Economic Polarized Area has priority development functions and goals in the planning due to its special value in regional development and important strategic role in the national economy. In the era of economic globalization, more cooperation and competition among countries, Economic Polarized Area plays an important role in competing with other regions or countries in the world. In this article, the method of analyzing the development status and function mode of Economic Polarized Area is proposed and the indicator system to identify the function is founded. With three goals of improving the urbanization level, coordinating the development among regions and enhancing international competitiveness, multiple regional planning with national strategic significance and international competitiveness has been approved. In this article, the development status and functions of 16 Economic Polarized Areas approved are analyzed and evaluated through the way of analysis and functional evaluation. Based on the analysis and evaluation, several development function modes of Economic Polarized Area which are fitting with the development status of China are put forward.
Globalization is not a one-way and homogeneous process, but the state of multi-dimension and the co-exist development in integration and fragmentation. Along with the global flow of capital, the global expansion of multinational corporations and the formation of world production network, globalization has become an important driving force to promote and shape the development of urban areas. However, the current study of urban regions more focuses on the function and nature of large cities, less mentions the spatio-temporal intra-regional transformation of globalization process, in the meantime, indicators involved in the study mainly concentrate in more urban economic function and less composite indicators. With the development of the integration of the world economy, urban regions, taking metropolitan area as the core region, is increasingly becoming a basic spatial unit of global competition, the spatio-temporal evolution and spatial disparity of globalization process of the specific space is particularly important. Over the past decades, the globalization development of some cities in China has made rapid development, more and more world urban researchers have become increasingly concerned about the globalization development of cities and regions in China and other developing countries. At the same time, as the country's largest urban agglomerations, the Changjiang River Delta is in a position of the forefront of China's participation in economic globalization, and is more sensitive and directly affected by the impact of external economy. In the light of above studies, regarding the Changjiang River Delta as the research object, including Jiangsu, Zhejiang and Shanghai, for a total of 25 prefecture-level cities, the article builds the index system from 4 aspects of economic contact, personnel flow, information communication and government cooperation, considering existing studies on the globalization index, combined with the concept of world cities and global cities, as well as the stage of global development in the Changjiang River Delta. Based on the index system above, the article assesses the spatio-temporal differences and dependence between different cities and spatial autocorrelation characteristics of globalization process of the Changjiang River Delta, and more importantly, spatio-temporal evolution characteristics of the different indicators are analyzed in detail. The results show that subject to the positive impact of accession to the WTO in 2001 and Shanghai World Expo held successfully in 2010, the negative impact of SARS in 2003 and the financial crisis in 2008, the globalization of the Changjiang River Delta expresses the characteristics of different stages. From the time series from 2000 to 2009, the performance of the globalization process showed accelerated increasing, steady rising and downward trend, but the different indicators showed different characteristics. From the spatial pattern, the globalization of the Changjiang River Delta gradually tend to be a balanced development of more reasonable from more concentrated state, backward regions develop quickly, and urban system is more reasonable under the influence of globalization. Using analytical methods of ESDA and Getis-Ord Gi*, the findings are that, the globalization process of the inter-county exhibits a strong dependence on the spatial concentration. Meanwhile, it is found that market and administrative jointly promote the process of globalization.
The spatial relocation of pollution-intensive industries and its associated mechanism are becoming increasingly hot in regional sustainable development. Using a statistical panel data, the characteristics of spatial relocation of pollution-intensive industries in Jiangsu are explored, and further, the mechanism of it is discussed, based on the spatial analysis and statistical modeling. Three important findings are gotten. First, the pollution-intensive industries demonstrated a downward trend in the industrial system of Jiangsu Province in the last 10 years. Spatially, the pollution-intensive industries gradually moved from Jiangsu’s core areas. More specifically, the growth rate of pollution-intensive industries originally followed a pattern of South Jiangsu>Middle Jiangsu>North Jiangsu, however, in the most recent years, this pattern has changed to North Jiangsu>Middle Jiangsu>South Jiangsu. The proportion of pollution-intensive industry in South Jiangsu increased in early years but then decreased. In middle Jiangsu and North Jiangsu, it increased slowly in early years but recently accelerated. Second, before 2005, the concentration ratio of pollution-intensive in most cities along the Changjiang River increased, however, that of the cities of North Jiangsu decreased. After 2005, Jiangsu Province adopted a policy of accelerating the development of North Jiangsu, and many pollution-intensive industries were relocated from South Jiangsu to North Jiangsu. These pollution-intensive industries include Textile Industry, Paper Making and Paper Product, Oil Processing, Coking and Nuclear Fuel Processing, Raw Chemical Materials and Chemical Products, Chemical Fiber Manufacturing, Nonmetal Mineral Products and Smelting and Pressing of Ferrous Metals. Spatially, the pollution-intensive industry demonstrated a pattern of decentralization, then centralization, and most recently returned to decentralization. Finally, Jiangsu Province undertakes the international pollution-intensive industries, while North Jiangsu is the "Pollution Haven" for pollution-intensive industries in South Jiangsu. Because North Jiangsu was at a preliminary industrialization stage, it became an undertaking area to attract foreign capital and to promote pollution-intensive industries. Technological innovation and the industrial structure policy are the other driving forces for the relocation of pollution-intensive industries from South Jiangsu to Middle Jiangsu, and then North Jiangsu. Government regulation affected the pollution-intensive industries as a primary mean of industrial relocation. In summary, industry upgrading, technological innovation, and improved government regulation which more focuses on environmental control, environmental monitoring, but other related measures are the primary means to optimize the spatial layout of pollution-intensive industries.
高铁“时空压缩”效应对游客出游空间产生明显作用,进而影响到旅游地客源市场空间结构。以京沪高铁线的济南和泰山以及武广高铁线的武汉和衡山为例,从旅游地吸引空间范围、旅游地空间使用曲线、旅游地对客源地空间吸引力等3方面,实证研究高铁对旅游地国内客源市场空间结构影响。研究结果表明：① 高铁开通提高了旅游地的客源市场半径,辐射范围更广;② 高铁开通使近程客源市场份额明显下降,但750~1 000 km空间范围的客源市场增长明显,旅游地60%的客源市场空间范围有显著向外拓展的趋势;③ 高铁对旅游地客源市场吸引力提高具有显著促进作用,且距旅游地空间距离越大,客源市场空间吸引力变化越显著。
Transportation infrastructure is an indispensable prerequisite for developing tourism resources and constructing resorts, every new breakthrough in traffic technology allows the tourists to travel at a faster speed to a remoter destination. High speed rail (HSR) is a significant symbol of the worldwide “transportation revolution”, producing the remarkable effect of “space compression”. The “space compression” effect of HSR plays a significant role on the tourists’ travel space, thereby affecting the spatial structure of tourist source markets. On the basis of the case, Jinan, Taishan on Beijing-Shanghai HSR, and Wuhan, Hengshan on Wuhan-Guangzhou High speed rail, this article proves the impacts on the spatial structure of domestic source market by HSR from the point of attraction of spatial extent, spatial use curves of resorts, and spatial attractiveness of destination to source region, and concludes the new regularities of the tourist behaviors and spatial distribution of tourists in the age of HSR, laying the “cornerstone” for further study on the HSR’s impacts on the spatial pattern of regional tourism. The results show that: 1) the attractiveness radius of Jinan, Taishan, Wuhan, and Hengshan’s tourist market has been extended after the open of HSR. Therefore the number of source markets which may make large impacts on destination has increased, in particular, the number of major source markets that more significantly impact on the destinations, and the market share by remarkable margin. 2) The share of short-range source market has decreased obviously, while the medium, specifically the distance between 750 and 1 000 km, and long-range source market share have increased to different degrees. The 60% spatial extent of tourist markets have shown a trend of a significant expansion. 3) The “space compression” effect of HSR has improved the growth of attractiveness to tourist market, and the more remote of the distance, the more remarkable of the changes. The variability of attractiveness values and tourist demand have shown a significant correlation relationship. The change rate of spatial attractiveness value of destinations to tourist source and the change of tourist market demand are remarkably correlative, i.e. the more change of attractiveness, the more change of tourist market demand. It can also be seen that the effect of space compression produced by HSR exerts a significant accelerating function in the improvement of the attractiveness of destinations to tourist source markets, correspondingly promoting the significant growth of tourist market demand.
In recent years, the tourism industry has developed nationwide at a rapid speed. Many cities gradually focused on the economic growth of tertiary industry, which is leaded primarily by the tourism industry, particularly in the wake of continuous traffic perfection. The bottlenecks of tourism development has got different penetrations in each place, the scope of spatial tourist activities has been enlarged, tourist cooperation among districts has been enhanced and the future prospect of tourism development will be broadened. Based on the Transportation superiority degree model, this article selects three time series for comparing, which are 2001, 2005 and 2009, and analyzes the spatial variation characteristics of regional transportation structure, then discusses the impact of transportation on the regional tourism spatial structure variation. Finally, the conclusions are summarized as following: on one hand, regional transportation superiority level have been improved gradually, transportation centers transfer to the south gradually, and the spatial structure transforms from "single pole" to "twin poles"; on the other hand, tourist destination structure has been gradually optimized on the basis of transportation improvements, in addition, traffic time among the scenic regions has been shortened gradually, and tourist market has been changed in response. All the conclusions are basically in accordance with the realities, which has a centain guiding signifcances to the future transportation planning and tourism development.
Based on the introduction of survey and position of agricultural products industry cluster in Jilin Province, and the conversational analysis of both the distribution of agricultural products processing industry cluster and the sales income of agricultural products processing industry in eight cities and one prefecture, it is concluded that agricultural products processing industry clusters present an unbalanced distribution, and there is a preponderance of industry clusters in the area surrounding Changchun with high output value. Based on the introduction and contrast of developmental patterns of agricultural products industry cluster in Jilin Province, it is concluded that there are several developmental patterns of agricultural products processing industry clusters in Jilin Province, each of which has its own advantages and disadvantages. In summary, it is concluded that: 1) the formation of agricultural products processing industry cluster is mainly dependent on the advantaged natural resources in the region, the location of processing industries is determined by the origin of agricultural products, highlighting the characteristics of local resources; 2) agricultural products processing industry clusters present an unbalanced distribution, and there is a preponderance of industry clusters in the area surrounding Changchun with high output value, contrary to other areas, according to the conversational analysis of both the distribution of agricultural products processing industry cluster and the sales income of agricultural products processing industry in eight cities and one prefecture; 3) industry development history, the development foundation, geographical location, the system structure, economic development level, infrastructure and other factors need to be considered to seek realistic developmental patterns of clusters, in accordance with the contrast analysis of the developmental patterns of agricultural products processing industry cluster in Jilin Province now and before.
The Hakka culture tourism means using Hakka region's unique historical background and cultural and natural landscape to satisfy tourist cultural heritage and cultural experience tourism. Since the 21st century, the Hakka culture tourism is booming. But the Hakka culture tourism development needs theoretical guidance extremely. So it is an effective way to enhance the competitiveness of tourist attraction and tourist satisfaction measurement to understand and grasp the service needs of the tourism. In Hakka cultural tourism, as the research object, the theory of satisfaction is used to assess the evaluation of the tourist satisfaction. Studies show that: 1) The overall satisfaction degree of tourists is lower than satisfaction level. 2) There are some differences in the satisfaction between different tourist groups. 3) There are significant influence factors of satisfaction. Otherwise , the Hakka culture tourism has such problems as fuzzy image, narrow market, single product, lack characteristics, less service supervision and so on. Improving the visitors' understanding of Hakka culture, enriching Hakka culture tourism products, enhancing the cultural connotation of tourism products and optimizing the tourism environment are effective ways to enhance the satisfaction of Hakka culture tourism tourists. The article suggests: the Hakka culture tourism development should implement the image strategy, market strategy, product strategy, environment and management strategy to improve the image of the Hakka culture tourism value, the product value, environmental value and service value. Countermeasures include: 1) Strengthening the image theme, strengthening tourism promotion and image propagation, cultivating and promoting Hakka culture tourism brand image can enhance the value of Hakka culture tourism image.2) Developing non-Hakka tourist market, innovating mode of tourism marketing, widening the Hakka culture tourism marketing channels can expand the Hakka culture tourism market.3) Strengthening the characteristics and competitive products consciousness, enriching Hakka culture tourism products, improving the Hakka culture tourism product quality can improve the Hakka culture tourism products and service value.4) Strengthening the construction of infrastructure and ecological environment construction, enhancing the Hakka culture tourism environmental quality can enhance the Hakka culture tourism environment value.5) Strengthening the system construction, standardizing the trade management, establishing long-term mechanism to promote customer satisfaction can improve the Hakka culture tourism service value.
Currently, with the influence of long term exploitation of oil, gas, groundwater and brine resources, the increase of surface load and the compaction of recent sediments, ground subsidence has become one of the main geological hazards of the modern Yellow River Delta, China. Wetlands are broadly distributed , and most areas are covered by vegetation in this region, which make monitoring more difficultly. This article introduces monitoring of ground subsidence in the modern Yellow River Delta area using PSInSAR technique. To carry out experiment 10 ERS1/2 images during June 1992 and August 1995 were collected, and with Hooper’s PSInSAR algorithm model, more than 80 000 PS points were selected. 3.0 was chosen as the threshold of standard deviation to screen the PS points, and PS points were drop out which were affected by noise. PS points that in Dongying airport were chosen as reference points to correct the results, then the mean subsided velocity map and the deformation quantity in time series were derived.Ground subsidence phenomenon are widely distributed in the modern Yellow River Delta area.The mean subsided velocity is about 4.4 mm/a in most coastal area, mean subsided velocity of Shengli Oil Production Plant and its surrounding areas is 10.1mm/a. In the west city district of Dongying the value is 7.1 mm/a and in the east city district of Dongying the value is 7.4 mm/a. Subsided velocity map, the residential map and oilfield distribution map were overlapped to analyze the relationship between them. The results show that subsided velocity of the modern Yellow River Delta has high correlation with exploitation of oil, the increase of surface load and natural compaction of sediments.The accuracy of PSInSAR technique was verified by traditional Leveling data. Four leveling points were taken near PS points. Although the monitoring time interval and location of Leveling points was not in full accord match with PS points, the monitoring results gotten by PSInSAR technique was consistent with the leveling results. The subsided quantity curve of one leveling points which were 80 m distant from the nearest PS point and monitoring during the same time interval is very similar with the PS point’s subsided quantity curve, and the mean square error between them is 0.88 mm, so the mean square error gotten by PSInSAR technique was within the bounds of millimeter level. The results show that PSInSAR technique based on small data set can be used to monitor ground subsidence either the area is vegetation covered or wetland area, if only it have stable scatters.
Soil moisture information can be extracted by microwave remote sensing technology; however, the problem is how to eliminate the influence of ground surface roughness and vegetation coverage on the backscattering data. Ground surface roughness is the key factor determining the data accuracy in northwest China where the vegetation coverage is small. Thus, evaluating and modeling the surface roughness parameters with a high precision is an important task for the arid land soil moisture study. Using IEM model, the response relationships between the different types of backscattering coefficient and the radar systematic coefficient and soil surface parameters are simulated. Results show that the backscattering coefficient is different from these parameters’ change. Based on these achievements, the best radar parameters which can reflect the soil moisture are put forwarded. The corresponding relationships between the radar backscattering parameters and soil moisture contents, ground surface roughness parameters (such as, mean root height method, persistence length method and combined roughness method) are analyzed, and the experimental model which can reflect the soil moisture of relatively smooth ground surface is developed by using least squares method and non-linear regression method. At last, for a ground truth testing analysis, using the obtained RADAR-SAT2 data, the experimental model is applied in Weigan River and Kuch River delta oasis area. Results show that the data obtained from the experimental model has relatively high corresponding relationship with the soil moisture data collected in situ, and the determination coefficient is up to 0.886, implying the experimental model can be used in relatively wide scale for analyzing and modeling the soil moisture contents of some bare soil surface or the area whose vegetation density is low and vegetation coverage is small.
Based on the monthly mean temperature data of 53 observational stations in the three provinces of northeast China in 1961-2012 and NCEP/NCAR monthly mean reanalysis data of 500 hPa geopotential height, 500 hPa wind velocity field, and sea level pressure filed, the variation characteristics of winter temperature in the northeast China at both interannual and interdecadal time scales were analyzed. By using the Singular Value Decomposition technology, we find three main influential factors of winter temperature in the northeast China. The independent effects of different influential factors on winter temperature in the northeast China were studied by using partial correlation analysis method at both interannual and interdecadal scales. Results show that: Both at inter-annual and interdecadal scales’ variations, the first mode’s spatial vector of EOF analysis on winter temperature in the northeast China show a consistent variation characteristic all over northeast China, and the first mode’s time coefficient exists a significant growing trend. In addition, the Singular Value Decomposition technology’s consequence show that, in the atmospheric shell, the Arctic Oscillation, the Siberian high and the East Asian winter monsoon have close relationship with the winter temperature in the northeast China. So they are the three main influential factors on winter temperature in the northeast China. Partial correlation analysis method’s result tell us that, at interannual scale’s variations, the Arctic Oscillation and the East Asian winter monsoon have close relationship with the winter temperature in the central part and northern part of northeast China. So the Arctic Oscillation and the East Asian winter monsoon may be more suitable for describing the winter temperature in central part and northern part of northeast China. The Siberian high may be more suitable for describing the winter temperature in southern part of northeast China. But at interdecadal scale’s variations, the relationship between East Asian winter monsoon and the winter temperature in the northeast China is not intimate. Similarly, the Siberian high is not suitable for describing the winter temperature in the northeast China. It is found that, only the Arctic Oscillation may be more suitable for describing the winter temperature in northeast China.
No "stationarity" existed any longer in the environmental background for the formation of runoff series. Designed by the existing engineering hydrologic analysis method will face the risk of distortion in design frequency caused by the ever-changing environment. We analyzed the statistical properties of hydrologic extreme flow for hydrologic station of Longchuan and Heyuan in Dongjiang river using 8 probability distribution functions. Estimate of parameters was performed using the maximum likelihood technique. Goodness of fit was done based on AIC, BIC and AICc for the optimal linear frequency distribution before and after environment change. And the rules and effects of variability for hydrologic extreme flow was discussed. The research results indicate that the non-stationary annual maximum daily flow series of stations in Dongjiang Basin show a descend trend that caused by rainfall and construction of water conservancy projects. Mixed tail distribution (LN2) at Longchuan and Heyuan stations were found to be the best fitting model. The optimal linear frequency distribution maintain consistency before and after environment change, but the impacts on fitting curve of flood series showed an overall performance as upper tail from "steep" to "gentle". The Changing properties and impacts of parameters to distribution are analyzed by the 30-year moving average method. Flood frequency analyses for Dongjiang river show that the maximum flow with a 0.01-annual probability (corresponding to 100-year flood peak under stationary conditions) over the 56-year record has ranged from a maximum discharge of 9 189 m3/s to a minimum of 2 305 m3/s at longchuan station; and has ranged from a maximum discharge of 11 125 m3/s to a minimum of 4 072 m3/s at Heyuan station. If the non-stationarity of series is not considered, the traditional method is still used for calculation. At the Longchuan and Heyuan Stations, the design flood magnitude will be overestimated. Compared with non-stationary flood series characteristics, the flood magnitude is smaller and the frequency is lower for the stationary "real" flood series characteristics caused by hydraulic engineering regulation and rainfall. After changes in the hydrological regime, the flood return period estimated before the change is often unable to well describe the flood frequency characteristics after environmental changes.
利用建立的天山山区水汽含量与地面水汽压的经验关系式,计算天山山区及周边44站1961~2009年的水汽含量值,分析水汽含量的时空分布及其与气候变化因子的关系。结果表明：天山北麓的河谷平原地带是水汽含量高值区,中天山和东天山是低值区。水汽含量在近50 a内呈增加趋势,夏、秋季增加明显。水汽含量是影响天山山区降水量的最主要的因素之一,水汽对全球变暖和气候变化可能有负反馈作用,而冬季 NAO和AO与水汽相关性最显著。这些研究对于揭示区域水分循环过程和全球变暖背景下的区域响应有重要意义。
Relation formula was established between water vapor content and ground water vapor pressure, and the water vapor content of the Tianshan Mountains was calculated, the spatial and temporal distribution of the water vapor content characteristics and the relationship with the climate factors change was analyzed (i.e. temperature, precipitation, NAO/AO index). The following conclusion was drawn: the high value of the water vapor content area for Tianshan Mountains mainly distributed in the north Tianshan Plain region and the river valley in Turpan Basin, the water vapor content is in 12-20 mm. The east and middle area of Tianshan Mountains is a minimum part, the value is in 4-8 mm. In the past 50 years, the water vapor content in Tianshan Mountains exhibited an increasing trend with the rate of 0.26 mm per decade. However, the different seasons are different in the rates of water vapor content increase. Specifically, it increased most obviously in summer at a slope of 0.16 mm per decade and in autumn increased trend at a slope of 0.32 per decade. EOF decomposition of water vapor content showed the water vapor content distribution of has two types: consistency change in entire area under the background of regional climate change and the reverse change in north and south slope. It was showed that the regional climate change factors have impact on water vapor content. Specifically, precipitation in Tianshan Mountains was correlated significantly with water vapor content, especially atmospheric moisture and precipitation in summer, water vapor content is one of the factors that affect precipitation. The EOF decomposition of precipitation and water vapor content showed that the first two vector field of similarity high between the distribution of spatial and temporal distribution. Water vapor has negative feedback effect to regional temperature under the global change and climate change, through it is a major cause of greenhouse gas and also a cause of climate change in terms of global change. NAO or AO in winter has relevant relations with water vapor, and winter AO has the most significant correlation to summer water vapor. These works are important for discussing the regional water cycling process and regional response of climate change under the background of global change. The results lay scientific foundation for rational develop and utilize water vapor sources in Tianshan Mountains.
EOF (Empirical Orthogonal Functions), SVD (Singular Value Decomposition) and lag cross-correlation were applied to analyze temporal and spatial response characteristics of vegetation cover to the variation of hydro-thermal condition, and distinguish the spatial-temporal correlation between vegetation index and climate factors. The results indicated that the hydro-thermal conditions have more principal components and worse regularity as well as minor variance contributes. The variation of hydro-thermal condition depends on monsoon climate, latitude, underlaying surface and so on, which is very complicated and changeable. But there are obvious characters in vegetation cover. The maximum based on lag cross-correlation method shows that the speed of wheat response of southern Loess Plateau to hydro-thermal condition is faster than forest, warm vegetation, cold-halophytic-drought plants and strong drought plants, and the lag-time is about 0-30 days, so more precipitation have stronger impact on vegetation growth than temperature. However, the minimum coefficient reflects that there is significant negative correlation between vegetation cover and double-cropping winter wheat and minor cereals in South Loess Plateau. Singular value decomposition illustrates that vegetation cover is in accordance with hydro-thermal condition in the same area, but there is still obvious negative correlation. Negative correlation is caused by crop-cutting and soil corrosion due to crop rotation system and climate type. It is the best condition for vegetation cover in southeast region of Loess Plateau. More precipitation will be the advantage for vegetation cover, including the hydrological effect of the Yellow River, but when the temperature is higher than one threshold value it won’t be an advantage for vegetation cover in arid and semi-arid region. Higher temperature makes plants grow well where there is sufficient moisture in arid region. The vegetation cover has close relations to hydro-thermal condition in valley plain and basin valley. When there is this additional condition, the vegetation cover increases in hydro-thermal equilibrium region. There is a high level of correlation between vegetation cover and hydro-thermal condition, but more limiting factors. The main limiting factors of temperature on the vegetation cover include land use, vegetation type, cropping system and landform. Loess Plateau is located in droughty inland region, so precipitation directly influences vegetation cover. Plant growth depends importantly on precipitation in desert zone and non-farming areas. In crop field, the correlation between vegetation and precipitation is further complicated by irrigation conditions and so on.
Traditional opinion considers that natural resource always contributes to economy development. However, resource curse theory poses that natural resource usually obstructs economy increase; on the contrary, those districts in short of natural resource develop quickly. Since Auty put forward the "Resource Curse" theory, the paradox relationship between resource endowment and economic growth has always been one of hot issues concerned by researchers with different backgrounds. In recent years, domestic researchers have begun to pay attention to the resource curse phenomenon in China. This article is a summarization to the domestic research from 3 aspects: first, the empirical analysis about the existence of resource curse in China; second, the transmission mechanism of resource curse including 2 aspects of single mechanism and composite mechanism; third, the resolution of resource curse. What′s more, this article summarizes the characteristic of the research by Chinese researchers, points out that the research on resource curse in China is still not systematized and there are still some problem need to discuss: the data standard is not unified and the research on transmission mechanism needs to go deeper. On one hand, fixed assets and income of extractive industries are both connected to the GDP and will influence the accuracy of the result, on the other hand, methods chosen to analyze conduction mechanism are not suitable for domestic research. At last, the article figures out that those geographers have unique advantage on the research of resource curse phenomenon. Researchers can switch resource curse proposition to a human geography proposition by analyzing from man-land standpoint and consider economical and non-economical influence of resource. Researchers, especially geographers should devote to studying and researching it from a regional perspective and put forward some practical and effective measures to resolve the resource curse phenomenon in China.
The climate change is indicated by wide changes of snow cover. Through its distinctive physical properties, snow plays an important role in the global ecological system not only by regulating the material and energy cycle between land and atmosphere, but also by influencing surface runoff and the hydrologic cycle. After researching and comparing a lot of literatures, we summarized the frequently used data sets. The NOAA data sets which have the longest time series in visible/near infrared data sets are widely applied in monitoring snow cover over the continents and providing the input to the climate and hydrological numerical simulations. With better spatial resolution(1km or better), MODIS data sets which have great potential in the snow extraction can derive the snow cover through NDSI, a normalized index between band 4 and band 6. Microwave data sets are able to penetrate clouds and to detect the information about snow depth and snow water equivalent easily. Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) and Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) data sets are the earliest microwave products for snow monitoring, while the coarse spatial resolution of which limits their application. AMSR-E data sets improve the resolution (25 km) and are proven to be in good agreement with the measured values. To solve the problems existing in the single-source data sets, many researchers combine the advantages of different data sources and develop new algorithms to improve the accuracy and quality of the data sets. The synthesized data sets include the integrated datasets from model and observational data, the integration between observed data and remote sensing sensor, the combination between sensors and multi-source data sets. Among the above mentioned data sets, the combination between sensors, such as the combination between the MODIS and the AMSR-E, can enlarge the advantages (good spatial resolution of MODIS and anti-interference of AMSR-E) and overcome the shortcomings (MODIS is easily affected by cloud cover while AMSR-E has bad spatial resolution). After analyzing the theoretical underpinnings, the characteristics of key products, advantages and disadvantages of various data sets, this article concluded some problems existing in the snow datasets research and discussed the current and future directions in their application and development.
利用内蒙古牧区34个地面气象站1961~2010年冬季降雪资料和NCEP再分析资料,采用趋势分析、合成分析等方法探讨内蒙古牧区极端降雪时空变化特征和形成机制,得出如下结论：内蒙古牧区极端降雪量呈自西向东逐渐增多趋势,近20 a变化表明内蒙古东部牧区极端降雪量呈显著增加趋势。500 hPa高度场上呈“（乌拉尔山高压）+（贝加尔湖低槽）-（白令海阻高）+”分布型时,冷空气易传输并堆积至内蒙古东北部牧区,有利于极端降雪发生。内蒙古东部牧区极端降雪发生时的主要水汽来源于北冰洋地区。Rossby波动持续东传有利于乌拉尔山高压、贝加尔湖低压和白令海高压的形成和维持。
Spatial-temporal characteristics and the formation mechanisms of extreme heavy snow over Inner Mongolia parish were analyzed using techniques of trend analysis and composite analysis, as well as data including NCEP reanalysis data and station snow data in winter over the parish. It was indicated that snowfall over the Inner Mongolia parish appeared to get increased from the west to the east during the past 20 years, with the big value area of snowfall in the mid- east area of Inner Mongolia. During the years of extreme heavy snow in the east parish, there was negative anomaly center in 500hPa height field near Baikal Lake. Code air can be transported to the northeast parish of Inner Mongolia and accumulated when there is a “Ural High(+)-Baikal Trough(-)-Bering Sea Blocking(+)” pattern in 500 hPa height field, which favors the extreme heavy snow. The Arctic areas turned out to be the major moisture sources of heavy snow over east parish of Inner Mongolia. Land-sea thermal difference resulting from Positive SST anomaly of the North Atlantic Ocean becomes Wave-Activity Flux and moves eastward, forming convergence of Wave-Activity Flux and thus leading to the persistence of high press range. Also, the persistence of eastward transmission of Rossby waves was conducive for the formation and persistence of the Ural High, Baikal Trough and Bering Sea Blocking, and the favorable distribution of extreme heavy snow over Euro-Asian Continent.
Sensitive responding to climate change is the most remarkable feature of monsoon temperate glaciers, as the most direct and brightest indicator of climate change it would substantially go forward or backward by a weak change of temperature. This article selects Yulong Mountain as research region, which is the southernmost temperate glacier region at present in China and Eurasian continent. Based on field observation data and remote sensing data, combining previous research results, the response process of Yulong Mountain to climatic change is emphatically analyzed. Additionally, this article especially studies the area, shape, temperature, width, and terminus etc variation of Baishui No.1 glacier, and discusses the main causes of glacial changes. The result was as follows: 1) Glaciers retreat was continuous and obvious in Yulong Mountain. Compared with 19 glaciers with total area of 11.6 km2 in 1957, 6 glaciers had disappeared completely, and only 13 glaciers exist at present, with a total area of 5.30 km2 in 2001 and 4.42 km2 in 2009. The changing rate of glacier area was -1.19% in 1957-2009, which was much faster than that of other typical glacier region in China. 2) Compared with 1982, the quantity of the Baishui No.1glacier crevasses increased and their scales also extend in the context of global climate change, the body of glacier had ruptured on the firn basin. A series of massive crevasses had formed on the glacier surface since 2011. Meanwhile, the ice river/lake had appeared since 2008, glacial ablation was much intense. 3) The glacier terminus elevation displayed rising state overall in 1982-2011, and the rising amplitude had increased since 1999. The retreat speed of Baishui No.1 glacier was 8.8 m/a in 1982-2011, and increased to 13.8 m/a in 1999-2011. 4) The lowest temperature from glacier surface to 8 m depth at the ablation area was -0.8℃ in 1982, and rising to -0.39℃ in 2009. Rising glacier temperature caused melt speed of the ice accelerate and mass balance loss intensifying. 5) The accelerating glacier ablation and rising temperature result in ice body freezing capacity and the stability of periglacial rock mass decreasing obviously, which ultimately leads to the ice/rock collapse happening in the appropriate circumstances, and it is the right examples that two collapse events happened in Yanggongjiang No.5 glacier in March, 2004 and October, 2009. 6) The temperature and precipitation generally showed an increasing trend in 1951-2011 in Lijiang, improving temperature tendency is 0.14℃/10 a, precipitation tendency was 9.0 mm/10 a. But the increasing amount of precipitation cannot counteract mass wastage caused by rising temperature. The glacier retreat of Yulong Mountain mainly ascribed to climate warming.