镇密集、交通发达、土地利用空间高度集约化,也是沿海地区城市化的重要特点。然而,每个城市的用地空间在城市化过程中存在着非理性的扩展现象,甚至有些大城市地区用地失控的现象;使之城市边缘地区过度郊区化,无限制的蔓延扩展,开发区泛滥,造成生态环境恶化,非理性化的城市建设成本不断增加,社会与环境治理成本也不断加大。提出在经济发达地区内,大都市用地空间理性扩展的5个原则与5种解决的办法,在中国土地资源十分有限的国情条件下,大都市建设做到用地空间理性扩展以及城市化健康发展将起到重要的指导作用,具有十分重要的实践意义与学术价值。
    Urbanization is not only the main theme of the contemporary society but also the main goal of China’s modernization. Transport is normally well –developed in the developed areas. Moreover, these areas are of intensive industrialization and urbanization as well as land use. However, going with the fine phenomenon mentioned above, there is also lots of reasonless phenomenon in these well-developed areas. The reasonless phenomenon covers the over-suburbanization in the marginal urban, unlimited expansion and development. All these result in deterioration in the ecological environment, overuse of the land and the increasing costs of the urban construction and social and environmental treatment. This paper explores five rational principles and five solutions of metropolitan land use space in China's developed areas. Based on the premise of China’s limited land resources, this paper will be of important practical significance and academic value to the rational expansion in metropolis.
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    辽源市经济系统的脆弱性及其规避措施研究
    那伟, 刘继生
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (5): 666-672.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.05.666
    摘要   PDF (793KB)
    脆弱性理论是研究人地耦合系统脆弱性重要理论工具。将脆弱性应用于矿业城市经济系统研究中,提出矿业城市经济系统脆弱性内涵。以吉林省辽源市为例,分析辽源市经济系统脆弱性特征和影响因素,选取1990~2007年共18个评价样本,对辽源市经济系统敏感性、恢复力、脆弱性进行评价分析,并提出辽源市经济系统脆弱性的规避措施。
    Vulnerability is an important theoretical tool on researching vulnerability and of man-land system. The paper put forward the connotation of economic system vulnerability of mining city through applying vulnerability to economic system of mining city. It analyses the characteristic and influencing factor vulnerability, takes a case study on Liaoyuan city in Jilin province. The vulnerability, sensibility and resilience of economic system of Liaoyuan city is evaluated on the base of 18 evaluation samples from 1990 to 2007. The results show that: the sensibility and vulnerability is decreasing and the resilience is increasing in wave style in the whole development process. The process is divided in three stages: the stage of the high vulnerability with high sensibility and low resilience from 1990 to 1994; the stage of the moderate vulnerability with high sensibility and moderate resilience from 1995 to 1999; the stage of the low vulnerability with low sensibility and high resilience from 2000 to 2007. Finally, the paper put forward the countermeasures of economic system vulnerability of Liaoyuan city: optimizing the industrial structure and layout, improving the quality of its industry; expanding the financing channels, strengthening mechanism of external aid developing private economy, strengthening economic vitality; reinforcing to develop human capital, enhancing economic innovation capability etc.
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    吉林省中部城市群城市发展水平的收敛性分析
    杨青山, 楚洪建, 王大鹏
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (5): 673-678.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.05.673
    摘要   PDF (778KB)
    城市群的发展已成为我国的重要空间战略。科学评价与比较城市群内部各城市发展水平的变化趋势,对于促进城市群内各城市之间的协调发展以及城市群的健康发展都具有重要意义。从城市发展水平收敛性的角度入手,提出了城市发展收敛指数的概念,建立了城市发展收敛指数模型,并对吉林省中部城市群的长春、吉林、四平、辽源和松原5个中心城市1990年以来的发展状况进行了定量评价和比较研究。一是验证模型的可靠性,二是对城市群城市发展水平的收敛性进行实证分析,为城市群协调发展提供科学依据。
    The development of urban agglomeration has become an important space strategy of China. The scientific evaluation and comparison of urban agglomeration’s varying trend of internal urban development level has a great significance for the promotion of the harmonious development among cities and the healthy development of urban agglomeration. In view of this, this starts from the perspective of the convergence on urban development level then tries to put forward the concept and set up the model of urban development convergence index, makes a quantitative evaluation and some comparative studies on the development among Changchun City, Jilin City, Siping City, Liaoyuan City and Songyuan City Since 1990, which are five central cities in urban agglomeration in central Jilin Province. The reliability of the model is verified, then, the empirical analysis of the convergence on urban development level of urban agglomeration is made, and scientific basis for the coordinated development of urban agglomeration is provided.
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    中全新世暖期与未来气候变暖情景下东亚夏季降水变化相似型分析
    张冉, 刘晓东
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (5): 679-683.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.05.679
    摘要   PDF (1211KB)
    利用中全新世暖期和21世纪末期的多模式气候模拟资料,对这两个时期东亚地区夏季降水变化相似型进行分析。结果表明,东亚地区中全新世与21世纪末气候变暖情景下的夏季降水变化分布型存在一定的相似性,尤其反映在两个关键区上:青藏高原南部降水变化均出现增多,增幅达到1.5 mm/d以上;新疆西南部降水变化均出现减少,减少幅度达到0.1 mm/d以上,且中全新世降水模拟变化结果与地质气候记录定性吻合。因此东亚地区全新世暖期夏季降水变化在一定程度上可作为未来夏季降水变化的历史相似型。
    Combining Climate modeling results with geological climate records of mid-Holocene, we analyze the analog of summer precipitation change patterns between mid-Holocene and the late 21st century climate change scenarios over East Asia. The results show that the pattern of East Asian summer precipitation change in mid-Holocene is similar to that in the late 21st century to a certain degree. We find two key areas: one in the southern edge of the Tibetan Plateau, the other in the southwest of Xinjiang, with increased precipitation by more than 1.5mm/day and decreased precipitation up to 0.1mm/day under both warming conditions, respectively. Meanwhile, the simulated mid-Holocene precipitation is qualitatively consistent with relevant geological climate records. Therefore the pattern of East Asian summer precipitation change in mid-Holocene can be taken as a historical analog pattern for the future in the study area in some degree.
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    近百年来中国东北与日本北海道地区气温变化对比
    董满宇, 吴正方, 江源
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (5): 684-689.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.05.684
    摘要   PDF (847KB)
    利用东北及北海道地区7个气象站点1909~2003年逐月气温数据,建立两地区近百年来年、季气温序列,对近百年来两地区气温变化特征进行对比分析,结果表明:近百年来东北及北海道地区气温变化存在显著的增温趋势,前者进入显著升温期早于后者,其中对年均温上升趋势贡献较大的是冬、春两季,夏季升温幅度最小。两地区年均温表现出强的增温持续性,未来气候将继续变暖;两地区都存在9、28、40~42 a的变化周期,但两者主周期的次序所有不同;近百年来两地区气温变化在不同时间尺度上具有不同突变点。
    The temperature data used for the study came from seven meteorological stations in the regions of Northeast China and Hokkaido, Japan.The mean annual and seasonal temperature time series for the both areas were obtained by simply averaging the seven stations’ values in the period, checking the representation of the series. Based on the time series , this paper made a systemic comparative analysis on the characteristics of temperature variation. The results indicated that there was a obvious increasing trend of temperature during the last century in both areas .Northeast China entered the period of evident temperature increase earlier than Hokkaido. Mean annual temperature change was mainly due to higher rates of temperature increase in winter and spring ,and the rate of summer was the lowest. The mean annual temperature in the regions of Northeast China and Hokkaido had an evident Hurst phenomenon, namely a persistence trend component,and temperature would warm up continually in the next 100 years.Temperature in the regions of Northeast China and Hokkaido demonstrated oscillation characteristics with 9, 28, 40-42 year cycles, but the sequence of their main periods was different, and there were different sudden change years at different time scales.
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    基于FORCCHN的未来东北森林生态系统碳储量模拟
    赵俊芳, 延晓冬, 贾根锁
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (5): 690-696.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.05.690
    摘要   PDF (876KB)
    以东北森林为研究对象,应用中国森林生态系统碳收支模型FORCCHN,模拟该区森林生态系统碳储量未来可能的时空变化。结果表明: 2003~2049年东北森林生态系统可能仍将具有明显碳汇功能,但强度呈下降趋势;土壤碳储量的变化趋势是从增长到饱和然后逐渐降低的过程,植被碳储量则基本上随时间变化呈逐渐增长趋势。空间上,该区土壤碳储量都有不同程度增加或降低,但植被碳储量都在不同程度的增加;土壤碳储量可能在植被碳储量之前得到饱和,因而东北森林生态系统碳吸收能力的降低主要是由土壤碳储量的减少造成的,而植被碳的增加将会在一定时间内减缓这一过程。
    The probable trajectories of carbon stocks of forest ecosystems under the future climatic scenario in Northeast China were simulated using forest carbon budget model FORCCHN based on growth process of individual trees. The FORCCHN was driven by the future data of FGOALS model. The results showed that: (1) forest ecosystems in Northeast China were expected to be a weak sink from 2003 to 2049. (2) Carbon stocks in soil showed a trend of increase before reaching saturation states and decrease afterward. However, carbon stocks in vegetation showed an increasing trend in the future. Spatially, carbon storages in soil in different regions increased or decreased on different degrees. But, scopes of decreasing were bigger than those of increasing. And carbon storages in vegetation behaved increasing trends. (3) Carbon stocks in soil may reach saturation states before carbon stocks in vegetation, so soil carbon stocks may decrease. However, increase of carbon stocks in vegetation may delay the appearance of saturation states.
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    地表参数反演及城市热岛时空演变分析
    王天星, 陈松林, 阎广建
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (5): 697-702.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.05.697
    摘要   PDF (959KB)
    采用TES算法实现了ASTER地表温度的反演,在对发射率估算方法改进基础上,利用单窗算法反演1989年TM地表温度。结合C地形校正,利用线性光谱模型提取植被覆盖度与城市不透水面密度,利用反射率提取NDVI。从多方面对城市热岛时空演变进行综合研究,研究表明,与等间距法相比,均值-标准差法可以较合理地刻画地表热场的分布,一定程度上可以避开不同时相的差异。最后时空对比及空间统计学分析显示,1989~2004年间福州市城市热岛面积、热岛强度都有所增加,城市热岛总体趋势为西北-东南走向,并逐渐向北-南方向偏移,而且城市热岛重心向东南方向偏移。
    Fuzhou was chosen as the study site, land surface temperatures were estimated form both ASTER images acquired on April 6, 2004 and Landsat TM image collected on June 15, 1989. Then the linear spectral unmixing-LSU model was used to estimate the vegetation abundances and percent of impervious surface from ASTER images. Before employing the LSU, the water body within the study area was masked and the C-terrain correction was applied to the images. Subsequently the NDVI image was also calculated using reflectance data of TM. With the inversion of land surface parameters mentioned above, the spatio-temporal changes of urban heat island (UHI) in Fuzhou from 1989 to 2004 were analyzed in various aspects. Comparisons between different methods used to determine the scopes of urban heat island showed that the mean-standard deviation method was more suitable for studying UHI than equal-interval method. Based on the researches discussed above, the dynamic changes of urban heat island were investigated and the spatial statistics technologies was then introduced, results indicated that after 15 years, the area extent of UHI was significantly enlarged and the urban heat intensity was also augmented, moreover, the standard deviation ellipse indicated that the center of UHI was moved towards southeast, which is in line with the planning policy of Fuzhou.
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    中国典型季风海洋性冰川区雪坑环境记录分析
    李宗省, 何元庆, 庞洪喜, 张宁宁, 贾文雄, 和献中
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (5): 703-708.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.05.703
    摘要   PDF (278KB)
    白水1号冰川是亚欧大陆纬度位置最低的冰川,冰川区90%的降水主要受季风气候影响。运用多种方法对该区雪坑化学的季节性特征分析表明,2006年5月7日采集的两雪坑主要是2005年夏季风期和2005~2006年度非夏季风期的积雪积累;夏季风期积雪中远源物质主要是随季风环流而来的海盐气溶胶及其沿途工、农业区的污染物质,非夏季风期主要是源自印度塔尔沙漠以及中亚和西亚地区的粉尘;季风期和非季风期(2005~2006年度)间积雪化学特征存在较大差异;两雪坑季风期间积雪化学特征的不同主要反映了不同海拔消融强度和淋溶过程的差异,非季风期间的不同主要反映了局地环境的影响,特别是山谷风携带的地壳物质的影响。
    The glaciers on Mt. Yulong, China (5596 m), are the southernmost in mainland Eurasia. The largest is Baishui No.1 Glacier. Up to 90% of the annual precipitation there falls in summer, when warm, moisture-rich air masses associated with the southwest monsoon reach the area from the Indian Ocean. The winter climate is influenced by air masses with a continental origin and by the southern branch of the westerlies. The snow which accumulates on Baishui No.1 Glacier includes marine aerosols associated with the summer monsoon, and dust brought from Central/West Asia, from Africa or from the Thar Desert area, in winter. Studies in May 2006 at two sites, one in the accumulation area (4900 m) and one in the ablation area (4750 m), revealed differences between the ionic composition of the snow which had accumulated in the 2005-06 winter and that of the snow which had been deposited during the preceding summer monsoon. Differences of the chemistry of the summer-accumulated snow at the two sites probably reflected local differences of ablation and elution rates, rather than differences of ion supplies. Differences of the chemistry of the winter-accumulated snow may reflect the influence of up-valley winds, which bring more crustal material to the lower site.
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    树轮资料(1511~1954)太阳活动的多尺度分析——EMD方法的应用
    张真真, 林振山, 杜建丽, 刘会玉
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (5): 709-714.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.05.709
    摘要   PDF (810KB)
    用EMD对Stuiver等提供的树轮14C资料进行分析,结果为:①得到太阳活动的准3、6、11、22、44、110、200、300 a的周期;从趋势项中可以得到准600 a甚至更长的周期波动;②可以判断太阳活动经典的极小期,与公认的极小期有一定的滞后性。从树轮14C含量的变化趋势中可以判断从1954~2100年的太阳活动变化逐渐变强,从2100~2350年太阳活动逐渐开始变弱;③从每个尺度周期波动的时变特征中可以得到,即使在太阳活动的极小期,太阳活动依然存在频率和强度不同的周期波动。
    In this article, Stuiver’s 14C tree-ring data is dealt with EMD, and the results showed that: 1) The classic quasi cycles 3a, 6a, 11a, 22a, 44a, 110a, 178a, 296a of solar activities are gained; even longer cycle fluctuations may exist in the residual trend(RES) 2) the Maunder Minimum, the Dalton Minimum, and the Spoerer Minimum can be analysed, and all these gained minima present a delay than those recognized ones. In addition, the changes of 14C content in the tree-ring in the trend can be determined the information that solar activity may become strong from 1954 to 2100; and from 2100 to 2350 the solar activity may gradually become weak.3),even in a minimum, solar activity still exist different cycles with variable frequency and intensity from the fluctuations characteristics of each time-scale.
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    西藏高原生态功能区划研究
    王小丹, 钟祥浩, 刘淑珍, 高攀, 杨莉
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (5): 715-720.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.05.715
    摘要   PDF (1301KB)
    在分析西藏高原生态环境特征,明确生态系统类型的结构与过程及其空间分布特征的基础上,评价不同生态系统类型的生态服务功能及其在区域社会经济发展中的作用和重要性。运用生态系统科学的原理与方法,结合遥感、地理信息系统和综合分析等手段,对西藏高原在生态区、生态亚区和生态功能区3 个级别上进行生态分区,划分为7 个生态区、17 个生态亚区和76 个生态功能区,并用3 级命名法对这些分区进行命名,绘制了西藏高原生态功能分区图,为高原生态保护和区域社会经济发展提供了理论依据。
    Based on the analysis of the basic eco-environmental characteristics, the study clarified the ecosystem structure, processes and spatial distribution. The importance of ecosystem service function has been estimated. Then by means of remote sensing , Geographic Information System ( GIS) software, and comprehensive analysis methods, this paper made an ecological zoning of the Tibetan Plateau on three levels, namely, ecological zone, ecological subzone, and ecological function zone. There were 7 ecological zones, 17 ecological subzones, and 76 ecological function zones on the Tibetan Plateau, named by three-structure method and mapped out, which provided theoretical bases for local eco-environmental protection and socioeconomic development.
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    改进型空间分析测算模型在盐碱地演化预测中的应用研究——以松嫩平原西部通榆县为例
    邹滨, 董明辉, 杨令宾, 佟志军
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (5): 721-726.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.05.721
    摘要   PDF (446KB)
    提出了用于区域土地利用变化预测改进型的空间分析预测模型,以半干旱环境下典型生态脆弱区松嫩平原西部通榆县为例,用改进型空间分析测算模型分析了全县1992~2001年间土地盐碱化演化过程,并在此基础上预测全县未来29 a内土地盐碱化发展趋势。结果表明:(1)改进型空间分析测算模型可较准确预测区域未来某一时间点盐碱地数量与结构;(2)通榆县2030年以前将以非盐碱地快速盐碱化为主,其中低覆盖度草地和沼泽地是新增盐碱地主要来源;(3)随着气候变化和人类干预,全县土地盐碱化过程有一定可逆性,以轻、中度盐碱地向耕地、高覆盖草地、农村居民用地和城镇用地转化为主。
    The application of traditional spatial analysis model of land use is greatly restricted due to the complex logical structure itself and the lack of rules for restricting the maximum amount of each type of land use in future land use scenario. In this study, we brought forward an improved spatial analysis model for predicting the local land use change. Since land saline-alkailization is becoming one of the most serious geological-environmental disasters in the world and threatening the sustainable development in ecology, economy and society, thus, we selected Tongyu County, a typical zone of the western Songnen Plain in semi-arid areas as study area to test the reliability of the impraved spatial analysis model of land use. We firstly evaluated the performance of the improved spatial analysis model of land use in predicting the change of saline-alkaili land through comparing the statistic area of saline-alkaili land in 2001 from remote sensing image with those from improved spatial analysis model of land use based on the characteristic of land use change during 1979 to 1992. Then, the saline-alkaili land in Tongyu County in 2030 was predicted using the improved spatial analysis model of land use based on the characteristic of land use change during 1992 to 2001. The results revealed that the improved spatial analysis model of land use is capable of predicting the composition of future land use through combining the changed and unchanged parts of land use. The results also showed that the degree of land saline-alkailization was becoming more serious and saline-alkailization was emerging in the major types of land uses (e.g. grassland, swampland). Until the year of 2030, land saline-alkailization will continuously speed up through the transition of the lowly covered grassland and swampland to saline-alkaili land. However, it was also observed that, with the change of climate and human impact, the saline-alkaili land could be transferred to non-salin-alkaili land in Tongyu County in the next coming 29 years. In this process, the low- and median- level saline-alkaili lands would be transferred to highly covered grassland, swampland and residence land, while only a few of, high- level saline-alkaili land would be transferred to residence land. In conclusion, the improved spatial analysis model of land use proposed in this study expands the applications of traditional spatial analysis model of land use and makes it possible for predicting the local land use change based on characteristic of previous land use change. Human would have to fight for survival and development with saline-alkaili land clue to the increasing confliction between human and natural environment in the arid and semi-arid areas in the near future.
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    气候变化对石羊河流域农业生产的影响
    刘明春, 张强, 邓振镛, 王润元, 陈龙泉, 蒋菊芳
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (5): 727-732.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.05.727
    摘要   PDF (282KB)
    用石羊河流域气象站47 a气象观测资料和武威农试站37 a农作物生育资料,探讨流域气候变化背景下农业气象、水文变化特征及对作物布局、生育和产量形成的影响。结果表明:流域内≥10℃积温呈逐年代增加趋势,热量条件好转;气候干旱指数呈逐年代增大趋势,暖干化明显;来水量呈逐年代减少趋势,水问题日趋严重;受气候变暖的影响,易受旱害的高耗水作物春小麦种植面积减小,耐旱、喜温的经济作物玉米、棉花种植面积扩大;春小麦生育进程加快,生育期缩短,对产量形成不利,反之,对喜温作物玉米、棉花等提高产量和品质有利。
    Based on the 47-year meteorological observation data of the Shiyang River basin in 3 meteorological stations and 37-year crop growth data of agriculture station of Wuwei, the change of agricultural meteorology, hydrological characteristics as well as their effects of crop growth and yield were discussed. By climate warming effecting, ≥10℃accumulated temperature assumed increase tread stages of years, which linearity tendency rate were 99.0、105.7、115.8℃·10a-1 of upper 、middle 、down stream. The climate drought index assumed accretion tread stages of years of the rive basin. The upper stream warming and drying was the most obvious. The volume of inflow assumed decrease tread stages of years of the rive basin, which linearity tendency rate were 0.50.5 a hundred million m3·10a-1. The contradiction of agricultural using water was even more protruded. The warming crop area was increasing. The cooling crop area was decreasing. The grow process of crop was accelerated. The occurrence time was ahead. The interval days of Planting-Three leaves、Jointing-Heading were shorten 4d、7d to 80s. The days of Flowering-Ripening weren’t obvious change. The temperature was main factor effected crop yield. The negative effect stages of wheat yield were Seeding stage and Milking stage. The positive effect stage was Jointing-Heading. The whole growth of corn and cotton yield was mainly positive effect. The promote effect of growth later was even more obvious. It was safe to disease path eggs live through the winter, which base was increasing. The disease reproducing and growth time were ahead,. Its occurrence generation number was increasing and harm time was longer. The harm assumed aggravated tread stages of years.
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    渭河下游河流沿线区域洪水灾害风险评价
    李谢辉, 王磊, 谭灵芝, 郑奕
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (5): 733-739.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.05.733
    摘要   PDF (949KB)
    区域洪水灾害风险评价是洪灾评估和管理的重要内容。依据灾害系统理论,利用GIS方法,综合分析了渭河下游对洪水灾害有影响的降水、地形、水系、过境洪水和防洪工程等自然致灾力和孕灾环境的影响度,以及承灾体遭受不同强度洪水可能损失程度的易损性影响度,运用层次分析法和因子叠加法,从自然和社会属性两个方面对洪灾风险进行了综合评价和分析。结果表明:研究区洪水灾害风险整体上以渭河下游干流为中心逐渐向两边递减,即离主干河流越近,风险越高,反之越低;从行政区划上来看,西安市城区和临潼区基本处于高风险区,而华县、华阴市和潼关县基本处于低风险区。
    Regional flood disaster assessment is an important content for flood disaster estimate and management. According to disaster system theory, using GIS method, through comprehensive analyzing some impact degrees of factors to flood disaster, such as rainfall, terrain, water systems, passing flood and flood prevention projects, as well as impact degrees of the factors to potential losing extents when encountering flood disaster, ecological risks of flood disaster were assessed and analyzed synthetically by applying to analytic hierarchy process and factorial overlay methods from two sides of natural and social attribute. The results show that risk of flood disaster declines gradually from center to two sides around main stream of the lower reaches in the Weihe River as a whole. That is, the closer to main stream, the higher the risk. From administrative divisions, Xi’an City and Lintong District are in high risk zones, Hua County, Huayin City and Tongguan County are in low risk zones.
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    研究报道
    武汉市地表亮温与植被覆盖关系定量分析
    张春玲, 余华, 宫鹏, 居为民
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (5): 740-744.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.05.740
    摘要   PDF (789KB)
    利用2002年7月9日的ETM影像,提取武汉市的下垫面类型、地表亮温和植被覆盖度,探讨不同下垫面类型对地表亮温的影响;并采用分形维度计算方法, 研究代表样带的地表亮温和植被覆盖的分维值之间的相关性。结果表明:植被覆盖度越高,地表亮温越低。除水域外的下垫面类型中植被覆盖度与地表亮温存在显著的负相关,这种相关性高于地表亮温与NDVI之间的相关关系。对于样带的地表亮温和植被的分维值研究表明,亮温和植被覆盖度的分维值之间的相关系数高于亮温和NDVI的分维值之间的相关系数。
    We classified land use/land cover types and vegetation fraction and calculated land brightness temperature (LBT) from a Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) image acquired on July 9, 2002. The fractal analysis of LBT and vegetation abundance was also conducted on 20 transects. Results showed that unmixed vegetation fraction was more negatively correlated with UHI than NDVI for most land cover types, except for water. Fractal analysis of image texture showed that the fractal dimension correlation between LBT and vegetation abundance was higher than that between LBT and NDVI.
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    黑龙江省漠河县乡村人群对气候变化的感知方式与认知结果
    云雅如, 方修琦, 田青, 张学珍
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (5): 745-749.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.05.745
    摘要   PDF (967KB)
    以中国东北地区漠河县气象站点1960~2005年逐日平均气温数据为参照,通过问卷调查和访谈的方式,探讨漠河县乡村人群感知气候变化的方式与特征,以及认知的形成过程。结果发现:生活活动、生产活动和观察自然现象是漠河县乡村人群感知气候变化的主要途径,其中人群对生活活动的敏感度最高;基于上述感知渠道,乡村人群形成了对当地过去50 a气候变化总体趋势、极端天气现象和四季持续时间的认知。
    Climate change marked by global warming had been becoming an inconvenient fact and changing the world remarkably. Human behavior as the most significant determinant constraints the adaptation to climate change. Based on the statistic data and information from investigation in Mohe, Heilongjiang Province, theories of Environmental Psychology and Behavioral Economics have been used to analyze the human perception and cognition to climate change. (1) Life activities, agricultural production activities and natural phenomena observation activities are three important paths of human perception. Among them, people are more sensitive to the change of life activities, and then the natural phenomena. (2) On the basis of the perception, peasants’ environmental cognition have been formed, which showed that the temperature has continued to increase from the 1960s, the beginning and the end time of four seasons have changed, as well as the duration of them. (3) Human cognition on climate change in Mohe corresponds well with the statistic data.
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    GIS、RS支持下的石羊河流域景观利用优化研究
    魏伟, 赵军, 王旭峰
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (5): 750-754.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.05.750
    摘要   PDF (836KB)
    选择干旱内陆河石羊河流域为研究区,分析该流域过去20 a间在生态环境自然演替和人类活动干涉下的景观格局特征。从整体上看,研究区各景观类型的利用向非均匀化方向发展,说明区域内各景观类型间的比例差异进一步增加,这种变化在一定程度上反映了人类活动对景观整体的影响。依据累积耗费距离理论,采用最小累积阻力表面(MARS)和耗费表面(MCR)模型,借助表面扩散技术,研究了该流域景观结构紧密性和生态功能空间差异,进而构建源地、生态廊道和生态节点等景观组分来加强生态网络的空间联系,最后提出景观利用优化方案。
    Taking an arid interior district of the Shiyang River basin as study area, this paper analyzed the natural succession of ecological environment and the landscape pattern characteristics under the human activity interference in the past 20 years. The results showed that the landscape utilization developed to the heterogeneous direction, indicating the proportional difference between various landscape types was increasing. This kind of change has reflected the human activity’s influence to the whole landscape on a certain extent. According to the principle that the movements of, energy and material in a landscape are related to some factors such as distance, time, impedance, etc., this study adopts the minimum accumulative resistance surface, the minimum cost resistance model, and uses the surface diffusion technology to analyze the compactness of landscape structure and the spatial difference of ecological function. Then constructs some landscape components such as source, corridor and ecological node to strengthen the spatial connection of ecological network, and further puts forward the proposals of the landscape pattern optimization.
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    近50年内蒙古东部水热变化及对农业的影响
    李喜仓, 郭瑞清, 杨丽桃, 侯琼
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (5): 755-759.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.05.755
    摘要   PDF (437KB)
    利用内蒙古东部农业区25个气象站近50 a降水量、气温、日照时数和相应的产量资料,研究内蒙古东部主要产粮区水热变化与农业的关系。结果表明:近50 a该区气温增温速率高于全国平均增温速率,降水和日照时数存在减少趋势,增温幅度从西向东递增,有明显时段差异,尤其20世纪90年代以后暖干化趋势明显,水热匹配格局发生变化。降水是影响产量的主导因素,其次是温度因子。降水在Ⅰ-Ⅲ区主要影响时段是6~8月,而Ⅳ区是4~5月;生长季或夏季温差和平均最高气温对产量影响较显著,水分短缺和高温胁迫是造成减产的重要原因。
    Based on data of precipitation, air temperature and sunshine duration of 25 weather stations in recent 50 years and relevant yields data in the eastern farming belt of Inner Mongolia, the relationship between climate change and agriculture in main grain-produced area of the eastern Inner Mongolia was researched. The results showed that the warming rate of temperature in recent 50 years in the region was faster than that of the national average, however, precipitation and sunshine duration tended to decrease. The warming range increased by degrees from west to east and had obvious period difference. Especially, climate tendency of warming and drying was obvious and hydrothermal matching pattern has changed after 1990s. Precipitation was the dominant factor affecting yields and the next one was temperature. The main influenced period of precipitation was from June to August in regions Ⅰ, Ⅱ and Ⅲ, and that in region Ⅳ was from April to May. In the growing season or summer, the impact of daily temperature range and the average maximum temperature on yields was relatively significant, and water shortage and high temperature stress were important factors causing yield reduction.
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    基于遥感反演的山东省森林资源调节温度服务的研究
    冯海霞, 朱爱民, 何必, 刘含海
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (5): 760-765.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.05.760
    摘要   PDF (1025KB)
    森林生态服务的量化研究是森林生态服务评估的关键之一。利用TM数据、实际采集的外业数据、山东气象数据,对山东省不同树种、不同时间森林调节气温的生态服务进行了量化分析。主要结论有:温度和森林的NDVI(归一化植被指数)是负相关的关系,NDVI值越高,温度越低;森林温度变化的振幅比农田、城镇都小,森林对温度的调节作用比农田大;不同类型的降温效果不同,在不同的季节降温作用也不一样。在分析时,限定了分析的条件,森林对气温的实际调节作用远大于分析的结果。
    The quantitative research of forest ecological service is one of keys of evaluation of forest ecological service. The paper studies on the forest regulation temperature ecological service for different tree species and in different time by using TM data, field surveying data and the meteorological data in Shandong Province. The conclusions of this paper are followed: LST and NDVI are the negative correlation; that the better forest cover, the lower of LST; the temperature change amplitude of forest is less than that in farmlands and cities, forest functions more temperature control than farms; the temperature decrease function is different from various species and different time. Because the analysis condition was limited, actual function of the forest t regulation temperature was larger than the e result of the paper.
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    三江平原草甸湿地土壤有机碳矿化对C/N的响应
    窦晶鑫, 刘景双, 王洋, 赵光影
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (5): 773-778.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.05.773
    摘要   PDF (992KB)
    模拟研究了三江平原典型草甸小叶章湿地及人工林地土壤有机碳(SOC)矿化在4种C/N(Ⅰ: 9-10,Ⅱ:11-12,Ⅲ: 13-16,Ⅳ: 16-22)处理下的变化特征,分析了SOC矿化对C/N的响应。结果表明:在36天的培养期内,高C/N处理下两种土壤的SOC累积矿化量分别是低C/N时的2.78和2.68倍,两种土壤SOC矿化量对C/N变化的响应不存在显著差异;不同C/N处理下,两种土壤SOC的矿化速率均在前期(0~4天)较高,随着培养时间的延长逐渐降低,并趋于稳定;一级动力学方程能较好的描述两种土壤的SOC矿化动态,其C0和C0/SOC值均随C/N的增加而增加;回归分析表明,试验C/N(9-22)范围内湿草甸土和林地土的SOC累积矿化量及矿化速率分别与C/N呈显著的线性和二次曲线关系,C/N是影响湿地土壤有机碳富集程度的关键因素。
    An incubation expericment with typical Deyeuxia angustifolia meadow soil and artificial forest soil in the Sanjiang plain was conducted under different soil C/N (Ⅰ: 9-10, Ⅱ:11-12, Ⅲ: 13-16, Ⅳ: 16-22) to examine the responses of soil organic carbon (SOC) mineralization to C/N changes. The result showed that during the period of 36d incubation, the SOC accumulative losses of two kinds of soils under high C/N treatment were about 2.78 and 2.68 times as much as that under low C/N, respectively. SOC mineralization rates for both the two kinds of soils were higher in the first 4 days of incubation, and became stable as the time prolonged. The dynamics of SOC mineralization of two kinds of soil preferably followed the first-order kinetics, and the C0 and C0/SOC values increased exponentially with the increasing of C/N. The regression analysis also found that there were significant linear or conic relationships between the accumulative loss and mineralization rate of SOC and C/N, which explained that C/N was the key factor in affecting the sequestration of SOC in wetland.
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