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ISSN 1000-0690
CN 22-1124/P
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  • 地理科学
      2010年, 第30卷, 第3期 刊出日期:2010-05-20 上一期    下一期
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    论文
    论中国地域系统的协调与调控
    陈才, 黄馨, 陈春林
    地理科学. 2010, 30 (3): 321-328.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.03.321
    摘要   PDF (901KB)
    区域问题是中国社会经济发展中面临的主要问题,协调与处理好区域关系是一项长期而艰巨的任务。以区域经济地理学基本理论为指导,以经济地域系统的协调与调控为主题,论述了世界与中国的地域系统、区域关系及主要区域问题。尤其针对中国着重提出区域生态环境不断恶化,区域差距不断拉大,尤其是工业化、城市化与耕地不断被侵占,以及地方保护主义等突出问题,提出了协调区域关系的相关对策,最终构建了科学合理区域关系的新思路。
    Region is the core of geography, to research regional relationship is the task which geography theory and practice have to confront all along. In the history of Chinese socioeconomic development, regional problem is always the major one. And regional economic geography has been studying the practice in the area. How to coordinate and handle the regional relationship is a difficult task for a long time. A complicated giant areal system, including natural giant areal system, economic giant areal system and human giant areal system, has taken shape in the world. Each giant system also has a number of different subsystems. The three giant areal systems interact mutually, and then form a complicated regional relationship. This article takes the basic theories of regional economic geography as its guidance, coordination and regulation of economic areal system as the theme and target. Then it discourses the areal system, regional relationship and some major regional problems in China. First of all, the article proposes regional characteristics of Chinese regional system, the characteristics include the followings: three major geomorphologic units are the natural basis, three economic zones reflect the main regional relation, the rapid development of urban system reflects the new characteristics of regional relations, a unique system of administrative division plays the new role, and the regional basis for the development of relations has its particularity. After that, the article promotes the regional relationship to be harmonious, and a series of interrelated countermeasure have been proposed. It including several aspects, for example, urbanization path, regional land relationship, environment construction, organization and mechanism coordination. At last, aiming to construct the scientific and rational regional relationship, the article suggests holding on some channels as follows, improving the surrounding environment as the guarantee, coordinating the relationship among three giant zones as the foundation, coordinating the concern between urban and rural area as the key point, and clearing the land relationship as the core. In the future, the middle and the east of China are the key area in the adjustment plan. Last but above all, new ideas must be put forward, bring about new institution, and strive as much as possible to facilitate the regional harmonious relationship.
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    基于企业家型城市理论的工矿资源型城市转型——以马鞍山市为例
    殷洁, 罗小龙, 程叶青, 郑焕友, 张京祥
    地理科学. 2010, 30 (3): 329-335.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.03.329
    摘要   PDF (1235KB)
    可持续发展和转型是中国诸多工矿资源型城市面临的迫切问题。在企业家型城市的理论视角下,对"钢城"马鞍山的成功转型进行理论和实证研究。研究发现,城市定位与时俱进是马鞍山成功转型的关键,它为马鞍山的城市转型提供了旗帜和方向。在转型中,马鞍山通过实施传统钢铁改造升级、城市空间"南进"、"东扩"战略与园林城市建设等企业家型政府的行动,在城市中创造了新的工业空间、新的消费空间,并改善了城市人居环境。此外,通过实施制度创新战略,在城市内部进行了行政区划调整,在区域层面则实施了积极的区域一体化战略,加强与更大区域的合作,提高了城市综合竞争力。马鞍山的成功转型经验可为其他类似工矿资源型城市提供启示和参考价值。
    Maanshan, a city based on the iron resource and industry in China, is one of the cities which have achieved a successful transformation. Maanshan has established a development idea with less dependence on its iron and steel industry since the mid 1990’s. A lot of strategies and actions have been done to obtain a sustainable development of Maanshan. This study examines Mananshan’s successful transition and restructuring from the perspective of entrepreneurial city theory, focusing on its entrepreneurial discourse, entrepreneurial fashion and entrepreneurial institutional innovation.The first key reason for Maanshan’s successful transition is that the city’s designated functions have being advanced with the times. After experienced as "medium-sized iron and steel corporation" in original and "iron and steel industrial city" in 1980’s and the early 1990’s, the designated functions of Maanshan have been publicized as "the Yangtze River region's important manufacturing city and a riverside garden city for residents and visitors" after 1996. This up to date designated functions are considered as an entrepreneurial discourse by this paper. It has not only guided the city’s transition to a specific direction, but also marketed the city to the world. Secondly, an important reason for Maanshan’s successful transition lies in its municipality’s actions full of entrepreneurial fashion. For carrying out the city’s designated functions, the municipality has done lots of tangible actions, including the transformation and upgrading of traditional iron and steel industry, the production of new industrial space and new consumption space, and the improvement of living environment. By these positive actions, Maanshan has transformed from a productive city to an integrated city.Last but not least reason for Maanshan’s successful transition is its strategies in entrepreneurial institutional innovation. Interscalar strategies have been adopted by Maanshan to create a better institutional environment for innovation. At the inner city scale, Maanshan has reorganized its administrative boundaries to implement the actions of producing new spaces. While at the regional scale, Maanshan has taken positive regionalization strategies, that is, to strengthen its co-operation with the Yangtze River Delta and the Nanjing Metropolitan Area to enhance its competitiveness.In summary,this paper accounts that Maanshan’s successful transition is based on the entrepreneurial city strategy. Entrepreneurial discourse, municipality’s entrepreneurial fashion and the entrepreneurial institutional innovation are the three main points in the progress. The experiences of Maanshan will shed light on other mineral resources and industrial cities’transition in China. And through the research of Maanshan’s transition, this paper also enriches entrepreneurial city theory with empirical study of urban in China.
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    芜湖市城市居住区位研究
    焦华富, 吕祯婷
    地理科学. 2010, 30 (3): 336-342.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.03.336
    摘要   PDF (573KB)
    运用评价模型对芜湖市各个片区的居住区位进行了评价,利用问卷调查方式所获取的资料对芜湖市居民的居住满意度和择居意向进行了分析,并探讨了居住区位优势度对商品房价格的空间分异、居民居住满意度、居民择居偏好区位的影响。结果表明,处于芜湖市中心的城中片区在居住区位方面的优势最高;其次是镜湖北片区;再次是城南片区、城东片区、开发区片区;三山片区最次。可见对一个拥有中等规模,新区刚刚开发的城市而言,发展历程越久的片区,其区位优势越强,且商品房价格越高,居民的居住满意度越高,更成为居民理想的择居区位。
    This paper constructs an evaluation model on the base of other studies, divides the residential region into six parts according to natural factors, road, historic variation etc., then evaluates the location dominance of residential districts in Wuhu City. Moreover, it analyzes spatial distribution of prices, people’satisfaction with location and people’preference to residential location, then discusses the effect of residential location dominance to the spatial distribution of prices, people’satisaction with location and people’preference. Four conclusions are as followed: Firstly, the center area of Wuhu City is still with the highest dominance. The north area of Jinghu is inferior to it. Sanshan area is with the weakest dominance.Secongly,the most expensive houses are in the center area of the city. The residents prices in Sanshan area and the east area are the lowest.Thirdly, people locating in the center of the city have the highest level of satisfaction with location, while levels of people locating in Sanshan and east area of the city are inferiorest.Moreover,people's ideal location of house are still in the center area of city. Generally, the center area of the city,the north area of Jinghu have been mature residential group,and the residential group of east of the city and Sanshan area are in their infancy. Moreover,the dominance of residential location is consistent with spatial differentiation of house price,satisfation of residence location,ideal residence location.
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    辽中南城市群城市规模分布演变特征
    苏飞, 张平宇
    地理科学. 2010, 30 (3): 343-349.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.03.343
    摘要   PDF (1099KB)
    运用城市首位指数、城市规模分布的基尼系数和分形等理论与方法,对改革开放以来辽中南城市群城市规模分布的现状及演变特征进行分析。结果表明,2007年,辽中南城市群城市等级规模结构呈位序-规模分布;城市体系中大城市规模偏大,中等城市偏小,小城市规模较小;城市规模空间分布不均衡,区域分异明显。改革开放以来,辽中南城市群城市规模分布发生显著变化,城市规模与数量均呈快速扩张态势;城市首位指数均不断降低,城市规模结构由首位分布向位序-规模分布转变;城市规模分布的分维数不断增加,城市规模差异逐渐减小,不断向均衡方向发展。在此基础上提出了加快沿海城市带的发展、加强交通基础设施的建设和重视矿业城市转型等建议。
    By using the theories and methods of urban primacy index, fractal and Gini index, the evolution characteristics of city-size distribution of urban agglomeration in the middle and south Liaoning Province since 1982 were analyzed. The results showed that the middle and southern Liaoning urban agglomeration exhibited a city-size distribution following the rank-size rule. The scale of metropolis and big cities was larger, while smaller of medium-sized and small cities in urban system and the spatial distribution of cities was not equal. The city-size distribution of urban agglomeration had changed dramatically since the reform and opening up, with urban size and city numbers rapidly increasing. The primacy indexes showed a declining trend, shifting to rank-size distribution from primate distribution. The fractal dimension of city-size distribution of the middle and southern Liaoning urban agglomeration was increasing, and the difference between urban scales was reducing to balance. At lastly, some countermeasures were proposed, such as accelerating the development of the coastal cities, strengthening the transportation infrastructure, and putting more emphasis on the transformation of mining cities.
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    模糊聚类模型及其在国际市场划分中的应用研究
    徐辉, 陈又星
    地理科学. 2010, 30 (3): 350-354.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.03.350
    摘要   PDF (795KB)
    当前,在全球金融危机的背景下,经济低迷。中国经济对国际市场的依存度较高,贸易保护主义正在进一步加剧,中国面临的贸易摩擦形势将更加严峻,在这种情况下,如何应对国际市场的变化是当前社会各界关注的热点课题。由于影响国际市场的因素众多,且复杂多变难以精确定量测度,具有较强的模糊不确定性,针对该问题的模糊不确定性,构建了模糊聚类模型,并通过实例基于MATLAB程序设计进行仿真计算,形成了模糊动态聚类,对国际市场进行了定量的模糊划分,以说明该模型的有效性、可靠性和实用性,从而为中国出口企业进行国际市场决策,正确评估国际市场的变化情况,更加理性地预见和把握国际市场的发展趋势,寻求新的出口市场,提供一种新的科学定量分析方法。
    Now trade protectionism was being further intensified in the context of global financial crisis because of global economic downturn. The economy of China was highly dependent on the international market. The situation of trade friction would be even more severe in China. How to response to the changes of international marketing was a hot topic which all communities currently concern. The factors which affect the international market were complex and changeable. It was also difficult to measure accurately.These factors also were strong fuzzy uncertainty.The article built a fuzzy clustering model for strong fuzzy uncertainty of factors and created a dynamic clustering through examples of MATLAB-based simulation program designed. The fuzzy clustering model was effective and reliable through fuzzy partition for the international market. This article provided a new science method of quantitative analysis for the export enterprises which did decision-making and be quantified to assess the changes in the international market. The new method of quantitative analysis also can be beneficial to anticipate and grasp the development trend of international market and seek new export markets.
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    基于IBIS模型的1955~2006年中国土壤温度模拟及时空演变分析
    朱求安, 江洪, 刘金勋, 方秀琴, 余树全
    地理科学. 2010, 30 (3): 355-362.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.03.355
    摘要   PDF (2804KB)
    基于IBIS模型对中国1955~2006年的土壤上层1m的年平均与月平均土壤温度进行模拟,并利用全国气象站点土壤温度观测数据对模拟结果进行验证,结果显示中国南方区的模拟效果优于北方及青藏高原区,春、夏、秋三季模拟效果优于冬季,总体而言取得了较满意的效果。基于模拟结果,利用Mann-Kendall方法对中国1955~2006年年平均和月平均土壤温度进行趋势分析的结果表明,年平均土壤温度,中国北方呈显著上升趋势,南方呈非显著上升趋势,四川盆地、贵州中部、藏东南及天山地区等小部分区域呈现显著或非显著下降趋势;月平均土壤温度,北方基本保持显著上升趋势,南方地区7~9月份总体呈现出下降的趋势,8月份最为显著。
    The Integrated Biosphere Simulator (IBIS) is used to evaluate the spatial and temporal patterns of annual and monthly top 1 m soil temperature across China for the period 1955-2006. Observed soil temperature data collected from 650 national meteorological stations were used to validate the simulated soil temperature in spatial and temporal scales. Mean error (ME), root mean square error (RMSE) and coefficient of determination were used as the performance criterion. The validation results presented that IBIS model performed better in the southern China than in the northern China and the Tibetan plateau region. The mean error and root mean square error are less than 2℃ in the southern China and more than 3℃ in some area of the northern China and the Tibetan plateau region for annual soil temperature. Monthly validation results showed that the model performed better in spring, summer and autumn than in winter. The mean error was bigger than 3℃ in winter and it was between -1.4℃ and 2℃ in other three seasons. The root mean square error was larger than 3.5℃ in winter and it was between 2℃ and 3℃ in other three seasons. The root mean square error and coefficient of determination also indicated better performance in the southern China than in the northern China and the Tibetan plateau region for monthly soil temperature simulation. The coefficient of determination showed that the model captured the spatial variance of soil temperature well. Based on the simulated soil temperature, trend analysis was applied for annual and monthly soil temperature from 1955 to 2006 using Mann-Kendall method. Annual soil temperature presented significant increasing trends in the northern China and slight increasing trends in the southern China. Small areas of Sichun Basin, center part of Guizhou Province, southeast part of Tibet, and Tianshan Mountains region presented significant or slight decreasing trends for soil temperature. Monthly soil temperature trends analysis presented significant increasing trends in most areas of the northern China and in the southern China the spatial pattern of trends for each month was different. From July to September, the soil temperature presented decreasing trends in most area of the southern China. In August, the soil temperature presented significant decreasing trends in the southern China. Uncertainty should be considered in soil temperature simulation. Uncertainty in observed data used to validate the simulated results, in input data such as soil texture, atmospheric boundary condition including solar radiation, air temperature and precipitation required by the models, and in spatial scale matching will make the soil temperature estimation diverge from the true state because of gradually errors accumulating.
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    基于资源开发利用的区域可持续发展研究
    杨宇, 张小雷, 雷军, 董雯
    地理科学. 2010, 30 (3): 363-369.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.03.363
    摘要   PDF (1151KB)
    围绕资源规模和供给能力,资源开发对经济的支撑力、人类对资源的可持续利用能力3个维度,构建基于资源开发利用的可持续发展模型,将可持续发展的程度分为可持续发展、基本可持续发展、基本不可持续发展、不可持续发展4个类型,并提出了评价模式与评价方法,通过指标体系对乌昌地区进行了实证分析,得出乌昌地区总体上处于可持续发展类型的结论。对以资源开发利用为支撑的区域未来发展方向进行了思考,认为优势资本转换是其可持续发展的最终途径,并从规范资源开发与利用的主体、发展循环经济、引导资源型产业郊区化、培育接续产业4个方面提出了可持续发展的措施。
    Based on scale of resources and supply capacity, the support of resources exploitation to economic development, the capacity of resources transforming and sustainable using, this paper build a framework of the sustainable development found on resource development and utilization. Drawing lessons from barometer of sustainability, regional development and its sustainability can be pictured in four types in a three-dimensional coordinate: sustainability, weak sustainability, almost unsustainability and unsustainability. This paper also puts forward evaluation mode and evaluation methodology. Positive analysis of Urumuqi-Changji region through indicator system shows that the sustainability development type in Urumuqi-Changji region is sustainability. Based on the thought of future developing direction of region which takes resources exploitation and utilization as regional foundation, this paper point out the final way to achieve a sustainable development is transforming the dominate capital from the resources to other fields, such as service industry. This paper also puts forward some feasible measures as follows: to standardize the main part of the resources exploitation and using; to develop a circular economy; to guide the resource-based industry to expand suburbanization; to cultivate continuous industry.
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    京沪入境旅游流网络结构特征分析
    吴晋峰, 潘旭莉
    地理科学. 2010, 30 (3): 370-376.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.03.370
    摘要   PDF (773KB)
    应用社会网络理论和方法,对京沪入境旅游流网络的整体型态特征和个体结构位置特征进行定量研究。结果显示,由11个城市节点和24条流向关系组成的大型京沪入境旅游流网络密度为0.218,程度中心势为0.400,其中包含了3组不少于3个节点的1-派系和2组不少于5个节点的2-派系;由14个城市节点和46条流向关系组成的小型京沪入境旅游流网络密度为0.253,程度中心势为0.566,其中包含了1组不少于4个节点的1-派系和2组不少于6个节点的2-派系。以上结果说明,京沪入境旅游流网络密度低、中心势高、派系交叉性显著;京沪入境旅游流网络节点层次分化严重,核心节点突出,边缘节点明显;京沪入境旅游流网络中存在明显派系。得到两点启示:国家应采取切实措施引导入境旅游流在国内旅游城市之间合理流动,避免入境旅游流过于集中在某些城市;旅游城市应了解其在全国入境旅游流网络中的位置,一方面应积极地与核心城市建立良好的入境旅游关系,另一方面应争取进入旅游城市组合,联合开发旅游产品,共同开展市场营销。
    The holistic and individual structural characteristics of the Beijing and Shanghai inbound tourists flow network was studied using social network analysis. It was found that the large inbound tourists flow network is build up with 11 city-nodes and 24 flow-relations, containing three 1-clique which is no less than 3 nodes and two 2-cliques which is no less than 5 nodes. Its density is 0.218 and its centralization is 0.400. The small inbound tourists network is build up with 14 city-nodes and 46 flow-relations, containing one 1-clique which is no less than 4 nodes and two 2-cliques which is no less than 6 nodes. Its density is 0.253 and its centralization is 0.566. Three conclusions had been obtained:① The compact intersection level of the Jing and Hu inbound tourists flow network is lower and unevenly distributed. ② The nodes composed the network are polarized into central nodes and fringe nodes evidently. ③There are evident cliques in the Beijing and Shanghai inbound tourists flow network. Two suggestions are put forward: ①The government should take actions to avoid the inbound tourists flow concentrating in few core cities and give correct guidance.② Cities should find out their position in the inbound tourists network and constitute good relationships with those core cities and make an alliance with them.
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    福建丹霞地貌旅游景区客流时间分布特性及其影响因素
    骆培聪, 张明锋
    地理科学. 2010, 30 (3): 377-383.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.03.377
    摘要   PDF (1015KB)
    地处闽西的武夷山、泰宁金湖、连城冠豸山、永安桃源洞等国家重点风景名胜区均属典型的丹霞地貌类型景区,距离较近,开展它们客流时间分布比较研究对各景区旅游业发展具有指导意义。运用小波分析、季节性强度指数、旅游气候舒适度模型等方法,对这4个旅游景区客流时间分布特性及其影响因素进行分析比较。结果表明,2001~2008年每个景区接待游客数量总体上是增加的,武夷山年游客数量最大,泰宁金湖景区客流年际波动辐度较大;武夷山景区客流年内变化曲线为"三峰三谷",泰宁金湖景区为"驼峰",冠豸山、桃源洞景区为"两高峰、两中峰、四低谷",泰宁金湖客流年内变化最大,冠豸山、桃源洞次之,武夷山最小;冠豸山和桃源洞景区客流月内波动要比武夷山、泰宁金湖景区大一些;连城冠豸山周内客流峰值分布在周日,其他景区客流峰值在周六,武夷山黄金周游客接待量最大。并对气候因素、社会因素、景区知名度、对外交通条件、旅游管理体制与管理水平等影响因素进行了分析。
    All the national key scenic spots of Wuyi Mountain, the Golden Lake of Taining, the Taoyuan Cave of Yong’an, and Guanzhai Mountain in Liancheng, belong to the typical Danxia landform. They are located in west Fujian Province with a short distance between each other. Therefore, it is of great significance to conduct a comparative study on the temporal distribution of tourist flows in the context of sustainable development of these four spots. Using methods such as wavelet analysis, seasonal intensity index, tourism climate comfort model, this paper analyzed and compared the temporal characteristics of tourist flows of the four spots and their influencing factors and obtains the following results: ① The amount of tourists of the four spots increased from 2001 to 2008; the number of tourists of Wuyi Mountain is the largest, and tourist flows to the Golden Lake in Taining is characterized by significant fluctuation between the years;②The seasonal curve of the tourist flow at Wuyi Mountain is characterized by "three peaks and three valleys", the seasonal curve of the tourist flow at the Golden Lake of Taining is characterized by "Camel back", and the seasonal curve of the tourist flow of Guanzhai Mountain and that of Taoyuan Cave of Yong’an are characterized by "two big peaks, two small peaks, and four valleys". The seasonal change of the tourist flow at the Golden Lake in Taining is the most obvious, followed by that of Taoyuan Cave,Guanzhai Mountain, and Wuyi Mountain;③ The fluctuations of the tourist flows within a month at both the Taoyuan Cave and Guanzhai Mountain were larger than that of Wuyi Mountain and the Golden Lake in Taining; ④While the peak of tourist flow of Guanzhai Mountain was on Sunday of the week, such peaks at other spots appears on Saturday, and the tourists number of Wuyi Mountain is the largest in golden weeks. The article also analyzes factors affecting the tourist flows, including climate, popularity, traffic conditions and management system and its standards of the above scenic spots.
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    青藏铁路沿线自然灾害地理组合特征分析
    刘峰贵, 张海峰, 陈琼, 张镱锂, 周强, 李春花, 曹生奎
    地理科学. 2010, 30 (3): 384-390.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.03.384
    摘要   PDF (1811KB)
    根据青藏铁路沿线26个行政单元自然灾害的历史记录,对沿线的洪水、山洪、地震、雪灾、风灾以及滑坡、泥石流和崩塌等自然灾害进行量化分析,通过自然灾害灾种、频次的统计和聚类分析将青藏铁路沿线划分为6个自然灾害组合分区,其中,拉萨河谷路段主要以洪水、滑坡灾害为主;羌塘高原路段主要以雪灾、风灾为主,青南高原路段以雪灾、地震灾害为主;柴达木盆地路段以风灾、地震等灾害为主;青海湖盆地路段以洪水、雪灾为主;湟水谷地路段以洪水、山洪、滑坡灾害为主。拉萨河谷路段和湟水谷地路段的自然灾害类型组合具有相似性。
    The Qinghai-Tibet railway is one of the most sensitive railways to natural hazards in China. Using the historical records of natural hazards in 26 administrative units along this railway, the hazards were quantitatively analyzed. According to the cluster analysis of natural hazards’frequencies, the railway can be divided into 6 sections, each corresponding to a natural hazard regional combination type. The Lhasa Valley section is dominated by floods and landslides. The Southern Tibet Plateau section is dominated by snow hazards and earthquakes. The Qaidam Basin is dominated by wind hazards and earthquakes. The Qinghai Lake Basin section is dominated by floods and snow hazards. The Huangshui Valley section is dominated by floods and landslides, which is very similar to the Lhasa Valley section.
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    海岸沙丘表面不同部位风沙流中不同粒径沙粒垂向分布的变化
    董玉祥, 黄德全, 马骏
    地理科学. 2010, 30 (3): 391-397.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.03.391
    摘要   PDF (717KB)
    河北昌黎黄金海岸典型沙丘的实地观测表明,风沙流中中沙与细沙输沙量的垂向分布在沙丘表面不同部位的变化并无本质性差别但有一定变化幅度的差异,如绝对输沙量均在迎风坡至丘顶增加、丘顶至背风坡坡脚减小,但中沙输沙量在迎风坡增加的幅度小于细沙、在背风坡减少的幅度大于细沙;相对输沙量在沙丘不同部位的变化趋向类似,但细沙的变化幅度要小于中沙;中沙的垂向分布模式均为幂函数,细沙则表现为指数分布(0~10cm高度内)和幂函数分布(10~30cm高度内)。
    Changli Gold Coast in Hebei Province is one of the most typical coastal aeolian dune distribution regions in China, one of dunes in this area was chosen to measure the change of vertical distribution of different sand grain sizes in wind-sand flow at the different sites over coastal dune. The field measurement results show that the change models of vertical distribution of medium sands and fine sands in wind-sand flow at the different sites over coastal dune have no essential difference, there is only some difference in the extent of change. All the aeolian sediment transport rate of medium sands and fine sands increase on windward slope and decrease on leeward slope, but the increase rate of eolian sediment transport rate of medium sands on windward slope is slower than fine sands and the decrease rate of Aeolian sediment transport rate of medium sands on leeward slope is faster than that of fine sands. The ratio of aeolian sediment transport rate of medium sands and fine sands at different heights in the wind-sand flow over coastal dune almost have the same change trend among different sites over dune, but the extent of change of medium sands is larger than the extent of fine sand change. At all the sites over coastal dune, the vertical distribution model of aeolian sediment transport rate of medium sands in wind-sand flow is power function, the vertical distribution model of fine sands could be expressed by an exponential function in 0-10 cm height and by the power function at the height of 10-30 cm.
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    DEM地形信息量计算的不确定性研究
    陶旸, 汤国安, 王春, 祝士杰, 杨昕
    地理科学. 2010, 30 (3): 398-402.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.03.398
    摘要   PDF (1019KB)
    DEM地形信息量的准确度量是判定DEM数据应用适宜性与限制性关键。以黄土丘陵沟壑区DEM及其派生的坡度、坡向DTM为例进行实验,研究子集划分与分级数对DEM信息量估算精度的影响。结果表明,DEM地形信息量是实际地形信息和子集划分策略共同作用的结果,现有DEM信息量计算存在不确定性,DEM子集划分算法和分级数的选择直接影响DEM信息量的计算结果。文章借助最大熵定理的基本思路构建DEM地形信息量分级判定模型,可客观获得连续型栅格地形数据在信息量计算上最优分级,为有效估算DEM地形信息量提供科学依据。
    Precision of DEM terrain information content is a key factor to judge the applicability and limit of DEM data. An experiment is designed to find out the effect of DEM subset partition strategy and number of subsets to the estimate precision of DEM terrain information content based on DEM, slope and aspect data of hilly and gully test areas on the Loess Plateau. The result shows that DEM terrain information content is affected by both terrain information and subset partition strategy. To weaken the uncertainty of DEM terrain information content calculated by traditional algorithms, this paper presents a DEM subset partition model based on the maximum entropy theorem. It provides an objective theoretical basis for DEM information content calculation and has been proved efficient to avoid the subjectivity and arbitrariness in DEM artificial classification.
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    黄河下游河道萎缩对冲淤临界的影响
    许炯心
    地理科学. 2010, 30 (3): 403-408.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.03.403
    摘要   PDF (837KB)
    通过实测年系列水沙资料分析,运用统计分析方法,按照非萎缩期(1950~1985年)和萎缩期(1986~1999年)两个时期,分别得到黄河下游河道的冲淤临界值。对于年沙量、>0.05mm年粗沙量、年均含沙量、年均粗泥沙含沙量、年均来沙系数而言,冲淤临界值均有不同程度减小。这意味着河道萎缩后,由于输沙功能减弱,在年沙量、>0.05mm年粗沙量、年均含沙量、年均粗沙含量、年均来沙系数处于比非萎缩期更低的水平时,下游河道就有可能出现淤积,从而使得控制河道淤积抬高变得更为困难,使河道防洪面临新的问题。
    Fill-scour threshold is often related with specific combination of sediment load and stream flow, and determining of this combination may provide important reference to the operation of Xiaolangdi Reservoir. Based on annual hydro-metric data and using statistical method, a study has been made to determine the fill-scour thresholds of the lower Yellow River, for two periods separately, namely, the period with channel shrinkage from 1986 to 1999 and the period from 1950 to 1985 without channel shrinkage. A number of fill-scour thresholds have been obtained, which show that the fill-scour thresholds related with annual suspended load, with annual mean sediment concentration, with annual concentration of "coarse" sediment and with the ratio of annual sediment concentration to water discharge (known as incoming sediment coefficient) all decreased from the non-shrinkage period to the shrinkage period. This means that in the latter period sedimentation might occur even if the annual mean sediment concentration and the incoming sediment coefficient is at a lower level than that in the former period, and thus, flood protection in the lower Yellow River would face higher pressure.
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    基于北京1号小卫星的全国沙漠与沙漠化土地监测研究
    汪爱华, 李丽, 迟耀斌, 王智勇, 周会珍
    地理科学. 2010, 30 (3): 409-414.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.03.409
    摘要   PDF (943KB)
    利用2006和2007年北京1号小卫星多光谱数据,对中国四大沙地和八大沙漠地区沙漠和沙漠化土地分布状况及其动态变化进行研究。结果表明:2007年研究区内沙漠和沙漠化土地总面积为69.18×104km2,占研究区总面积的25.03%,其中重度区面积占14.88%,中度区占5.10%,轻度区占5.05%。2006~2007年研究区内共有440块图斑发生变化,总变化面积为876.41km2,沙漠化土地增加面积47.57km2,减少面积为373.39km2。沙漠化土地类型间的转换面积为455.45km2,主要以轻度和中度沙漠化土地之间相互转化最为明显。
    Beijing-1 multispectral data, with advantages of short revisit period and the large area collection capability of 32 m resolution, 600 km width imaging swath and more than 4 000 km stripe, is a new prior source of remote sensing data in monitoring desert and sandy desertification land. This paper introduced the workflow and the key technologies to monitor the desert and sandy desertification land more rapidly and frequently in whole country based on Beijing-1 multispectral data.Two periods of Beijing-1 near-anniversary images in 2006 and 2007 were used to analyse the distribution and change of desert and sandy desertification land. The study area includes Hulunbuir Sandy Land, Horqin Sandy Land, Otindag Sandy Land, MuUs Sandy Land, Hoboq Desert, Tengger Desert, Badain Jaran Desert, Ulan Buh Desert, Qaidam Desert, Kumtag Desert,Gurbantunggut Desert, Taklimakan Desert and so on. The result showed that the total area of the desert and sandy desertification land added up to 691 752km2 in 2007, accounting for 25.03% of the whole region. The proportion of severe, medium and slight land was respectively 14.88%, 5.10% and 5.05%. They mainly distributed in Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, whose area accounted for 61.16% and 27.84% of the total area of the desert and sandy desertification land respectively. There were 22 counties or banners where the area of the desert and sandy desertification land was over 50% of its total region area. Moreover, there were 33 counties or banners where the area of the severe land had exceeded 10% of its total region area.There were 440 patches changed from 2006 to 2007, which added up to 876.41 km2, mainly in the edge of desert or sandy land. The area of the desert and sandy desertification land to the non-sandy land was 373.39 km2, of which mostly being converted into farmland, vegetation region, water body, construction land and so on. Contrariwise, the area changed from non-sandy to the sandy land was 47.57 km2, mainly from farmland or vegetation region to the slight land. So t 325.82 km2 of desert and sandy desertification land decreased from 2006 to 2007. In addition, the transformation area among the three level lands was 455.45 km2, of which the transformation between medium and slight land was obvious.
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    三江源自然保护区土地覆被变化特征分析
    赵志平, 刘纪远, 邵全琴
    地理科学. 2010, 30 (3): 415-420.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.03.415
    摘要   PDF (1309KB)
    基于中国土地利用/覆被遥感分类系统,利用1970年代中后期、1980年代末、2004年和2008年4期遥感图像分析三江源自然保护区近30a来土地覆被类型面积变化、转类途径与幅度及各保护区各圈层转类指数变化特征,结果表明:近30a来,草地总面积经历了一个增加-减少-增加的过程。自然保护区1970年代中后期至1980年代末和1980年代末至2004年土地覆被类型变化主要是草地覆盖度下降,土地覆被总体上具有转差趋势。近4a来草地退化趋势得到遏制,大部分的保护区和内部各圈层土地覆被都有转好趋势,可能与《规划》实施有关。
    Based on remote sensing classification system of China land use/cover change, we used four phases Landsat remote sensing images of middle and late 1970s, late 1980s, 2004 and 2008 for the process analysis of nature reserve land cover change in Three River’s Source Regions during the recent 30 years. The results showed that in total, grassland area experienced a process of increase-decrease-increase during the recent 30 year. From middle and late 1970s to 2004, decline of grassland coverage was the main appearance of land cover change, and land cover status had a deterioration trend. During the recent 4 years, grassland deteriorated trend alleviated. All zones had ameliorated trend of land cover change and core and buffer zones were more significant than experimental zone, which may related with the implementation of Planning.
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    基于MODIS数据的吉林省中部地表温度反演及空间分布研究
    侯光雷, 张洪岩, 王野乔, 乔志和, 张正祥
    地理科学. 2010, 30 (3): 421-427.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.03.421
    摘要   PDF (1427KB)
    利用MODIS数据,采用劈窗算法,定量反演吉林省中部陆地表面温度;利用TM数据,通过目视解译获得研究区的土地利用状况,并结合地势图,研究吉林省中部农业区的地表温度空间分布特征以及地表温度与土地利用类型之间的关系。结果表明,研究区陆地表面温度南高北低,西高东低,符合该区域气候特征;由于地表土地类型热力性质的不同,不同土地利用类型的地表温度存在差异,地表温度最高的裸岩要比最低的湖泊高出26.6K;地表温度与海拔呈负相关关系,即随着海拔的升高,地表温度呈下降趋势,下降率为23.6°C/km;在植被覆盖区,地表温度与NDVI之间存在负相关性,且城市地表温度对植被覆盖度的敏感性要高于农田和林地;对于整个研究区土地利用空间结构,地表温度与NDVI表现为LST-NDVI梯形关系。
    Land surface temperature (LST) is a very important parameter to impact the energy and water exchange between the atmosphere and the territorial system. The technology of thermal infrared (TIR) remote sensing provides a chance to retrieve LST over large portions of the earth surface at different spatial resolutions and periodicities. In this study, the middle part of Province is chosen as the study area. It is the most important crop production area in Jilin Province, and a commodity grain base in China. The land surface temperature is retrieved from Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) by split-window algorithm. The land use/cover is acquired from TM data by human-computer interactive interpretation. Combined with land use/cover and DEM data, the spatial distribution of LST is identified and the relation between NDVI and LST is analyzed in the middle part of Jilin Province. The result shows that: ① the temperature in the north and the west is higher than the south and the east respectively in the study area. It coincides with the local climate. The main reason to result in higher temperature is from landform in the west, and from difference of land use types in the north because the south with forest has much more transpiration than the north with cropland; ② With influence of human activities, difference of land use types result in differences of LST. The quantitative difference is 26.6K between the highest land surface temperature of bare rock and the lowest temperature of lake. There is a negative relation between altitude and LST. The rate of temperature change could be 23.6°C/km as elevation increases; ③ The LST has a negative relation with NDVI in vegetation covered region. The relation between LST and NDVI in urban areas is much more sensitive than that in forest and cropland. For the whole configuration of land use in the study area, the relation between LST and NDVI displays 'trapeziform’. The forest with higher NDVI and lower LST is located in right-down corner of the trapezoid, while the cropland with high NDVI and low LST is distributed in the middle of the trapezoid. Because of different heat capacities, cities covered by impermeable layers lay to the top of trapezoid with lower NDVI and higher LST. The NDVI-LST feature space contains a lot of geo-information, especially in soil moisture monitoring, and drought detection, and more research could be done in the future.
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    基于RS与GIS的典型黑土区土地利用变化分析——以海伦市为例
    谢叶伟, 刘兆刚, 赵军, 李勇, 张磊
    地理科学. 2010, 30 (3): 428-434.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.03.428
    摘要   PDF (1145KB)
    以海伦市1986年,1995年和2007年3期TM影像为基础数据,在RS与GIS技术支持下,运用马尔科夫转移矩阵、单一土地利用类型动态度和景观空间格局分析方法对沿海市土地利用变化、景观格局特征进行研究,并分析了土地利用变化的驱动力。结果表明,①旱田和水田面积一直处于增长状态,增长速率由快变缓,主要由林地、草地和未利用土地转换而来。②林地、草地和未利用土地面积持续下降;城镇建设用地和农村建设用地的面积一直保持着增加态势,增长速率由缓变快,使得土地利用强度有所上升。③景观格局变化主要表现为,优势度整体上升、景观多样性整体呈现下降的趋势,城乡建设用地的类斑近圆指数最大,林地、未利用土地和水域斑块破碎度增加。④人为因素中的人口增长、经济发展、政府生态环境保护和农业可持续发展的政策在土地利用变化中起重要作用。该研究对于合理利用土地资源和农业可持续发展具有重要意义。
    Based on TM image data of Hailun during 1986-2007, supported by RS and GIS technology, the landuse change and landscape pattern characteristics were studied at Hailun County through the Markov conversion matrix, a single dynamic degree of landuse and landscape spatial pattern analysis, and the driving force of landuse change was analyzed. The results showed that:① The area of dry farming land and paddy field has been in a growth state, but growth rate slowed down, the fields are mainly from forest land, grassland and unused land.②Forest land, grassland and unused land area continued to decline; urban construction land and rural construction land area remained increasing with its rate growing quickly. ③Landscape pattern changes were mainly as follows: the degree of dominance increased integrally and the landscape diversity decreased, the mean proximate circular indexes of urban and rural construction land was the greatest. Woodland, patches fragmentation of unused land and waters increased.④ Humaous factors in population growth and economic development plays an important role in land-use change.
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    BP神经网络模型在表层沉积物及其非残渣态组分吸附双酚A研究中的应用
    张琛, 刘建林, 胡艳, 高茜, 李鱼
    地理科学. 2010, 30 (3): 435-440.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.03.435
    摘要   PDF (264KB)
    应用沉积物吸附双酚A(BPA)BP神经网络模型,模拟了松花江表层沉积物的不同泥水比、非残渣态组分(有机质、铁氧化物、锰氧化物)和BPA初始浓度对BPA吸附量的影响。所建BP神经网络模型相关系数R2为0.9665,校正集均方差(MSEc)、验证集均方差(MSEv)和预测集均方差(MSEp)分别为0.0068、0.0596和0.1285;利用遗传算法优化估算了基于BP神经网络模型的沉积物吸附BPA的最大吸附量,优化值与实验值的相对偏差为0.96%~8.21%。此外,利用BP神经网络模型预测了沉积物非残渣态组分(有机质、铁氧化物、锰氧化物)质量百分比及摩尔含量变化与BPA吸附量的关系,经分析可知,铁氧化物和有机质对沉积物吸附BPA起着促进作用,沉积物非残渣态组分吸附BPA的相对贡献(K)为KFe>KOMs>KMn,即沉积物中铁氧化物是BPA的主要吸附位,而Mn氧化物则对沉积物吸附BPA起着抑制作用。
    BP neural network model, which could be thought of as being related to artificial intelligence, machine learning, parallel processing and statistics, is being used more and more common. In the present study, a three layer BP neural network model of bisphenol A (BPA) adsorption onto the surfacial sediments (SSs) sampled from Songhua River in Jilin Province had been established to simulate the influence of several different factors, such as solution to solid ratio, contents of non-residual fractions (organic matters, Fe oxides and Mn oxides), and initial concentration of BPA, on the adsorption capacity of BPA. The correlation coefficient (R2) of the established BP neural network model was 0.966 5, which was larger than 0.8. The mean square error of the calibration set (MSEc), the root mean square error of validation set (MSEv), and the mean square error of the predication set (MSEp) was 0.006 8, 0.059 6, and 0.128 5, respectively. The maximum adsorption of BPA adsorbed onto SSs collected from Songhua River was estimated and calculated by genetic algorithms (GA). GA is a search technique used in computing to find exact or approximate solutions to optimization and search problems and it is categorized as global search heuristics, on the basis of the established BP neural network model. The optimized results of the maximum capacity of BPA absorbed onto SSs (without treatment, H2O2 extraction, NH2OH·HCl extraction, and (NH4)2C2O4 extraction) were 0.532 mg/g, 0.502 mg/g, 0.917 mg/kg and 0.8992 mg/g, and under the same conditions, the experimental values were 0.542 mg/g, 0.445 mg/g, 1.081 mg/g and 0.836 mg/g, respectively. The relative errors between the optimal values by GA and the experimental ones were in the range of 0.96%~8.21%. The amount of BPA adsorbed onto SSs was predicted using the established BP neural network model as a function of non-residual fractions including organic matters, Fe oxides and Mn oxides on a mass or a molar base, respectively. The predicted results of the maximum BPA adsorption capacity on a mass base showed that there has been a general uptrend of the BPA adsorption with the increase of Fe oxides and organic matters and a general downtrend with increase in Mn oxides. Meanwhile, the maximum capacity of BPA adsorbed onto SSs indicated the same results on a molar base with the results obtained on a mass base. The relative contributions of the BPA maximum adsorption onto SSs, expressed by the ratio of the mass of adsorbed BPA to the contents of non-residual fractions, were calculated as follows: KFe=0.002 8, KOMs=0.000 2 and KMn=-0.031 8, respectively. It could be inferred that both of the Fe oxides and organic matters have positive effect on the BPA adsorbed by SSs, while Mn oxides inhibited the adsorption of BPA onto SSs. Hence, the contributions of the non-residual fractions (including organic matters, Fe oxides and Mn oxides) onto SSs to the maximum adsorption of BPA followed the order as: KFe>KOMs>KMn. The fact that Fe oxides was confirmed as the main binding site for BPA adsorption onto SSs was demonstrated through the mechanism analysis through the established BP neural network model, yet the reasons why adverse effect of Mn oxides on the adsorption of BPA onto SSs should be further studied.
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    基于插件技术和GIS的坡面土壤侵蚀模拟系统
    余叔同, 郑粉莉, 张鹏
    地理科学. 2010, 30 (3): 441-445.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.03.441
    摘要   PDF (926KB)
    以C++为开发语言,在.NET开发环境中,调用ArcGIS Engine开发包,设计基于插件技术和GIS坡面土壤侵蚀量估算系统,结合6次人工模拟降雨试验土壤侵蚀数据和三维激光扫描(LiDAR)地形数据,验证该系统估算土壤侵蚀量精度。结果表明,该系统估算坡面土壤侵蚀量具有较高精度,其值介于93.3%~99.5%间,平均估算精度95.8%。计算机模拟系统能较好模拟坡面土壤侵蚀形态,说明此系统估算坡面土壤侵蚀量可行。
    The soil erosion estimation from individual rain event is the emphasis and difficulty in soil erosion research. This paper, based Plug-in technology and GIS, designed a computer simulation system for hillslope soil erosion witten by C++ computer program under C++.NET and ArcGIS Engine SDK. The soil loss data collected from 6-times continuously simulated rainfall expeiments and 6-times surface terrain data measured by three-dimensional Laser Scanner (LiDAR) were used to validate feasibility of the designed computer systems for estimation hillslope soil erosion. The results showed that the designed computer system based on Plug-in technology and GIS had higher precision for calculating hillslope soil erosion. The estimating soil loss precision of the designed computer system was from 93.3% to 99.5% and the average precision was 95.8%. Moreover, the designed computer system could be better to simulate hillslope erosion patterns. Overall, the the designed computer system for estimating hillslope soil erosion was feasibility.
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    中亚热带山区土地利用变化对土壤CO2排放的影响
    盛浩, 李旭, 杨智杰, 谢锦升, 陈光水, 杨玉盛
    地理科学. 2010, 30 (3): 446-451.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.03.446
    摘要   PDF (1055KB)
    对中亚热带山区天然常绿阔叶林、次生常绿阔叶林、人工林(针叶林和阔叶林)、柑橘园和坡耕地等典型土地利用方式土壤CO2排放连续3a定位观测,结果表明:天然林改为其它土地利用方式后,土壤CO2排放量显著减少32%~63%,主要原因为地上凋落物归还量减少,地下细根生物量和周转下降,频繁人为干扰和严重水土流失引起土壤有机碳库数量和质量大幅下降。本区天然林改为次生(人工)林,土壤CO2排放量减幅(32%~48%)高出热带平均水平(29%),改为农业用地,土壤CO2排放量减幅(50%~63%)高出全球平均水平(33%)。
    Using "space for time" method, the influence of land use/cover change (LUCC) from natural forest to secondary forest, plantations, orchard and sloping tillage on soil CO2 efflux was evaluated in mid-subtropical mountainous area in South China. Results showed that the soil CO2 efflux rate was significantly reduced by 32%-63% after the land use changes. Concomitantly, soil carbon input from the litter-fall, fine root turnover, and soil organic carbon storage and quality were remarkably declined. The highly intensified human disturbance (slash and burning, cultivation, weed and fertilization) led to serious soil and water losses and rapid decomposition of soil organic matter. After the natural forest was converted to secondary forest and plantations, the soil CO2 efflux rate was reduced by 32%-48%, which was higher than the average level in tropics (29%). Whereas the reduction of soil CO2 efflux rate (by 50%-63%) after the transformation from natural forest to agriculture land was higher than the global average level. Owing to the potential vulnerable natural environment (frequent heavy rain and steep slope), the reduction levels of fine root turn over rate and soil organic carbon storage induced by the land use change in mid-subtropical China were much higher than the tropical or the global average level. This might be the major reason of the higher reduction level of soil CO2 efflux rate in this geographical region than the tropical or the global average level following the land use changes.
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    马尔科夫方法修正的灰色模型在吉林省粮食产量预测中的应用
    姚作芳, 刘兴土, 杨飞
    地理科学. 2010, 30 (3): 452-457.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.03.452
    摘要   PDF (741KB)
    粮食生产是国民经济重要的组成部分,粮食生产的波动必然会引发整个国民经济的波动。因此人们在努力提高粮食产量的同时,也期望知道未来一段时间粮食产量的变化情况,以便为科学决策提供依据。基于吉林省1949~2008年粮食总产量数据,采用灰色GM(1,1)预测模型动态模拟该省粮食产量变化态势,并运用马尔柯夫状态转移矩阵对灰色GM(1,1)模型的模拟结果进行修正,以提高粮食产量预测精度。结果表明,马尔柯夫方法修正的灰色模型能够大大提高粮食产量的模拟精度,模型修正后的模拟产量的相对误差较之修正前下降了0.10(由0.19下降到0.09),将灰色GM(1,1)模型和马尔柯夫状态转移矩阵相结合用于粮食产量预测可以取得较好的效果。预测结果表明未来10a吉林省将增产粮食100亿kg,增产潜力巨大。
    Grain production is the important part of national economy development, whose fluctuation will make much effect on national economy safety. Therefore, people also need to know the grain production changes ahead of crop harvest period while they make an effort to increase grain production, for the purpose of providing the basis of scientific decision-making. Based on the grain yield data from 1949 to 2008 of Jilin province, Grey Prediction Model (1, 1) was utilized for dynamic simulation of the yield changes, and Markova Transition Matrix was introduced to amend the simulated result to improve the yield predicted accuracy. The studied results indicated that, the accuracy of the amended simulating yield increased greatly compared with that simulated by original GM (1, 1) (the relative error decreased obviously from 0.19 to 0.09). It is feasible of using a combination of grey model GM (1, 1) and Markov Chain Method for simulated grain yield. It was found that the total grain yield of Jilin Province will increase 10 billion kilogram in the next 10 years, which showed the great potential of grain producing in Jilin province.
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    关中盆地西部黄土剖面年代序列及其记录的成壤环境演变
    贾耀锋, 黄春长, 庞奖励, 毛龙江
    地理科学. 2010, 30 (3): 458-464.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.03.458
    摘要   PDF (347KB)
    应用光释光技术确定匠杨村黄土沉积序列年代框架。结合地层沉积特征和其他指标测量结果,得到该区自末次冰消期以来成壤环境演变:16.66~13.16kaB.P.期间气候干旱,风尘输入量较大,成壤作用微弱;13.16~8.31kaB.P.期间气候转暖转湿,风尘输入量最小,但因植被没完全恢复致使成壤强度仍很弱;8.31~3.24kaB.P.期间气候湿润,风尘输入量较小,是重要的成壤期,其间6.19~5.77ka和末期3.78~3.24ka旱化趋势导致风尘输入量增加和成壤强度减弱;3.24ka以来,在气候旱化趋势下风尘输入量增加,成壤作用再次减弱。
    The sedimentary chronosequence of Jiangyaocun (JYC) loess section was made by application of optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating techniques. Combination of sedimentary characteristics and measurements of other indicators, the paper has explored the evolution of pedogenic environment since the last deglaciation in this area. During the period of 16.66-13.16 ka, the pedogenesis was weak, which caused by the arid climate and larger amount of dust input. During the period of 13.18-8.31 ka, the climate became warming and wetting in the eolian deposits area, and the amount of dust input was smallest, but pedogenesis was still weak because vegetation was not fully recovered. During the period of 8.31-3.24 ka, there was an important pedogenic period due to the humid climate and smaller amount of dust input, and the amount of dust input was increase and pedogenesis was weaken due to significant trend of drought during the 6.19-5.77 ka and 3.78-3.24 ka. The amount of dust input was increase and pedogenesis weaken again originated from a significant trend of drought since 3.24 ka.
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    基于情景模拟的暴雨内涝危险性评价——以黄浦区为例
    孙阿丽, 石纯, 石勇
    地理科学. 2010, 30 (3): 465-468.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.03.465
    摘要   PDF (1060KB)
    特殊的地理位置和气候条件使水灾成为上海市的心腹之患。危险性评价是灾害风险评价的第一步。以黄浦区为例,基于情景模拟,借助GIS空间分析方法、构造模型、利用危险性指数对暴雨内涝灾害的主要承灾体道路、旧式房屋进行危险性评价,得到了黄浦区各街道内涝灾害危险性分布图。结果显示:两种情景下,豫园街道的危险性指数都显示最低,20a一遇的情景中,危险性指数高值分布在半淞园路街道和小东门街道。50a一遇的情景中,危险性指数高值集中在老西门街道和小东门街道,其评价结果可为区域综合减灾提供依据。
    Special geographical and climatic conditions make waterlogging hazards become mortal to Shanghai. The hazard assessment is the basis of risk assessment for natural disasters. In this paper, with the assistance of Geographic Information System (GIS), based on the method of scenario simulation, according to the construction of mathematical models, the waterlogging hazard index was developed to make a systematic comparison of waterlogging hazard among different sub-districts. And then, for each sub-district in Huangpu District, the waterlogging hazard index for roads and old-style residences in two scenarios were obtained respectively. The results show that, in two rainstorm scenarios simulated, the waterlogging hazard in Yuyuan sub-district is at the lowest level. However, in the rainstorm of 20-year return period, the waterlogging hazard in some sub-districts such as Xiaodongmen sub-district and Bansongyuan sub-district is at high hazard level. In the rainstorm of 50-year return period, Xiaodongmen sub-district and Laoximen sub-district are considered to be at high hazard level. In a certain sense, the results can provide the guidance for regional disaster reduction.
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    1965~2005年泾河流域极端温度事件变化特征
    李志, 刘文兆, 郑粉莉
    地理科学. 2010, 30 (3): 469-474.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.03.469
    摘要   PDF (1840KB)
    利用18个气象站点1965~2005年的日气温数据,基于Mann-Kendall检验、小波分析等方法,分析黄土高原泾河流域极端温度事件的频次、平均强度、年极值和气温日较差的变化趋势、年代际变化和振荡周期等。结果表明,41a以来泾河流域极端高温事件增多而极端低温事件减少,极端低温平均强度显著降低,年极值呈增长趋势。各变量均发生突变,一般在1990年有明显趋势转变。较1965~1990年,90年代以来各变量的变幅较大,极端高(低)温的发生频次变化+9.5d(-8.6d),极端高(低)温的平均强度变化+0.8℃(-1.3℃),气温年极大(小)值增加1.8℃(0.2℃),日较差增大了0.4℃。极端温度事件有3、8~9和17a的振荡周期。
    Based on temperature data during 1965-2005 in Jinghe watershed and through Mann-Kendall test and morlet wavelet method, this study analyzed the monotonic trend, interdecadal change and period of frequency, intensity, annual extreme value and diurnal range for extreme temperature events. Results showed that in recent 41 years the frequency of extreme high temperature events (EHT) increased while that of extreme low temperature events (ELT) decreased, the intensity of ELT decreased significantly and the annual extreme temperature increased. For each variable abrupt change occurred and generally changed in 1990. Compared with 1965-1990, each variable changed greatly since 1990s, the frequency of EHT and ELT changed +9.5 d and -8.6 d, the intensity of EHT and ELT changed +0.8℃ and -1.3℃, the annual extreme highest and lowest temperature increased 1.8℃ and 0.2℃, respectively; the diurnal range increased 0.4℃. The extreme temperature events have several oscillating period such as three years, eight to nine years, seventeen years and twenty eight years.
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    中亚热带山区土地利用变化对土壤性质的影响
    杨智杰, 崔纪超, 谢锦升, 陈光水, 杨玉盛
    地理科学. 2010, 30 (3): 475-480.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.03.475
    摘要   PDF (885KB)
    土地利用变化是全球环境变化的重要组成部分,其可以直接影响到土壤性质的变化。本研究通过中亚热带山区天然林、人工林(用材林和经济林)、次生林、农业用地(橘园和坡耕地)等7种典型土地利用方式土壤性质的研究,结果表明:土地利用变化后土壤有机质和全氮含量下降幅度分别达到52.2%~81.8%和57.9%~172.6%;同时土壤容重增加,pH值升高。而土地利用变化对土壤全磷、全钾的影响的规律较为不明显。综合比较中国区域土地利用变化对土壤性质变化的影响,其中20~25°N纬度带土壤物理化学性质变化幅度最大。
    Land use/cover change(LUCC)is one of the most important components of global environment change and it can affect soil properties directly. The influence of LUCC from natural forest, artificial forest (timber forest and economic forest), secondary forest, agricultural land(orchard and arable land)on bulk density(BD), soil organic matter(SOM), soil total nitrogen(TN), total phosphorus(TP), total potassium(TK) and pH values was investigated in mid-subtropical mountainous area of southern China.The results showed that:Under the influence of LUCC, the contents of SOM and TN decreased by 52.2%-81.5% and 57.9%-172.6%, respectively; while the values of BD and pH increased greatly. The law of the influence of LUCC on the variation of TP and TK isn’t obvious. The most significant change of soil properties caused by LUCC in China happened at the latitude of 20-25°N.
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