从金融服务的渗透度、使用度、效用度3个维度构建了省域尺度金融排斥的综合评价指标体系,借鉴人类发展指数的计算方法,对广东省2002年、2007年和2012年市际单元的金融排斥度进行综合评价;并结合ArcGIS的空间分析模块,对广东省市际金融排斥度的空间格局演化进行探讨。研究表明：① 广东省金融排斥度的市际差异大且相对稳定,珠三角的金融排斥度远远低于外围区;② 市际金融排斥度呈现显著的空间相关性和空间集聚特征,珠三角与外围区的金融排斥度空间差异显著,且演变格局基本保持稳定态势;③ 广东省金融排斥度区域差异格局演化受金融供给主体的战略选择、实体经济发展的客观需求、政府经济行为的诱导、社会文化与制度等多种因素相互作用影响。
Regarding the three dimensions of penetration, usage and effectiveness of financial services, we constructed a comprehensive evaluation index system of financial exclusion and measured the intercity financial exclusion in Guangdong Province of China in 2002, 2007 and 2012 respectively by using Human Development Index, and then analyzed the spatial pattern of its evolution by integrating the ArcGIS spatial analysis mode. The research showed that: 1) While the disparity of intercity financial exclusion in Guangdong was large, and relatively stable, the financial exclusion was far lower in the Zhujiang River Delta than the surrounding areas; 2) The intercity financial exclusion showed significant spatial correlation and spatial gathering characteristics, with obvious spatial disparity between the Zhujiang River Delta and the surrounding areas and basically stable evolutionary pattern. 3) The evolution pattern of financial exclusion disparity in Guangdong was affected by many interacting factors such as the strategy of the financial provider, the objective demand of the real economy development, the guidance of government economic behavior, social culture and institutions etc. This article argues, to reduce the financial exclusion, what is important is to speed up the regional economic development, reinforce governmental regulation, to develop micro-finance, and to cultivate good institutional and cultural environment.
综合比较11个集中连片特困区的贫困程度对于更好地实施连片特困区区域发展与扶贫攻坚战略十分重要。基于“发展”与“贫困”之间的对应关系,通过构建涵盖经济、社会和生态3个维度24项指标的综合发展指标体系,测算和比较分析了11个集中连片特困区的贫困程度。结果表明：① 在经济、社会和生态3个维度中,11个集中连片特困区的经济发展严重滞后,经济贫困相对更为突出,社会服务有所改善,但仍然十分落后,生态条件较好、生态负荷较小,但生态脆弱性不容忽视;② 11个集中连片特困区的贫困程度在空间上呈“东部-北部-西南部”走向依次递增的特征,西南腹地是中国贫困的“重灾区”;③ 11个集中连片特困区在人均GDP、人均财政收入、农村居民人均纯收入、平均受教育年限、万人科技人员数等反映经济发展水平和区域自我发展能力的指标上较为相似,但在建制村硬化公路通达率、人口密度、九年义务教育巩固率、村卫生室普及率和青壮年文盲率等表征社会公共服务的指标上具有明显差异。
It is very important that to know the poverty degrees of the 11 Contiguous Destitute Areas in China for implementing the Contiguous Destitute Areas′ development and poverty alleviation strategy effectively. As development and poverty are the two sides of a coin, moreover, the development connotation has broadened from economic growth to comprehensive development and the poverty domain enlarged from single dimension to multi-dimensions, this article adopts a new way to assess poverty from the perspective of comprehensive development. Firstly, the author constructed a comprehensive development index system which covered 24 indicators of economic development, social service and ecological environment. Then, assessed and compared the poverty degrees of the 11 Contiguous Destitute Areas. The results showed that: 1) Among of the three dimensions of economic development, social service and ecological environment, economic development performance was the worst and became the poorest dimension of the 11 Contiguous Destitute Areas in China at present, the performance of social service had improved but still very poor, the ecological endowment was rich and ecological pressure was low so far, but the ecology was rather fragile and needed to pay more attention to it ; 2)The spatial distribution characteristics of poverty degree were that the poverty degree of Contiguous Destitute Area was more and more serious from eastern part to northern part and to southwestern part gradually, and southwestern hinterland was the poorest area of China, where covered 5 Contiguous Destitute Areas such as Wuling Mountain Area, Qinba Mountain Area, Wumeng Mountain Area, Border Area of Western Yunan and Rocky Desertification Area of Yunan, Guizhou and Guangxi, in these areas, there were lots of poor families and the poor degree was the most serious one; 3) Besides some common characteristics of the indicators which revealed the economic development level and regional self-development ability such as per capita GDP, per capita revenue, rural per capita net income, average years of education and scientific and technical personnel number in ten thousand people, there were obvious differences of indicators such as cement road ratio of administrative village, population density, nine-year compulsory education achievement ratio, village clinic coverage ratio and illiteracy rate of young adults among the 11 Contiguous Destitute Areas.
Tourism destination networks have been the key field of tourism destination studies. They refer to certain network structures of the industrial sectors, organizations, governments, residents and tourists et al., that focus on the tourism activities inside or outside of destination, which is attached by some relations. The relations are built on tourism value chain, which contain tourist flow, capitals, information, technologies, products et al. The relations may be horizontal or vertical, formal or informal, short or long. Thus, the networks could be the lens of destination development, how the tourism destination network evolved is vital to understand the multiple actors in the destination to be a complex, pluralistic, intersectional and overlapping destination tourism industry system. Based on the theories of resort lifecycle and social network, this article takes MT. Hungshan Scenic Area and Tangkou Town (the tourist reception center of MT. Huangshan) as the subjects. After defining and classifying the actors and relations, collecting data from various sources, this paper analyzes the changes of networks and the impact effect in MT. Hungshan Scenic Area and Tangkou Town, and divides their development process into 5 stages, which are Temple management models, Foreign affairs and the hospitality model, Government leading development model, Stock enterprise management model, Multi-actors community participation model, and then draws and analyzes the characters of the network structures, and then tries to reveal the process and mechanics of destination network evolution. It points out that the networks have been going through a series of 'no connection networks', 'government-sponsored star-shaped networks', 'government and community double-drive networks' and 'multi levels elements networks that the communities participated extensively', as the strengthening of communities power in the future, this paper proclaims that the Huangshan tourism destination network would enter into an era of community-sponsored destination networks, and the capacity of sustainable development has been further enhanced. In addition, this paper assigns the evolution of the networks to the life-cycle stages, policy and planning adjustment, location and transport, local culture and path dependence.
With the development of the new economic geography, spatial structure study of regional innovation becomes more and more important. Using the methods of exploratory spatial data analysis（ESDA）and spatial analysis software Geoda, the article analyzes the spatial distribution of innovation outputs in China, measured by the number of patent applications examined, throughout 341 prefecture-level cities from 1997 to 2009 of China. A significantly high level of spatial concentration and regional difference of innovation outputs among Chinese cities has been captured by the exploratory spatial data analysis, and the concentration level has increased steadily over the past years. Different from the significant polarization characteristics of innovation within the provincial spatial scale regions, prefecture level regional innovation showing a diversity local spatial dependent model. On the whole, the output of innovation in the prefecture level spatial scales naturally formed two distinct spatial clusters, named the eastern H-H cluster and the western L-L cluster. The eastern H-H cluster gradually transferred to the Shandong Peninsula, the Huanghe River Delta and the Zhujiang River Delta from the northeast and North China in the study period, while the western L-L cluster spatial development maintains relatively stable. The H-L clusters and L-H clusters are mainly distributed in the middle and join area, which shows an obvious characteristic of transition. This study can provide a scientific basis for the spatial correlation of innovation outputs among prefecture-level cities, and reflects the knowledge spillover and its spatial limitations of regional innovation which make a significant contribution to the evolution of Spatial-temporal pattern of innovation in China. Finally, on the basis of empirical analysis, policy suggestions and future research direction are proposed.
：Rural-to-urban migration has been research hotspots since the 1950s. Perspectives of migration research diversify from econometric model to application of social theory during the last sixty years. Most of researches focus on regional migration and migrant workers′integration into urban life from city perspective.Up to now, few studies pay attention to rural residents′intention of migrating to towns. Recently the "new-type national urbanization plan (2014-2020)" reemphasizes on people-oriented basic urbanization ideas. In the realistic context of difficult integration of floating population into the city, increasing value of agricultural land and added assets, increasing volume of agricultural land transfer of use right, it is of great significance to analyze rural residents′ migration intention and its influencing factors from a bottom-up perspective. It also has far-reaching influence for the potentiality of future urbanization and the choice of urbanization path. In this article,Zhoukou in Henan Province is taken as a research example, rural residents′intention of migrating to town and its influencing factors are analyzed. Logit econometric model is utilized to study the influences on rural residents′migration intention of rural residents′attributes and comprehensive evaluation of urban environment. Altogether 514 questionnaires samples were collected from 17 traditional agricultural villages distributed in 10 administrative unit of county level.There are two important findings: 1) There is an obvious relationship between rural residents′ attributes and migration intention. The results show that three groups are more inclined to migrate to town, who are under 40, graduated from high school ortechnical school and have annual income over 30000 RMBS.2) The satisfaction evaluation of urban comprehensive environment has a strong influence onrural residents’ migration intention. Teach quality,consumption service andemployment opportunities of urban environmental factors are more important to rural residents than medical care and urban appearance.Finally, the following suggestions helpful to promote traditional agricultural areas′sustainable urbanization process are given according to rural residents′migration influencing factors.1) Promoting those urban functions of education quality, business services and employment opportunities to create a more attractive environment for rural residents′ settlement in towns.2)Strengthening rural residents′ training of technical skills and improve their ability to afford the cost of urban life.3) Improving the institutional environment to push forward rural residents′ migration into towns, such as hukou system, family planning, rural land transfer, housing security and public services.4) Improving the invest and life environment to attract those migrant workers′ returning and starting ventures to enhance the degree of local urbanization; 5) Choosing suburban locations as ideal places for constructing new rural communities to guide rural residents′ smooth local urbanization.
通过构建水体旅游地游客感知测度模型,以南京市3处不同类型水体旅游地为案例进行实证分析,研究表明：① 3处案例地不同的样本间结构变量与观测变量均有较为一致的表现,所构建模型具有较强的解释力。② 水体旅游地的游客满意度对游客忠诚度有显著正向影响,即满意度直接影响游客的重游意愿和推荐意愿,而影响游客满意度的多个因素中最重要的是旅游资源感知。③ 区位条件对游客感知差异的影响不显著,改善交通状况、挖掘主题与特色均有助于提升游客满意度,水体水质被破坏将严重降低游客满意度,人文风貌、水文景观是水体旅游资源的核心要素。④ 性别、游客来源地对游客感知差异的影响均不显著,社会阶层较高群体的游客满意度及忠诚度要低于社会阶层较低群体。
Learning tourist perception has important implications for system construction of sustainable development of water tourism destinations. This article constructs tourist perception measurement model in water tourism destinations and conducts empirical analysis of three different water tourism destinations in Nanjing. The study implies that: 1) Different structural variables are fairly consistent with observed variables in the three cases, showing the strong explanatory power of the constructed model. 2) Tourist satisfaction has a significant positive impact on tourist loyalty in water tourism destinations, that is, satisfaction directly affects the revisiting and recommending intention of tourists, and perception of tourism resources is the most important factor to affect tourist satisfaction. 3) Regional conditions have an insignificant influence on tourist perception differences. Improving traffic conditions and exploring tourism thematic features help to enhance tourist satisfaction. On the contrary, severely damaged water quality will lower tourist satisfaction. Human culture and hydrological landscape are core elements of water tourism resources. 4) The tourist gender and source have insignificant impacts on tourist perception differences, and the satisfaction and loyalty of higher social class groups are inferior to that of lower social class groups.
文学和旅游之间关系十分密切,以文学旅游地为切入点,运用定性研究方法分析了凤凰古城如何通过文学和旅游的影响实现其空间重构,得到结论如下：① 开发者的旅游开发行为迅速改变了凤凰的社会经济结构,在其旅游发展过程中,不同权力主体（政府、开发商、小成本经营者、旅游者等）之间的权力博弈实现了空间的“权力化”重构;② 以沈从文及其作品等为代表的湘西文学作品和旅游者的地方想象共同建构了凤凰古城的地方形象,文学和旅游的“邂逅”赋予凤凰诗性的想象空间,实现了凤凰古城诗性空间的构建;③ 权力空间和诗性空间的建构过程是相互影响的：权力空间的构建过程中包含了权力主体对诗性空间建构过程的运用;反之,诗性空间的建构过程也包含着不同权力主体对空间的利用和争夺,并受之影响。
Drawing on the qualitative research methods, especially the methods of observation, interview, and textual analysis, this article focuses on the study of the ancient town of Fenghuang. This article concerns on its space “encountering” between tourism and literature and analyzes how Fenghuang achieves its space reconstruction through the interaction between them. Based on the conceptual understanding of space that is proposed by Henry Lefebvre, Edward Soja, and David Harvey, this article discusses the process of space (re)construction in Fenghuang, including how “the material space” (re)produces “the conceived space” or/and “the space of power” which is governed by the power from the principal parts, and how it construct the “poetic space” which affected by human behavior in social practice. These findings indicate that: 1) the development of tourism changes the socio-economic structure of Fenghuang rapidly, and then the focus of its spatial attributes shifts after that, through which it achieves the reconstructing process from the original ecology of the paradise-like substances to the space full of power games. In this process, the local government and the developers have played the pivotal roles, in which they integrated and reproduced the space of Fenghuang and (re)constructed it as a “space of power” through their negotiations and gaming with civilians, retail managers and tourists. 2) Accompanied with tourists’ geographical imaginations, Shen Congwen, and his literary have constructed the ‘real’ images of Fenghuang. This process achieves the “poetical” construction of Fenghuang through which both the labels of literary tourist destination are produced and the “poetical” constructed space which is consumed by tourists through an imaginative way. 3) The (re)construction process of “space of power” and “poetic space” interacts with each other. The construction of the “poetic space” is included in the process of the construction of space of power; on the contrary, the construction of space of power is also affecting the construction of the “poetic space”. Literary promotes the development of tourism, and on the contrary, the development of tourism affects the image of tourists’ imaginations directly and indirectly. On the basis of these findings, we can conclude that the space (re)construction of Fenghuang is affected by the literary and tourism through which the material space of Fenghuang is viewed as space of literary destination with the attributes of materiality, scope of power, and symbolism. As an entry point, literary tourism is explored in this study, which on the one hand enriches the understanding of the meaning of space, and expands the existing theories of space construction; on the other hand, it develops a positive value and significance for tourists’ behavior, tourism developing and other researches.
人居环境作为人地关系研究的古老而又全新领域,伴随着中国城市化与工业化进程中的环境问题备受地理、建筑、城市规划等学科关注。利用文献计量方法梳理国内地理学16种期刊刊发的180篇有关人居环境研究论文,发现国内研究：① 起步晚、发展缓慢,高层次研究成果少且增长慢,以城市内部实证研究为主、理论研究较少;② 研究领域主要集中在人居环境的内涵与外延、城市或乡村人居环境评价指标体系与模型、宏观尺度地理环境的宜居性与中观层面城市人居环境分异及其理想模式构建和微观社区单元综合居住环境评价及规划实践等;③ 综合集成研究的方法体系探索尚未取得突破,当前常用方法中PSR模型和DPSIR模型主要以机理解析为目标,实体指标与主体问卷调查心理指标及经济学方法旨在确定人居环境评判标准体系,当然GIS空间聚类也成为近年运用热点。
根据阿克苏河流域及其周边区域9个站点1960~2010年日降水资料,以降水距平百分率(Pa)指数表征气象干旱状况,构建了3种Archimedean Copula函数,通过4种方法(RMSE、AIC、BIC、Bayes)的检验,选出GH Copula作为最合适多变量干旱特征联合分布函数,并开展了研究区干旱特征两变量联合分布及重现期研究。结果表明：① 3种Archimedean Copula函数中GH Copula函数对研究区域干旱联合重现期分布的拟合效果最优;② 研究区整体上干旱风险较大,东部比西部干旱风险高,南部高于北部;③ 发生中等干旱和严重干旱时,阿拉尔和柯坪干旱风险增大,整体上“且”与“或”联合重现期的分布大体一致,发生长历时干旱时,干旱的严重程度也大,说明此区域的干旱特征对开展风险管理及应对很不利。
Based on the daily precipitation data of 9 meteorological stations within and around the Aksu River Basin from 1960 to 2010, the distribution function of drought duration and drought severity were analyzed using Pa index by Curve fitting method and the Run theory. Though 4 statistical methods（eg.RMSE、AIC、BIC and Bayes）, 3 kinds of Archimedean Copula were respectively employed to describe the joint distribution of the two drought characteristics variables. Finally, the spatial distribution status of the drought return periods of the 9 meteorologic stations were analyzed. The results are shown as follows. 1) To describe the joint distribution , the fitting effect of GH Copula is the best, Frank Copula’s is following. When using the curve fitting method to get the distribution function of drought duration, we can define the empirical frequency formula as experience frequency of the two-dimensional Copula function edge distribution. It can make the analysis based on the frequency of Copula function's result more objective and reliable. 2) The drought risk across the Aksu River Basin is very high. The estern and southern drought risk are higher than the western and northern. 3) The results also show that long-lasting droughts are highly probably the severe droughts. The results can provide theoretical support for the basin drought risk response and mitigation.
Watershed hydrological cycle has been changed along with the intensifying frequency of extreme water events due to the influence of climate change and human activities. Poyang Lake, the largest freshwater lake in China, is a lake naturally connected with the Changjiang River. The complicated river-lake interactions impact the hydrological rhythm of lake, which will further influence water security associated with flood control, drinking water usage, water pollution and water ecology in the lake basin. In the case, it is of great importance for maintaining watershed water security to understand the characteristics of hydrological rhythm variation in terms of river-lake interactions. In this study, temporal variation of hydrological rhythm in Poyang Lake and the associated water exchange with the Changjiang River were analyzed based on the measured hydrological data of 4 gauge stations in Poyang Lake area along with other data from the Hukou station at the intersection between the Changjiang River and Poyang Lake in 1951-2011. The major findings are shown as follows: the span of dry season increased since water level remains low in November and April. Meanwhile, the span of flood season decreased in 2000s. The lower water level in rising season and retreating season make Poyang Lake rising later but falling earlier than they did in 1980-2002, thus shortening the conversion time of the lake from flood situation to dry situation. Further, the peak flow in the annual hydrograph has been shifted. The primary cause of hydrological rhythm variation is the water exchange between the main stream of the Changjiang River and Poyang Lake. In 2000s, changes in the water level of the Changjiang River altered the interaction between the river and Poyang Lake through the slope of water surface, disturbing the lake basin hydrological processes and resulted in disordering of hydrological rhythm in Poyang Lake. The increasing discharge from the lake to the river in retreating season lead to the lake enter dry season earlier. And the declining water level of Changjiang River in rising season lead to the addition of lake water continued to leak river, thus the lake rose slowly. For the reasons given above, the variation of water supplement of Poyang Lake on the Changjiang River mainstream in 2000s altered the hydrological rhythm in Poyang Lake. Results of this study improve our understanding of Poyang Lake hydrological rhythm consequences of river-lake relationship changes, and it provides knowledge for long-term planning for effectively restoring nature's innate rhythms for sustainability and productivity in the Poyang Lake Basin. In addition, the results will help further explore the coordinate and healthy river-lake relationships.
利用东北地区104个气象站1991~2010年观测资料和70个测风塔2009年6月~2010年5月测风资料,进行了风能资源空间分布特征分析,并利用中尺度模式WRF进行风能资源空间模拟,以研究观测站点稀少地区的风能资源分布特征。研究结果表明：① 东北地区气象站和测风塔揭示的大风区域主要分布在平原和丘陵的高海拔地带。② 中尺度模式WRF能够较好地模拟东北区域风速分布的气候特征,模拟结果既反映出平原大面积的大风区域,也可反映出山区因地形起伏造成的风速空间分布差异。③ 对风能资源参数模拟结果进行海拔高度订正,可以进一步提高模式计算结果的准确性和可靠性。④ 松嫩平原、辽河平原、三江平原70 m高度年平均风功率密度在300~500 W/m2之间,属于风能资源可利用区或较丰富区;在辽宁省西部、吉林省中部和黑龙江省中部丘陵以及东北地区东南部的呈东北-西南走向的中高山区的70 m年平均风功率密度可达300 W/m2以上,局部地方可达500 W/m2以上,风能资源丰富。
The data of 104 meteorological stations during 1991-2010 and the data of 70 wind towers from June 2009 to May 2010 in Northeast China were used to study the spatially distributing laws of wind energy resources, and the numerical simulation WRF were applied to simulate the spatially distribution of wind energy resources. The results showed that: 1) The strong wind regions that the observation data of meteorological stations and wind towers revealed is mainly distributed in plains and high mountains . 2) The mesoscale numerical weather prediction system WRF model performs well in the simulated the wind speed distribution in Northeast China, and the large-scale strong wind regions in plains and the spatial distribution differences of wind speed caused by the mountainous terrain can be simulated. 3) The simulated results of wind energy resource parameters have been corrected with aititude to further improve the accuracy and reliability.4) The annual wind energy density of 70 m in Songnen plain, the Liaohe plain and the Sanjiang plain is between 300-500 W/m2 which belong to the regions of available or relatively abundant, and that on the hills of the west of Liaoning Province ,the middle of Jilin and Heilongjiang Province and in mountain areas of the southeast in Northeast China is above 300 W/m2, and in parts of mountain areas is above 500 W/m2, belong to the abundant areas of wind energy resources.
This article takes Yunyang County of Chongqing, which is located in the hinterland of the Three Reservoir Area, as a case study area. And based on the Costanza’ study theories and ecosystem service value coefficient set by Xie Gaodi, correction coefficient of ecosystem service value in different land-use types is constructed, such as paddy field, dry land, woodland, shrub land, other woodland, garden, construction land and other land, and then a quantitative analysis of the ecological effects of ecological barrier zone in land use planning is made from the aspects of ecosystem service value and landscape pattern. The results can be shown in the following aspects: land use planning, guided by ecological functional construction, can develop the ecosystem service value of ecological barrier zone rapidly, and strengthen the ability to adjust climate, maintain land soil, and protect biological diversity. The whole ecosystem service value in Yunyang ecological barrier zone would be rising from 1.552 billons in 2010 to 1.998 billons in 2020, and average annual change rate would reach to 2.87%. In 2020, Yunyang County ecological barrier zone can be built a ecosystem service pattern, which is taking forest as the core land type, while cultivated land, garden, grassland as supplement. The ecosystem service value, regulation value and supporting value of ecological barrier zone in Yunhyang County have been shown an obvious spatial diversities. The ecosystem service value of the Modao River Basin has been rising largest, followed by the Pengxi River Basin, and the ecosystem service value of the Changjiang River has been maintained steadily, while little change has been in the Changtan River Basin. It should clarify the adjusting direction of land use structure and improve the scientific decision-making level in land use planning and ecological protection practice by making an evaluation of the structural adjustment of different land-use types and its ecological effects.
基于GTOP30 DEM数据及MODIS NDVI数据,应用小波变换和小波多尺度相关分析方法对蒙古高原地形因子、NDVI因子的尺度特征及两因子间的多尺度相关关系进行研究。结果表明：① DEM在北部地区的变异程度较南部强烈,在西部地区的变异程度较东部强烈。DEM的空间分布呈现出一个约为20 km的特征尺度。②NDVI空间分布格局的态势与DEM态势基本相同,且呈现出2个特征尺度,较小的特征尺度出现在2~4 km左右,较大的特征尺度出现在20 km左右。③ DEM与NDVI在20 km尺度上存在耦合关系,即随着地形地貌在20 km尺度上发生较大变化,植被生长状况的空间分布也随之发生变化。地形因子趋向于在宏观尺度上制约NDVI的空间分布。论文最后总结了小波分析方法在地学空间数据中具有特征尺度识别和多尺度耦合相关分析的能力,同时也指出了该方法在连续尺度分析、特点位置多尺度相关分析以及二维小波分析方面的不足。
As one of multi-scale analysis methods, wavelet analysis can effectively solve multi-scale problems in geo-sciences research. In order to effectively analyze the spatial distribution pattern and identify the multi-scale features of DEM and NDVI, four sampling lines were set up along the longitudinal and latitudinal transects (43°N, 47°N, 100°E, and 110°E). And then supported by wavelet transformation using db6 as wavelet base, the wavelet variances and multi-scale relationships of DEM and NDVI were calculated to identify the characteristic scale and analyze the coupling relationship between DEM and NDVI. The results showed: 1) In Mongolian Plateau, the spatial variations of DEM in northern and western parts were stronger than that in the southern and eastern parts. Along the latitudinal and longitudinal transects, there existed one characteristic scale around 20 km. 2) The spatial variations of NDVI was similar to that of DEM in the whole Mongolia Plateau. While two characteristic scales of NDVI distribution were identified, with a small scale of 2-4 km and a larger scale of 20 km. 3) As to the DEM and NDVI factor, there existed a coupling relationship in the 20 km scale. As a great change of the topography(DEM) had taken place in the specific scales, a large change of vegetation (NDVI)then occurred correspondingly. Generally, the terrain factors tended to affect the spatial distribution of NDVI in macroscopic scale, instead of microscopic scale. This article finally summarized that the wavelet analysis method had the abilities indeed to recognize the characteristic scale and to quantitatively analyze multi-scale correlation among different factors. At the same time, the authors also pointed out that the method had some incapacities for the two-dimension spatial data analyses, including continuous scale analysis, the multi-scale correlation analysis in a specific position and two-dimensional analysis.
博尔塔拉河流域位于中哈边境,其植被和土壤具有十分明显的垂直分布和区域性差异,根据该流域一条自西向东沿着海拔高度从210 m 到3 235 m 长约200多km的样带上所采集的人为干扰较少的49 个表土花粉样品的孢粉组合图式和现代植被样方调查资料,探讨了博尔塔拉河流域植被与表土花粉之间的关系。该区孢粉谱从上至下可划分为6个带,分别对应高山草甸带、亚高山草甸草原带、森林灌丛带、灌丛草原带、荒漠草原带、荒漠植被带。值得注意的是第6个孢粉带因含有具湿地特征的隐域性植被类型花粉组分,故又分成2个亚带,即荒漠植被亚带Ⅵ1和荒漠植被亚带Ⅵ2。森林灌丛植被带上限的云杉花粉含量明显比该带下限的含量高,表明云杉花粉的传播在沟谷地区受山谷风的影响较大。与此同时,将孢粉数据与气象数据相结合,分析结果得出比较有代表性的云杉属(Picea)、桦属(Betula)、藜科(Chenopodiaceae)、麻黄属(Ephedra)等花粉,与降水量和温度的关系较为密切。
：The Bortala River Basin is a distinct vertical gradient distribution area of vegetation and soil types at the arid region of the northwest China. According to the data of vegetation plots and pollen assemblages of 49 modern pollen samples,which were collected along an altitudinal gradient from 210 to 3 235 m belonging to the Bortala River Basin (Xinjiang, China), we analyzed the relationship between vegetation and surface pollen assemblages. The 49 surface samples were divided into six pollen zones (alpine meadow zone, subalpine meadow and steppe zone, forest-shrub zone, shrub steppe zone, desert steppe zone, desert vegetation zone) based on modern vegetation data and characteristics of the surface pollen spectra. Desert vegetation zone was separated into two subzones (desert vegetation subzone and desert with intrazonal vegetation subzone). The valley wind might help to improve the pollen transportation, but the percentages of Picea pollen in the upper limit of the forest-shrub zone were higher than those detected in the lower limit, suggesting that the upslope wind had a stronger impact on the transportation of Picea pollen than the downslope wind. Moreover, there was a good relationship between elevation, the climatic factors (temperature and precipitation) and the typical pollen taxa (Picea, Betula, Chenopodiaceae and Ephedra).
为了探讨氮沉降增加对苔原植被的影响,特别是对草本植物侵入苔原的作用,在长白山高山苔原带进行了连续4 a的人工氮沉降模拟实验,测定3种设定的氮沉降水平下牛皮杜鹃（Rhododendron chrysanthum）、笃斯越橘（Vaccinium uliginosum）和小叶章（Deyeuxia angustifolia）的生长状况和群落结构变化。研究结果表明：① 与牛皮杜鹃、笃斯越橘等苔原本地种相比,氮沉降量增加更有利于侵入的小叶章生长;牛皮杜鹃生长对氮沉降量变化响应微弱,氮沉降量增加能明显抑制笃斯越橘的生长。② 无小叶章侵入的牛皮杜鹃和笃斯越橘斑块在不同氮沉降量条件下,群落结构变化不明显,氮沉降增加不是小叶章侵入苔原带的直接原因。③ 在小叶章侵入牛皮杜鹃和笃斯越橘斑块后,氮沉降量增加强化了小叶章的竞争能力,逐渐取代牛皮杜鹃或笃斯越橘,成为优势种,推动高山苔原向高山草甸转化。因此,随着氮沉降量的不断增加,长白山苔原带将面临退化与草甸化。
In order to explore the effects of increased nitrogen deposition on alpine tundra vegetation change, especially the herb invasion, in Changbai Mountains, the experiments of simulated increased nitrogen deposition were conducted over four years in the alpine tundra zone of the Changbai Mountains. The experiment included three nitrogen deposition treatments. The changes of growth and community structure were measured for Rhododendron chrysanthum, Vaccinium uliginosum and Deyeuxia angustifolia. The main results were as follows: 1) Compared to the Rhododendron chrysanthum, Vaccinium uliginosum and other tundra native species, the increase of nitrogen deposition is more conducive to the growth of Deyeuxia angustifolia, it was no significant response to increase of nitrogen deposition for growth of Rhododendron chrysanthum, it was significantly suppressed by increase of nitrogen deposition for growth of Vaccinium uliginosum. 2) The structure of Rhododendron chrysanthum and Vaccinium uliginosum community with no Deyeuxia angustifolia invasion did not change obviously. That shows that the increase of nitrogen deposition is not the direct reason of invasion of Deyeuxia angustifolia to tundra communities. 3) When Deyeuxia angustifolia invades the Rhododendron chrysanthum and Vaccinium uliginosum community, the increased nitrogen deposition contributes to the competitive ability of Deyeuxia angustifolia. And it promotes the transformation of alpine tundra to alpine meadow. With the increasing amount of nitrogen deposition, the tundra zone of the Changbai Mountains may face degradation and transform into tundra meadow.
抽水试验是获取水文地质参数的重要方法,为准确获取辽河三角洲滨海湿地潜水含水层的渗透系数,进行了一个抽水孔、两个观测孔的抽水试验。根据单孔抽水试验和多孔抽水试验观测数据,采用潜水非完整井求参公式、巴布什金公式及积分变换等方法计算含水层渗透系数。结果表明,用不同方法计算得出的含水层渗透系数值相差不大。通过试验测定PJ01井组潜水含水层渗透系数为1.15 m/d,PJ03井组潜水含水层渗透系数为0.74 m/d。
Pumping test is an important way of obtaining the hydrogeological parameter. In order to exactly get the permeability coefficient of unconfined aquifer in coastal wetlands in Liaohe River Delta, we gave an extractive test on-site with one pumping well and two observation wells. According to the single hole pumping test and the porous pumping test data, we used the calculation formula non-complete well of dive, the Babushkin formula and the integral transform method to solve the permeability coefficient. The results showed that the value of the permeability coefficient getting by different method had little difference. By analyzing the experimental data,we determined the permeability coefficient of unconfined aquifer of PJ01 well group was 1.15 m/d,and the PJ03 well group was 0.74 m/d.