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CN 22-1124/P
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  • 地理科学
      2011年, 第31卷, 第3期 刊出日期:2011-03-20 上一期    下一期
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    论文
    中国都市区和大城市群的界定——兼论大城市群在区域经济发展中的作用
    宁越敏
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (3): 257-263.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.03.257
    摘要   PDF (993KB)
    大城市群正在成为城市化空间组织的主要形态,构成国家经济发展的重心。改革开放以来,中国重新纳入到世界经济体系之中,工业化与城市化加速发展推动了城市群规模壮大与能级提升。本文首先采用"五普"资料对大都市区进行界定,以大都市区为基本组成单元界定中国的大城市群,分析了中国13个大城市群的空间分布特征及在区域经济发展中的引领作用。
    The large urban agglomerations are the main form of spatial organization of urbanization, and they have become the powerful engine of national economic development. Since reform and opening-up, China has re-integrated into the world economic system, and both industrialization and urbanization have accelerated the enlargement of scale of large urban agglomerations and upgraded their function level. This paper firstly defines the concept of Chinese metropolitan areas based on the data attained from the fifth national census, and distinguishes the three types of Chinese metropolitan areas. In 2000, China had a total of 117 metropolitan areas, of which twenty-six areas had a population of 2 million or more. Then, the paper defines the concept of large urban agglomerations in China, and summarizes the basic features of 13 large urban agglomerations. This paper uses the metropolitan area as the basic unit to define the concept of large urban agglomerations in China, then analyzes their spatial distribution and roles in regional development. And the author thinks that Chinese large urban agglomerations play important roles as the centre of gravity of the national economy and the growth engines in regional development.
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    流动人口的流迁模式与社会保护:从“城市融入”到“社会融入”
    朱宇, 林李月
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (3): 264-271.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.03.264
    摘要   PDF (1205KB)
    基于福建省福州市流动人口问卷调查及流动人口、企业雇主和相关政府部门官员的深入访谈,考察了流动人口流迁模式的复杂性和多元分化及其对他们社会保护的影响。研究结果表明,流动人口的流迁模式呈现在流入地定居、保持流动状态和向流出地回流的三维分化,并由此导致其对社会保护需求在整体上不同于流入地当地居民,在其内部呈现多元分化的局面;以"城市融入"为主导的社会保护方法需要根据这种需求特点予以完善和拓展。还探讨了以上分析的理论和政策意义,重点分析了基于"城市融入"视角的分析框架在指导流动人口社会保护研究和政策制定上的局限性和向"社会融入"视角拓展的必要性,以及诸如社会保护项目的可携带性、制度基础和融资机制等政策层面的问题。
    Based on a survey of the floating population and subsequent in-depth interviews in Fuzhou City, China, this paper examines the complexity and diversity of mobility patterns of the floating population and its implications for their social protection in China. The results show that while a small proportion of the floating population want to settle down in the cities, a substantial proportion of them will return to their hometowns or remain mobile in the near future; and that members of the floating population have different social protection needs from local urban residents and among themselves. The paper identifies three major limitations of the current approach of urban inclusion in meeting the floating population’s needs for social protection, namely its incompatibility with the highly mobile nature of the floating population, its neglect of the floating population’s of social protection arising from their mobile nature, and its neglect of the floating population’s diversified needs caused by their differentiation in their final migration destinations. Based on the above analysis, the paper suggests that the current approach of urban inclusion should be expanded under the conceptual framework of social inclusion, so that the floating population’s distinctive and diversified needs for social protection can be better met. The paper also explores the conceptual and policy implications of the above analysis, focusing on the limitation of the conceptual framework of urban inclusion and exclusion in guiding the discussion of social protection for the floating population and using the conceptual framework of social inclusion and exclusion for such a purpose, and some practical issues such as the portability of social protection programs and their institutional basis and financing mechanism.
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    转型期中国城市公共服务设施供给模式及其形成机制研究
    周春山, 高军波
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (3): 272-279.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.03.272
    摘要   PDF (1271KB)
    城市公共服务设施供给模式与社会经济背景紧密相关,改革开放以来,社会经济体制转型促使我国城市公共服务设施供给模式发生变革,其供给主体结构由计划经济时期的单一化政府垄断转向政府公共部门、市场企业组织及社会非营利组织多元参与;在供给主体的制度设计上,供给决策由政治主导转向利益驱动,生产与提供机制由一体化转向垂直分离,垂直层级式管理机制也逐步转型为政府主导下的全方位监督。多元化供给主体及多样化机制组合驱动城市公共服务设施供给模式综合变革,是转型期制度政策因素、市场因素和社会因素共同作用的结果,体现出结构—能动性互动机制。
    The provision pattern of urban public service facilities are closely related to social and economic development environment. The provision pattern of urban public service facilities has changed radically because of the economic and social comprehensive transition since the reforming and opening up. The provision supplier has also changed from single government monopoly in the planned economy era to the multi-participation of government public sectors, the business organization, and social non-profit organization. Under the condition, six types of provision supplier modes appear: government-government (G-G), market-market (M-M), society-society (S-S), government-market (G-M), government-society (G-S) and market-government (M-G). During the system design of provision supplier, the supply decision-making changed from political movement leading to interest-orientated one and the production and supply mechanism changed from integration to vertical separation. The vertical management mechanism gradually transformed to comprehensive monitoring mechanism. The multi-provision suppliers and mechanisms drive together the comprehensive transformation of supply pattern of urban public service facilities. The results are the co-action of institution polices, market polices and social policies, which reflect the interaction mechanism of structure and agency formation.
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    省域城市群深度整合的理论与实践研究——以中原城市群为例
    王发曾, 闫卫阳, 刘静玉
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (3): 280-286.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.03.280
    摘要   PDF (1395KB)
    21世纪前半叶,各种空间尺度的城市群将在我国经济社会发展中扮演重要角色,省域城市群必然成为省(区)发展战略的主要牵引板块。一方面,省域城市群的深度整合迫切需要城市群理论与方法的指导与支撑;另一方面,城市群整合理论需要通过城市群建设实践进行提炼与升华,并在实践中进一步验证。通过中原城市群初步整合,以及内聚和外联两个方面的进一步实践,探索了省域城市群整合理论的深化及其与实践相结合的问题。具体来说,内聚以营造现代都市区,构建能够带动城市群快速发展的"核心增长极",外联以营造省域现代城镇体系,构建能够承载城市群健康发展的"区域支撑体系"。对中原城市群深度整合的研究,可为其他省域城市群的发展建设提供理论支撑和实践借鉴。
    In the first half of the 21st century, urban agglomerations on various spatial scales will play an important role in China's socio-economic development, and provincial urban agglomerations are bound to become the major basis of the province development strategy. Based on the study on the cohesion and outreach of Zhongyuan urban agglomeration, the paper deepens the integration theory of provincial urban agglomeration. The conclusion as follows: 1) Cohesion means to create the modern metropolitan area, and build core growth pole to drive the rapid development of urban agglomeration. Outreach means to create modern provincial urban system, and build regional support system to host the healthy development of urban agglomeration. 2) The Zhongyuan urban agglomeration comprises the four industrial zones and developmental axes. 3) Zhongyuan urban agglomeration cohesions in the municipal district of Zhengzhou-Kaifeng, which can be divided into five functional regions. And the construction of industrial zone in Zhengzhou-Kaifeng should be gone firstly as the important ingredient of the key functional region. 4) Zhongyuan urban agglomeration outreaches in the urban system of Henan Province, which has two intensive projects of building platform for the urbanism and brought its whole functions into play. And 5) in the strategic planning of Zhongyuan Economic Zone, Zhongyuan urban agglomeration is still the major distraction slabs, which integration, cohesion and outreach will give important support for Zhongyuan Economic Zone and play a key role on national development.
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    东北地区城市群组的格局、过程及城市流强度
    王士君, 宋飏, 冯章献, 姜丽丽
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (3): 287-294.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.03.287
    摘要   PDF (1324KB)
    根据城市群、城市组群及城市群组的内涵指出中国东北地区目前存在辽中南、吉林中部、哈大齐三个城市群组。按照其形成发展过程和现状特征,辽中南已经发育成为成熟的城市群,而吉林中部和哈大齐尚处于城市群发育的中间阶段,即城市组群阶段,从而在东北地区形成了"一群二组"的空间结构框架。通过对东北地区城市群组外向功能量和城市流强度的计算发现,群组内部尚未出现主要外向服务部门区位熵均大于1的城市,与国内发达城市群的发展水平相距较远。未来发展应该围绕城市群组的组织结构、网络化发展模式、职能分工与功能互补、发展关系协调等方面进一步调控和优化。
    The urban agglomerations in Northeast China group grew up in the special historical period, under a special economic background, and its unique structure and function has been the regional labor division of the old industrial bases in Northeast China, even controled the economy development in Northeast China. According to the connotation of urban agglomeration, cities group and urban agglomeration group, this paper pointed out there currently exist objectively three large urban agglomerations, namely, urban agglomerations of Central Southern Liaoning, Central Jilin and Harbin-Daqing-Qiqihar in Northeast China. According to the formation, development process and the present situation, Central Southern Liaoning has already developed into a mature urban agglomeration, while Central Jilin and Harbin-Daqing-Qiqihar are still in intermediate stage of urban group development. Thus it has been formed a spatial structure with'an agglomeration and two groups’in Northeast China. By the analysis on the urban extroversion meritorious energy and urban flows intensity in three large urban agglomerations in Northeast China, it was found that there is not any city’s location quotient for the main extrovert service of the urban agglomeration being greater than 1. And their development levels were lower than that of domestic advanced urban agglomeration. The future development should focus on urban agglomeration organization structure, network development pattern, function division and complementary, development relationship coordination, etc., and further control and optimization are needed. Central Southern Liaoning should strengthen the benefit mechanism and efficiency mechanism when the heavy industry and equipment manufacturing continuously develop; Central Jilin should consolidate industrial relation, sticking to the development of automobile industry and emerging industries; Harbin-Daqing-Qiqihar should lay emphasis on resources-substitute industry and emerging industries.
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    基于城市空间要素分析的浙中城市群结构特征研究
    李王鸣, 柴舟跃, 江佳遥
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (3): 295-301.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.03.295
    摘要   PDF (1627KB)
    基于浙中城市群空间要素体系——节点、通道、流和基质的构建与识别,通过政府部门调查和典型企业的访谈、问卷调查,获取浙中城市群空间各要素相关信息,系统定量分析浙中城市群空间结构特征,探索城市群研究的方法并加以实证。研究表明,浙中城市群表现出以义乌、金华为中心,多轴线、网络化的空间发展特征,为进一步的微观定量研究和城市群优化政策的制定提供参考依据。
    On the background of global integration, urban agglomeration is becoming a main direction of global spatial reconstruction and the basic unit of competition between regions and countries. Based on systematical summary of structural research on domestic and aboard urban agglomeration, this article analyzed the characteristics of four categories of structural elements (including node, channel, flow and matrix) from the perspective of spatial elements system of agglomeration. The information about the spatial elements in central Zhejiang urban agglomeration was acquired through wide-spread interviews and questionnaires of government departments and typical corporates. The article also quantitatively analyzed the characteristics of spatial structure in central Zhejiang urban agglomeration, and explored the empirical methods about the researches on urban agglomeration. The result showed that the central Zhejiang urban agglomeration’s structure appears to be networking and multi-central, which includes Yiwu and Jinhua. The core area presents a strong networking showing a certain degree of homogeneity and continuity in economic, demographic and geographic landscape. Such researches would provide foundation for further quantitative assessment and strategic decision.
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    1990年代以来日本大都市圈的结构变化
    日野正辉, 刘云刚
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (3): 302-308.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.03.302
    摘要   PDF (1750KB)
    基于既有研究综述了1990年代以来日本大都市圈的发展动态。1990年代初期,东京都市圈郊区扩张的势头停止,取而代之的是中心区的人口增加,即人口的都心回流趋向。究其原因,泡沫经济中持续上升的地价于1986~1991年间开始回落,由此引发了城市中心区的住宅建设,带动了诸多价格适中的商品住房供给。此外,伴随少子化,人们为追求住宅面积而迁往郊区的势头也已减弱;日益增多的老年人反而为了追求便利性从郊区的独立住宅迁往市中心居住,郊区一些公共交通不便的居住区人口开始减少。在地方都市圈,类似的现象也已出现,甚至还存在总人口减少的可能。在此状况下,抑制郊区开发、建设紧凑城市的规划政策开始受到重视。
    This paper aims to present a general view of changes in spatial structures of Japanese metropolitan areas after the 1990s based on previous studies. Discontinuation of suburban expansion and recovery of inner area population have been observed in the Tokyo metropolitan area since the 1990s. Both the collapse of land myth and the continuous decrease in land price during the 1990s were pointed out as major factors directly contributing to these phenomena. The land myth which kept the land value increasing had induced vigorous investments in land since the post-war rapid economic growth period. This movement had been busted in the collapse of bubble economy of the late 1980s. As a result, the amount of land supplies in the inner part of Japanese metropolitan areas became increased, and the construction of affordable condominiums became active significantly. On the other hand, the trend of low birthrate weakened the inner-to-suburb residential migration in metropolitan areas according to life cycle. Increasing number of aged residents prefer condominiums in the inner areas to detached houses in suburbs because of convenience in living without depending on automobiles. In fact, there were many senior citizens who migrated from suburbs to inner areas. On the contrary, the residential areas without adjacency to the convenient public transportation system in outer suburbs tend to become less popular among all generation, thus the population in such areas began to decrease. Furthermore, the similar phenomena are also seen in provincial metropolitan areas. Population in such areas is predicted to decrease in the near future. Therefore, some of major provincial cities have already proposed "compact city planning" policies to regulate new suburban development and improve public transportation systems by providing both train and bus services in the inner areas.
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    海西城市群工业空间格局与演化分析
    伍世代, 李婷婷
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (3): 309-315.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.03.309
    摘要   PDF (1719KB)
    通过构建工业水平指标体系,采用客观性较强的主成分分析法测算城市工业化综合水平,并以此作为空间分析的基础变量,探讨了1990年代以来以福建省为主体的海西城市群工业化现象的时空分异规律,从工业整体空间格局、热点区域演进及基于制造业层面的空间结构分析,得到结论:①工业空间的点—轴格局明显,核心区对外围区的空间溢出效应不断加强;②空间格局保持相对稳定性,闽西、闽北地区的边缘化地位基本没有改变;③制造业层面首先表现为沿海与内陆的差别,其次是二者内部的差异,再者体现为行业内部集聚水平的差距。从总体上看,已初步形成核心—转承—边缘—辐射的圈层递进式空间体系结构。最后,提出了该区域未来工业空间格局的发展方向。
    The paper constructed an industrialization index system by the principal component analysis. After calculating the compositive scores of every county, the paper took this achievement as a spatial analytic basic variable using GIS to analyze spatial-temporal differentiation of industry development in western coastal China in 1990, 1996, 2002 and 2008, respectively. The results show that: 1) Considering the overall spatial variability, the node-axes structure of industry is obvious. It composed of two main cores—Fuzhou and Xiamen, and the effect of spatial spillovers between core area and outlying district has been more powerful since the 1990s. 2) According to the analysis of high-value clusters, the hot spot of industry remains stable in different periods, and the western and northern areas are always in the edge of industrial structure. And 3) from the view of manufacturing industry, the differences not only exist between coast and inland, but also exist inside coast and inland. Additionally, the agglomeration degree of diffenernt industries shows an obvious discrepancy. Finally, the paper proposes the direction and tendency of spatial structure of industry in the future.
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    海峡西岸经济区城镇体系空间结构特征研究
    王晓文, 王强, 伍世代, 李婷婷, 徐玲琳, 罗玮祥
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (3): 316-321.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.03.316
    摘要   PDF (1501KB)
    在经济全球化背景下,福建省正处于全面发展的工业化阶段,面对外界各种流体的汇集和离散,机遇与挑战并存。如何构建福建省区域城镇体系的等级、功能和空间结构,协调区域发展,实现海峡西岸经济区的成功崛起乃是福建省在今后区域规划中的重要任务。立足海峡西岸经济区主体福建省城镇体系空间结构现状,从节点、轴线、网络、域面四个维度分析其结构特征,得到以下结论:①福建省城镇经济发展目前已形成2个主中心(厦门市、福州市辖区)、1个次中心(泉州市辖区)、6个地方中心和一批较大生产规模城镇;②闽东南地区城镇整体水平高于闽西北地区,中部地区城镇沿线发展程度仅次于沿海地区城镇密集带;③福建省城镇体系空间分布较为适中;④福建省城镇经济发展梯度差异较大。
    In the context of economic globalization, Fujian is in the comprehensive industrialization stage. For all kinds of resources fluid collecting and dispersion, Fujian’s development has both opportunities and challenges. In the future regional planning work, it is important to study how to build a hierarchical structure, functional structure, and spatial structure of urban system in order to push the coordinating development among regions, and make the economic zone on the western coast of China grow up successfully. Therefore, based on the status of urban system, this paper analyzed the structural feature of urban system from four aspects, including node, axis, network and region. The results show: 1) the economic development has formed a pattern with 2 main centers (Xiamen, Fuzhou), 1 subcenter (Quanzhou), 6 regional centers and a batch of production towns; 2) the economic development level in the southeastern Fujian is higher than that in northwestern Fujian, and the central region is next to the southeastern Fujian; 3) spatial distribution of urban system is reasonable; and 4) the difference of economic development level of all regional gradient is fairly great.
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    城市群结构优化与功能升级——以中原城市群为例
    郭荣朝, 宋双华, 苗长虹
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (3): 322-328.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.03.322
    摘要   PDF (1682KB)
    城市群在区域经济社会发展中的作用越来越重要,城市群结构优化与功能升级已成为城市群区域可持续发展的首要问题。以城市群结构优化与功能升级的理论为依据,介绍了中原城市群的提出与建设,分析了产业结构优化与特色产业簇群培育,生态环境结构优化、空间结构优化与"廊道组团网络化"模式构建等城市群结构优化内容。提出了核心城市自主创新能力培养,生产性服务中心培育,统筹城乡发展,城市群内外的配合协作与有效对接等城市群功能升级路径。城市群结构优化与功能升级相互促进,共同推动着城市群区域经济社会环境健康可持续发展。
    The role of urban agglomeration is becoming increasingly vital in the process of regional economic and social development, and the structural optimization and function upgrading are the key problems of economic and social sustainable development in urban agglomeration. Firstly, the paper expounds the theory basis of spatial structural optimization and function upgrading. Secondly, the authors present the introduction and construction of Zhongyuan Urban Agglomeration. Precisely, the authors analyze the optimization of industrial structure and cultivation of characteristic industrial cluster in urban agglomeration of Zhongyuan Region, structural optimization of ecological environment, orderly integration of spatial structure in urban agglomeration and construction of Corridor Grouping Networking model. Finally, this paper thoroughly puts forward the upgrading paths of function in Zhongyuan Urban Agglomeration from independent innovation of core cities and nurture of producer services, integration of urban and rural development, urban agglomeration inside and outside the cooperate collaboration, effective connection with national or world urban agglomeration, etc. The structural optimization and function upgrading can promote each other and jointly advance the urban agglomeration economic, social and environmental sustainable development.
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    虚拟经济时代世界经济格局的新变化
    任建兰, 田磊磊
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (3): 329-336.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.03.329
    摘要   PDF (1638KB)
    在分析经济全球化背景下虚拟经济产生与发展的基础上,选取货币地位、证券化率、外贸依存度、制造业比重、跨国间接投资等指标,采用系统聚类方法,对美国、英国、日本、德国、加拿大、法国、俄罗斯、中国、印度等9个国家进行聚类分析,得到世界经济格局大致可以分为三个层次的结果。其中美国、英国其货币地位、证券化率和跨国间接投资比重较高,属于虚拟化国家;加拿大和德国、法国各项指标基本处于中间水平,属于半虚拟化国家,日本虚拟化水平低于虚拟化国家而高于半国家,可以将其合并到半虚拟化国家;俄罗斯和中国、印度及其他发展中国家的外贸依存度、制造业比重较高,属于未虚拟化国家。根据对中国——最大的未虚拟化国家研究,提出了保持实体经济优势地位,利用虚拟化国家资金和技术,发展与半虚拟化国家的贸易,加快经济发展方式大转变和产业结构调整的建议。
    This paper selects the indexes of currency position, securitisation rate, ratio of dependence on foreign trade, manufacturing ratio, foreign portfolio investment and others to do cluster analysis on the economic patterns of 9 countries by the clustering methods of system. The results were attained that the countries can be divided into three sorts of economies: USA and Britain belong to fictious economies because of their high currency position, securitisation rate and foreign portfolio investment; Canada, Germany and France belong to semi-fictious economies because their indexes are in the middle level, and Japan belongs to semi-fictitious economies because of its lower fictitious level but higher than semi-fictious economies; Russia, China, India and other developing countries belong to non-fictious economies because of their high ratio of dependence on foreign trade and manufacturing ratio. China has been the largest non-fictious economy. The paper provides the following suggestions: to maintain superior position of the real economy, to exploit funds and technology of fictious economies, to develop trade with semi-fictious economies, and to accelerate the transformation of economic development mode and the revision of industrial structure.
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    基于分形维数的湖州旅游景区系统空间结构优化研究
    崔大树, 孙杨
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (3): 337-343.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.03.337
    摘要   PDF (1800KB)
    中小城市旅游业空间结构的优化及其与更大空间范围的旅游资源进行整合、衔接,是目前非中心旅游地区旅游资源开发和旅游业空间结构优化的难点。运用分形理论对湖州市旅游景区系统空间结构优化进行研究,聚集维数的测算显示湖州景区系统的空间分布聚集性较强,关联维数的测算结果显示其具有多分形特征。据此,湖州市旅游景区系统空间结构的优化主要为两个方面,即完善"两核心三组团"的旅游空间结构;加强"点—轴—面"交通体系建设,促进湖州接轨长三角地区旅游系统。
    The optimization of spatial structure of small and medium cities and the further integration and cohesion with the tourism resources of large cities have combined into a difficult and pivotal point in tourism resources development and tourism spatial structure of fringe cities. By using fractal theory, this article calculates the aggregation dimension and correlation dimension of tourism scenic system taking Huzhou as an example. The aggregation dimension shows that the spatial structure of the whole tourist spots is strongly aggregated. The correlation dimension indicates that the spatial structure of tourist spots is of a multi-fractal feature. Accordingly, we give some suggestions on the spatial structure optimization of Huzhou tourism scenic system. On one hand, the structure of "two cores" and "three groups" should further be improved, on the other, the construction of traffic system characterized by "pole-axis-plate", should be strengthened, thus to promote Huzhou to be perfectly merged into the whole tourism system of Changjiang River Delta.
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    省域尺度县域综合发展潜力空间分异研究——以云南省为实证
    马仁锋, 王筱春, 李文婧, 马俊杰
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (3): 344-350.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.03.344
    摘要   PDF (2118KB)
    以县级行政区为研究单元,建构了5类集成性指标项和由"主导影响因素的单要素整体分析—可量化主导因素的基于ArcGIS层次聚类分析法—瓶颈因素限制法"构成的技术路线,测度以云南为代表的山区省份县域综合发展潜力的空间分异特征。结果表明:①云南省县域综合发展潜力差异性显著,且存在很强的空间集聚特征;②总体空间分异呈现城市群高而周边低,交通干线廊道高而影响区低格局,而滇中城市群已形成中心—边缘格局,滇东南、滇西、滇南等城镇密集区初现点状格局;③总体空间分异与交通条件、经济基础呈高度空间正相关。
    The regional comprehensive development potential (RCDP) zoning at province level is a key foundation of major function oriented regionalization. This article made an assessment on the spatial difference of counties in the mountainous provinces like Yunnan Province. Five Integrated Development Potentials’index item (IDPII) have been constructed by means of theoretical analysis, factor analysis,GIS spatial analysis via ArcGIS9.0 and Geo DA, and expert consultation. It follows a technique route: 1) identifing key factors and spatial analysis; 2) clustering analysis from ArcGIS9.0 for the quantitative index item; 3) spatial bottleneck factors analysis with Cannikin Law by ArcGIS9.0; and 4) integrated appraisal. The results showed that: 1) There are great differences among the counties in RCDP at county level. And the spatial concentration and spatial correlation are distinctive in Yunnan Province. 2) The general spatial differences are formed. First, the cities were higher than rural areas around. The main traffic lines, and the cities and towns nearby are higher than the other areas. Second, the cities agglomeration in the central Yunnan Province is outstanding from other parts. The center of this part is Kunming City. The expansion of the core (Kunming) to the periphery is like quadratic damping from the core. The central Yunnan Province has formed the Core-Periphery structure. The cities in southeastern, southern and western Yunnan Province are just scattered in broad areas, not agglomeration. 3) The spatial differences of Yunnan Province are highly correlated to transportation accessibility and foundations of local economy at county level.
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    近30a来福州盆地中心的城市扩展进程
    徐涵秋
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (3): 351-357.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.03.351
    摘要   PDF (1860KB)
    位于福州盆地中心的福州市在城市化进程的推动下,城市空间快速扩展。利用多时相遥感影像和IBI建筑用地指数获得的建筑用地信息表明,福州市建成区在1976~2006年的30a间面积增加了105km2,增幅达到3.2倍。由于金山、快安等新城区的形成和马尾区的扩展,整个福州城区从西到东几乎连成一片,城市扩展经历了先慢后快,先北、后东、西的扩展历程。研究发现,福州城市的空间扩展并不属于工业主导型,而是第三产业推动型。城市空间的快速扩展已给福州带来了一定的环境资源问题,其中最突出的就是城市热岛效应与城市建筑用地总量控制问题。
    Urban expansion in which non-urban land use converted to urban land use is an important aspect of urbanization. With the progress of urbanization, Fuzhou City, located in the center of the Fuzhou Basin, Southeast China, has witnessed a rapid urban expansion process. To reveal the dynamics of urban expansion, remote sensing technique was employed. The use of the index-based built-up index (IBI) and a supervised classification has extracted urban built-up land information of the city from multi-temporal Landsat MSS/TM images of 1976, 1986, 1996 and 2006. The results show that during the 30-year study period the urban built-up area of Fuzhou has increased from 33 km2 in 1976 to 138 km2 in 2006, a net increase of 105 km2. Due to the formation of the new urban areas such as Jinshan in the west and Kuai’an in the southeast, and the fast growth of Mawei, the previously-dispersed urban areas of Fuzhou are almost connected with each other from west to east. The study also reveals that massive urban expansion took place mainly in the late 20 years after 1986. The urban growth has been slow in the first 10 years and fast in the late 20 years. The urban expanded to the north first, then to the east, and finally to the west, and was sprawled in a planar way rather than a linear way. Driving force analysis indicates that fast economic development, population increase, government decisions and terrain conditions are all factors contributing to the urban expansion of Fuzhou. Unlike many other rapid growing cities in the country, Fuzhou’s urban expansion was mainly driven by the tertiary industry rather than the secondary industry based on the increase rate. The rapid urban growth of Fuzhou City has brought about environment and resources repercussions to the city. Among them, the most serious problem is the urban heat island phenomenon. The considerable increase in built-up land areas in the Fuzhou Basin has significantly altered the landscapes of the basin and the thermal environment of the city. As a result, the whole basin in 2006 was almost in a heat island state. This has caused a severe urban heat island effect for the city and therefore attention should be paid by the government decision makers.
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    1949~2007年新疆人口的时空变化及空间结构分析
    左永君, 何秉宇, 龙桃
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (3): 358-364.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.03.358
    摘要   PDF (1861KB)
    采用GIS、系统聚类、地统计学等多种方法探讨了1949~2007年新疆人口的时序变化特征、空间分布规律以及空间结构。结果表明,新疆人口具有明显的时空变化特征和空间结构:新疆每年新增28.17×104人,人口数量的年均增长速率较大,达到6.50%。北疆的人口密度为46.97人/km2,明显高于南疆(13.37人/km2)和东疆(6.37人/km2)。少数民族的人口占总人口比例高的地区占比达到93.94%,中、低比例地区,则分别只有61.79%和33.89%。各县(市)总人口在空间上呈碎片化分布特征,表现出较大的空间变异性,但空间自相关性强烈。维吾尔族、汉族以及哈萨克族人口的空间自相关较强烈,但随滞后距离的增加,空间正相关性减弱,负相关关系增强。维吾尔族人口的空间自相关影响范围覆盖全疆,达2110km,而汉族、哈萨克族人口的则分别只有34km和125km。
    Based on GIS, cluster analysis, geostatistics and other methods, this research investigated the time serial change, spatial distribution and structure of population in Xinjiang from 1949 to 2007. The result indicated that population in Xinjiang had evident spatio-temporal character and spatial structure. The individuals increased 28.17?104 per year in Xinjiang.The annual increasing speed of population was high up to 6.50%. Population density in North Xinjiang was 46.97% individuals per square kilometers, distinctively higher than South(13.37%) and East Xinjiang(6.37%). Minority ratio differed a lot in different regions. Percentage in the high ration region was 93.94%, whereas only 67.19% and 33.89% in the middle and low ration ragions. Population of defferent counties in Xinjiang had both positive and negative spatial correlation in fractional spatial distribution, and had great spatial variability. However, the spatial self-correlation was strong. The population of Uygur, Han and Kazak nationalities had intense spatial self-correlation. Whereas when the separation distance got longer, the spatial positive correlation weakened, in the mean time negative correlation enhanced. The Uygur affecting distance of spatial self-correlation was 2 110 km, but the distances of Han and Kazak were only 34 km and 125 km.
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    基于GIS的重庆市道路密度的空间分异
    范科红, 李阳兵, 冯永丽
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (3): 365-371.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.03.365
    摘要   PDF (1925KB)
    以重庆市县域为研究单元,选取2006年重庆市1:166万基础地理信息数据中的道路网络数据为参考底图,利用ArcGIS的叠加分析和空间分析功能,研究了重庆市县域道路密度的空间分布差异。在道路密度研究的基础上,对各县(片)区的路网密度分布差异从社会经济和地形等方面,进行了相关分析和讨论。结果表明,2006年重庆市各区县道路密度的空间分布具有明显的集聚特征和地带性,重庆西部渝中区、沙坪坝区、九龙坡区等道路网密度较高,东北部的城口、东南部的丰都等区县道路网密度较低,揭示出重庆市道路密度空间分布的不均衡性;部分区县的道路网密度较高,与周边地区的差异相对显著,但尚未连接成面或完全均质化,主要包括西部铜梁片区、东南的丰都等区县;各区县不同等级道路密度空间分异也不尽相同;与地形、经济、人口、城镇用地的相关性研究中发现,重庆市道路密度分布格局与重庆的地势走向和地貌组成的地区分异大体吻合,与各区县GDP发展的空间水平基本耦合,与人口的相关性密切,并且道路网络的不断完善加速了城镇建设用地的外扩。
    Transport is bonds and bridges of geo-spatial and socio-economic activities. Based on the road network of Chongqing, spatial discrepancy of regional road density distribution was investigated using the ArcGIS superposition analysis and exploratory spatial data analysis. Further more, correlation analyses and discussions on the distribution differences of the road density of each counties and districs was made from the economic, terrain, land use of urban construction and the desity of population.The results showed that: the spatial distribution of road density in the counties and districts of Chongqing in 2006 has obvious clustering features, and showed two obvious areas features, the western area, Yuzhong, Sandbar, Jiulongpo's road density is high, while the north-east of the city in Chengkou, southeastern in Fengdu is low,which revealed the unbalanced nature of road density in Chongqing; the road density in partly counties is high, which was obviously different from the surrounding area, but they have not been connected as a network or completely homogenized, including the western Tongliang area, southeast of Fengdu and other counties; the spatial distribution of the different grades of road density is not the same; and through studies of correlation analyses between road density and terrain, economy, population density, the land use for urban construction, those are found that the distribution pattern of the road density in Chongqing generally is spatial co-relationship with its terrain and topography, agrees with the GDP development and population density of each county in Chongqing City,and accelerates the expansion of urban construction land outside.
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    政府与村民的行为对古村落保护及景观变迁的影响——基于本土社会学理论视角
    翁时秀, 彭华
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (3): 372-377.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.03.372
    摘要   PDF (1652KB)
    为探究中国古村落景观变迁的发生机理及不同行动者在此过程中的行为逻辑,对浙江省永嘉县境内的楠溪江古村落群进行了案例研究。从本土社会学的理论视角,指出:中国的乡土社会是一个情理社会,国家正式权力镶嵌于乡土文化之中,正式权力与非正式权力、政府与村民的互动推动了古村落景观的变迁。借用"国家-社会"二元框架,将变迁中的行动者分为县(市)政府,乡镇政府,有关系村民和无关系村民四类,指出不同的行动者具有各不相同又彼此联系的行为逻辑,为常态下的中国古村落景观变迁提供了一种行动者类型框架和一种理解方式。
    To discover how ancient villages landscape changing and how to classify actors in the changing process, and to find out the logic behind actors’behaviors, this paper investigated Furong Village, an ancient village at Nanxi River Basin in Zhejiang Province, China. Qualitative research methods and native sociological theorries are adopted to analyze the phenomenon of landscape changing. By these, this paper concluded that, in China, the rural society is a Qingli society (reasonableness society), and Tianli (reason and morality), Renqing (favor), Mianzi (face) are very important. The formal power is embedded in rural culture, and the interaction between formal and informal power, between governments and villagers, caused the landscape changing. Borrowed the theoretical framework of'nation and society’, actors in landscape changing are divided into four styles: the governors of counties, the governors of towns, the villagers who having Guanxi, and the villagers who have no Guanxi. Under the restriction of the protecting policy, villagers think themselves as'martyr’, as the people who cannot achieve enough residential space, thus they occupied the highland of Tianli. By the displacement of power, the villagers who having Guanxi can'borrow’power from the person who are more powerful, thus they can build up their new houses. The behavior of the villagers who have Guanxi influenced the villagers withou Guanxi, who also try to build new houses, under the case that the governments restrict them, they can say: "Other people can build up their new houses, why we can’t?" They also can take use of the governors' weakness such as destroying the tourist facilities, collective petitions and so on to make confusion and force the governments to concess. And for governments, in order to strengthen the moral image and the identity from villagers, the governors of towns donnot want to use violence, and in order to keep stabilization, the governors of counties cannot tear down all the outlawed buildings. Once the behavior patterns of the governments are found out by villagers, many villagers can build up their new houses. Thus, the ancient village protection policy did not work. Thus, this paper induced four types of actors in the ancient villages’landscape changing, and each types of actors’behavior logic are portrayed. Based on'nation and society’binary framework, this article provides an'Actor Typology’and a way of understanding to research Chinese ancient villages’landscape changing under normal state, which can help policy-makers to design ancient village protection policy. In this typology, stakeholders such as tourists, scholars and media are not included, because in most Chinese ancient villages, tourism has not become to be, and very hard to become to be, the important influent factor of landscape changing. Also, in this typology, policies such as'build new residential areas’are not considered, because the authors found out that, such policies are hard to restrict the tendency of landscape changing and hard to change actors’behavior logic. In conclusion, based on the principle of'the simple, the best’, this typology eliminate other types of actors, only include four types of actor, and it can just explain how the ancient villages’landscape changing happens.
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    江苏省科技人才区域差异演变研究
    张建伟, 杜德斌, 姜海宁
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (3): 378-384.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.03.378
    摘要   PDF (1748KB)
    以各类专业技术人员表征科技人才,采用变异系数、标准差及泰尔指数来分析1996~2008年江苏省科技人才数量区域差异演变,并从定量和定性两个方面来对科技人才数量区域差异的影响因素进行研究。结果发现:1996~2008年江苏省科技人才总数在不断增加,但是其绝对差异和相对差异呈明显拉大的趋势,科技人才在一些地区更为集中。江苏省科技人才数量区域差异主要由地带间差异造成,地带间差异对总差异的影响度自1996年以来一直在70%以上,尤其2000年后其更是达到83%以上;地带间差异以1998年为界呈先减小后迅速上升的趋势;苏北地带内差异最大,而苏中最小。城镇固定资产投资额是影响科技人才数量差异变化的重要因素之一;政策对科技人才数量变动具有迅速而显著影响;国内生产总值及国际互联网用户数对科技人才数量差异变化具有一定的影响;而职工平均工资对解释科技人才数量区域差异作用有限。
    The various types of technicians are taken as S&T talents in the study, and coefficient of variation, standard deviation and their coefficient are adopted to analyze the evolution of regional differences of the number of S&T talents in Jiangsu Province from 1996 to 2008. The factors to affect the regional differences of the number of S&T talents are studied quantitatively and qualitatively. It comes to the conclusion that the total number of S&T talents keeps increasing from 1996 to 2008 in Jiangsu Province, but its absolute difference as well as relative difference has a significant widening trend, and S&T talents are more concentrated in the Southern Jiangsu. The differences of S&T talents are caused primarily by the differences between zones in Jiangsu Province, keeping accounting for above 70% of the total variance after 1996 and more than 83% since 2000. It shows that the differences between zones decreased firstly and then increased rapidly before 1998. The northern Jiangsu has the largest differences of the number of S&T talents while the middle area occupies the least. Urban fixed assets investment is one of the most important factors that influenced the changes of the number of S&T talents, and policies also have a significant and rapid impact on changes of the number of S&T talents. GDP and the number of Internet users have certain influnlences on changes of the number of S&T talents. However, the average wage of workers interprets the regional differences of the number of S&T talents to a limited extent.
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