A large number of state-level regional development strategies issued by the central government and corresponding regional planning formulated by the local governments, for China′s humanity-economic geography, has brought great opportunities for development. Why economic region in China is different from any other countries, why to develop in a high speed become a common problem among China′s economic regions, why China′s economic regions still did it in their own way although has been strongly condemned, if this economic regional system had something to do for China′s rapid development of economy, all the questions mentioned above are worth thinking for humanity-economic geographers. Dozens of regional strategies issued by the central government and corresponding regional planning have been established in recent years, all these strategies and planning are used by government as a means of macroeconomic regulation and control, and also used by the scholars in the field of region and urban planning as a means of service for practice. This paper think that government establishing regional strategies and planning which don′t follow the rules of market economy are always failure in many case, meanwhile, it′s side effects are very obvious, such as extensive development. excessive expansion of urban construction land, resources excessive consumption, coordinated development among regions. The content system of current regional planning has a "short board" for the reason of region system. The economic region in China is a kind of "property region" in nature, the government is the subject and representative of the region, under these condition, "property region" to "regional government" and the central government is in "personal items" characteristics. As long as it is a "personal items", the property region will inevitably be a selfish, competitive and exclusive, and conflict with the state's interests of public goods. Therefore, China's economic region must be competitive and exclusive. It is due to the competition among economic regions to make China′s regional system a institutional power to promote economic and social development. This paper also explains another three characteristics of China′s regional system. First, the market allocation of resources will always follow their own rules, when the governments intend to violate the rules of the market, the market is often pay no response, such as the irrational industrial development and population size prediction in the regional planning. Second, when the central government is no longer the main body of the resource allocation, the existence of game relation between local government and the central government makes the local government not to completely obey all the arrangement of the central government, especially the arrangement do not conform to the interests of the local government demands. The third, regional externalities is an objective phenomenon, regional development will bring to other regions positive or negative influence and will not assume responsibility or gains. China′s regional system has play an important role for its development, and is still in need of improvement, so, this field should be the direction of the fundamental theory research for humanity-economic geography.
Regional differences of resource endowment and economic and social development decide the phase characteristic of the evolving structure of the exploitative intensity of cultivated land resources (EICLR). From the standpoint of grain production, this article put forward an evaluation method which involves explorative breadth, exploitative depth and exploitative frequentness and the assumption of the phase characteristic of the evolving structure. The empirical results are proved well at the country and the provincial scales. Evaluation of the EICLR depicts successfully the phase characteristic of the evolving structure and estimate accurately the regional exploration status of cultivated land resources. Thus, it could provide scientific evidence for cultivated land resources management. Overall, the phase of extension type of cultivated land resources exploration which has the main features of raising explorative breadth has been completed in China. With the rapid development of industrialization and urbanization, cultivated land resources exploration has entered the era of intension type which has the main features of raising explorative depth. Noteworthy is that the decline of exploitative frequentness is also the serious issue during this era. Value of the EICLR at the country level is 25.064% in 2004. In the meanwhile, significant differences of the EICLR and its structural evolution are shown across agricultural zones and the 31 provinces. Finally, regional differentiated regulation policies of the EICLR are proposed under the direction of cultivated land resources management transition.
The best location for site selection is very important for social and economical systems. Traditional clustering analysis cannot reach the optimal location allocation center based on the Euclidian, Manhattan, Chebyshev, Fu or Tanimoto distance,which does not depend on the shortest path distance as the clustering condition. Complex network clustering model based on the shortest path is proposed to explore site selection in this paper. The approximate optimal results are obtained using the iterative technology. The searching range of optimal site allocation is approached by half dividing the neighborhood. And the best location is captured applying the descend strategy. Experiments indicate that the proposed model can improve the calculating speed by at least 23 times with the same precision to approach the optimal resolution compared to the greedy Dijkstra algorithm. This model is inferred from the complex network clustering. It provides new theory and method to cluster complex network and locate sitting facilities.
通过自然、经济与社会因素方面构建限制修正系数,用限制修正系数把理论潜力修正至现实潜力,且从区位、自然等方面对整理后居民点进行布局优化,在ArcGIS 9.3中用多因素综合评价法评价栅格单元的居民点建设适宜度,把适宜度高的栅格变成居民点用地,直到所选择栅格面积等于现状居民点释放完潜力而保留的面积。研究发现2008年江都市居民点整理的理论潜力是6 128 hm2,经限制因素修正后现实潜力是2 013 hm2,其中半数以上在仙女镇;经布局优化后居民点集中分布,且主要集中分布在城镇周围与交通便捷地区,改变了目前散乱分布状况,居民点分布斑块数减少,其集聚度显著增加。
The urbanization and industrialization needs a large number of land resources to support, so there is much land from agricultural use into non-agricultural purposes, result of which is a large quantity loss of cultivated land and too much construction land. New construction land space is limited, so it is have to reuse the inefficiency stock of construction land, namely rural residential land to support the urbanization process. The advancement of rural residential land consolidation not only increases the quantity of cultivated land, ensures the land demand of city and town growth, but also is an important way to speed-up the urban and rural co-ordination development and the new rural construction in China. The study of potential estimation and layout optimization of rural residential land consolidation is the important basis and key technology of residential land consolidation plan, then this paper is to research the two parts. With per capita residential land in present minus per capita standard stipulated by the State, the paper estimated the theoretical potential of rural residential land consolidation in Jiangdu City, considering restraint correction coefficient of the natural, economic and social constraints which was used to amend the theoretical potential to reality potential. Getting rid of reality potential from present rural residential land was the retained residential land; the next step was to make this part of land reallocation in space. So the paper optimized the residential land layout from location, nature and other aspects, using multi-factor comprehensive evaluation method to evaluate the fitness of settlement construction of grid cells in ARCGIS 9.3, Which weights was determined by Delphi method, and then making the highest fitness grid cell into residential land until the total chosen grid areas was equal to the result of status rural residential land minus reality potential. It was found that the theoretical potential of residential land consolidation of Jiangdu City in 2008 was 6 128 ha, while the reality potential amended by restraint factors was 2 013 ha, and more than half of which was in Xiannv town, which demonstrated Xiannv was centre of gravity of residential land consolidation in Jiangdu future. The distribution of residential land became concentrated after layout optimization, mainly concentrated around the towns or in convenient traffic areas, and had changed the current scattered distribution and reduced the number of plaques so as to make a significant increase in degree of concentration.
“1小时交通圈”是近年来区域交通建设和经济发展领域较热门的概念,在主要中心城市周边,很多城镇都提出了融入其1小时交通圈的战略规划。通过对交通圈进行分类,界定了研究要素,以长三角地区公路和铁路为道路网络数据集,定量研究了上海市城际1小时交通圈道路的设计方法、建立方法和构面方法。根据交通规划预测了2020年交通圈的扩散范围,并分析了上海市主城区对外1小时交通圈的性质及内部结构,根据不同交通工具的速度和特征将交通圈分成商务圈、大众圈、货运圈和高铁圈等类型,最终总结出交通圈发育结构。研究结果表明：① 2011年,上海市1小时交通圈可以覆盖到周边10个地市的部分区域,并随着交通设施的完善不断接近“圈层-环点”交通圈结构。② 通过分析1小时交通圈中的“岛”,能够了解到路网完善程度和存在的问题,辅助道路规划。③ 对交通圈进行分层研究能够更好地通过交通圈对圈内的人流和物流进行分析。④ “圈层-环点”状的现代中心城市城际交通圈结构能够检验中心城市周边路网建设所处的阶段,以及为城市、区域等相关领域的经济圈、都市圈研究打下交通基础。
"One hour traffic circle" is a popular concept in regional traffic construction and economic development. Recent years, many cities and towns have put forward strategic planning to get into one hour traffic circle of the regional center city around them. In this paper, the concept of traffic circle is classified firstly, then, the research elements are defined, based on the highway and railway network dataset in Yangtze River Delta, the design method, construction method and structure method for one hour traffic circle of Shanghai city are quantitatively studied. And on the basis of these methods and data, one hour traffic circle of Shanghai city in the end of 2011 is calculated. According to the traffic planning to 2020, the diffusion area of traffic circle is predicted, and the properties and internal structure of one hour traffic circle of the main in Shanghai are analyzed. Then, the traffic circle is divided into business circle, public circle, freight circle, and high speed railway circle according to the different vehicle speed and characteristics. Finally, the traffic circle model is summarized. The results show that: 1, in the end of 2011, one hour traffic circle of Shanghai City can cover part of the around 10 cities, and with the improvement of transportation facilities, the circle will be more and more close to the "circle & surrounding point model". 2, the degree of perfection and existing problems of road nets can be defected through analyzing the" islands" in a traffic circle, which can assist road planning. 3, through classification of the traffic circle, people flow and material flow in the circle can be analyzed better. 4, Circle & surrounding point structure can inspect the period of road network construction around center city, and provide basis for studying economic circle, and metropolitan area in city and regional science.
The division of vegetation zones is an old and highly emphasized topic in both botany and geography. High mountains are characterized by different vegetation types at different elevations. Altitudinal vegetation belts are bounded by relatively narrow boundaries. Investigation and identification of altitudinal vegetation belts is significant in ecological and geographical studies due to extremely complex environment and diverse vegetation types in mountains. Altitudinal forest belts (AFBs) are significantly impacted by topographic and climatic factors. The climatic data used in this study were obtained from Chinese Ecosystem Research Network (CERN) between 1960 and 2000. After analyzing the significance of the 13 climatic factors in 31 base belts, we obtained three dominant principal components (PCs) designated as temperature variation index in winter (WTVI), temperature variation index in summer (STVI), and drought index (DI). WTVI decreased from South to North China, whereas STVI was high in South China and Tibetan Plateau. DI increased from the southwest to the northwest of China. Next, 28 AFB data were collected from published references. Multivariate regression analysis was used to quantify the relationship between AFB characteristics and topographic and climatic PCs. Results show that the base elevation of a mountain has the significant contribution to lower limits of AFBs (39.67％), whereas the relative elevation of a mountain has the significant contribution to upper limits of AFBs (39.34％). The climatic factors have similar contributions to variations in upper limits, lower limits, and width of AFBs. Among the three climatic PCs, STVI has the most contribution to variations of AFBs, followed by WTVI and DI. This paper quantifies the relative contributions of topographic and climatic factors to variations in AFBs at regional scales, and could potentially be used to evaluate and model the AFB distributions in other mountainous regions at regional or global scales.
Groundwater function assessment is the extension and expansion of groundwater resources evaluation. According to the concrete conditions in the study area and considering the information availability, the indicator system for groundwater function assessment was established from the points of groundwater function provision and groundwater function demand. The AHP(analytic hierarchy process) method and space superposition analysis technique of GIS were adopted to assess the groundwater function in the lower reach of the Liaohe River Plain, and function index of resources function, ecology function and geo-environmental function were obtained. The results show that the regions with the best and better resources function mainly locate in Sujiatun, Xinmin-Liaozhong plain, the Liaohe River and the Hunhe River Alluvial fan. The proportions of the study area in each resources function category are: 0.95% of strong function, 23.64% of moderately strong function, 25.62% of moderate function; 27.38% of moderately weak function, and 22.41% of weak function.The regions with the best and better ecology function mainly locate in the Alluvial fans of the Taizihe River, the big and small Linghe, the south coastal region and the center plain. The proportions of the study area in each ecology function category are: 5.62% of strong function, 17.95% of moderately strong function, 24.73% of moderate function, 23.52% of moderately weak function, and 28.18% of weak function.The regions with the best and better geo-environmental function mainly locate in the Hunhe river and the Taizihe river, the alluvial fans of the big Linghe and the small Linghe, and the line from Panshan to Yingkou. The proportions of the study area in each geo-environmental function category are: 4.93% of strong function, 19.42% of moderately strong function, 24.15% of moderate function, 27.02% of moderately weak function, and 24.48% of weak function.The regions with the strongest and strong comprehensive function mainly locate in the Sujiatun, Liaozhong and Taizihe alluvial fan. The proportions of the study area in each function category are: 2.62% of strong function, 21.54% of moderately strong function, 22.87% of moderate function, 25.49% of moderately weak function and 27.48% of weak function.A comparison analysis between the groundwater function map and the public information about groundwater assessment, environment hydrogeological problems, groundwater vulnerability and groundwater utilization in study area provided by the Department of Land and Resources of Liaoning Province was carried out, which shows that the assessment results of groundwater is well fitted with the actual situation. This indicates that the assessment results are valid, and the indictor system constructed in this paper can be successfully applied to assess groundwater function.The research results have the certain reference significance for the maintenance of groundwater function and the scientific management of groundwater resources in the lower reach Liaohe River Plain.
In recent years, ecological deterioration trend of the mountain regions caused by global climate change and unreasonable resource development increased gradually. In this article, the spatial distribution and dynamic change of vegetation cover in the Greater Khingan Mountains are analyzed based on 8-km resolution GIMMS NDVI data from 1982 to 2006. Combining the meteorological data, the relationship between NDVI and climatic factors of vegetation variation response to climate change was discussed. The average NDVI values of the north and center were higher (0.65 and 0.63) than those of the northwest and south (0.57 and 0.51). The results showed that the NDVI values in Greater Khingan Mountains was increased more than decreasing in 1982-2006. The NDVI increased and decreased area covered about 80% and 20% of the whole study area respectively. Spatial changing trend of NDVI had great difference and most parts in different eco-geographical indistinct change. The decreased area was distributed in north, and center of the mountains. The region with marked increasing trend was mainly distributed on the south of the Greater Khingan Mountains. There was significant positive correlation between NDVI and climatic factors (temperature and precipitation), and NDVI had a stronger correlation with temperature than that with precipitation for the four eco-geographical region. By other factors, the weakest correlation was shown in the steppes vegetation cover region. The NDVI in Greater Khingan Mountains showed positive spatial autocorrelation in the whole region and similar NDVI were apt to aggregate together. A downward trend is detected in the high-high autocorrelation type, which tends to spread toward the lower reach of the north and center. The opposite result is obtained for the low-low autocorrelation type in the northwest.
In this article, the upper reaches of the Changjiang River was chosen as the study region, RS and GIS technologies were adopted and the " Pressure - State - Degradation - Response " (PSDR) theoretic frame and model was designed to evaluate the ecosystem (forest, grassland, farmland, wetland) degradation threat in a large scale, and the spatial distribution pattern of degradation station in detail was analyzed. It was shown by the results that the ecosystem degradation threat level of the upper reaches of the Changjiang River was overall under a serious condition, 74.54% of the area of the whole ecosystem was at least in a middle-threat level. Of which, the region of extreme threat accounted for 18.72%, 25.59% of the region was highly threatened, 30.22% got moderate threat, the lightly threat region accounted for 17.32% and 8.14% for slightly threat region. The most serious regions of the ecosystem degradation threat of the upper reaches of the Changjiang River were mainly located in Golmud City, Zhiduo County, Zaduo County and Yushu County of Qinghai Province, Mili Tibetan Autonomous County, Kangding, Wenchuan, Beichuan, Yajiang and Maerkang County of Sichuan Province, Shangri-La County and Weixi Lisu Autonomous County of Yunnan Province, Diebu County, Wen County, Zhouqu County of Gansu Province, Shennongjia area, Wushan, Badong, Xingshan, Zigui County of Hubei Province and Dianjiang, Liangping, Dazu, Tongnan County of Chongqing City.
分别选取河南省、江苏省省会城市郑州市和南京市,以及典型县域原阳县和如皋市,将土壤多样性理论与方法应用于土壤和土地利用关联性评价中,对上述不同级别行政区域的不同时期（1986~1988年、2000~2001年、2004~2006年）遥感数据进行土地利用分类,计算了土壤和土地利用类型的构成组分多样性以及3 km×3 km网格尺度下的空间分布多样性,提出并计算了各研究区典型土壤和土地利用之间的关联系数,以此评价了河南省和江苏省典型区域的土壤和土地利用构成及分布特征。研究结果表明,20世纪80年代至本世纪初,中东部之间和省会与县域之间的土地利用构成组分多样性变化和空间分布多样性变化具有明显区别;城镇建筑用地的空间分布离散性增加,南京市的增加量为0.135,略高于郑州市增量,而原阳县增加量为0.244,明显高于如皋市增量;典型土壤同城镇建筑用地、交通运输用地和工矿仓储用地之间的关联性均不断增加,南京市的上述关联系数增加值高于郑州市,两县域无明显区别。
Two typical provincial capitals (Zhengzhou and Nanjing) and counties (Yuanyang and Rugao) in central (Henan Province) and east (Jiangsu Province) China were chosen respectively as the comparative cases for pedodiversity and land use diversity correlative analysis by borrowing the recently developed pedodiversity theory and methods in soil geography field. Land use classification was worked out using remote sensing images in different times (1986~1988, 2000~2001, 2004~2006) for these studied areas before the calculation of the constituent diversity index and spatial distribution diversity index in 3 km×3 km grid scale of each soil and land use pattern were conducted and a connection index was proposed to evaluate the relationship between soil and land use pattern of the studied provincial capitals and counties. Results show that during the years from 1980s to the beginning of this century, the changes of composition and spatial distribution pattern of central and east China had significant differences. The spatial distribution diversity of urban construction land of the case areas all increased in which Nanjing was a little bit higher than Zhengzhou, Yuanyang was significantly higher than Rugao. The connection index of typical soil and typical urban land uses (urban construction land, transportation land and industrial and mining area) all increased in this period during which Nanjing was higher than Zhengzhou, Yuanyang was almost the same as Rugao. The introduction of diversity theory and methods to land resources evaluation was made in this study, by exploring the similarities and differences in the intrinsic link and urbanization characteristics between soil and land use in central and east China in different times and space spans, this study figured that the urbanization of Jiangsu Province in east China took place earlier and developed faster than Henan Province in central China, and the urbanization process of Nanjing was the most obvious one.
The Tianchi volcano experienced a serious Plinian eruption 800 years ago in Changbai Mountain. It dissolvingly destroyed the vegetation by the great amounts of volcanic ash and pumice. Due to the eruption dip angle and effect of the strong deflective northwest wind, the deposition thickness of volcanic ash and pumice was different in the four slopes of Changbai Mountain, with the main deposition being on the eastern slope, the second on the southern and western slope and, the least on the northern slope. They formed loose parent material. The flowing water erosion sustainedly affected the vegetation succession over Changbai Mountain after the volcanic destruction. The purpose of this study was to illuminate that the distinctive characteristics of the vegetation distribution is the result of influence on the ecosystem by the volcano eruption and flowing water erosion on eruptive material, and to affirm that although effects of the volcanic eruption had been lasted for more than 800 years in Changbai Mountain, the present vegetation is still in succession of different processes at four slopes, and exists various vegetation distribution rule.
使用水文统计和交叉小波方法对西江流域1961~2005年径流变化特征及其与气象要素的多时间尺度的关联性进行分析。结果表明,径流量总体呈现减少的变化趋势,可能是人类活动引起流域内蒸发和入渗增加,使径流对降水的响应减弱造成的,径流丰枯变化基本与降水的波动相一致。气温对径流的显著作用主要集中在1990~2000年3~5 a周期上,径流对气温变化的响应时间为6~12个月;降水与径流在大部分时频域中呈同相相位变化,其相互作用主要集中在1992~2003年3~4 a和1980~2000年11~12 a周期上;大气环流变化对径流的影响主要集中在1965~1975年2~3 a及1993~2000年3~5 a周期上,对径流的影响可能是通过对区域降水影响实现的,径流对前一次环流变异响应时间为6~12个月,对后一次响应时间较快,时间的差异可能是下垫面的改变引起流域产汇流机制变化造成的。
Using hydrological statistics and cross wavelet transform analysis, the variation characteristics of the runoff of the Xijiang River and the relation between the meteorological factors and the runoff in multi-time scales are detected in this research. The analysis indicates that the annual runoff decreases, which might be due to the weaken response of runoff to precipitation caused by increasing of evaporation and infiltration effected by human activities. The annual runoff fluctuation shows good correspondence with the precipitation. The cross wavelet analysis revealed that the impact of temperature to river flow occurred in the circle of 3-5 years in 1990-2000, in which the runoff shows lagging of 6-12 months to the temperature variation; the in-phase relations between the precipitation and river flow are found in almost all the time-frequency domains, good coherence can be found in the circle of 3 to 4 years between 1992 and 2003 and 11 to 12 years in 1980-2000; the impact of abnormal climate on runoff mainly occurred in the circle of 2 to 3 years in 1965-1975 and 3 to 5 years in 1993-2000, the impacts to the runoff variation might be carried out by the influence on the precipitation in the basin, the lag time between runoff variation and abnormal climate change event is 6 to 12 months in1965-1975 while equated almost to zero in 1980- 2000, this phenomenon might be caused by the changing of runoff production process effected by the changing of land use.
采用交叉小波变换与小波相干方法分析了塔里木河流域近40 a来年径流量、年降水量和年平均温度的周期特征,结果表明：塔河流域年径流量、年降水量和年均温度存在2.0~6.0 a左右的显著周期变化,除卡群站年径流量周期变化不显著,其余水文站的年径流量周期强烈震荡主要分布于20世纪60年代中后期至70年代以及90年代以后;各站年降水量的显著周期主要分布于20世纪80年代以后;年均气温显著周期主要分布于20世纪60年代中后期至70年代。同古孜洛克和卡群的径流量显著周期变化主要受和田和莎车降水量的影响;沙里桂兰克1965~1968的径流量显著周期主要是阿合齐气温周期显著变化引起的,20世纪90年代以后阿合齐降水量成为影响径流量周期变化的主要因素;大山口的年径流量周期变化受降水量和气温的共同影响。阿拉尔径流量的周期变化在20世纪70年代主要受源流降水量显著周期变化。由于人口和耕地面积的迅速增加,源流区用水量增加,20世纪90年代以后降水量的周期变化没有引起阿拉尔径流量的周期变化。
Annual runoff, annual precipitation and annual mean temperature at five hydrological stations and meteorological stations located in the Tarim River Basin are analyzed using the continuous wavelet transform, cross wavelet and wavelet coherence techniques. The results indicate that: 1) annual runoff, annual precipitation and annual mean temperature changes are of 2-4 years periods. Besides Kaqun station, the significant wavelet spectrum of runoff fluctuations is observed mainly during mid 1960s to 1970s and 1990s. However, the significant wavelet spectrum of precipitation and temperature fluctuations in all stations respectively are detected mainly in the after 1980s and late 1960s to 1970s. 2) Periodicity properties of runoff changes in Tongguziluoke and Kaqun stations are mainly due to precipitation variations. While Periodicity of runoff significantly changes in Shaliguilanke station are caused by temperature change in 1965-1968, but caused by precipitation after 1990s. Precipitation and temperature are together impact periodicity of runoff changes in Dashankou station. However, Periodicity of runoff significantly changes in Alaer station are influenced by precipitation. Because the population and cultivation area are notable increase which lead consumption of water to increase. The increasing precipitation not lead to the periodicity of runoff significantly changes after 1990.
The shapes of urban rivers and water body were deeply affected by the rapid industrialization and urbanization in recent decades in Guangzhou. The article used topographic maps, remote sensing images and related socio-economic data as a basis data to research the space-time evolution of urban rivers and water body and its causes in Guangzhou in the past two decades. The results indicated that: 1) The changes of area of river and water bogy showed a slight increase trend in the first decade and a sharply reduce trend in the last decade, the area increased 9.11 km2 from 1990 to 2000, and reduced 32.37 km2 from 2000 to 2010. The water front length of river and water body showed a continuous reduce trend in the past two decades, the length reduced 26.49 km from 1990 to 2000 and 1 008.19 km from 2000 to 2010. The landscape shape index were 83.49 (1990), 80.19 (2000) and 71.83 (2010), which showed an accelerated decline trend, and indicated that the shape complexity of rivers and water body was decreasing and human intervention was strengthening in study area. 2) There were great differences between the changes of rivers and water body in different regions and periods. The increased parts from 1990 to 2000 mainly located in Baiyun and Luogang District in the outskirts of Guangzhou, because a lot of ponds had been excavated and porcelain clay lodes had been exploited in those areas. In 2000-2010, decrease happened in every district in study area as a common trend. The rate and speed of change in Tianhe District is the biggest in the past two decades, and that coincided with the "East" development direction of Guangzhou. 3) The changes of rivers and water body in study area were mainly affected by human activities. The reduced parts contain the occupation of the built-up areas, and increased parts contain new ponds, porcelain cay pits, new landscape water body and other water body for special uses.
于2008年8月对博斯腾湖进行了系统的水质和水量监测,并结合近50 a来气候水文资料,进行了博斯腾湖演化过程和阶段特征分析。结果表明,目前湖泊最大水深为13.9 m,湖泊面积928 km2,蓄水量52.65×108 m3,湖水体矿化度平均1.48 g/L。近50 a来,博斯腾湖水质水量经历了3个明显的不同时期。1966年以前,湖泊处于1 048 m以上的高水位,矿化度低,湖泊受人类活动影响弱。第二个时期为1966~1996年,湖泊水位低,矿化度高,其中1987年湖泊水位处于历史低值而矿化度为最高。随后,湖泊水位明显上升、矿化度下降,湖泊扩展水体淡化。第三个时期为1996~2005年,湖泊水位处于历史高值段,矿化度有所下降但不明显。期间,人类活动对湖泊的影响显著,除流域农业用水影响外,城市和工业用水的影响也明显增加。最近几年,湖泊水位快速下降,并于2007年出现历史的低水位,湖泊矿化度也呈现升高趋势,鱼类种群和产量受人类强烈干预。另外,流域社会经济发展带来的城市化和工业化,也导致湖泊污染和富营养化,引起水质进一步恶化,湖泊面临新的生态环境压力。
With the analysis of lake water quality and quantity data from a systematic and scientific survey for Bosten Lake in August 2008, and combined with climate and hydrological data in the past 50 years, the characteristics of Bosten Lake evolution were studied. The result showed that the deepest point of Bosten Lake is 13.9 m with the volume of 43.44×108 m3 and the area of 928 km2. The lake evolution has temporal differences in the last 50 years, and it can be summarized into three periods. In the first period, about 1966 years ago, Bosten Lake was influenced by weak human activities with high water level above 1 048 m and low water salinity. In the second period of 1966-1996, the lake water level is low, and the water salinity is high. Especially in 1987, the lake level is the lowest with the highest salinity in the last 50 years. Subsequently, the lake water level increased with decreased water salinity significantly. In the fourth period from 1996 to 2005, the lake had the historic high water level, and the lake salinity decreased but not significantly, which caused by increased agricultural, urban and industrial water demand. In recent years, the lake level dropped rapidly with the lowest level in 2007. The water salinity also has shown a trend of increasing. The fish stocks and production were in a strong intervention of human activity. In addition, watershed urbanization and industrialization in relation to socio-economic development, have also led to water pollution and eutrophication of Bosten Lake, causing further deterioration of the lake’s water quality, which inferred that the lake faces new environmental pressures.
By using the daily precipitation data of Jiangsu Province and daily hydrological data of Nanjing City during the period from 1961 to 2009, the climatic characteristics of Meiyu rainstorms in Jiangsu and their relationship with the water levels over the lower reaches of the Changjiang River were analyzed based on the fuzzy clustering, wavelet analysis, correlation analysis and other methods. Results show that during the Meiyu period, although with a significant regional differences, rainstorms appear in most regions of Jiangsu, and the more or less of the maganitude of their rainfall to a certain extent determine the abundance or dry of the total Meiyu rainfall for a certain year. The rainstorms during Meiyu period both in North and South Jiangsu show multiple time scale features, but their period and intensity changes with time have different performance on the interannual and interdecadal time-scale. The water level from June to July in Nanjing has the similar inter-annual, decadal periodic variation and abnormal years, and the correlation between the rainfall and water level in Nanjing has passed the 0.1 confidence level of significance test, which suggests a certain close relevance between the water level and rainstorm in Nanjing during the Meiyu period.
根据秦岭南北47个气象站1960~2011年逐月风速和气温资料,采用样条曲线插值法（Spline）、Pettitt突变点检验、气候倾向率和相关分析等方法对该区风速的空间分布、时空演变特征及其可能影响因素进行了分析。结果表明：① 秦岭南北风速空间分布呈东高西低、北高南低格局,按其大小排序为秦岭以北>秦岭南坡>汉水流域>巴巫谷地。四季风速排序为春季>冬季>夏季>秋季,均以秦岭以北最大。② 近52 a来,秦岭南北整体和各子区年平均风速呈现一致的显著下降趋势,下降最快的为秦岭南坡,最慢的为汉水流域。四季风速下降速率排序为冬季>春季>秋季>夏季。③ 年和季节尺度风速的突变集中出现在1969~1974、1978~1981和1990~1994年间,秦岭南北整体于1981年突变。④ 气象台站周边的城市化发展和风速测量仪器的更换都对风速的变化产生了一定影响,但都不是风速显著下降的主要原因,大气环流变化和气候变暖才是造成风速减小的可能原因。
Wind speed time series have been subject to far fewer trend analysis than temperature and precipitation records, in part because of data homogeneity issues. However, understanding how evolution of the global climate system has been manifest as changes in near-surface wind regimes in the past and how near-surface wind speed regimes might alter in the future is of great relevance to the insurance industry, the construction and maritime industries, surface energy balance estimation, the community charged with mitigating coastal erosion, the agricultural industry, forest and infrastructure protection communities, and the burgeoning wind energy industry. Based on the temperature and wind speed data between 1960 and 2011 in the northern and southern region of Qinling Mountains, with the methods of Spline interpolation, Pettitt abrupt change point detection as well as correlation analysis, the distribution pattern, spatial and temporal variation of wind speed as well as the possible influential factors were analyzed. The result are as follows: 1) The wind speed presented an pattern which was big in south and low in north, big in east and small in west. According to wind speed, the order was northern and southern region of Qinling Mountains, Han River Basin and Ba-wu Valley , the order of season was spring, winter, summer and autumn. 2) Wind speed decreased significantly in the whole region and different sub-regions during the last 52 years, the decreasing rate in northern slope was the biggest and the smallest one was in the Han River Basin.The order of decreasing rate was winter, spring, autumn and summer. In spring, the wind of 77% stations decreased; In summer, 70% stations decreased, which mainly located in the east and north; In autumn, the increasing and decreasing stations accounted 23% and 77% respectively, but only 9% of them reached significant level, most of them lied in Han River Basin and Ba-wu Valley. In winter, 83%(17%) stations showed downward(upward) trend, 70% of them reached significant level, which distributed evenly in different sub-regions. 3) The annual and seasonal abrupt change happened mainly in 3 periods, which were 1969-1974、1978-1981 and 1990-1994, the whole region was detected abrupt change in 1981. 4) The development of city construction and change of observational devices had some effect on wind speed change, however, regional current change and global warming were the main reasons for wind speed decreasing.
This article focused spatial pattern and research directions of the specialties in GIS. The GIS research in China mainly focused on spatial data analysis and modeling, GIS design and application. GIS data acquisition, management and geographic information services have called the researchers’ attention, while essential problems were in lack of strenth, like GIS spatial cognition research, geographical information ontology, and the other soft science issues. Based on the information of universities offered bachelor, master and doctoral degree, gravity model was used to analyze the spatial structure of GIS hihger education in China. From 2005 to 2008, GIS high-level education developed rapidly. The ratio among universities offered bachelor, master and doctoral degree increased from 7:4:1 to 5:3:1. Universities which offer master degree and doctoral degree increased quite faster than any other period. In 2005 there is only one GIS education center of Beijing in national scale while two of Beijing and Jiangsu. In regional scale there are five GIS education centers, which are Beijing, Jiangsu, Sichuan, Gansu and Guangdong in 2005, while six in 2008, which are Beijing, Jiangsu, Jilin, Sichuan, Gansu and Hubei.