Please wait a minute...
 首页  期刊介绍 期刊订阅 广告合作 联系我们 English
旧版网站  
 
优先出版  |  当期目录  |  过刊浏览  |  热点文章  |  阅读排行  |  下载排行  |  引用排行

ISSN 1000-0690
CN 22-1124/P
创刊于 1981 年 (月刊)
  关于期刊
    » 期刊简介
    » 编 委 会
    » 数据库收录
    » 获奖情况
  作者中心
    » 在线投稿/查稿
    » 征稿指南
    » 稿件格式与修改说明要求
    » 论文模板
    » 版权转让协议
  审稿中心
    » 审稿要求
    » 专家在线审稿
  在线办公
    » 主编审稿登录
    » 远程编辑登录
    » 在线生产中心
  • 地理科学
      2010年, 第30卷, 第6期 刊出日期:2010-11-20 上一期    下一期
    选择: 合并摘要 显示图片
    论文
    经济地域系统理论视角下的中心地及其扩散域
    王士君, 冯章献, 张石磊
    地理科学. 2010, 30 (6): 803-809.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.06.803
    摘要   PDF (524KB)
    中心地理论与经济地域系统理论具有重要的理论契合与互馈,经济地域系统理论作为区域经济地理学的重要基础理论对理解和认识中心地系统具有重要的作用。分工与联系是经济地域系统理论和中心地理论的重要理论契合点,中心地系统无论是概念内涵还是运行机制都是属于经济地域系统的组成部分,具有经济地域的一般属性,同时具有动态性特征、等级性和尺度差异特征、圈层异质性与多向性特征、重叠与嵌套特征、再集聚特征等。中心地系统作为具有复杂性的地域经济系统,在条件变化下,会呈现出扩散域的重叠、嵌套、轮空、扩大、再集聚等多种空间层次变化特点。
    The Central Place Theory and Economic System Theory have strong theory agreement and mutual feedback. They are both basic theories of Geography and they also have very strong relationship. This mutual feedback of theories reveal in many ways. Firstly, they have strong relationship in conception. From the beginning to the end, region is the most important object of study in the field of Geography. Regional view of Regional Economic Geography determines Economic Region System theory become the most important basic theory of Regional Economic Geography. As a kind of typical economic regional system, the space structure can be seen as the space projection of industrial structure. Secondly, division and relationship are important theory joints on Economic Region System Theory and Central Place Theory. Thirdly, condition analysis take the very important role as basic theory in central place research from the view of economic region. As a very important theoretical basis of the Regional Economic Geography, Economic Region System theory plays an important role on comprehension of Central Place Theory. No matter from concept connotation or from the operating mechanism, it is very clearly that central place system is a part of economic region system. It has the same general attribute of economic region, and it also has many other own characteristics,such as dynamic features, grade features, scale diversity, circle heterogeneity and multi-direction features, overlap and nested structure, re-agglomeration and so on. As a complex economic system, the diffusions of central place system will appear different kind of multi-dimensional-level structures and changes,such as multi-tiered, overlap,bye,enlargement and re-agglomeration.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    中国少数民族传统聚落景观特征及其基因分析
    刘沛林, 刘春腊, 李伯华, 邓运员, 申秀英, 胡最
    地理科学. 2010, 30 (6): 810-817.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.06.810
    摘要   PDF (924KB)
    对少数民族聚落景观进行研究具有理论探索和实践创新的双重意义。以景观基因的视角,将中国少数民族聚落景观的特征归纳为聚族而居、向心性强、自我防御、尊重环境等方面。并从景观要素基因、景观总体基因、原始图腾基因、标志性建筑基因等方面对中国少数民族聚落景观基因进行了识别;同时,考虑到时空差异,从景观基因的地域差异性和变化性,对中国少数民族聚落景观基因进行了比较。
    The study on settlements' landscape in Chinese minority areas are important both in theory exploring and practice innovating. Generally, the characteristics of traditional settlements' landscape in Chinese minority areas could be reduced to living together around the clan, high centrality, ego defense and being regard of environment, and so on. Perspective from the landscape genes, traditional settlements' landscape in Chinese minority areas could be identified by landscape ingredient genes, landscape general genes, primitive totem genes and landmark genes. And taking spatiotemporal differences on into consideration, traditional settlements' landscape in Chinese minority areas could be compared by geographical differences and variability of landscape genes.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    中国环境污染与经济增长:基于空间动态面板数据模型的实证分析
    王立平, 管杰, 张纪东
    地理科学. 2010, 30 (6): 818-825.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.06.818
    摘要   PDF (447KB)
    产业结构转型和区域间的产业转移进一步增强了中国各地区间的经济联动性,一个地区的产业规模和发展模式不仅影响本地区的环境质量,也会对其他地区尤其是周边地区的环境质量产生影响,这种地域间环境质量的空间相关性已不容忽视。为此,基于环境库兹涅茨曲线(Environment Kuznets Curve,EKC)假定,引入空间相关因素,运用空间动态面板模型分析中国环境污染与经济增长的关系。研究结果表明,中国基本满足EKC的假定,并且环境污染存在显著的空间相关性;基于地理权重的估计模型明显优于经济权重模型,即造成中国环境污染溢出的主要原因是地理因素而非经济因素。
    Industrial restructuring and inter-regional transferring across the country has enhanced the economic linkage of Chinese provinces and regions. Industrial scale and model of economic development in a province not only affects the region's environmental quality, but can also be the reason of environmental population of other areas especially the areas which close to it. To analyze the Environmental Kuznets Curves (EKC) of China in the circumstance of globalization,the inter-regional interaction can not be ignored.This paper constructs emissions of five kinds of pollutant and GDP panel data of China,to study the relationship between economic growth and environmental pollution based on dynamic spatial panel data model.The results showed that the hypothesis of EKC generally consistent with China's national conditions and the spatial effect is significant.In addition, the model base on geographic weights matrix is better than the one base on economic matrix,which proved the spillover effect of environmental pollution in China is mainly due to geographical factors.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    基于社会网络的跨界旅游区边界效应测度及转化
    杨效忠, 张捷, 叶舒娟
    地理科学. 2010, 30 (6): 826-832.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.06.826
    摘要   PDF (445KB)
    行政边界是跨界旅游区空间发展的主要影响因素之一,边界效应测度是分析其影响性质、方向与程度大小的重要尺度。借助社会网络的密度和中心度等网络指标,构建了跨界旅游区的整体边界效应和节点边界效应两类测度指标,以大别山天堂寨跨界旅游区为例,对其边界效应进行实证分析,结果表明:跨省界旅游区的整体边界效应显著大于跨县界旅游区的整体边界效应,边界两侧的整体边界效应也存在分异;跨省界旅游区边界效应显著性节点组织的比例高于跨县界旅游区边界效应显著性节点组织的比例,其中非显著性的节点主要集中在景区管委会、旅游局、景区经营公司等社会组织。边界效应大小取决于行政边界的层级、地理交通、边界两侧旅游发展水平和成熟度的差异、情感认知等因素。跨界旅游区边界屏蔽效应向中介效应转化的源动力来源于旅游资源共生性、利益主体对旅游市场拓展意愿,根本动力来自于区域旅游一体化的要求,并提出相应的转化途径。基于社会网络的边界效应分析法为研究跨界旅游合作机制提供一个新的视角。
    Administrative boundary is one of the main factors of the cross-border tourism region space development. The border effect measure is the important yardstick to define its influence size. With indexes of social networks such as network density and centrality index, the paper constructs two types of measurement indicators which are the whole border effect and the node border effect, and also carries on empirical analysis for Dabie Mountain Tiantangzhai tourist area. The results showed that: ① The whole border effects of cross-provincial tourist areas are greater than that of cross-county tourist areas, the whole border effects on both sides of the same cross-border tourism region are also different; the proportion of significant node organizations of the cross-provincial border effect is higher than the cross-county border effect. And the non-significance nodes mainly concentrate on scenic area management committee, travel agency, scenic area business company and other social organizations. ② The border effect depends on the level of administrative boundaries, geographic traffic, tourism development level and maturity differences on both sides of the border, emotional, cognitive and other factors. ③ The source force of the cross-border tourist areas shielding effect into bridge effect comes from the symbiotic nature of tourism resources, the willing of stakeholders in the tourism market development, the fundamental force comes from the demand of regional tourism integration, and the corresponding transformation means are introduced. Based on social network the border effect analysis provides a new perspective for the study on cooperation mechanism of the cross-border tourism.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    基于租金的北京城市办公活动经济空间结构解析
    张景秋, 陈叶龙, 孙颖
    地理科学. 2010, 30 (6): 833-838.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.06.833
    摘要   PDF (434KB)
    以北京市中心城区的6个行政区1037个写字楼实测点位数据和租金属性数据为基础,运用空间自相关和克里格插值等空间分析方法,与北京市基准地价的综合地价进行比较分析,研究北京办公活动的经济空间结构。研究结果表明,北京城区写字楼租金大体呈同心环状分布,与基准地价的综合地价在空间分布态势上基本吻合,并在一定程度上映射出北京城市经济空间结构特征,即总体上呈现同心环状向心集聚,并沿交通干道和对外放射状道路延伸。北京城区写字楼租金的空间分布"高高"模式在办公集聚区和交通主干道附近呈现明显的集中分布态势,说明北京目前办公活动的空间趋势仍然以向心集聚为主,区位与交通条件是影响写字楼租金的重要因素。写字楼租金的空间偏向差异显著,"高高"聚集区主要位于北城,而"低低"模式在南城集聚明显,城区内存在明显的空间差异性,揭示了北京城市内部经济格局失衡现象依旧显著。历史惯性、规划引导、事件推动以及办公活动自身对交通和区位条件的要求是导致北京城市办公活动经济空间结构现状特征形成与发展的主要原因。基于此,租金作为办公活动区位选择的主要因素以及衡量地价和经济发展程度的重要指标,间接影响着城市内部经济空间结构的形成与发展。
    Based on the site data and rent attribute data of 1037 office buildings in Beijing City surveyed in July,2009, this paper used the spatial autocorrelation and ordinary Kriging methods to study the relationship between rent and economic spatial structures. Specially, this study tries to investigate the trend of unknown office rent according to the known office rent. The results could be concluded as the following. First, the spatial distribution pattern of office rent presents concentric ring, and coincident with the spatial distribution pattern of standard land price in Beijing. To some extends, these patterns reflex the characteristics of Beijing's urban economic spatial structure, and generally show a concentric ring to the center concentration and along trunk roads and radial roads outside the extension. Meanwhile, there are obvious spatial differences in the city. Second, High-High pattern of office rent spatial distribution is mainly in the office gathering area and near the trunk road and the situation becomes apparent in the concentration distribution, which description Beijing office space to the current trend continues to gather mainly to the heart, location and traffic conditions are important factors affecting office rents. At the same time, office space for rent shows significantly different bias. High-High patterns spot areas chiefly cluster in the northern city of Beijing, and Low-Low patterns spot areas chiefly cluster in the southern city of Beijing, which reveal the internal economic structure of Beijing City is still a significant imbalance. Third, historical inertia, planning guide and events promotion are the principal reasons for leading to the formation and development of the office activities of urban economic spatial structure in Beijing City. And transportation and location conditions also are the main reasons for the formation and development of the office activities of urban economic spatial structure in Beijing City. Therefore, rent is both the main factor of location selection of the office activities and the important index about weighting land-value and economic development degree, and affects indirectly the structure of urban economic space within the formation and development. According to the Kriging method, drawing the unknown office buildings rent distribution trend from the existing office buildings rent, Datun area, Jiangtai area, Cuigezhuang and Dongba area maybe the new higher office buildings rent areas. Spatial analysis method brings the "location" into the rent study, a kind of economic phenomenon, which will help us to get deeper insight into the problem of urban economic spatial structure and find the better targeting possibilities for planning and policy-makers.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    中国农村基础设施建设投入不平衡性研究
    李志军, 刘海燕, 刘继生
    地理科学. 2010, 30 (6): 839-846.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.06.839
    摘要   PDF (387KB)
    中国经济发展已进入以工促农、以城带乡的新阶段。国家逐步确立了以人为本构建和谐社会的发展理念,提出了城乡统筹的区域发展战略和加快推进社会主义新农村建设工程。农村基础设施建设是保障农村生产生活的根本需要,也是满足农村居民精神文明与健康的需要,对中国农村居民生活空间扩展、资源共享和生存环境的优化等方面也有重大意义。文章利用基础设施建设不平衡指数模型,分析了中国各省区的农村基础设施建设水平相对于村庄人口、村庄面积、地区生产总值、社会固定资产投资和农村固定资产投资等因素之间的不平衡和滞后性。在此基础上文章还对这种不平衡性和滞后性进行了原因剖析,并借鉴国外农村基础设施的相关建设经验,提出推进中国农村基础设施建设的建议。
    China's economic development has entered a new stage of the industry promoting agriculture and city driving town. The China government has established a human-oriented development idea and is building a harmonious society to promote regional development. The infrastructure construction in rural areas plays a key role in protecting the rural production and life, but also is important for spiritual needs of rural residents and health needs. Rural infrastructure construction can expand living space of rural residents, bring out resources sharing and optimize the villagers living environment. The paper makes an infrastructure imbalance index model, and analyzed the level of infrastructure construction in the rural area of China's provinces contrast to population in village, area of village, GDP, fixed asset investment and rural investment. The results show that it is different in reigns about infrastructure investment, and the level of rural infrastructure and supply is not absolute high in some economically developed areas. The lack of total investment on infrastructure and the improper use of existing construction funds, it is just a key cause which led to a low level of the rural infrastructure supporting and construction conditions in China. At the same time, the scattered layout villages led to a low construction. On the basis of the construction of rural imbalance in regional infrastructure, the paper analyzed the reasons, referred some experience of rural infrastructure construction abroad, and proposed some suggestions to promote construction of rural infrastructure in China. The suggestions are 1) to strengthen the government's important role in the infrastructure construction of rural areas, to divide the properties of rural infrastructure, and to determine the part of public goods types of infrastructure; 2) to clear the policy focus on supply and services about rural infrastructure, actively to promote the key technology of infrastructure construction and services, and so on.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    福建省经济空间增长变异特征及驱动机制
    李婷婷, 伍世代, 李永实, 王强, 骆骐
    地理科学. 2010, 30 (6): 847-853.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.06.847
    摘要   PDF (831KB)
    基于区域化变量理论,运用地统计分析方法的空间变异函数,以福建省为本底,从区域经济空间增长的视角入手,分析了自1990年以来福建省经济增长的空间变异特征、空间梯度形态演化过程、分维特征以及空间分布特性。结果表明,在总体空间格局上,空间增长表现出越来越强的自组织性,热点区域从沿海的福州、厦门、泉州向内陆地区转移,总体差异在缩小,空间连续性和结构性越来越强,由空间自相关引起的结构化分异机理越来越显著;从不同方向的空间变异格局来看,经济增长空间分布呈现明显的带状异向性,南北方向上的福州-泉州-厦门沿海一线始终为经济增长的主轴线。最后,解释了经济空间增长格局演化的驱动机制,主要受政策因素、重大基础设施建设等的影响。
    As an important part of economic structure, spatial structure is the distribution pattern and combining form of economic activities in the space. The paper took Fujian Province as an example and analyzed the spatial variability、the pattern evolution of spatial gradient、the fractal dimensions and spatial interpolation of economic growth since 1990s.The results show that: ①Considering the overall spatial variability, economic growth in Fujian Province shows a strong trend of spatial natural correlation. During 1996 to 2002,the hotspot is inclined to aggregate in some core poles.Furthermore,its distribution becomes less uniform, the variation in a small area tends to be reinforced while the overall distribution tends to be more complex. During the period of 2002-2008,the hotspot area changes from coastal area centered on Fuzhou, Xiamen and Quanzhou to inland area. Besides,the spatial difference is likely to shrink.It is also argued that spatial continuity and constitutive property of economic growth,as well as the mechanism of structural difference caused by spatial natural correlation become more and more obvious and remarkable. ② Considering spatial variability in different directions, economic growth takes on a zonal anisotropy by semivariogram functions figures. North-south direction including Fuzhou-Quanzhou-Xiamen is always the main axis of economic growth. ③ Finally, the article explains the driving forces on spatial changes of the diverse economy in Fujian Province and it is found that policy and construction of infrastructure are probably the main reasons.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    淮海经济区产业联系空间特征分析
    周婷, 仇方道, 朱传耿, 张敬, 蔡爱军, 孙东琪, 方雪
    地理科学. 2010, 30 (6): 854-859.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.06.854
    摘要   PDF (695KB)
    区域经济联系一直是经济地理学和区域研究的热点领域。通过引入感应度系数和影响力系数,构建产业联系强度测度模型,对淮海经济区产业联系方向、分异特征及模式进行了深入探讨。结果表明,淮海经济区产业联系强度以京沪线为轴向东西两侧逐渐降低,核心区产业联系密切,且苏北、鲁南、皖北、豫东四大区域板块产业联系差异显著;南北联系为淮海经济区主要产业联系方向,而东西联系则为产业联系的次要方向;从空间组织看,淮海经济区产业联系呈现明显的圈层结构,由内向外依次为核心圈层、中间圈层和外缘圈层。依据产业联系方向及空间组织模式确定区域开发重点和发展方向,有利于从更高层次推进省际边界区域统筹发展。
    Regional economic connection has always been a hot topic in Economic Geography and regional research. By introducing inductance and influence indexes and constructing the measurement model of industrial association intensity, this paper provides a deep discussion about the industrial association directions, spatial different characteristics and models in Huaihai Economic Zone. The result shows that because of the negative correlation between industrial interaction and the distance among cities, distance has a big influence on the industrial interaction. The industrial association intensity represents the following characteristics: first, the industrial association intensity gradually becomes weak from the Beijing-Shanghai Railway line to its two sides. Second, the core regional cities in Huaihai Economic Zone keep close contact with each other. Third, the industrial association differs obviously in the four regional plates as North Jiangsu, South Shandong, North Anhui and East Henan. Based on the conclusion of industrial association intensitu in Huaihai Economic Zone, the main industrial association direction in it mainly shows the following characteristics: first, north-south direction is the main industrial association direction in Huaihai Economic Zone. This is related to the radiating and leading role of the Beijing-Shanghai Railway. This also explains that Beijing-Shanghai Railway is the main economic axis of Huaihai Economic Zone. At the timing sequence of spatial development, key attention should be paid on the main association intension among north-south direction to form stable spatial structural system. Besides, since East-Longhai economic belt has neither an obvious effect to its surroundings nor a strong driving role, from the industrial association aspect, it hasn’t become the main axis of Huaihai Economic Zone, the industrial association among east-west direction is not so strong, so it is the secondary industrial association in Huaihai Economic Zone. From the perspective of spatial organization, the larger amount of industrial association intensity mainly concentrate in the central part of the region, the industrial radiation and impact of marginal cities to other cities in the region is greatly decreased, the industrial association presents distinct circles structure. From inside to outside is core layer, central layer and outer edge layer. The key regional development and its direction shall be decided based on the industrial association direction and spatial organization model. This will be beneficial for the coordinating regional development in provincial borders from a higher level.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    辽宁沿海城市带界定及其结构特征分析
    秦志琴, 张平宇
    地理科学. 2010, 30 (6): 860-867.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.06.860
    摘要   PDF (754KB)
    目前城市群已成为中国城镇化发展的主体形态之一。辽宁沿海城市带是中国城市群结构体系中的一个新兴城市群,在沿海开发与东北老工业基地振兴中起着战略支点作用。首先根据城市群内涵构建城市群空间范围识别指标体系,据此对辽宁沿海城市带进行空间界定。在此基础上,从多中心性、功能性、网络性3方面深入分析该城市带的结构特征。结果表明,辽宁沿海城市带人口规模与人口密度均表现出显著的多中心性特征,但是人口规模中心与人口密度中心的等级分布并不完全对应。而且"大连-营口-盘锦"发展轴的城市中心表现为强集聚型特征,城市带东西两翼表现为弱集聚型特征。城市带工业生产功能具有区际意义,而生产性服务功能的区际影响还很有限。内部各城市的工业结构趋同性明显,但是在服务功能、交通运输功能、商业功能等方面各具优势,已形成较为明确的分工与互补关系。辽宁沿海城市带交通网络发育比较完善,交通网络体系基本形成。内部各城市基于交通网络实现了较好的经济联系网络链接,城市带的点轴空间结构已经形成并且开始向网络结构过渡。
    Urban agglomeration has been one of the main space patterns of the urbanization process in China,which is the general product during the advancing stage of urbanization. Liaoning coastal urban agglomeration is the emergent in the structure system of Chinese urban agglomeration. Owing to advantaged location and development foundation, Liaoning coastal urban agglomeration in recent years has become the core region to promote the coastal development and revitalize the traditional industrial base of Northeast China. Based on comparative analysis on the relative concepts of urban agglomerations, this paper identifies the spatial extent of Liaoning coastal urban agglomeration according to the defined standards. Then it provides a research on structure characteristics of the urban agglomeration from polycentricity, function and network. The conclusions are as follows: first, both the population scale and density show significant characteristic of polycentricity, however, these two kinds of cores are not correspond with each other. The cores on the development axis of "Dalian-Yingkou-Panjin" are characterized by strong concentration, the ones on the east and west wings show the contrary characteristic. Second, the industrial function is in dominant position among the inter-regional division of labor but the productive services have not great influence on other regions. And the intra-regional industrial structure has great homogeneity while the service, transportation, commercial trade are complementary each other. Third, the transportation network is maturing and its system is forming. The intra-regional make close economic contacts with the transportation network. In a word, the point-axle spatial structure has been formed and developed towards network structure in Liaoning coastal urban agglomeration.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    辽宁省区域城市化水平评价研究
    孙宝明
    地理科学. 2010, 30 (6): 868-873.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.06.868
    摘要   PDF (415KB)
    通过对区域城市化的认知与机理分析,给出了区域城市化水平的概念模型,同时采用AHP-信息熵-多指标综合评价模型对辽宁省各城市进行基于统计数据的区域城市化水平进行评价,结果表明,2008年辽宁省各市的城市化水平比2003年升高,沈阳市、大连市、盘锦市、鞍山市、抚顺市城市化水平较高,其他城市相对较低,区内城市化水平差别较大;并从准则层评价结果分析了城市化水平差异形成的原因。
    On basis of the principle and mechanism of regional urbanization, the concept model of regional urbanization level was built in the paper, and "AHP-Information entropy-Multiple indexes comprehensive evaluation" model was used to evaluate regional urbanization level based on statistic data of Liaoning Province. The results showed that the urbanization level increased in 2003-2008. The urbanization level of Shenyang City, Dalian City, Panjin City, Anshan City, Fushun City were higher than other cities, and the increase rate of Panjin City is the maximum, and the next is Dalian City. Then the evaluation results were graduated and spatially reveled with GIS, which shows that great differences in the level of urbanization and present Shenyang centered and Dalian centered higher urbanization zone in Liaoning Province. Besides, the reasons of differences of urbanization were analyzed from five criteria layers, including urbanization of population, economic, social, life and environment. The population urbanization level of Panjin City grew rapidly because no-farm population increased with large range, and the economic and life urbanization level of all cities had also increased in varying degrees. But the social and environment urbanization level of some cities decreased from 2003 to 2008 because the number of children in school and per capita green area decreased and some other reasons.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    城市CO2排放结构与低碳水平测度——以京津沪渝为例
    张金萍, 秦耀辰, 张艳, 张丽君
    地理科学. 2010, 30 (6): 874-879.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.06.874
    摘要   PDF (526KB)
    在科学设计城市CO2排放、城市低碳水平数理模型基础上,结合BP神经网络法,综合考虑各种不确定因素的影响,通过1995~2008年京津沪渝4市CO2排放结构和低碳水平测度以及BP神经网络模型预测,可以发现:4城市CO2排放量逐年递增,但存在较大差异;城市CO2排放量和发展态势取决于4城市CO2排放结构及变化;低碳水平测度结果表明4城市的经济增长仍然依赖于碳基能源消耗,但产业结构的优化升级对提高低碳水平的作用是显著的;基于BP神经网络法的短期预测比传统预测法更为合理和精确。
    Under the background of the urban low-carbon as a basic strategy for sustainable development, urban carbon dioxide emission structure and low-carbon standard is not only the basic point of view shifting to low-carbon economy and society, but also the methodological basis for micro-scale study on the low-carbon city. This research emphasizes mainly on driving factors of urban CO2 emission, the carbon cycle and metabolism, planning for low-carbon city, and environmental benefit-governance of low-carbon city. The urban carbon dioxide emission models have been developed such as logarithmic mean Divisia index method model, urban carbon flux balance model, Hybrid-EIO-LCA model, scenario analysis model and computable general equilibrium model. The research in China involves development strategies for low-carbon city, the assessment on low-carbon standard of city, CO2 emissions from urban residents, spatial planning of low-carbon city, the structure of urban carbon circulation, urban carbon footprint, and so on. The theory in China is lagging behind, especially in urban CO2 emission accounting with Shanghai City, which is the main region for practice. There are no inter-city comparison and short-term prediction, besides, urban CO2 emission structure is not clear enough. Taking the calculation methods adopted by '2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories' as references and comprehensive consideration of various uncertain factors, urban CO2 emissions and low-carbon standard in Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai and Chongqing cities from 1995 to 2013 were measured by mathematical model combining with BP neural network in this paper. The study shows that, primarily, CO2 emissions in four cities increase year by year with great differences. Secondly, urban CO2 emissions and the trends depend on CO2 emission structure and its dynamic evolution in four cities. Thirdly, the measurement for low-carbon standard shows that the role of industrial structure optimization and upgrading is significant to improve the low-carbon standard, though economic growth in four cities still depends on the carbon-based energy consumption. Finally, BP neural network is more reasonable and accurate than the traditional method when used in short-term prediction.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    长江三角洲典型区社会经济发展对土壤重金属累积的影响
    徐明星, 周生路, 王晓瑞, 吴绍华, 曹伟, 张红富
    地理科学. 2010, 30 (6): 880-885.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.06.880
    摘要   PDF (556KB)
    采集不同年代被覆盖,且性质可比的土壤为载体,运用空间转换时间法,重建长三角宜兴市1950~2006年期间土壤重金属含量,并分析社会经济发展对重金属积累的影响。结果表明:(1) Cu、Ni、Pb、Zn 4 元素含量和土壤重金属累积水平呈先降后升的变化趋势;As元素含量整体呈下降趋势,Cd元素含量呈明显累积;Co和Cr元素含量则稳定波动。(2)各指标与重金属含量和累积水平有较高的关联度,且排序稳定。重金属含量的主要经济影响因素为总人口、农村化肥施用量和总播种面积,而与总货运量、农村工业产值和总产值的关联度较小;对重金属累积水平的影响,农村化肥施用量、总人口和粮食总产量最为重要。
    A historical record serial of soil heavy metals (HMs) contents was constructed during 1950-2006 in Yixing City, an area with rapid socio-economic development in Changjiang (Yangtze) River Delta of China, by taking soils which covered in different years and have comparability as a carrier. Change of soil HMs pollution index was calculated, and then the impact of socio-economic development on soil HMs content and accumulation level was analyzed with gray correlative analysis model. Results showed that: (1) Temporal variaition in Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn contents and soil HMs accumulation level showed a shape of stretched "U", of which inflexion point is the late 1970s or the early 1980s. The content of As appeared declining, by contrast, there was a notable accumulation of Cd; Co and Cr contents showed comparatively stable oscillation. (2) Each socio-economic index has a high and stable grey correlation with soil HMs contents and accumulation level. Total population, usage amount of fertilizer and total cultivated area are the three most important impact factors of soil HMs contents, conversely, GDP, value of industry output in rural area and total freight volume have the weakest impact on soil HMs contents. Usage amount of fertilizer, total population and total grain yield make the greatest contribution to the soil HMs accumulation level.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    杭嘉湖地区城市发展对降水影响的分析
    丁瑾佳, 许有鹏, 潘光波
    地理科学. 2010, 30 (6): 886-891.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.06.886
    摘要   PDF (694KB)
    利用杭嘉湖地区长系列逐日降水资料,采用统计分析、线性回归、R/S分析、集中度和集中期等方法,探讨城市化发展条件下的降水变化规律。结果表明:随着城市化的快速发展,在年雨量、汛期雨量、大雨和暴雨日数上,杭嘉湖地区城区降水的增多趋势较郊区明显,城郊降水差距在增大,城市"增雨效应"显著;城郊年雨量的集中度均具有减少的趋势,但郊区递减速度稍大于城区;而冬季雨量则呈现出区域性特征,且城市化对小雨和中雨日数的影响仍具有一定的不确定性,反映出城市化对降雨影响的复杂性。
    Taking daily rainfall data from 1961-2006 in Hangzhou-Jiaxing-Huzhou area and using statistical analysis, linear regression, R/S method, concentration degree and concentration period,this paper analyzes the effects of urbanization on the long term precipitation. The results show that with the development of urbanization, the increasing trend of annual precipitation, flood season precipitation, heavy rain days and storm rainfall days in urban areas is more than the suburban areas, the difference of urban and suburban areas is increasing and the urban precipitation increasing effect is evident. The precipitation concentration degree is on the decline in urban and suburban areas, and the rate of decrease in suburban areas is slightly more than urban areas. However, the winter precipitation shows the regional characteristics, the light rain days and moderate rain days are uncertain,reflecting the complexity of the impacts of urbanization on precipitation.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    利用虚拟插钎对切沟沟底不同部位短期变化的初步研究
    董一帆, 伍永秋
    地理科学. 2010, 30 (6): 892-897.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.06.892
    摘要   PDF (485KB)
    插钎法是研究侵蚀的常用方法,但精度不高且易受人为因素影响。文章探讨以虚拟插钎点代替实物插钎的可行性,并对黑龙江鹤北小流域的一条切沟沟底高程的年际变化进行研究。对研究所需的DEM精度进行检验,其能达到cm级,满足研究需求。研究发现,切沟头部为沟底下切最剧烈的区域,而在降雨偏少的年份,主要的堆积区域在切沟的中上部和中下部,沟尾部无论降雨强弱,变化最细微。
    Erosion pins is widely used to measure the wind and water erosion, but the accuracy of this method is relatively low because this method is usually impacted by human activities. The black soil region in Northeast China is suffering from soil erosion due to intense reclamation in the middle of 20 century, and gully erosion in this region is very severe. However, the previous researches were mainly focused on the changes of the entire gully. It is difficult to monitor the changes at a certain site inside the gully and few research were focused on this problem. In this paper, we try to use the GIS points as the virtual erosion pins instead of the real erosion pins to monitor the erosion and deposition process at the bottom of gully in Hebei catchment in Heilongjiang Province. Virtual erosion pins were not affected by the environment, human activity and ground settlement. The precision of the gully’s DEM can reach the cm-level examined by the checkpoint method, which was used to this research. The annual variation of the bottom of gully monitored by the virtual erosion pins combining with the high precision gully DEM consist with the regular gully development by the previous study. The results prove that using virtual erosion pins combining with high precision DEM to monitor the annual variation of gully bottom is valid. From the DEM we found that the head part of the gully incised intensely. The mid-part is the main place of the deposition in the dry years, and the incision is relatively weaker than the head part of the gully at the wet years, because the runoff’s sediment transport capacity reaches the saturation level while the flow velocity decreases due to the increasing width of the gully. The end of the gully is relatively stable because the runoff and sediment has reached a relative equilibrium state.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    生物结皮对内蒙古沙地灌丛草地土壤呼吸特征的影响
    齐玉春, 董云社, 金钊, 肖胜生, 彭琴, 何亚婷, 刘欣超
    地理科学. 2010, 30 (6): 898-903.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.06.898
    摘要   PDF (500KB)
    利用静态暗箱法分析生物结皮对内蒙古典型油蒿沙地灌丛草地土壤呼吸变化特征及水热敏感性影响。结果表明:生物结皮(BSC)与裸地(BG)土壤呼吸速率表现出类似的季节变化动态,BSC土壤呼吸年内变异系数约66.6%~81.7%,高于同期BG的50.9%~76.5%,其年际变异(22.4%)远大于BG(8.0%);BSC生长季土壤呼吸总量约126.88~186.07 gC/m2,显著高于BG(91.22~100.90 gC/m2)(p<0.05);BSC土壤呼吸对表层土壤水分变化的响应较BG更敏感,两个年份生长季BSC与BG表层0~10 cm土壤含水量变化分别能够解释土壤呼吸变异的81.3%,53.2%,57.8%以及55.4%。
    A two-year field experiment was carried out in Artemisia ordosica sandy shrubland in the Ordos Plateau of Inner Mongolia, China, in 2006-2007 using a static opaque chamber with an infrared CO2 gas analyzer technique. The effects of biological crust on the main characteristics of soil respiration and its sensitivity to the change of water-heat factors were analyzed. The results indicated that similar seasonal dynamic was found in the BSC and BG. The coefficients of variation (CVs) for soil respiration of BSC in different growing seasons ranged from 66.6% to 81.7%, higher than those of BG, which were in the range of 50.9%-76.5% for the same period, and the inert-annual CV of BSC (22.4%) was also higher than that of BG (8.0%). The existence of biological crusts enlarged the annual and inter-annual variation in soil respiration. The total soil respiration of different growing seasons for the BSC treatment were 126.88-186.07 g C/m2, significantly higher than those of 91.22-100.90 g C/m2 for the BG treatment. In the growing season, the soil respiration rates were significantly related to surface soil water contents, and the change of soil respiration rate was more sensitive to that of soil water contents in BSC than in BG for the two measured years. 81.3%, 53.2%, 57.8% and 55.4% of variation in soil respiration could be explained by the change in 0-10 cm soil water content for BSC and BG treatments in the two years, respectively.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    长安少陵塬S4古土壤化学成分与环境变化
    董红梅, 赵景波, 宋友桂
    地理科学. 2010, 30 (6): 904-909.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.06.904
    摘要   PDF (366KB)
    通过对长安少陵塬双竹村S4古土壤的野外观察、元素分析及粒度分析,讨论其环境变化。结果表明:(1) 根据剖面特点、元素淋溶迁移特征及脱离粘化层的钙淀积层,可判断S4属于酸性淋溶土,其剖面构型为Bts-Bs-BC-Bck-C;(2) 根据S4的颜色、质地、结构及铁质胶膜和钙淀积层的特点,但又不具明显的铁铝化特征,可判断S4可能相当于现今中国北亚热带的黄棕壤;(3)根据CaCO3迁移深度、风化淋滤黄土层厚度及红色铁质粘土胶膜的最大深度与江苏六合地区现代黄棕壤的剖面很相似,可判断当时西安地区的年均温、年均降水量与六合地区较接近。
    Based on field investigation, geochemistry and grain size analyses on the fourth paleosol (S4) at Shaolingyuan section in Chang’an County, we concluded the following new comings about weathering features and the environmental changes. (1) The soil microstructure and leaching and immigration of elements indicate S4 at this section belong to acid leached soil type, and the profile structure is Bts-Bs-BC-Bck-C.(2) The color, structure, clayey films illuvial without obvious ferrallitisation characteristics show that the S4 is equivalent to yellow-brown soil developed at modern subtropics. (3) By contrasting the section between the S4 and the modern yellow-brown soil, illuvial depth of calcium carbonate and the thickness of weathering are similar to the yellow-brown soil in Liuhe, Jiangsu. Therefore we estimate the S4 formed at a mean annual precipitation and temperature equivalent to Liuhe area.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    重庆新崖洞4.5ka以来气候变化的石笋微量元素记录及环境意义
    王建力, 何潇, 李清, 李廷勇, 王勇
    地理科学. 2010, 30 (6): 910-915.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.06.910
    摘要   PDF (390KB)
    根据重庆新崖洞石笋XY6已有的碳氧同位素成果,进一步探讨微量元素指标(Mg/Ca,Sr/Ca,Ba/Ca及Mg/Sr)的气候及环境意义。认为Mg/Ca比值可以作为古降水的气候指标,极好地记录这4 500 a来的气候干湿变化,尤其对4 000 a B.P.左右的季风降水减少有明显的响应。此外,Mg/Ca与碳氧同位素记录反映的气候信息也基本一致。Sr/Ca和Ba/Ca与Mg/Ca比值的变化也有相似性,但其作为气候指标的稳定性较差,易受到地表植被、土壤微生物活动等众多因素的干扰。
    High-resolution stalagmite records serve as excellent proxy of investigating past climatic and environmental changes, and multiproxy studies have enormous potential in identifying process controls and fulfilling the potential of speleothems in paleoclimatical and palaeoenvironmental analysis. In this paper, climate change and environmental significance of trace-element ratios from stalagmite XY6(such as Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca, Ba/Ca, Mg/Sr) were discussed by comparing with the stable oxygen and carbon isotopes results of stalagmite XY6 from Xinya Cave in Chongqing.The results showed that the Mg/Ca ratio can be used as a climatic proxy of precipitation, indicating the climate change since 4.5 ka B.P., and agreed well with the climatic change revealed by oxygen and carbon isotopes records. Notably, the Mg/Ca ratio was sensitive to the event of abrupt decline in precipitation at 4.0 ka B.P. Although the time series of Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca ratios coincides roughly with to the variation of Mg/Ca, they were readily disturbed by many factors such as vegetation and soil microbes, thus are less stable.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    加速遗传算法在马斯京根洪水演算模型参数估计中的应用
    汪哲荪, 金菊良, 魏一鸣, 王宗志, 周玉良
    地理科学. 2010, 30 (6): 916-920.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.06.916
    摘要   PDF (288KB)
    为提高马斯京根洪水演算模型参数估计的准确性、稳定性和工作效率,根据马斯京根洪水演算模型的基本假定把模型参数估计问题转换为相应的优化问题,并提出用加速遗传算法(AGA)同时优化模型参数。实例计算的结果说明了用AGA进行参数估计的有效性和较高的演算精度,实现了参数估计的优化和简化,在洪水灾害管理中具有推广应用价值。
    River flood routing is very important in regional flood disaster management. Now Muskingum flood routing model has widely been applied in river flood routing because of its simple and convenient computation and well applicability. In order to improve accurateness, stability and efficiency of the parameter estimation of Muskingum flood routing model and to facilitate flood forecasting, reservoir flood control operation and flood control planning, the parameter estimation of Muskingum flood routing model was transformed into a nonlinear optimal procession based on the fundamental hypothesis of Muskingum flood routing model in this paper. And an improved genetic algorithm, named accelerating genetic algorithm (AGA) was developed to optimize all of the model parameters of Muskingum flood routing model at the same time. The applied results show that AGA is more effective and high precision for the river flood routing compared with common parameter estimation methods such as try-and-error method, hunting method, and least square method. Due to its capability of realizing the optimization and simplification of the parameter estimation of Muskingum flood routing model, AGA can be widely applied to different complex optimal problems of flood disaster management.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    2000~2008年长白山地区植被覆盖变化对气候的响应研究
    南颖, 刘志锋, 董叶辉, 李秀霞, 吉喆
    地理科学. 2010, 30 (6): 921-928.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.06.921
    摘要   PDF (622KB)
    利用2000~2008年MODIS/NDVI数据,结合谐波分析、影像处理和基于像元的空间统计方法,分析了不同时间尺度下长白山地区的植被覆盖年内和年际变化与气温、降水的空间相关性。结果表明,近10 a来长白山地区气温和降水都均呈增加趋势;年内和年际变化过程中,长白山地区植被覆盖受气温影响的程度要高于降水;长白山地区春季和秋季植被覆盖与气温呈正相关,夏季主要呈负相关;不同月份的相关统计与年统计和分季节统计相比,更能细致地反映植被覆盖与气候的响应关系。
    The spatial correlation between intra-annual and inter-annual variation of the vegetation cover and climate change in the Changbai Mountain Area was analyzed by using the HANTS, imagery processing and pixels-based spatial statistical methods based on the MODIS-NDVI data from 2000 to 2008.The results showed that, the temperature and the precipitation in this area showed an increasing trend in recent 10 years. During intra-annual and inter-annual variation, the influence degree of temperature on the vegetation cover was higher than precipitation, and there was a positive correlation between the temperature and the vegetation cover in spring and autumn but negative correlation in summer. The statistics of monthly would reflect more detail response relation between the vegetation cover and climate change.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    基于GAME-TibetIOP的青藏高原蒸散研究
    张小磊, 杨梅学
    地理科学. 2010, 30 (6): 929-935.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.06.929
    摘要   PDF (447KB)
    由于缺少足够的观测资料,人们对青藏高原上蒸散问题的认识还不充足。以1998年5~9月"全球能量与水循环亚洲季风之青藏高原试验"加强观测试验期(GAME-Tibet IOP)资料为基础,结合1967~2006年40 a的气象站数据,计算了6个样点的参照蒸散量和潜在蒸散量,并在此基础上估算了实际蒸散量的大小。结果显示,高原参照蒸散有下降趋势,但在试验期内却比40 a平均值明显偏高,且和潜在蒸散之间表现出很强的相关性;试验期内气温、太阳辐射强度、风速以及饱和水气压差等环境因子的值均高于40 a的平均状况;太阳辐射强度、风速、饱和水气压差的增强是导致参照蒸散量升高的主要原因,其中以后两者对参照蒸散量的影响尤为显著;试验期内旬实际蒸散量在9~23 mm之间波动,6~8月份实际蒸散的总量可达123.3~136.9 mm,占同期降水量的38.2%~73.4%;蒸散在高原地气相互作用过程中有重要作用。
    The Tibetan Plateau is one of the ideal areas of the world to investigate evapotranspiration because of the minor impact by humans. But the investigation has been insufficient for owing to the lack of sufficient observational data. Based on the data from the Intensive Observation Period (IOP) of the GEWEX Asian Monsoon Experiment (GAME) in the Tibetan Plateau in 1998 and the meteorological observatories during the period 1967 to 2006, this paper presents on analysis of the reference evapotranspiration, potential evapotranspiration and actual evapotranspiration. The result indicated that reference evapotranspiration decreased during the period 1967 to 2006, but obviously higher than the 40-year average from 1967 to 2006. Furthermore, there was a very high correlation (n=72, r2=0.97) exist between reference evapotranspiration and potential evapotranspiration. The air temperature, net total radiation, wind speed and vapor pressure deficit were also higher than the 40-year average during the GAME-Tibet IOP. The analysis showed that the increased of reference evapotranspiration was due to the increased of net total radiation, wind speed and vapor pressure deficit, and regarded the latter two as the major impacts (n=72, P<0.05). During the GAME-Tibet IOP, actual evapotranspiration of 10-day average fluctuated between 9 mm and 23 mm. Form June to August, the total actual evapotranspiration could achieve 123.3~136.9 mm, which was 38.2%~73.4% of the precipitation in the same period. These all clearly show that evapotranspiration has played an important role in the Geo-gas interaction of the Tibetan Plateau.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    1736年以来南京逐季降水量的重建及变化特征
    伍国凤, 郝志新, 郑景云
    地理科学. 2010, 30 (6): 936-942.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.06.936
    摘要   PDF (606KB)
    基于清代雨雪档案和现代气象观测资料,利用自然降水入渗试验结果及雨雪分寸与降水量统计关系,重建南京1736~2006年逐季和年降水量。分析显示:(1) 18世纪春、冬季为多雨期,秋季为少雨期;19世纪秋、冬季和全年为多雨期,春季为少雨期;20世纪上半叶,4季和全年均为少雨期;自20世纪末期始夏季和全年进入多雨期。(2) 年降水变化存在2~5 a周期,经历1851~1860年和1893~1894年两次突变。研究结果与区域内其他旱涝等级或降水量序列有较好可比性。绝大多数粮食欠收年对应于降水异常年,生长期为干旱异常的欠收年数量多于为洪涝异常的欠收年。
    Based on the Yu-Xue-Fen-Cun (ancient rainfall and sownfall data) archives in the Qing Dynasty and modern meteorological observations, this paper reconstructed seasonal and annual precipitation from 1736 to 2006 in Nanjing. The conclusions indicated: (1) In the 18th century, Nanjing received more precipitation during the spring and winter, while the autumn was in less precipitation period. In the 19th century, the autumn, winter and annual precipitation was relatively more, while the spring was in less precipitation period. During the first half of the 20th century, there was relatively less precipitation in all seasons. From the end of the 20th century on, the summer and annual turned into rainy period. (2) The annual precipitation had 2-5 yr cycles and abrupt changes during 1851-1860 and 1893-1894. These reconstructions were well consistent with other drought/flood or precipitation series in the region. Moreover, most of poor harvests occurred in the abnormal precipitation years, in which the proportion of years with less precipitation was higher.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    早全新世沙沟河古洪水沉积及其对气候变化的响应
    王军, 高红山, 潘保田, 杜功元, 李宗盟, 曹泊, 吉亚鹏
    地理科学. 2010, 30 (6): 943-949.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.06.943
    摘要   PDF (826KB)
    对沙沟河一级阶地河漫滩ZJDZ剖面中360个样品的粒度,矿物的成分含量及pH值等沉积特征进行分析,并对关键层位进行了一共6个14C年代测定。结果表明:10.9~4.0 ka B.P.期间沙沟河发生多次大规模洪水,10.9~7.0 ka B.P.期间沙沟河发生20次左右大型洪水,洪水重现期为0.40 ka,其中,10.9~9.0 ka B.P.期间洪水的规模逐次增加,9.0~7.0 ka B.P.期间洪水的规模有所减小;7.0~4.2 ka B.P.期间至少有过4~5次大型洪水,洪水的重现期为0.71 ka。洪水事件主要发生在比较湿润的气候背景下,高频率洪水事件的发生与气候频繁的干湿波动有关。
    Fluvial deposited material can record climatic information and paleohydrological information. On the basis of field research, systematic sampling, testing the grain size, mineral composition, and pH value of ZJDZ section, sedimentary records of paleoflood in this section can be divided into three sections. Especially the grain size parameters and the pH value in the second section fluctuate severely, representing different periods and different scales of flood, and the high frequency. Combined with six 14C data, a time scale is established: there are many large flood events occurred in the Shagou River during 10.9-4.0 kyr B.P. period, of which 20 times of large-scale floods occurred during 10.9-7.0 kyr B.P. period, flood recurrence interval is 0.40 kyr, which the flood-scale increase successively during 10.9-9.0 kyr B.P., during the 9.0-7.0 kyr B.P. period, the flood-scale has reduced; during the 7.0-4.2 kyr B.P. period, there are at least 4 to 5 large-scale flood, the flood recurrence interval is 0.71 kyr. Contrasting to the existed climate data, it is discovered that flood events occurred mainly in the background of relatively humid climate, high-frequency flood events are related to the frequent fluctuation in wet and dry climate.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    2592~1225aB.P.湖北神农架石笋氧同位素记录及区域气候意义
    张春霞, 张茂恒, 李偏, 孔兴功, 朱正坤, 姜修洋, 汪永进
    地理科学. 2010, 30 (6): 950-954.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.06.950
    摘要   PDF (409KB)
    选择处于典型季风区中国内部湖北神农架地区青天洞一支具有连续清晰年纹层发育的石笋样品(QT6),通过精确的年纹层计数,结合高精度230Th年龄,建立2 592~1 225 a B.P.期间长达1 367 a的石笋δ18O时间序列。石笋δ18O记录的17个持续时间在80 a左右的峰谷旋回,与格陵兰冰芯δ18O记录具有非常好的一一对应关系,说明在年代际尺度上石笋δ18O同样能反映区域性气候变化,可能的机制是北高纬温度的变化通过大气传输影响热带辐合带(ITCZ)的迁移,从而影响东亚季风的强弱变化。
    we present an annual layer-counted and 230Th-dated stalagmite oxygen isotope record from Qingtian Cave in Hubei Province, central China. This record provides an Asian Monsoon(AM) history during a time interval from 2592-1225 yr B.P. In the QT6 δ18O record, 17 sub-cycles with a mean duration of 80 years are identified, which correlate well with the Greenland temperature changes. This suggests that Chinese stalagmite δ18O can reflect regional climate changes at interdecadal scale. Our observations support that high-latitude temperature changes can influence the migration of Inter-tropical Convergence Zone(ITCZ) via atmospheric circulations, and then control the Asian Monsoon intensity.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    白洋淀湖泊表层花粉通量特征及来源途径分析
    田芳, 许清海, 李月从, 曹现勇
    地理科学. 2010, 30 (6): 955-961.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.06.955
    摘要   PDF (551KB)
    白洋淀湖面捕捉器样品、湖底捕捉器样品和湖泊表层沉积物样品花粉组合及花粉通量均能较好地反映地方和区域植被特征。湖面捕捉器花粉通量明显低于湖底捕捉器,通过对比湖面、湖底捕捉器花粉通量,发现白洋淀湖泊有91%以上的花粉由地表径流携带而来。判别分析结果表明:湖水和空气在花粉传播和沉积过程中均存在对花粉的搅匀和混合作用,样品类型间花粉组合差异大于样点间差异,花粉来源途径的不同对湖泊花粉组合影响明显。
    Pollen assemblages and pollen influx of trap samples upon water and under water and surface sediment samples from Baiyang Lake reflect regional and local vegetation well. Pollen influx of trap samples upon water are lower than those under water obviously, indicating that there is about 91% of total pollen being transported through water in the lake. Discriminant analysis shows that there was preferable mixing effect when pollen was transported and sedimented through air and water, and the difference of pollen assemblage among different sample types is more obvious than among different sample sites.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    近45年来托木尔峰青冰滩72号冰川变化特征
    王璞玉, 李忠勤, 曹敏, 李慧林
    地理科学. 2010, 30 (6): 962-967.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.06.962
    摘要   PDF (714KB)
    基于天山托木尔峰青冰滩72号冰川2008年高精度差分GPS测量资料,2009年末端重复测量数据以及1964年地形图,通过对比研究近45 a来该冰川的变化特征,结果表明:1964~2009年,青冰滩72号冰川末端退缩1 852 m,年均后退41 m,由此造成面积减少约为1.53 km2,年均减少0.03 km2;1964~2008年,冰舌平均减薄9.59±6 m,年均减薄约0.22±0.14 m,冰储量亏损达14.1±8.8×10-3 km3(12.7±7.9×10-3 km3 w.e.)。与天山其它区域典型监测冰川相比,青冰滩72号冰川消融强烈,是区域气候、末端海拔、冰川类型、表碛覆盖等因素综合影响的结果。
    Qingbingtan Glacier No.72, which was located in Mt. Tuomuer Region of Tianshan Mountains, was studied to analyze its variation based on comparing data of high accuracy Real Time Kinematic-Global Position System (RTK-GPS) in 2008, repeated terminal measuring data in 2009 and the topographical map in 1964. Results indicated that the glacier terminus had retreated by 1852 m, nearly 41 m each year from 1964 to 2009, which brought about the area shrinkage of about 1.53 km2, with a rate of 0.03 km2/a. During 1964-2008, the ice tongue thinned by 9.59?6 m, with the mean thinning rate of 0.22?0.14 m/a, corresponding to the loss in ice volume of 14.1?8.8?10-3 km3 (12.7?7.9?10-3 km3 water equivalent). It was found that Qingbingtan Glacier No.72 was melting intensively comparing with the other monitoring glaciers in different areas of Tianshan Mountains which was influenced by regional climate, elevation of glacier terminus, glacier types, moraine and other factors.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
  编辑部公告 More  
· 声明
  2019-03-04
· 新年贺词
  2018-12-25
· 新春祝福
  2016-12-30
· 《地理科学》影响因子年报(2016版)
  2016-09-18
· 祝贺我刊三篇文章入选“首届最具影响力中国地理期刊优秀论文”
  2016-05-31
· 严正声明
  2016-05-11



  友情链接 More  


版权所有 © 《地理科学》编辑部
地址:长春市高新北区盛北大街4888号 邮编:130102 电话:+86 431 85542324 E-mail: geoscien@neigae.ac.cn
本系统由北京玛格泰克科技发展有限公司设计开发 技术支持:support@magtech.com.cn