The globalization process, increasing the intensity of competition between cities, favors the regional integration process in the metropolitan system. The regional integration is a spatial unbalanced process, i.e., economic production becomes more concentrated, living standards diverge before converging, and labor division becomes more specialized. In this article, complex components for assessing the transformation of regional integration are selected, with consideration of the following four dimensions, i.e., density, distance, specialization and division. Based on empirical analysis, an overview of spatial development in Changjiang River Delta is presented. The results show that: 1) Development density increases, which mainly benefits from the agglomeration effect of population and capital. But this evolution accompanies with the core agglomeration and peripheral dispersion. 2) Transportation accessibility enhances. By means of shortening the trans-regional physical distance of trade flow, the trade costs between cities has been reduced. 3) The industrial specialization level improves, and it also promotes the division and cooperation between regions. However, industries, mainly about the secondary industry and tertiary industry, represent different spatial patterns: the secondary industry transfers from “core” to “periphery” regions, while the tertiary industry aggregates into the core cities. 4) A multi-level and multi-model regional governance system has been establishing. In conclusion, the degree of regional integration in Changjiang River Delta has been enhanced since the early 20th century, which is mainly droved by regulation effect of market. Simultaneously, the governmental preference utility also has motivated the local governments to accelerate the urban construction and the development of heavy and chemical industry, which directly leads to the urban sprawl and spatial dispersion of industries, and then precipitates the regional integration as well. However, the regional protectionism and institutional obstacle of population mobility, as well as the barriers of technology communication and capital flow, have impeded the regional integration in the Changjiang River Delta. For the sake of the competiveness in this area, multi-level regional governance interacted with various governance patterns from the state to city should be formed in the future.
In agricultural geography, the most important research field is agricultural region type division, and agricultural zoning and functional partition based on agricultural region type division. Firstly, in this article, the concepts, connotations, elements and structures of agricultural region types in transect areas along G106 were analyzed from the perspective of the elements-structure-function. Based on GIS technology, AHP method and SOFM model, using rural socio-economic statistic data and Landsat TM imagery data, the article divided the entire region into eight agricultural region types according to the status quo characteristics, formation conditions and factors of agricultural development. Secondly, the entire region was divided into four agricultural regional function zones, including agricultural product supplying function zone, labor employment and social security function zone, ecological conservation function zone and entertainment and cultural heritage function zone, and eight dominant functional subzones. Finally, the article launched comprehensive zoning by coupling and overlaying the result of agricultural region type division and agricultural multi-function partition. Also the article proposed suitable development directions and development strategies for each comprehensive agriculture zone. This study may contribute to guiding agricultural regional division, strengthening the dominant function, highlighting the geographical value and promoting the coordinated development of all regions.
During China's transformation period, many cities are undergoing an essential process of urban renewal and reconstruction orientated by real estate development. While urban renewal and reconstruction are remodeling the inner city's material landscape, they also promote substitutes of borough residents' social stratum. In the circumstance of housing marketization , as a result of limited economic power, large numbers of low-income aborigines are forced and relocated to large-scale settlement district in the suburbs, which brings about profound influences on social and economic development of a city, as well as upon individuals. Therefore the consequential urban socio-spatial issues have become the hotspot of academia. In spite of previous researches exploring solutions from researchers, objective and neutral position, there is still a lack of empirical studies conducted from the self-perception and demands of the under-privileged low-income aborigines. The research of urban forced movers′ community satisfaction sheds light and provides a new perspective for understanding urban renewal′s impacts on low-income groups and how to improve community construction of low-income groups. Based on a case study of eight removal and resettlement communities in Nanjing suburbs, this article finds that urban forced movers′ community satisfaction is constructed by six dimensions: employment environment, facilities allocation, geographic space, natural environment, housing conditions and social environment (in the order of highest evaluation scores to the lowest). Nonetheless, the overall community satisfaction is relatively low, which indicates the low-income residents’ employment and public facilities access after relocation is far from desirable. Community satisfaction variance between different groups is shown significantly, space and time, education level and job stability are proved to be factors influencing community satisfaction. Such conclusions should be given proper consideration in the future for formulating new removal and resettlement modes and reforming and optimizing low-income community construction.
城市化发展质量是一个国家或地区经济发展和社会进步程度的重要见证。从人口、经济、空间3个维度构建评价指标体系,以东北地区34个地级市为研究对象,首先运用均方差赋权法和质量与速度协调测度模型,对城市化发展质量进行综合测度,测度结果表明：① 从阶段类型看,沈阳处于后期完善阶段,大连、长春、哈尔滨处于优化提升阶段,12个地级市处于加速提升阶段,18个地级市处于低质量阶段;② 从质量与速度协调度上看,大连、沈阳、长春、哈尔滨属于质量超前型,大庆、辽阳、绥化为速度与质量协调型,其余27个城市为质量滞后型;③ 从子系统的城市化质量主导类型看,辽宁省属于经济导向型城市化,吉林省城市化主导类型特征不明显,黑龙江省属于空间导向型城市化;④ 城市化发展质量空间分异呈现出由南向北依次递减的趋势。其次,运用聚类分析法将城市化发展质量划分成核心城市区、周边城市区、外围边缘城市区3个层级,并从经济地理学角度探讨了每个层级的特征。最后,从国家执行政策、人口迁移、区位优势、计划经济时期的遗留问题4个角度探讨了城市化发展质量产生地域层级的内在机理。
Urbanization development quality is an important witness of economic development and social progress in country or region. China has made progress in urbanization since 1978, while Northeast China plays an important role of old industrial base since 1949. Urbanization rate of Northeast China has great progress since the Reform and Opening Up, but urbanization development quality is not better. For this reason, in order to evaluate the urbanization development quality properly and promote sustainable development in Northeast China, this article aims to carry on in-depth analysis to urbanization development quality of Northeast China. Firstly, In the article, the indexes of population urbanization,economy urbanization and space urbanization were constructed, and then take 34 prefecture-level cities of Northeast China as samples. On the basis, the article make an overall measure urbanization development quality of Northeast China by using standard variance method and coordination evaluation model between urbanization development quality and rate. The results show that: 1) Urbanization development quality of Shenyang is the highest in Northeast China and in the stage of improving lately, Dalian、Changchun、Harbin are in the stage of optimizing. 12 cities are in the stage of rapid promotion, the rest of 19 cities are in the stage of low quality. 2) According to the urbanization coordination type,Shenyang、Dalian、Changchun、Harbin are quality advanced-type, Daqing、Liaoyang and Suihua are quality coordination-type, and the rest of the cities are quality lag-type. 3) According to the urbanization dominant type, urbanization of Liaoning Province is economy dominant type, urbanization of Jilin Province is not obvious, urbanization of Heilongjiang Province is the space dominant type. 4) The spatial differentiation characters of urbanization development quality is downtrend from south to north gradually. Secondly, this article divide urbanization development quality into three tiers by using cluster analysis, and they are core urban area,surrounding urban area, peripheral edge the urban area, and the tiers features presents a decreasing trend form core urban area to surrounding urban area and peripheral edge urban area. And then the characteristics of every tier in the perspective of economic geography were analyzed. Finally, the internal mechanism about tiers characteristics of urbanization development quality in the perspective of national implementation policy,population migration, the location and legacy of planned economy era were analyzed. Generally speaking, promoting urbanization development quality is very complicate system engineering, the real urbanization should improve along with population, economic, social and ecological urbanization quality, and improve the process of urbanization development quality is also very long at the same time, So it should seek a future speed properly, high quality, connotation, conducive to the sustainable development of urbanization development path in Northeast China.
东北地区资源环境具有人地相互作用短时限、高强度特征,生态环境问题突出。构建基于“压力-状态-响应（PSR）模型的生态环境综合评价体系,应用熵值法系统评价2003年以来东北地区生态环境演变及其特征,结果显示：① 东北振兴战略实施以来,东北地区生态环境压力呈波动减小趋势,生态环境状态逐渐趋于好转,生态环境响应得分降低,但东北地区生态环境综合得分呈波动上升趋势;② 东北地区生态环境质量总体提高,但生态环境演变的省际差异显著,同时环境改善效果与生态建设成效差距突出;③ 近10 a来东北地区生态环境演变具有显著的时间、空间、结构特征。并从重点工程实施、区域组织协调、环境治理投入、产业结构演变等方面分析了生态环境演变的成因,最后提出相应措施。
The resources and environment in Northeast China are characterized by a kind of high tension of man-land relationship within short-term time scale. By building the eco-environmental evaluation system based on the Press-State-Response model, the article evaluated the characteristics of the eco-environment in Northeast China since 2003. The results showed that, since the implementation of the northeast revitalization strategy, the eco-environmental pressure was fluctuating decreasing, while the eco-environmental state was gradually getting better, and the eco-environmental response index was decreasing, the eco-environmental composite scores were rising; Overall, the quality of eco-environment in Northeast China was generally improved, but the differences between ecological construction and environmental protection as well as different provinces were outstanding. The eco-environment evolution in recent 10 years showed significant features of time, space, and structure. The essay analyzed the influencing factors of the eco-environment based on the key projects implementation, regional organization coordination, investment in environmental governance and industrial structure evolution, at last proposed corresponding measurements.
With the advent of knowledge economy, innovation has become the key element in growth and development. Ample literature in regional innovation system suggests that firm network under the support of knowledge-related institution underlies the success of clusters. In the innovation studies, firm-level innovation strategies and behaviors are among the most important aspects in investigating the regional innovation prospect. Unlike the mechanic comparison between regional innovation systems among places, this article begs the question of what constitutes the innovation drives for the clustering firms in the Zhujiang River Delta, China, where the Fordist production sector relocated by multi-national corporations is intricately intertwined with post-Fordist mode of flexible production among small and medium sized supplier firms. Based on a random-sampled electronics firm questionnaire survey in the Zhujiang River Delta, this article begins by analyzing the Fordist-post Fordist way of production system in terms of production network, labor market, financial system, innovation system and business mode in the Zhujiang River Delta, concluding a close-oriented Fordist character in labor market, financial system and innovation system with relatively flexible way of production and business relations under the support of social capital. The study further investigates the innovation mechanism within this context of production system by building a probit model. In the model, the effect of firm scale, R&D investment, CEO background, staff turnover rate and urbanization economies on firm innovation have been examined. Moreover, the model succeeds in differentiating the effect of these factors between four types of innovation, i.e. product innovation, process innovation, organizational innovation and market innovation. The results show that while the production relations among the firms has become more vertically fragmented and flexible, innovation activities still keep the Fordist “in-house” characteristic, for which the firms with bigger market share act as the primary actor of product innovation and organizational innovation in the region. Meanwhile, R&D investment in the firms plays a more important role in promoting innovation, especially in product innovation and process innovation, than urbanization economies. The results show that interactive learning dynamic mechanism of clusters has not been developed based on the post-Fordist flexible production organization of small and medium-sized firms in the Zhujiang River Delta, which might be closely related to the insufficient intensity of internal innovation activities as well as low absorptive capacity for the electronics firms. The findings provide precious evidence on innovation mechanism in the pre-crisis period in the Zhujiang River Delta. From an evolutionary perspective, the evolutionary path in the future is contingent upon the previous cluster structure and trait, and hints on upgrading and restructuring path of electronics industrial cluster can be illuminated on the basis of understanding on former structure and mechanism. Finally, the article points out studies on different types of electronics industrial clusters in the Zhujiang River Delta should be investigated deeper with insight into divergent governance mode and the respective evolutionary logic. Moreover, qualitative interviews with anchor firms should be carried out to explore the role of strategic re-orientation of anchor firms on the turnaround of market and technology in the cluster.
土地利用图斑综合是实现其多尺度表达的关键技术,主要包括相邻图斑的融合、相离且语义邻近图斑的聚合、狭长图斑的综合以及要素边线的化简等。通过以下4种方法实现图斑综合：① 以要素间语义相似度为先决条件并顾及空间拓扑关系建立邻近度分析模型,通过模型检索要素的最邻近图斑实现数据融合;② 以相离要素缓冲区交集中的节点建立多边形要素填补桥梁区域实现要素聚合;③ 以相邻要素的缓冲区将狭长区域剖分,并融合到周围要素的方法来实现狭长图斑的综合;④ 以Douglas-Peucker算法实现要素边线化简。上述方法对普通图斑及特征图斑均提出了各自适应的综合算法。实验结果表明上述模型及算法能最大限度的保证各地类面积平衡、也能有效控制要素变形、合理压缩数据并保证地图简洁、美观,保证自动化制图综合的简捷高效。
Generalization of land use patch is the key technology in the multi-scale representation of land-use data. It consists essentially of the combination of adjacent patch, the aggregation of separated semantic similar patches, the decomposition and merging of strip patches and the simplification of boundaries of features, etc. This article has gain it from the following four methods: 1) the proximity analysis model was built based on the semantic similarity of features and the spatial topological relationship. and then the nearest adjacent patch is retrieved through it to complete generalization;2) Polygon elements are established to fill bridge areas using the nodes that contained separated factor buffer intersections;3) The narrow regions will be split by its adjacent features buffer, and then merged with the surrounding features to integrate the regions; 4) The Douglas-Peucker algorithm is used to conduct line simplification. The above methods put respective synthesis algorithm for general and particular patches. And the experiment result from the Beihai sub-district of Lushun Port, Dalian City, shows that the models and algorithms can maximally balance area of various types of land, effectively control elements distortion, reasonably compress data to ensure the appearance of map and easiness of automatic cartography generalization.
以大连市甘井子区为例，基于压力-状态-响应（P-S-R）框架构建区域生态安全评价体系，利用研究区1990 年、2000 年和2009 年3 期TM遥感影像数据，在GIS 格网技术下量化多源数据，创建区域生态安全格网数据库， 采用加权综合评价方法进行生态安全状态评价。以评价结果为基础，构建区域生态安全GIS-Markov 模型，通过 计算区域生态安全状态转移矩阵，揭示区域生态安全时空演变特点。研究结果表明：① 1990~2009 年甘井子区 各街道生态安全指数逐年增加，其中1990~2000 年生态安全变化较大的地区集中于甘井子北部和中部，西部和 南部地区生态安全变化较小；2000~2009 年除泉水街道与南关岭街道外，其他地区生态安全状况均大幅好转。 ② 区域背景在生态安全空间演变趋同过程中起着重要的作用。甘井子区生态安全演变的可能性受邻域的影 响，安全等级较高的邻域对生态安全等级转移起到正面作用，而安全等级较低的邻域则产生负向影响。1990~ 2000 年，甘井子区生态安全状态受较高安全等级邻域的影响，安全状态好转的面积较大，营城子街道北部及革 镇堡街道西部的农村地区受较低安全等级邻域的影响，安全状态变差。2000~2009 年，甘井子区生态安全总体 向好的方面转变，受邻域的影响较小，只有泉水街道及营城子街道与红旗街道交界处受不安全邻域影响，其生态 安全状况转差。
In this article, Ganjingzi District of Dalian City in Liaoning Province was taken as an example. According to the pressure-state-response (P-S-R) model, regional eco-security evaluation model for Ganjingzi District was established. Based on the three period’s data of TM remote sensing images in 1990, 2000 and 2009 and the multi-source data quantified by GIS Grid, the database of the regional eco-security evaluation was constructed. Eco-security status of Ganjingzi District was assessed by comprehensive evaluation method. Meanwhile, according to the evaluation results, GIS-Markov model of the eco-security was built, and the rules of eco-security spatial-temporal evolution were studied by calculating transition matrix of regional ecological security state. The results showed as follows: 1) The eco-security index in Ganjingzi District had gradually improved from 1990 to 2009. The eco-security index of north and the central regions in Ganjingzi District changed largely from 1990 to 2000, and small change of ecological security occurred on the south and west regions. Except for the regions of Quanshui Street and Nanguanling Street, the eco-security conditions in Ganjingzi District had a significant improvement from 2000 to 2009; 2) Regional background played an important role in convergence process of the eco-security evolution. The possibility of the eco-security evolution in Ganjingzi District had been affected by its adjacent region. The adjacent region of higher level played a positive role in grade transition of eco-security, and the lower levels had a negative impact. The eco-security status in Ganjingzi District was affected by the adjacent region of higher level, and the areas of improvement increased from 1990 to 2000. During these yeas, the northern rural area in the region of Yingchengzi Street and western region of Gezhenpu Street were affected by lower level neighborhood, and its security status became worse. Except for the region of Quanshui Street and the junction of Yingchengzi Street and Hongqi Street, the eco-security had suffered deterioration by the impact of unsafe adjacent regions. From 2000 to 2009, the eco-security in Ganjingzi District was beginning to change and was less affected by the adjacent regions. GIS-Markov model provided the research ideas and methods in establishing the spatial-temporal evolution of regional eco-security. Moreover, the results could provide a scientific basis for regional development, ecological risk assessment and early warning in Ganjingzi District in the future.
In the era of information, the organizational form of networks is undergoing profound changes. In this context, the question of the evolution of networks is widespread concerned by many disciplines, such as sociology, management, economics and geography. Explaining the network's long-term dynamic mechanism is one of the core propositions of the economic geography in the field of network evolution. Current economic geography about the network, however, is often limited to a specific space within either a global scale, a national scale, or a local scale, focuses on the interaction between society actors or economic actors within a particular scale and those power, lacks of the research about network expansion phenomena and network evolution dynamic mechanism that network′ actors transferring from the local-scale networks to large-scale networks. The network has a feature geographically scalable, means the network has a local, national, regional, global and other multiple spatial scales. So the aim of this article is to explore the network evolution dynamics across spatial scales. The study is a new attempt in the field of network evolution. Grassroots stars are quality carrier for studying network spatial evolutionary dynamics, which have the process of transferring from local network to regional network, and to national network. The study takes a grassroots star named ZHU Zhi-wen who has become famous in short time in the year 2011 as an example, uses the details of ZHU’s performance trips published in Baidu Encyclopedia and Baidu's online user forum, and explores the network evolution dynamics of a grassroots star’s across spatial scales. It was found that ZHU’s network experienced four network stages, specifically, the first stage is personal relationship network in local scale, the second stage is grassroots star network in provincial scale, the third stage is famous person active network in national scale, and the fourth stage is influence extended network in global scale. Due to the overall popularity of information technology, ZHU spans from local network to national and global network extremely quickly. In this article, key actors, organization, technology and institution are used to build a analytical framework for network spatial evolution. It is believed that the key actors of different scales are directly dynamics for grassroots star across networks; the universal prevalence of information and communication technology especially in villages is an important support for the rapid upgrade; some TV programs of different levels are important driving forces for grassroots star to improve networks status; the implement of policies to aid agriculture and benefit farmers is the root cause of grassroots stars appear frequently. Finally, it was recommended that the country should play the role of systems and platforms to discover useful talents, in order to better serve the building of a socialist country.
以改进的生态位适宜度模型,对连云港市主城边缘区2 000余个农居点用地斑块单元城镇化整治的适宜度进行评价。结果表明：研究区内适宜城镇化整治的农居点单元占45%;受道路引力、地形高程阻力等多种因素共同作用,农居点用地城镇化整治适宜度分布呈显著的集聚和突变特征。适宜城镇化改造的农居点单元集中分布在朝阳镇、海州经济开发区、花果山等少数乡镇（街道）内。距市区旅行成本10 min的等时线和地形高程为10 m的等高线,是适宜度显著分异的界线。位于界内的农居点用地城镇化整治适宜概率超过70%,界外适宜度概率不足30%。界内农居点用地可就地改造为城镇用地,界外农居点适宜保留现状或进行其他如向农业、林业发展的土地整治。由上述等时和等高两线形成的复合界线可作为研究区农村用地转化为城镇用地的分界线,为该区城乡资源优化配置和城市规模的发展提供指导。
Based on the reformed niche-fitness model theory,an evaluation method was developed to assess the urbanization suitability of over 2000 rural settlements sites around urban fringe zone of Lianyungang City. It is indicated that the sites suited for urbanization amount to 45%. Driven by various factors (such as gravity of road and terrain elevation resistance),the distribution of rural settlements urbanization suitability presents significant aggregation and mutation characteristics. The rural settlements that are suited for urbanization are mostly located in Huaguoshan, Chaoyang town and Haizhou economic development zone. The 10-minutes travel time cost line and the 10-meters contour line are two obvious lines which divided the suitability. The settlements located inside cost line area have 70% possibility of suitability for urbanization process, while the other merely have less than 30% possibility. The area inside the line which are suited for converting the rural settlements into urbanization, the other areas outside are suited for maintaining the status quo or being put into agricultural or forest usage. The composite line formed by two lines can be used as the "Red Line" of urban expansion in the study area, offering the limited scale on the development of the urban and the optimization allocation of urban-rural resource development.
Urban growth boundary (UGB) is an important tool to manage urban growth and control cities sprawl, but how to identify scientifically the urban growth boundary for a city has always been a technical problem. In order to address this issue, this article developed an approach to determine the urban growth boundary based on the hydrological risk. This method combines the Cellular Automata Model (CA ) and Soil Conservation Service Model(SCS). CA model is used to simulate the city expansion in different scenarios. Impervious area is extracted from CA simulation results, which is as the key parameters of the SCS model. the SCS model is use to assess the inudation area and hydrological risk. Finally, urban growth boundary is determined based on controlling hydrological risk in certain scale. This research took Xinminzhou, Zhenjiang City as an example to identify the urban growth boundary. The results showed that the inundation area was up 15%, 28%, 43%, 56% and 62% of total area respectively, when the city simulated in different scenarios of 184 hm2, 300 hm2, 405 hm2, 494 hm2 and 572 hm2. Under the probable maximum precipitation, in order to reduce inundation risk in the city, It was suggested that the urban should be controlled within 500 hm2 based on comprehensive analysis. The approach integrating the CA and SCS model provides an useful tool to determine UGB, and decision-making on hydrological risk control and urban planning.
利用Scripps和GODAS（Global Ocean Data Assimilation System）月平均海温资料,NOAA（National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration）提供的逐月扩展重建海表温度资料以及中国气象局气象信息中心提供的中国753站逐日降水资料,分析了江南春雨的时空分布特征,通过SVD（Singular Value Decomposition）、时滞相关方法从预报的角度对西太平洋暖池区海表温度和热含量与江南春雨的关系进行对比分析。结果表明：近50 a江南春雨空间分布的主要模态为全区一致型分布,其次为南北反向型,第三模态表现为东西反向型;西太平洋暖池区热含量与江南春雨强度的关系比海表温度更为密切,从相关区域的集中性、稳定性及相关显著性和预报超前性等方面综合考虑,推荐将热含量作为预报江南春雨的首要因子。热含量影响江南春雨的敏感海区位于4°N ~16°N,130°E~170°E,预报关键时段为前一年7~12月。
：In this article, the spatial and temporal distribution of SPR (Spring Persistent Rains) are analyzed first. Then, the correlations of heat content and sea surface temperature over the west pacific warm pool with SPR are discussed comparatively through methods of SVD (Singular Value Decomposition) and lag correlation from the predicting point of view. Data used in this work comes from Scripps and GODAS (Global Ocean Data Assimilation System) monthly mean sea temperature, the NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) ERSST (Extended Reconstructed Sea Surface Temperature) V3b, and precipitation from 753 Chinese meteorological stations. The results indicate that the typical pattern of annual SPR varies according to three principal modes in the last 50 years: the first mode changes in dry-wet consistency, the second with an opposite phase meridionally and the third with an opposite phase zonally. SPR and heat content are more correlated compared to sea surface temperature. It is suggested then, that heat content over western pacific warm pool can be selected as the chief factor predicting SPR when taking the centrality, stability, significance and predictability of the key regions into consideration comprehensively. The Key region(4°N~16°N,130°E~170°E) of heat content and the key period of time(July to December in the former year) which influences the intensity of SPR have been obtained respectively.
庞大的青藏高原不仅影响其周围的气候,也影响整个亚洲甚或全球的气候,而且本身还形成了独特的高原气候。但高原上气象观测站点极为稀少,降水资料奇缺,难以完整、深刻地认识高原降水的时空分布格局。选用热带降雨测量计划卫星（Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission,TRMM）3B43月尺度降水率数据,并根据114个气象站点数据与TRMM数据的差额和克里格球形插值模型对原数据进行了修正,克服了原数据低值高估、高值低估的问题,并以此分析了青藏高原1998~2011年的多年平均降水的空间格局与季节分布特征。研究结果证实了青藏高原降水的空间格局呈现自东南向西北递减、自南向北逐渐减少的基本分布规律,包括喜马拉雅山北坡雨影区、高原西北部“寒旱核心”的存在;还发现了一些新的规律,包括阿里喀喇昆仑山少雨区、高原腹地相对湿润区、横断山脉中心相对干旱区等。高原降水的季节分配不均匀,其中,西、北部春（3~5月）、秋（9~11月）和冬（12~2月）的降水占全年降水比例均为20%~30%,夏季（6~8月）降水稍多,比例为30%~40%;东南部降水主要集中在夏季,比例高达40%~60%,春、秋降水比例为20%~30%,冬季降水比例低于10%。
As the highest plateau on the Earth, the Tibetan Plateau influences the climate of its adjacent regions and even the whole Asia or the whole world. However, knowledge on its precipitation pattern is very limited due to the sparsely distributed rain gauges, especially in its western part. Besides, the plateau is geomorphologically complicated, making it even harder to carry out conventional meteorological observations. Satellite data for precipitation estimation has the advantage of full spatial coverage and can be used to solve the problem of climatic data shortage. In this article, the 0.25-degree resolution Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) 3B43 product from 1998 to 2011 was analyzed to depict spatial and seasonal precipitation patterns over the plateau. But, TRMM 3B43 data often overestimate the amount of rainfall in the arid areas and underestimate rainfall in the extremely humid regions. Kriging interpolation method was chosen to improve the accuracy of TRMM data based on the difference between observational and TRMM-derived data. The results confirmed the generally recognized spatial patterns of precipitation decreasing from southeast to northwest and from south to north, the existence of rain shadow in the northern flank of the Himalaya Mountains and the cold-arid core of the Eurasia. Some new spatial patterns of precipitation were also revealed, such as the dry region in the Ali-Karakoram Mountains, a relatively humid region in the heartland of the plateau and a comparatively arid region in the central part of the Hengduan Mountains. Seasonal patterns of precipitation in the Tibetan Plateau vary greatly from southeast to northwest. The ratios of precipitation in Spring (from March to May), Autumn (from September to November) and Winter (from December to February) to annual precipitation are all 20~30% in the northwest of the plateau, while the ratio for Summer (from June to August) is 30%~40%, a little more than that in other seasons. In the southeast, precipitation occurs mainly in summer (40%~60%), some in spring and autumn (20%~30% each), and less in winter (lower than 10%).
基于中国160站的逐月降水观测资料及NOAA扩展重建的海表温度资料,从1951~2012年逐月的历史时间序列中提取出准2 a振荡（TBO）分量,对中国江南地区春季（3~5月）降水的TBO特征及其与热带海温的关系进行了分析。结果发现：① TBO为江南春季降水最主要的年际周期,TBO分量的方差贡献占到原始序列的52.2%。② 江南春季降水与热带海温异常存在明显的时滞关系,其TBO分量与前期Nino3.4区和印度洋海表面温度距平（SSTa）的相关较原始序列更为显著,且持续时间更长,说明热带海温异常对江南春季降水TBO分量的影响是非常显著的。③ 江南春季降水TBO与Nino3.4指数的时滞关系还呈现出显著的年代际转折,20世纪80年代中期之前,江南春季降水TBO分量与Nino3.4指数在滞后1~11个月内都表现出明显的正相关关系,但从80年代中期至90年代末期这种时滞关系减弱,直至21世纪以来,江南春季降水TBO与Nino3.4指数的时滞关系又重新建立。④ 通过对比分析年代际转折前后与江南春季降水TBO循环所对应的热带海温演变特征,发现在20世纪80年代中期之前,TBO分量与超前1个季节的赤道中东太平洋海温异常演变具有同步性,使得两者之间的正相关关系稳定;而1986~1999年期间,无论是赤道中东太平洋地区或者印度洋地区海温的演变,都没有表现出像之前类似的TBO循环特征,从而导致两者的相关关系减弱。也就是说,江南春季降水的TBO与中东太平洋海温时滞关系的年代际转折与赤道中东太平洋海温是否具有显著的TBO周期密切相关。
Based on the 160 stations precipitation data in China and NOAA extended reconstructed SST v3b data, this article focuses on the interannual component of the tropospheric biennial oscillation (TBO), which is extracted from the original time series of monthly precipitation over southeast China in MAM from 1951 to 2012, and its relationships with the tropical sea surface temperature (SST) anomaly. It is found that: 1) As the major interannual period of the precipitation over southeast China in MAM, the variance contribution of TBO accounts for 52.2% of the original time series. 2) The time-lag correlations between the TBO of the precipitation over southeast China in MAM and SST anomaly in Nino3.4 area and Indian Ocean are more significant than its original time series, with longer correlation duration. It is indicated that the tropical SST anomaly has much significantly influence on the TBO component. 3) The time-lag correlation between them also presents the interdecadal transition. Before the middle of the 1980s, the positive time-lag correlations between the Nino3.4 index and the TBO component with lagging 1 to 11 months were obvious, while the relationships were reducing and the TBO and ENSO were practically unrelated to each other until 21st century, and the positive time-lag correlations between them were rebuilt again. 4) In the TBO cycle of the precipitation over southeast China in MAM, the evolution of tropical central and eastern Pacific SST anomaly with leading 3 months is synchronous with the TBO before the middle of the 1980s, which made the stably positive correlations between them. During 1986-1999, however, whether the tropical central and eastern Pacific SST or Indian Ocean SST, their evolutions were not presenting the characteristics similar to the TBO cycle before 1985, resulting in the correlation between them weakening. In other words, the interdecadal transition of the relationship between the TBO of precipitation over southeast China in MAM and the tropical SST anomaly is closely related to whether the SST evolution in Nino 3.4 area has the significant TBO period in the interannual time series.
以北京市通州区凤港减河典型污灌农用地为研究对象,分析了污灌对耕作土壤中Cd、Cu、Zn和Pb的全量与形态分布特征的影响。结果表明：① 土壤中Cu、Zn和Pb的含量均低于WHO(World Health Organization)限值,Cd的含量明显高于WHO限值。然而,4种重金属的污染负载指数（PLI为1.49~4.54）均高于1,其中Cd的PLI值最高,表明长期污灌已经导致耕作土壤中重金属的积累;② 总体来看,随土壤深度的增加,重金属含量呈先减少,后增加的趋势。距离灌渠越远,土壤中重金属含量越少;③ 土壤中Cu、Zn和Pb主要以残余态和有机结合态形式存在,其次是铁锰氧化态,碳酸盐结合态和离子交换态非常少。而土壤中Cd的碳酸盐结合态与离子交换态占有相当大的比例。4种重金属的生物可利用性次序为：Cd>Cu>Pb>Zn,且表土层高于底土层。同时,研究发现距离灌渠越近,表土层中Cd的生物可利用性越低。总的说来,污灌土壤中较高的Cd含量与其较高的生物可利用性对食品安全与人类健康构成了潜在风险。
In this study, distribution and chemical fractions of Cd, Cu, Zn and Pb in sewage-irrigated arable soils located in the sewage-irrigated farmlands of the Fenggangjian River in Tongzhou District of Beijing were investigated. The results showed that: 1) Cu, Zn and Pb concentrations in soils were below WHO limits, while Cd was obviously above the limit. However, due to long-term sewage irrigation, studied soil exhibited metals accumulation with their pollution load indices (1.49-4.54) above one, especially Cd with the highest PLI. 2) On the whole, with soil depth rising, total contents of four metals presented firstly decreasing, then increasing trends. For metal fractions, Cu, Zn and Pb were predominantly associated with residual and organic fraction, followed by Fe/Mn oxide, and very small proportion of carbonate and exchangeable fraction, whereas, the carbonate and exchangeable fractions of Cd accounted for considerable proportion. Their mobility and bioavailability followed the sequence: Cd>Cu>Pb>Zn. Besides, in topsoils, their bioavailability was higher than that of subsoils. 3) Generally, the contents of heavy metals in soils showed a decreasing trend with the increment of the distance from the irrigation channel. Also, it was observed that the arable soils closer to the irrigation channel showed the lower Cd bioavailability in topsoils. Therefore, higher Cd contents and its higher bioavailability in sewage-irrigated soils might constitute potential risk on food security and human health.
应用R语言rioja软件包的加权平均(Weighted Averaging,WA)和加权平均偏最小二乘（Weighted Averaging Partial Least Squares,WA-PLS）模型建立了长白山区泥炭藓泥炭地有壳变形虫与水位埋深（depth to water table,DWT）、pH和泥炭湿度的转换函数,为古环境定量重建奠定了基础,也提供了rioja软件包应用的实例和参考。结果表明水位埋深以WA-PLS模型最佳（预测均方根误差RMSEP为7.39 cm,R2=0.74）;对于pH和泥炭湿度,WA-PLS第一分量和WA.inv都产生了最小的RMSEP和较高的R2值。pH的RMSEP为0.18,R2为0.72。泥炭湿度的RMSEP为1.95%,R2为0.62。如果泥炭剖面的有壳变形虫种类组成与本研究的训练样本集相同,水位埋深、pH和泥炭湿度可以分别以±7.39 cm、±0.18和±1.95%的平均误差进行重建。
R language, as an open source programming language and software environment, is widely used in statistics for its free availability. The ‘rioja’ package of R specially deals with the analysis of Quaternary science data, containing functions for constrained clustering, transfer functions and plotting stratigraphic data. Testate amoebae are a group of unicellular protists living in terrestrial habitats. Their decayed resistant and morphologically diagnostic shells (tests) allow them to be extensive used as proxy in peat based paleoenvironmental reconstruction. This study aimed to: ① Present an example of application of ‘rioja’ package; ② build Testate amoeba-based transfer functions for quantitatively reconstructing paleoenvironment changes in Changbai Mountains with peat archive. The training set was constituted by 75 samples collected from four peatlands, Hani(42°12′50″N, 126°31′05″E), Jinchuan(42°20′47″N, 126°21′35″E), Chichi(42°03′16″N,128°03′22″E) and Yuanchi(42°01′55″N,128°25′58″E), in Changbai Mountains, northeast China. Three factors, depth to water table (DWT), pH and peat moisture, were selected as the target environmental variables. The models of Weighted Averaging (WA) and Weighted Averaging Partial Least Squares (WA-PLS) were used to build transfer functions. Leave-one-out was chosen as cross validation method. The results showed that the second component of WA-PLS is the best models for DWT producing a RMSEP of 7.39 and R2 of 0.74. For pH and peat moisture, both first component of WA-PLS and WA with inverse deshrinking could be regarded as the best models for they have the lowest RMSEP and relatively higher R2. The RMSEP of pH is 0.18 and R2 is 0.72, while for peat moisture RMSEP is1.95% and R2 is 0.62. The performances of the transfer function were comparable with other studies in the world. DWT, pH and peat moisture could be quantitive reconstructed with the mean errors of ±7.39 cm, ±0.18 and ±1.95%, respectively, if Testate amoebae assemblage of profiles was the same as the training set in this study.