National Park is widely recognized and booming in the world as both an idea and a measure of sustainable development, which needs strict protection and rational use of natural and cultural resources. According to the different conditions of countries there, are various institutional models of international National Parks. Despite of this, the fundamental properties of National Parks are public consensus and need to be maintained. The investigation of this artide demonstrates that public welfare,state dominance,and scientificity are three fundamental characteristics of National Park. More specifically, the characteristic public welfare is the primary purpose of the establishment of national park, which involves the establishment based on public interests, low charges for citizens, public education for citizens, active participation of citizens, etc. Additionally, state dominance and scientificity are two guarantees of the implication of public welfare. The former requires national confirmation, national management, national legislation, national maintenance and national consciousness while the latter demands the creation of scientific national park system, scientific national park planning and subarea as well as scientific management and utilization and so forth. The establishment of China National Park is facing some problems, such as special country circumstances, existing protected areas with bull management, protection and utilization pressure and so on. Scenic areas and other protected areas should be taken advantage of as pilot projects. A unified standard of China National Park should be formulated by adopting access system. At the same time, it is necessary to gradually explore a unified management system and the legal system. Eventually, the national park system with overall management and Chinese characteristics should be founded.
作为全球碳排放大国,中国低碳治理的发展方向对全球气候变化有深远的影响,值得深入研究。通过中国低碳治理的制约因素及其成因的分析,提出地方政府行为是中国低碳治理的主要制约因素。这主要表现在地方政府鼓励不符合低碳发展的粗放式经济增长和城市开发及地方政府制定与执行低碳政策的积极性不高。而地方政府行为背后是各种制度环境因素。因此,改善中国低碳治理需要从制度改革入手。对制度改革提出3个建议：① 强化节能目标责任制;② 缓和地方政府过于强烈的发展意愿;③ 加强公民参与低碳治理。
China has experienced more than three decades of unprecedented rapid economic growth and urban expansion. Energy consumption and carbon emissions have increased significantly as a result. Recognizing the threats of climate change, the Chinese government has strengthened low carbon governance during the “11th Five-Year Plan” period. This article examines the barriers of China’s low carbon governance in four sectors: industry, buildings, transport, and renewable energy. In addition to policy problems (e.g., the development of carbon trading), this article identifies local government actions as the key barrier to China’s low carbon governance, manifested in the local governments promoting unsustainable economic growth and urban development, and a lack of enthusiasm in developing and implementing low carbon policies. These local government actions are not irrational, but can be understood as logical consequences of various institutional incentives and constrains. Therefore, there is a need for institutional reforms to improve the ways carbon is governed in China. This article recommends three reforms: 1) strengthening the energy conservation target responsibility system; 2) reducing the pressure on local governments in relation to economic development; and 3) strengthen the participation of civil society in low carbon governance.
Chinese urban institutional system transition, rapid urbanization and rapid economic growth has led to profound changes of urban residents’ home-work space and commuting behaviors. The domestic study on home-space and urban commuting behavior focused on the descriptive analysis of home-work space and urban commuting behaviors and urban traffic development policies formulating, but research on formation mechanism of more and more urban commuting flow from micro angle using household survey analysis is relatively lacked. Based on the three social surveys conducted in 2001, 2005 and 2010 respectively in Guangzhou, urban residents’ home-work space, jobs-housing spatial balance and commuting behavior (commuting time and commuting modes) were analyzed in this article. The analysis results suggested that spatial separation between home and work had became more and more obvious since 2000, but urban residents still showed strong preference to choose the nearest workplace or residence, and commuting cost was one of most important factors during their process of workplace or residential location choose. Using the measuring index to measure the spatial difference of job-housing spatial balance, it was obvious that job-housing imbalance in inner core was more serious than other cores. With rapid industry and residential suburbanization, job-housing balance in suburban has been improved greatly. As for urban residents’ commuting behavior, traditional commuting mode still stayed in dominance, and household income, education level, homeownership and housing nature, the nature of work unit, etc. significantly affect urban residents’ commuting behavior. Those studies of urban residents’ home-work space and commuting behavior from the micro level could provide the important basis and useful reference for government to formulate urban planning and transport development policies. It was necessary to formulate the urban planning and urban transport development policies from the angle of impact factors for urban commuting behaviors. In addition to the urban space and traffic development characteristics, individual and household’s social variables (such as age, gender, occupational and housing characteristics) significantly effected urban commuting behaviors and relative urban traffic development policies formulating should be based on the urban commuting behaviors of urban residents and their internal impact factors. Beside through optimizing urban space structure and industrial development and strengthening the urban infrastructure construction and urban traffic control, etc. to alleviate the contradictions of job-housing spatial mismatch and decrease the urban commuting flow to ease urban traffic pressure, optimizing the urban population and housing structure, etc. to decrease the individual urban commuting flow should be paid more attention to during the process of urban traffic development policies formulating. At the same time, jobs-housing spatial balance ideology should be regard as an important principle for urban planning to alleviate the excessive home-work separation and too high cost of urban commuting through rational urban planning.
In the article, the indicators of transportation superiority degree are established from the aspects of road network density, regional accessibility and location superiority; and the county level transportation superiority degree is evaluated in 2003 and 2008 in Henan province by the entropy weighted technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution method (TOPSIS) and GIS technology. Then, the spatial pattern of degree and the growth trend of transportation superiority are deeply discussed by utilizing exploratory spatial data analysis method (ESDA) method. Result show that the transportation superiority degree of every county has been enhanced continuously since 2003 and displayed a strong trend of spatial correlation, the similar units cluster in space. The spatial difference is remarkable between core areas and periphery areas, and also between plain areas and mountain areas. The hotspots counties that with better transportation superiority are centralized in the areas along the transportation corridors of Beijing-Guangzhou highway, Beijing-Guangzhou railway in Zhengzhou, Xuchang and Xinxiang. Transportation superiority in many counties in Zhongyuan urban agglomeration zones got great progress following the construction of highway network. But the relative growth rate is higher in the mountain, basin zones in south and southwest Henan than other zones. At last, it is pointed that transport infrastructure is the antecedent condition to enhance regional spatial linkages and to promote location superiority. And also transport infrastructure is the basic condition to guide direction layout of industry, expanding of urban areas, and formation of traffic economic belt, optimization of regional spatial structure and growth of urban agglomeration zones or economic zones. Therefore, leverage the advantage or circuit the disadvantages of transport infrastructure in regional development is the key factor that should be considered in regional development policy planning, industry selection and regional spatial structure optimization.
Researches on the influence of the fast developed road network in recent years upon land use and landscape pattern change in the region with original obstructed transportation can provide reference for future land use. In this article, the study area, including Chongqing metropolitan region and several counties around it, is located in the western paralleled ridge-valley area, which is chosen as an example to explore how the road pattern being developed gradually drives the evolving of construction land in this area through comparing the evolution pattern and proportion of construction land. The image data of TM in 1988, 2001, 2007 and China′s environmental satellite image in 2010 were chosen as a datum source. The results show that the “two ring and eight radial freeway” road pattern formed individually in recent 20 years has broken the obstruction of mountains distributed in the study area with paralleled ridge and valley area, therefore, from 1988 to 2010, the expansion intensity of construction land has increased with a gradient effect from inside to outside, and the construction land is grouped mainly along the highway. The evolving models of construction land could be summed up: first, the urban land showed markedly a kind of ‘sphere-type’expansion mode in the center of the study area; second, the expansion of construction land behaved as an agglomeration and group development mode in the middle of the study area; third, the construction land behaves as a leap frogging or scattered expansion in the outer sphere of the study area. At the same time, the evolving of construction land is influenced by the run time of each highway and the topography and locational factor along highways. These results indicate that the road pattern play a significant role in the rapid expansion processes of the construction land, and the road network has an obvious routeway effect upon the land use changes in the study area.
This article focuses on the trend of regional tourism economic disparities of the Huanghe River. Using four indices to evaluate the differences between the 9 provinces,including Standard deviation, Gini coefficient, variation coefficient, and location quotient. On the basis of these indices, the R/S analysis is conducted. The outcome of the analysis shows that the change of absolute difference in regional tourism economy is expanding while the change of relative difference is declining. At the same time, it is also found that Shandong, Shaanxi and Inner Mongolia are always developed province in tourism economy, however, Qinghai, Ningxia and Gansu are underdeveloped in tourism economy from 1996 to 2008. Sichuan Province was once a developing zone in tourism, with the exploration of tourism resources, it is becoming a developed area in the Huanghe River, while Henan is versa. If the tourism continues to develop under this circumstances, the difference of regional tourism economy will be fluctuant in the rising trend. Finally, the article provides some advice to narrow the regional tourism economic gap.
以大连市中心城区为研究区域,选取2003、2007、2010年的SPOT5和2012年资源02C卫星遥感影像为数据,运用遥感软件结合外业调查对遥感影像进行处理,提取中心城区绿地,在ArcGIS的支持下,结合景观生态学原理对大连市中心城绿地系统景观与生态服务价值时空分异进行研究。研究结果表明：① 大连中心城区绿地总面积逐年减少,至2012年,绿地总面积减少了2.8%,其他绿地破碎度不断提高,逐渐被附属绿地、公园绿地所代替,而绿地斑块总数由2003年的13 632个增长至2012年的14 157个,绿地斑块密度不断升高;② 绿地景观总破碎程度指数逐年增加,分布均衡性较差,公园绿地、道路与水系绿地、附属绿地生态服务价值逐渐提升,其他绿地生态服务价值不断降低,而绿地系统生态服务价值总量也从2003年的10 3162.04万元降至2012年的9 050.50万元。
In this article, with the downtown of Dalian City as the study area, we selected the year of 2003, 2007, 2010 and 2012’s SPOT5 and Resource One 02C satellite images as the data sources. Processing of remote sensing images with the supporting of remote sensing software, and combined with field investigation to extract the downtown area of green space, a study of spatial and temporal variation about landscape ecology service value of green space system in the downtown of Dalian was made, with the supporting of ArcGIS and combined with the principle of landscape ecology. The results show that: 1) the total area of ??green space in the downtown of Dalian decreased year by year. To 2012, the total area of ??green space decreased by 2.8%, but the fragmentation of other green space is increasing and gradually being replaced by affiliated green spaces and parks. From 2003 to 2012, the number of green space patch increased from 13632 to 14157, the density of green space patch increased; 2) the total green space landscape fragmentation index increased year by year, the distribution balance is poorer, the ecological service value of parks, roads and water green, affiliated green increase gradually, other green space decreased constantly, from 2003 to 2012, however, the ecological service value of total green space system decreased from 101.62 million yuan to 90.50 million yuan as well.
以长株潭城市群为研究案例,利用土地利用详查数据、社会经济统计数据和实地调查资料等多种数据源,运用相对变化率、主成分分析和多元回归分析相结合的方法对快速城市化进程中的长株潭城市群农村居民点用地变化的轨迹、空间地域分异特征及驱动力进行了分析。研究结果表明：① 长株潭城市群农村居民点用地总量及人均量呈递减趋势,但仍然呈粗放利用状态;② 长株潭城市群农村居民点用地变化率呈高位态势且地域分异明显,交通区位条件优越、经济发达的地区相对变化率较大;③ 应用主成分分析法将影响长株潭城市群农村居民点用地变化的因子归纳为区域经济发展、科技进步及政策制度3类,应用多元回归分析方法可知各影响因子对农村居民点用地变化的影响作用大小不同,农林牧渔总产值、粮食总产量和全社会固定资产投资的影响作用较大。
The study on the driving forces of rural settlements area can instruct the consolidation of rural settlements area, which is an important part of the study of law of rural settlements area evolution. Based on the data from land use detailed surveys, socio-economic statistics and field surveys in the Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan urban agglomeration from 1996 to 2008, the track of changes, the spatial disparities and driving forces of rural residential areas were analyzed with the methods of relative change rate, principal component analysis and multiple regressive analysis. The result showed that: 1) the rural residential area of the Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan was in a regressive tendency, but was still used extensively; 2) the change rate of rural settlements was high and was obviously regionally differentiated in the Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan urban agglomerations; the relative change rate is higher where traffic-geographical condition is superior and the economy is more developed; 3) with the method of principal component analysis, it showed that dynamic economic growth, agricultural science and technology as well as policy system were the three main driving factors that caused the change of rural residential areas in the Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan urban agglomeration. Meanwhile, by using multiple regressive analyses, it revealed that different factors have different impacts on the change of rural settlements area, among which the gross output value of agriculture, the food production and the social fixed assets investment are more important.
As a new agricultural entity, farmers’ specialized cooperatives, by connecting farmers and enterprises, not only improve the degree of agricultural organization but also increase farmers’ income through the sharing of agricultural industry chain profits. This article, on the basis of resource constraints, transaction costs and market demand, studies the first batch of farmer’s professional cooperative models and analyzes the distribution characteristics of farmers’ specialized cooperatives in China, using cross-sectional study by weighted least squares regression with the aid of Eviews 8.0 software. The results indicate that, in the course of seeking to minimize transaction costs, the resources advantage promotes the development of food and fishing cooperatives, while market demand is the leading force for the development of vegetables, fruits and animal husbandry cooperatives. That is reason that grain farmers' professional cooperative models are more concentrated in the major grain producing areas, vegetables and fruits farmers' professional cooperative models are distributed in the areas of the market demand for larger. To some extent, regional and industrial distribution of farmers’ specialized cooperatives reflects the general rules of the cooperative development. To reduce the transaction cost is the initial motivation of cooperative economy organization development, and resource advantage, market demand and level of economic development constitute farmers' professional co-operatives distribution of external and internal mechanism. For different industries and the development of farmers' professional co-operatives, different regions should adopt different policies and the support of the priority order. And then, the development of farmers' professional co-operatives should further be standardized including to strengthen the cooperative internal proportion of democratic management, to improve the surplus returned, and to share interests, etc.
Specialized village (SV) is a village where the most households are engaged in one or more industries including these interrelated productions and their corresponding services, and which outputs occupy the main proportion in the village’s income. SV formation was a procedure that most households in the village gradually participated in the professional productions and their corresponding services. The different ways of households’ behavior will have a different corresponding impact on its formation rate, industrial division, and economic benefit of SV. Based on the survey data collected in 2011 in Shilaoba Village, Zhecheng County, Henan Province, we have following findings: Firstly, using statistical analysis and spatial analysis, we found that there was a rapider formation speed, a more exponentially rising trend of the number of households who participated in the industry. Based on that a production spatial pattern of “in the west to buy-in the east to sell” has formed, an industrial division phenomenon of households’ spontaneous behavior in the village, but it’s degree is very lower. Secondly, the way households obtain the capital, technology, information and so on impacted the date when households participated in professional projects even the formation date of SV. For example, these households with these abilities to borrow money from friends or relatives and to find market information consciously, could participate in the professional project earlier. Thirdly, different types of households’ social communication had a far-reaching influence on them participated in industrial division. For example, these households who were good at communication with the professional associations, neighbors and entrepreneurs would tend to choose the poplar log marketing. Finally, the way households obtained funds and the frequency to contact with these professional associations had an important influence on the economic profits of SV. From the above, the article confirmed that the supply of funds from financial services institutions and the production management organization from professional association had a profoundly impaction on the following inspiration, the economic benefits of SV. These findings could be further extended to the development of SV and agricultural industrial zone. Specialization, enlargement, differentiation are the three trends of world agricultural development, and varied kinds of SVs and agricultural industrial zones have appeared in the most rural China accompanied by the world trends. But these different geographical environments, customs and habits had an important effect on the households in different rural areas, and then which formed these different behaviors in understanding, social communication and so on. In conclusion, the construction and promotion of SVs and agricultural specialized industry areas should comply with the local resources, location advantages and natural advantages, and especially the households’ behavior characteristics should be paid more attension.
A new Morphing technique for two contours is proposed based on characteristic points matching. This problem occurs frequently during continuous zooming in interactive maps. For corresponding contours at two different key scale maps, firstly, two multi-way trees of characteristic points of these two contours are built, in which the characteristic points on top hierarchy are identified by building convexes of points, which are located on contours and other subordinate characteristic points of tree are detected by using Douglas-Peucker algorithm between two corresponding arcs. So using the method, the similarity of the whole shape of geographic feature at different scales is not only considered, but the influence of extreme points of the curve on curve taken into account as well. Secondly, the different hierarchy characteristic points matching are researched. For each first-level characteristic points of small key scale contour, the most neighboring first-level characteristic points of which on large scale contour are regarded as their candidate corresponding points. Next, the ultimate matching relationship of first-level characteristic points will be established by setting neighboring distance threshold and arcs' shape analysis. For the following-level characteristic points, the matching relationship will be built from higher- to lower-level characteristic points based on distance proximity. Thirdly, the new contour of arbitrary interval scale between the two key scales is acquired using Morphing technique. The mapping line of any point between two continuing characteristic points on large scale contour is built up from the large to small key scale contour according to the distance proportion of the two characteristic points. Then according to the representative scale, some new points can be interpolated on mapping lines and these points can be combined into a new representative scale contour. So in arbitrary scale contour representation can be obtained based on morphing technique. The key point of Morphing technique is recognition of characteristic points and matching relationship of characteristic points. The paper have compared the cost of time in the model provided by this article with that in the algorithm proposed by literature. The conclusion is that the cost of time of the former model is less than that of the latter algorithm. Experiment results show the model based on multi-hierarchical characteristic points is helpful trial of continual-scale representation of contour in the network environment and can effectively sustain topological relationship between contours.
Urban heat island is a phenomenon with higher temperature in urban area than that in rural area. China has experienced unprecedented rapid urbanization since 1990s, urban heat island became complicated recently and attracted more attention. In order to understand formation mechanism of urban heat environment better, this study analyzed urban heat environment spatial pattern, from the view point of surface energy balance. Shijiazhuang City, with a history of only 100 years and population of 2.86 million, is the largest city of Hebei Province. We used a Land sat TM image recorded on Aug. 12, 2009 for analysis, including extraction of the information on land surface temperature, water index and impervious surface index. The land cover of study area was classified into high density impervious surface, low density impervious surface, urban vegetation, water body, agricultural vegetation and bare land by using decision tree method. Then net radiation, sensible heat flux, latent heat flux, storage heat flux and anthropogenic heat were simulated for investigating the impact of the energy balance to urban heat environment. At last, quantitative analysis on energy per unit area comparison, energy conversion among different underlying surfaces and correlation between energy and area percentage of different underlying surfaces were analyzed. Results show that high density impervious surface(17.9%), low density impervious surface (29.2%) and agricultural vegetation (26.0%) are major land cover types, and all underlying surfaces including urban vegetation (18.6%), water body (0.7%) and bare land (7.7%) play an important role in urban heat environment formation. We also found that the amount of sensible energy per unit area of high density impervious surface (314.1 W/m2) and low density impervious surface (262.4 W/m2) were higher than other underlying surfaces, and there were 49.9% and 42.9% of net radiation conversed to sensible heat. Anthropogenic heat generated from high density impervious surface is 41.3 W/m2. While the highest amount of latent energy per unit area occurred at water body (479.0 W/m2). In the city, there were 61.2% and 65.9% of net radiation conversed to latent heat from urban vegetation and water body, and it indicated that they cooled the city. Percentage of impervious surface is significant positively correlated with sensible heat flux/net radiation. QH/Q* will increase by 0.3%, along with 1% increasing of impervious surface. On the other hand, sensible heat flux/net radiation will increase rapidly along with urban vegetation and water body area percentage decreasing when it is less than 30%, while if it is more than 30%, QH/Q* with decrease slowly. In sum, urban heat environment is mainly caused by sensible heat exchange from impervious surface, while urban vegetation and water body can cool the city through latent energy.
历史海岸线变迁研究是海岸带研究的一个重要方面,对于海岸带的利用、开发与保护有重要的意义。以江苏海岸带为研究对象,结合数字海岸线分析系统分区段建立有效的海岸线分析断面,并计算各个区段的海岸线历史变化,对南宋至今约1 000 a来的历史海岸线变迁进行定量和定性分析,揭示海岸线时空变迁背后的驱动力。结果表明：废黄河口地区变化剧烈,最大淤涨速率和侵蚀速率分别达250、600 m/a,塑造其剧烈变化的动因是公元1128年的黄河夺淮与公元1855年的黄河北归;此外,近代废灶兴垦等人类活动也导致了辐射沙洲北部及南部变化明显。
Historical coastline changes are very important in the coastal area study, which will benefit on utilization, development and protection of coastal areas. In this article, Jiangsu coastal areas are selected as the research area to perform a-1000-years' historical coastline evolution analysis from the South Song Dynasty in ancient China to recent years. Based on the historical coastline analysis, the underlying spatio-temporal evolution mechanism is explored. Firstly, Jiangsu coastal areas are divided into six subdivisions according to the physical geographical conditions and its historical geomorphologic changes. Secondly, Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS) is used to build 356 effective coastline transacts and historical coastline changes are calculated for each transact. Thirdly, quantitative analysis and qualitative analysis are used to analyze the coastline spatio-temporal change in different historical periods. Finally, the driving forces of coastline historical change are revealed according to the above analysis. The study shows that the old Huanghe River changes severely and the maximum deposition rate and erosion rate reach 250 m/a, 600 m/a respectively. And the most important driving forces for the Millennium’s coastline changes are the historical events such as “The Huanghe River captured the Huaihe River” in 1128 AD and “The Huanghe River returned to the north” in 1855 AD and in modern times, as the major human activities, “Demolishing Salt-making Stoves and Cultivating Land” have more significant impact on the Jiangsu coastline change, resulting in the north and south radiate shoal changing obviously.
先前研究认为老红砂是末次冰期沿海风沙沉积,近期发现老红砂形成于末次间冰期。在福建平潭青峰典型老红砂分布区采集114个老红砂样品,130冬季风沙样品,60个夏季风沙样品做粒度测量和光释光测年。粒度测量显示冬季风沙粒度频率峰值出现在400 μm、夏季风沙280 μm,老红砂粒度频率峰值出现在300 μm与冬季风沙不同。夏季风沙和冬季风沙以7∶3混合可拟合老红砂粒度分布,表明青峰老红砂沉积期夏季风历时或强度远大于冬季风,对应于气候暖期,而不是末次冰期。老红砂剖面4个自然层光释光测年自下而上为122.5±6.7 ka B.P.、97.7±6.1 ka B.P.、83.1±4.2 ka B.P.、61.9±3.4 ka B.P.,对应末次间冰期,青峰老红砂是暖期气候的风沙响应。
Old Red Sands mainly distributed in China's southeast coast and the islands are special red sand deposits during Quaternary. They were considered to be formed by vast continental shelf sands and beach sands transported under strong winter monsoon and deposited along the coast during 68-9 ka B.P.,the last glaciation, low sea stage. In this study, 114 Old Red Sand samples,130 winter wind sand samples and 60 summer wind samples were collected from typical Old Red Sand area Pingtan Qingfeng. The grain size measurements for the samples show that the size frequency distribution of winter wind sands peaked at 400 μm, of summer wind sands at 280 μm, and of Old Red Sands peaked at 300 μm. Which inconsistent with the winter wind sands. Experiments show that mixing summer wind sands sand winter wind sands with 7∶3 can fit Old Red Sands grain-size distribution. It is indicated when Qingfeng Old Red Sands depositing, the lasted or intensity of the summer monsoon is much larger than the winter monsoon, which corresponds to the climate warm periods, rather than last glaciation. OSL dating for Qingfeng Old Red Sands section with 4 natural layer shows a bottom-up years of the 122.5±6.7 ka B.P., 97.7±6.1 ka B.P., 83.1± .2 ka B.P., 61.9±3.4 ka B.P., mainly corresponding to the last interglacial , Qingfeng Old Red Sands formed during the last interglacial.
The effect of land use, vegetation growth and flooded condition on spatial-temporal variation of nutrient and eco-environmental effects in two typical ditch systems of Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China, was analyzed through in situ sampling of surface waters and sediments. The results showed that the nutrition of ditch systems mainly came from the farmland and the wetlands in the surrounding area. And the key factors influencing the change of nutrients in sediments and ditch systems include land use, vegetation growth, flooding condition and the degree of blocks. Ditch systems accommodate and purify the runoff from the surrounding farmland and wetland, and reduce the risk of the eutrophication of down stream water body. However, the accumulation of nutrients in ditch systems will bring potential threats to the stability of wetland ecosystem. The land reclamation leads to the reduction of soil DOC storage and the blocking of the ditches can effectively reduce the transport and export of soil DOC. The reclamation from wetland to dry land is beneficial to the accumulation of sediment DOC in ditches, but at the same time, it reduces the soil DOC storage. Therefore, the content of sediment DOC was highest and the ditch water DOC concentrations were lowest in the dry land ditches. The reclamation of Sanjiang Plain wetland and the utilization of large amounts fertilizers made the concentrations of TN and TP in dry land ditch higher than that in the wetland and paddy field ditches. The difference of vegetation growth status made the concentrations of TN in wetland ditch water higher than that in paddy field ditch. Nitrogen and phosphorus accumulated in the plant would be decomposed and released in spring, which made N and P in water increased obviously. The TOC and TN content in the sediments of the ditch systems increased with the decay decomposition of plants in autumn and winter. There is a strong correlation between the flooding conditions of the ditch system and the TOC and TN content in the sediments. The flooding conditions have an indirect impact on the TOC and TN content through influencing the mineralization process of the organic matter and the rate of decomposition or transformation of the total nitrogen. In addition, as a result of the long-term accumulation of nutrients in ditch systems, the concentration of N/P in wetland waters decreases, which will consequently bring potential threats to the stability of the wetland ecosystem.
基于已有研究成果,利用地形图、海图和遥感影像等资料,提取1863~2012年共6个年代胶州湾海岸线位置,量算5期胶州湾海域面积变化量,制作各期胶州湾海域面积变化及不同开发利用方式面积分布图。研究结果表明：在过去近150 a时间里,胶州湾海域面积减小41%,减小速率最大可达3.71 km2/a;1863年以前,胶州湾海域面积变化完全受自然因素控制;1863~1935年,自然因素是主控因素;1935~2012年,人类活动是主控因素;1863~2012年,填海造陆等开发利用方式导致的胶州湾海域面积变化数量逐期增加。
Based on previous results, using the topographic map, nautical chart and remote sensing data, six different periods (1863, 1935, 1969, 1987, 2002 and 2012)coastline position of Jiaozhou Bay were extracted. Also, we calculated the area change of Jiaozhou Bay in these five periods and making chanegs of sea areas in differetn periods and land area distribution map of different development and utilization types according to the way of the development and utilization. It is showed that, in the past 150 years, oceanic area of Jiaozhou Bay decreased by 41% from 578.5 km2 in 1863 to 343.09 km2 in 2012. In past 70 years, oceanic area of Jiaozhou Bay reduces sharply, and the rates are 3.08 km2/a, 2.78 km2/a, 3.71 km2/a and 1.68 km2/a, respectively. Oceanic area change of Jiaozhou Bay is 129.2 km2 and is controlled entirely by natural factor before 1863. Between 1863 and 1935, oceanic area change of Jiaozhou Bay is 15.1 km2, and the main factor of area change is natural factor. Only 9.4% of the area change is due to human activities. In1935-1969, oceanic area change of Jiaozhou Bay is 104.78 km2, and the area change caused by human activities is 87%. In 1969-1987, oceanic area change of Jiaozhou Bay is 49.99 km2, and the area change caused by human activities is 89%. Between 1987 and 2002, Oceanic area change of Jiaozhou Bay is 55.62 km2, the area change due to human activities is 90%. Between 2002 and 2012, oceanic area change of Jiaozhou Bay is 16.76 km2, and 99% of the area are caused by human activities. In 1935-2012, 93.89% of area change is caused by human activities, which is the main controlling factor. The way of development and utilization, such as sea reclamation, result in the area of Jiaozhou Bay increase in1863-2012. The maximum appears in 1987 to 2012 and the maximal area is 27.67 km2. In 1987-2002, land reclamation reaches the maximum scale; in 1935-1969, area of saltern achieves the largest. The impact of this way of development and utilization is devastating and irreversible.
Based on the daily surface observation data, circulation features indices reorganized by National Climate Center and the reanalysis data of the US National Center for Atmospheric Research of National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP/NCAR), detailed investigation is conducted of the temporal and spatial variations of different precipitation phases (rain, snow, sleet, freezing rain, ice particle) in Eastern China during winter in 1981-2011. The results show that: in Eastern China, the region to the north of 29°N and to the west of 120°E is called main snow region, where the majority of the precipitation phases is snow. On the other hand, the region to the south of 29°N and to the East of 120°E is called main rain region, where the majority of the precipitation phase is rain. Besides, along the 29°N and 120°E, the sleet occurs frequently, and the freezing rain and ice particle are mostly concentrated in the stations which are in the mountains. The different precipitation phases in Eastern China during winter have obvious and different interannual fluctuations. Compared to that in the 21st century, the statistical data of all kinds of precipitation phases are relatively small in the late 1980s to 1990s. Except rain, the fluctuation frequency of snow, sleet, freezing rain, and ice particle tend gradually to the same since 2000. We define a new statistic' station-days' to describe the influence of the precipitation, which combines the temporal and spatial variation characteristics. In Eastern China during the past 30 winters, the station-days of rain and sleet have increased evidently with the positive trend coefficient 0.526 and 0.402 respectively. The station-days of the precipitation phases also have close relationships with the general atmospheric circulation, especially with East Asian Winter Monsoon and polar vortex over Asian. The results of correlation analysis show that the station-days of rain during winter has an obvious negative correlation with the strength of East Asian Winter Monsoon, that is to say, when the East Asian Winter Monsoon is stronger, there is less rain in Eastern China, but the station-days of the other four phases of precipitation have the opposite situation. At the same time, the station-days of snow, sleet, freezing rain, and ice particle are positively correlated with the Asian polar vortex area index, in other words, when the area of polar vortex over Asian is bigger, there are more solid phases of precipitation, especially more snow and ice particle in Eastern China than usual, which can pass the 99% confidence level of T test. The station-days of rain is positively correlated with the Asian polar vortex strength index too, it means that, when the polar vortex over Asian is stronger, there is more rain in Eastern China, which can pass the 95% confidence level of T test.
Two soil sampling transects in Xinghuaying and Duliang on Kaifeng section along the National Highway 310 were chosen to investigate effects of upland-upland rotation and paddy-upland rotation on spatial distribution of heavy metals in roadside soils. Five sampling sub-transects of 150 m were designed to be perpendicular to the road within 100 m on both sides of the highway. On each sub-transect, mixed topsoil samples (0-15 cm) were collected at 10 m intervals from the roadbed to the outside end. The total samples of 324 were collected, then, the concentrations of Pb, Cu, Ni, Cr, Cd and Zn in soils were detected by the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) respectively according to the recommended standard method. The spatial distribution of heavy metals concentrations in roadside soils was discussed by Universal Kriging Interpolation model. The results show that the different tillage methods have great effects on spatial distribution of heavy metals in roadside soils. The distribution patterns of metal concentrations are not strips parallel to the road in paddy-upland rotation field on Duliang Transect (DT), because the water in rice field changes pH, Eh of soils, and then accelerates the migration of soil heavy metals when the rice is grown. In contrast, the distribution patterns of metal concentrations in upland-upland rotation field on Xinghuaying Transect (XT) are strips parallel to the highway. The concentrations of Cr and Cu decrease exponentially with the distance from the roadbed, however, the concentrations of Cd, Pb, Ni and Zn reveal a skew distribution with the distance, which increase firstly, reach their highest values at 30 m or 50 m away from the roadbed, and then decrease gradually to the control values.