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CN 22-1124/P
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  • 地理科学
      2000年, 第20卷, 第6期 刊出日期:2000-11-20 上一期    下一期
    选择: 合并摘要 显示图片
    论文
    论我国区域发展与区域政策的地学基础
    陆大道, 刘卫东
    地理科学. 2000, (6): 487-493.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2000.06.487
    摘要   PDF (929KB)
    改革开放以来我国区域经济发展十分活跃,形成了地区差距不断扩大的局面。但这是众多因素共同作用的结果,并非是单纯的"政策说"可以完全解释的。其中,地学因素是基础性的影响因素。所谓地学因素指人地关系中的"地"要素以及人地相互作用所形成的空间结构基础;它对区域发展的影响是相对比较稳定和长久的。本文从强调地学因素在区域发展中的重要性和在国家制定区域政策中应起到的作用从这样一个角度出发,分析论述影响我国区域发展的地学因素,包括自然条件、区位因素、资源禀赋、生态环境和基础设施等。并基于对地学因素的分析提出我国区域发展总体战略的构想。
    Since the 1980s, economic development in China has been remarkably vigorous as a result of the smooth but continued opening and reform and the gradual development of a socialist market economy. Indeed, fast growth has been turbulently transforming the physical, social and economic structure of different regions, leading to increasing regional disparity of development. Issues related to regional disparity have been deeply concerned by both state and local policy-makers, and the whole society as well. At present, the Chinese central government is making great efforts to accelerate the development of the west region, with the hope of smoothing the gap between the west and the east. Regional development and disparity, however, are the result of handful factors, and can not be well understood by the sole policy explanation. Among these factors, geo-factors are fundamental. From the perspective of human-nature relation, geo-factors that effect regional development are the nature part in such a relation and the spatial structure resulted from the interaction between human activities and the nature, including natural conditions, location, endowment of natural resources, eco environment and infrastructures. Compared to economic factors, the geo-factors have a steady and prolonged impact on regional development. This paper analyses the regional features of geo-factors, stresses their functions in regional development and their significant role in policy making, and raises suggestions to future regional policy making based on such a geo-factors analysis.
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    中国与海洋邻国间海域划界问题的研究
    张耀光, 韩增林, 安筱鹏
    地理科学. 2000, (6): 494-502.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2000.06.494
    摘要   PDF (1773KB)
    根据我国的领海制度,中国专属经济区与大陆架法以及联合国海洋法公约的有关内容,研究划分我国与海洋邻国之间的海域管辖范围,从而维护我国的海洋权益。
    According to the concernings of China regime of territorial sea," the china exclusive economic zone and continental sheef law"and the United Nations convention on the Law of the Sea,this papers tudyres the delimit ation of the cuslodial scope of maritime space between China and other marine neighbouring countries,so as to defend the marine rights and interests of our country.This paper expounds the positions of the maritime rights and interests of china and neighbouring countries overally,the problems facing with the delimitation of China and marine heighbouring countriess the present trend of sea areas between countries and the principles of delimitation of our country's sea area; points out eact the essence of controversy of maritime rights and interests is for enlarging managerable maritime space, scrambling maritime resources; proposes our country's view of solving the controversy through shelving controversy and joint exploitation.
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    西部地区生态环境建设的若干问题与政策建议
    程国栋, 张志强, 李锐
    地理科学. 2000, (6): 503-510.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2000.06.503
    摘要   PDF (1189KB)
    西部地区是我国生态环境的脆弱地区,生态建设是西部地区开发建设必须首先研究和解决的一个重大问题。西部地区生态环境十分复杂,西北地区和西南地区的自然生态环境迥异、生态退化问题千差万别。对西部地区的生态环境的基本现状进行了评价,提出了生态环境建设的目标,分析了生态环境建设中面临的亟待研究和解决的科学、技术和社会经济问题,并提出了生态环境建设的若干政策建议。并特别指出,应充分发挥科技对生态建设的支撑作用,科学实施生态建设工程;必须采取基于不同生态经济类型区的自然生态环境特点和生态退化问题的分类指导的生态建设策略;建立西部地区生态安全体系,开展西部地区生态建设和环境保护立法,以实现西部地区生态环境与经济社会的协调可持续发展。
    West China goes across 10 provinces,with an area of about 5.43?106km2 and 2.85 ?108 population ,which accounts for 56.6% of the total area and 22.8% of the total population of China respectively, West China hasa vast area and is the most vulnerable ecological area. The natural geomorphology of Northwest China and Southwest China is widely different. The vulnerably ecological characteristics of West China are severe water and soil erosion, continually developed desertification, low vegetable coverage, increasingly degenerated grasslands, lack of water resource in Northwest China, frequently occurred landslide and mud-rock flow, and so on. Ecological construction is very important to the sustainable development of West China region.Based on the assessment of the eco-environmental status of West China, the issues that existed in the ecological construction and the urgent scientific, social and economic problems that needed to be solved are analyzed in this paper. The aim of ecological construction in West China is also put forward in the paper. In the end, the authors propose some proposals for the policy of the ecological construction in West China in the first half of the 21st century.
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    沙漠化成因机制及其治理的沙产业模式
    樊胜岳, 周立华
    地理科学. 2000, (6): 511-516.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2000.06.511
    摘要   PDF (751KB)
    我国土地沙漠化经过近半个世纪的研究与治理,目前沙漠化土地面积仍然正以每年2460 km2的速度扩展,而且还有加速扩大的趋势。这就要求我们对以往沙漠化的研究治理进行反思,寻找它的症结所在。现代沙漠化主要是由于人为过度经济活动对资源的破坏造成的,其根本原因是由于人口压力过大。而沙漠化治理措施恰恰没有从根本上解决这一问题。沙产业理论,将沙漠化的防治和发展经济密切结合起来,为我国的沙漠化防治和经济发展提供了一个崭新的思路和方法。
    Although the work of research and rehabilitation of land desertification in China have passed half a century, the desertified land, however, is still spreading at 2460km2 annually, and still have the trends of accelerating deterioration. Therefor we are required to look back the former research and rehabilitation work we have done, and to find the sticking point of land desertification. Contemporary desertification is caused mostly by undermine of human livelihoods to natural resource, and the essential reason is the excessive pressure of population. While the current instruments cannot resolve the key problem. The theory of deserticulture will combine the desertification prevention and cure with the economic development tightly, and will provide a brand-new method for the desertification prevention and cure and the economic development in China.
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    土壤环境变化与可持续发展
    龚子同, 陈鸿昭, 刘良梧, 骆国保
    地理科学. 2000, (6): 517-522.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2000.06.517
    摘要   PDF (1772KB)
    土壤环境的变化在短时间内是缓慢且不易察觉的,但是在地球历史的演化中,它留下了一丝丝印迹,这就是古土壤。它包含了当时环境的大量信息,是5大成土因素的综合产物。当人类出现后,尤其是近百年来在复杂的自然因素上又叠加了人为作用,并且这种作用的强度与日俱增。当它对土壤的影响超过其它作用后,便形成了人为土壤,同时,也可能引起土壤退化和土壤污染。这些变化同全球变化和社会持续发展密切相关。
    Environmental change of soils is an important component part of global change. The type of paleosols of China is diversified and has considerable difference in various regions. Environmental problem of soils is serious in the last 100 years and in future, which has directly impacts on the sustainable development of national economy in the 21st century. The present paper deals with historical evolution of soil mantle, change of soils in the last 100 years and the tendency of soil change in future. Environmental change of soils depends on natural factors and human activities and the latter plays more vital role with time. Of course, to study environmental change of soils acquires a deep understanding not only for the process of soil change, but also for the function of soil evolution. At the same time, it is necessary to estimate the status and quality of soil change, as well as its society, and to make a global or national strategy for harmony between soil environment and human activities.
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    中国环境生态形势的空间分异研究
    叶庆华
    地理科学. 2000, (6): 523-527.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2000.06.523
    摘要   PDF (594KB)
    在国内外环境生态形势研究的基础上,结合我国的环境生态形势特征,构建了我国环境生态形势的评价指标体系,以县域为单位,进行了自然、社会、经济多因素的综合性研究,定量计算出各县环境生态形势指标值,绘制成图。可见,我国危急环境生态形势主要分布在自然地理环境的过渡带和人类生产活动的不稳定带上(包括农牧交错带和不同行政单元的交界地带),这些地区表现出强烈的界面性和波动性。了解我国环境生态形势的空间分异规律可为区域环境的开发、利用和整治以及制订可持续发展战略提供参考。
    Based on the latest research on eco-environmental situation and analysis of the characteristics of eco-environmental situation in China with the principle of choosing index, a set of indices on the eco-environmental situations in China has been brought out. And the mathematical models for each index has been created. With the powerful systematic analytical tool, GIS, and data base management system, this thesis classifies each index, calculates their weight by county-level unit, and colligate them into a holistic map of the eco-environmental situations in China. Analysis from the map indicates that the serious eco-environmental situation is mainly distributed on the strap of geophysical transition and the lands used by unstable human activities-especially those places that farms and range lands inter-located or crossing lands between different administration units which show obvious characteristic of interface and undulation. The greatest critically ecological situation belt is situated on the second terrain between the eastern lower lands and the western higher plateau, which occupies from the northeast to the southwest. To the eastern and the southern areas of the belt, ecological situation is obviously better, especially those along the coastal zones. It will provide references to the policy makers and benefit regionally environmental exploration and utilization in the near future.
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    分形城市引力模型的一般形式和应用方法 ——关于城市体系空间作用的引力理论探讨
    刘继生, 陈彦光
    地理科学. 2000, (6): 528-533.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2000.06.528
    摘要   PDF (1164KB)
    基于分形思想和城市规模—产出关系推导出城市引力模型的一般形式Iij=GijMαiiMαjjR-bij,论证了参数αb的分维性质,并将引力系数定义为Gij=G|Rij|/(1+Sij),式中Riji、j两城市的相关系数,Sij为二者的相似系数,G为量纲转换系数。以长春城镇体系和郑、汴、洛点—轴系统为实例说明了模型的应用方法,并指出了城市引力数值的相对性特征。作者发现,城镇体系各要素的引力之和 ,在一定时空条件下满足位序—规模法则F(k)=F1K-q(k=1,2,…,n);这也表明,借助引力计算可以揭示城市体系某些隐含的地理规律。
    The theoretical foundation is laid and the applied methods are demonstrated for the gravitational models of fractal cities. The generalised urban gravitation expression is derived out as Iij=GijMαiiMαjjr-bij by means of the geographical fractal theory, especially, the city size-output relationship, y=CPα. The parameters, α and b, are made clear to have some meanings of fractal dimension, and the gravitational ceofficient is defined as Gij=GCiCj|Rij|/(1+Sij),where G is a dimensional transformation coefficient, C is a proportional coefficient, Rij is a coefficient of correlation, and Sij is a coefficient of similarity. The gravitational theory developed by the authors in the paper is applied to the urban system of Changchun in Jilin and the cities of Zhengzhou, Kaifeng,and Luoyang in Henan, China, to show how to use the gravitation models in practice, and based on the examples mentioned above, it is discovered that the resultant of gravitational forces between a city and each of the other cities in an urbon system conforms to the rank-size rule in due conditions, i.e., Fi(k)=F1k-q,where is rank, and F1 and q are parameters.
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    天津市民购物行为特征研究
    仵宗卿, 柴彦威, 张志斌
    地理科学. 2000, (6): 534-539.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2000.06.534
    摘要   PDF (840KB)
    以天津市民问卷调查的结果为基础,详细分析了天津市民购物出行的空间特征、频度特征、时间特征以及目的特征和出行方式特征,并分别对城市商业今后的发展提出了相应的规划和经营管理的指导性建议。
    In the study field of shopping behaviors in commercial geography, China is, in the whole, far behind the foreign countries, although its research on retail spatial networks, mainly based upon the location theory, has made great progress. In practice, most of today's Chinese retailers find themselves in the dilemma. The purchasing ability and shopping behaviors of urban residents are becoming important and crucial factors in the urban retail market, especially in the status quo of structural surplus in merchandise supplement,while the retailers' marketing ideas are still lagged in the times of traditional planned shortage economy. All of these push Chinese commercial geographers to make such research on the characteristics of shopping behaviors of urban residents in China. Initially, the authors, based upon the questionnaires for urban residential trip in Tianjin City, China, analyze and conclude the characteristics of shopping behaviors. Then, an aggregated shopping trip distance and the ring-shape structure of shopping activity space for different hierarchical commodities for Tianjin's residents are put forward. The ring-shape structure shows a tendency of distance-decay in the hierarchies of commodities. The shopping space for the hierarchy of food and vegetables from the consumers' family-sites is about 0.5 km, which is, to some degree, the spatial scope of neighborhood in China's cities; that of the goods of everyday use is about 1 km, indicating the servicing space of a community; that of the durable commodities is about 6 km, almost the distance of the mean spatial radium of Tianjin City, which indicates that residents have to prefer to inner City to purchase such commodities, especially for the residents in such City with a solo-core as Tianjin City. The authors make further study on the purchasing frequencies of different hierarchies of commodities, and find out that they show a positive relation with the shopping space as a whole, but the business suit and electronic appliances are not the case. The discrepancy reflects the scope economy in commodities with high hierarchy in high grade shopping centers, for both retailers and consumers. For the shopping time allocation, consumers in Tianjin City show two crests which concentrate from 9 am to 11am and from 3 pm to 7 pm respectively, although there are a few discrepancies between Sunday and Monday. For the constraints of noon break and night sleep, the periods from 1 pm and 2 pm and from midnight to daybreak see less consumers go out for shop. All of these is much different from Japanese urban consumers who can shop throughout the night and feel less constrained in the day time. Although multi-purpose shopping trip is an evident tendency in the West, more than 80 percent of Tianjian's consumers just shop for shopping. One-shopping-trip is the main mode for residents in Tianjin City to shop, and a possible explanation lies in the fact that 95 percent of consumers would rather shop on feet or by bicycles than shop by automobiles.Based upon the characteristics of shopping behaviors of Tianjin's residents, the authors bring out some suggestions and measures to government for urban commercial planning, and to retailers for marketing strategies.
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    干旱区绿洲可持续农业与农村 经济发展机制与模式研究——以新疆吐鲁番地区为例
    马彦琳
    地理科学. 2000, (6): 540-544.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2000.06.540
    摘要   PDF (225KB)
    机制和模式研究是SARD系统研究的核心.以吐鲁番地区为例研究了干旱区绿洲可持续农业与农村经济发展的机制问题,并深入分析了其发展趋势,提出了现阶段吐鲁番地区可持续农业和农村经济发展的模式,总结了微观的农户实践模式.
    As we know, sustainable agriculture and rural economy development (SARD) is a essential precondition and foundation for mankind sustainable development of economy and society. At present, study on SARD has been the focused point in the world. Study about mechanism and mode on oasis sustainable agriculture and rural economy development is key part of study on sustainable agriculture and rural economy development. Turpan basin, located in the east part of Xinjiang, is the most typical oasis area that is very famous for its climate of dry and heat and strong wind, then it is called fire region and wind storeroom". Talking of oasis agriculture, this area, teeming with many crops including cotton and grape and melon, is more typical. Having made a great progress in agriculture and rural economy since liberation, this area is also facing high pressure and challenge for its sustainable development. So taking Turpan basin as one case, studying mechanism and mode on oasis sustainable agriculture and rural economy development is a pressing work. Trough analyzing the situation of Turpan, the paper pointed out that there are some factors which influence the system of agriculture and rural economy development, mainly including government macro-adjustment factor, traditional institution and system, market factor, science and technology factor, peasant household behavior factor. It points out that at present institution factors is the most important one to change agriculture production structure and promote rural development in Turpan area. The change of agriculture production structure and rural economy during our government taking reform and open policy is the best witness. With deepening reform and enlarging open in China, the market system shall be set up gradually, then market factor will bring into playing more important role in promoting sustainable development of agriculture and rural economy in this area. Meanwhile effects on agriculture and rural development for science and technology factor , peasant household behavior factor playing were discussed. Mang data were used in analyzing. After analyzing these factors, a frame graph about relations among factors and action mechanism was drawn(Fig.1).At present, because macro-background of agriculture and rural economy development has taken place a great change, agriculture business management is inevitable trend. In Turpan basin, market agriculture + resource intensive use and process oriented type" will replace the old mode.Lastly, discussing and summing up the experience of local people's practice on developing ecological agriculture, the paper brought out one model named grapery ecological farm in arid area, which embodies the three main targets of SARD (Fig.2), namely well nurture and warm cloth, becoming rich for farmers and utilizing resources and environment for ever.
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    辽河三角洲湿地资源与区域持续发展
    刘红玉, 吕宪国, 刘振乾, 杨青, 张柏
    地理科学. 2000, (6): 545-551.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2000.06.545
    摘要   PDF (841KB)
    辽河三角洲湿地面积大、类型多、景观结构复杂多样,在该区经济发展中发挥巨大作用。利用遥感和GIS技术,在建立辽河三角洲湿地资源分类系统基础上,对该区湿地资源现状与分布特征进行研究。该区现有湿地 314 857 hm2,占全市总面积的79.5%。其中天然湿地159 919 hm2,占总湿地面积的50.8%;人工湿地154 838 hm2,占总湿地面积的 49.2%。多年来的区域资源开发活动,使该区湿地面积和景观结构发生很大变化,湿地生态功能亦受到严重影响和威胁。本文结合区域湿地资源与景观结构的动态变化状况,系统分析了区域湿地生态系统功能及受影响状况,并进一步提出区域资源开发与湿地保护及可持续发展对策。
    With a large area, various types and complex landscape structure, wetlands in the Liaohe Delta have many benefits to the regional economic development. Based on the classification system of wetlands, the present situation and distribution characteristics are studied through RS and GIS techniques. There are 314,857 hm2 of wetlands, which account for 79.5% of the total urban area; among which there are 159,919 hm2 of natural wetlands and 154,838 hm2 of artificial wetlands, accounting for 50.8% and 49.2% of the total wetland area, respectively. Because of the regional resources exploitation for many years, wetlands have changed a great deal in area and structure. Some strategies are put forward in this paper to protect the ecological function of wetlands and solve the problems of the sustainable development between resources exploitation and wetland protection.
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    小兴安岭针叶凋落物的分解与土壤动物的作用
    张雪萍, 张毅, 侯威岭, 殷秀琴
    地理科学. 2000, (6): 552-556.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2000.06.552
    摘要   PDF (1798KB)
    应用不同网孔分解样袋、排除不同类型土壤动物的作用的方法,对比研究土壤动物对针叶凋落物的分解作用。结果表明,在各类土壤动物作用下的大孔网袋样品的分解速度明显快于只有中小型土壤动物作用的中孔网袋的分解样品,快于尽量排除土壤动物作用条件下的小孔网袋的分解样;凋落物分解过程中,凋落物失重量与土壤动物个体数量之间的相关性不明显;土壤动物对质地较软的凋落物作用程度较质地较硬的凋落物高;土壤动物的多样性指数分析表明,土壤动物的多样性随样品分解时间的增长无明显的规律性变化。
    This study applies the method that the bags with different size meshes exclude the functions of different kinds of soil animals to compare the decomposing function of the soil animals to coniferous litter. The studying results show as: the decomposing speed of the bags with big meshes, under functions of all kinds of soil animals, faster than the bags with medium meshes, under functions of medium and small soil animals, as well as the bags with small meshes that excluding all possibility of functions of soil animals; in the process of decomposition of litter, relationship of the litter lost weight with number of soil animals is not obvious clearly; the degree of functions of soil animals to soft litter higher than hard litter; according to the analyses of diversity index, no regular changes will happen to the diversity of soil animals as the time of decomposing samples lengthen .
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    研究报道
    贵州普定后寨地下河流域岩溶水特征研究
    王腊春, 许有鹏, 张立峰, 史运良, 汪文富
    地理科学. 2000, (6): 557-562.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2000.06.557
    摘要   PDF (264KB)
    岩溶地区由于独特的地貌地质结构,其岩溶水特征也具有特殊性和复杂性。以贵州普定后寨地下河流域为例,从岩溶水形成机制出发,通过脉冲试验和降雨天然脉冲分析,论述了流域岩溶水水文特征、水化学特征及其与流域贮水结构、地貌地质结构的相互关系以及隙流水和管流水的转化关系。这对非均一含水介质岩溶水运动研究、岩溶水文模拟及岩溶水资源开发利用均有一定的参考意义。
    The hydrography of karst water is specificity and complexity because of the special geomorphological structure and geological structure. As a case study at Houzhai underground river basin in Puding County, Guizhou province, the karst hydrological characteristic and the karst hydrochemistry characteristic are description based on analysis the formation of karst water in this paper. The storage structure and the geomorphological structure or geological structure relationship, the fissure flow and the conduit flow conversion are also description through the pulse test and the precipitation pulse. In the karst peak forest depression, the karst is bare carbinate bedrock and fissure is development. There are sinkholes or infundibulars in the depression and they link the underground river directly. In this area, the storage capacity is low and the hydrography is sharp. The hydrograph is agile response for the precipitation. The base flow in the hydrograph is small.In the peak valley, the karst is covered by topsoil. The collecting area is larger in this area than in the peak forest depression area. The conduit distribution is treelike. The karst storage capacity is high and a mount of fissure flow or conduit flow recharge the outlet after the peak, the hydrograph decay is slow and base flow is high. The storage capacity of covered topsoil and conduit in karst polje is larger than it is in peak valley.With the analyzing the decay curve of the outlet of the underground river basin at Maoshuikeng station, the conduit storage is 3%-10% of the total water storage and fissure storage is 90%-97% of the total storage.The karst hydrochemistry types in the basin are simple. The type is fresh water with low mineral and low hardness. The hydrochemistry characteristic is varying with the hydrograph alteration and the geomorphological structure distribution in the area.This method that using in this paper is useful for karst water research in various storage medium structures. The result is a referential for karst hydrological simulation and karst water resource using.
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    旅游目的地形象的空间认知过程与规律
    李蕾蕾
    地理科学. 2000, (6): 563-568.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2000.06.563
    摘要   PDF (918KB)
    旅游目的地形象的认知规律是形象定位及其传播策略的基础。从旅游目的地的地理空间属性出发,结合地理学关于地域空间的等级层次性和地域分异规律的基本观点,探讨了旅游者形成旅游目的地形象的基本空间过程和规律。认为旅游者对目的地的位置及其内涵等空间形象特征的认知,满足一种依据地域空间等级层次而展开的认知链过程,在此基础上,遵从旅游地形象认知的背景律、接近律、相似律及其形象替代等空间规律;而旅游者与目的地的距离,特别是感知距离以及旅游者所拥有的关于目的地的信息,分别对旅游地形象认知具有不同而复杂的修正作用;由于地域分异所形成的地方性,则成为旅游者对目的地形象之内容进行精确认知的基础,旅游者通过对旅游地的类型和地理文脉的认知,形成旅游地的类型形象和"地方性"形象。
    Image study is a popular theme in many disciplines because of the wide range of the perceptional objects. The image to a person, the image to a piece of art like a photograph, a picture or a novel and the image to a corporation or the image to an area like a city, a district, a country or a people, can all be studied academically in sociology, economics, literature, art, management, urban studies and tourism geography. However, geographical image studies both in and out of China have not yet attracted enough attentions to the geographical attributes and spatial process of the image object. In this paper, based on the idea of tourist destinations as a type of geographical areas, the author tries to discuss and deduce the spatial process and rules of how tourists percept destinations. The paper begins with a general introduction on principles of regions' hierarchy and spatial differentiation in geography. Based on the basic idea of space and region in geography, it is proposed that there exists a kind of 'areas ladder' constructed by areas hierarchy. With such a ladder in the mind, tourists can percept the geographic sites of all kinds of potential destinations. Such a ladder is named by the author as 'perceptional chain', which reflects the geographic context of regions in vertical hierarchy relationship, and has impacts on tourist image perception. Thereafter, three rules on the spatial characteristics of tourist destination image perception, namely, context rule, adjacent rule and resemble rule, can be deduced. As a result, image substitution in tourists' perception process can be easily understood. Context rule or context substitution can be used to explain that tourists tend to percept the higher destination in perceptional chain at first. That is to say, any area's image is cognized with the higher region as a background. Any one area can be understood only in the areas' context, and it is easier for people to know and remember the larger and higher areas in the ladder. Tourists tend to percept the images of lower regions as the images of higher regions if they don't know well these lower regions.As far as adjacent rule and resemble rule, the author notices that when tourists percept the regions in the same hierarchy or ladder, they tend to conceive these areas images as a unity if these areas are believed to be near in space or have some resemblance in natural or cultural elements. That is to say, one area's image can be conceived as another one if they are adjacent or resemble. Furthermore, distance between origin and destination, esp., cognition distance, as well as information possessed by tourists, has different and complex effects on image perception. A detailed discussion on these effects is also made in the paper. At the end part of the article, content perception of tourists to destinations image is analyzed and discussed on the basis of the conception of tourist destination typology and 'place identity' in geography. It is thought that tourists can get a more detailed and clearer image by the perception from the main destination types to the detailed place of destinations.
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    遥感图像生态土地分类法在农作物种植面积提取中的应用
    张树文, 薄立群
    地理科学. 2000, (6): 569-572.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2000.06.569
    摘要   PDF (481KB)
    农作物遥感估产技术系统的中心环节之一是农作物种植面积的信息提取。快速、准确地获取农作物有关信息是一个关键性技术问题。针对松辽平原玉米遥感估产地区的自然环境和经济条件及玉米生长发育特征,利用以TM图像为主的多种遥感信息源,结合地面波谱测试等数据,运用生态土地分类方法实现主要农作物种植面积信息提取。
    This paper discusses a specific method to be used to extract arable areas efficiently and effectively. As a key step, the classification method of remote sensing image processing is often regarded as one of the most important technological systems in crop estimation. Considering the features of natural environment, economic conditions as well as growing procedure of corns, based on the characteristics of the TM data, author puts forward an ecoland classification method (also called geoprocessing method) by which precision classification would be conducted in the project. The ecoland classifacation method is basically divided into three steps: the first one is called subarea in which similar spectrum is put into one group, that is, there is almost the same ecologic environment in the area, combined with GIS data such as social and economic statistics data, in this way, better recognized land patterns; the second is an extraction stage, based on the sublayers, different patterns can be easily extracted by means of geodata stored in the database; the last one is considered as a merge and analysis part, different classified subareas would finally be merged together in the basis of the same coordinate, subsequentlly, a synthetic analysis on the merged result should be made.As a result, coordinating with field surveying data in the process of automatic classification, the classified image with geodata is produced by means of the TM data source and can be easily extracted out related information for the further applications.
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    沙丘背风侧气流的变化特征及其意义
    哈斯, 王贵勇
    地理科学. 2000, (6): 573-576.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2000.06.573
    摘要   PDF (926KB)
    对腾格里沙漠东南缘格状沙丘主、副梁和新月形沙丘表面气流的野外观测发现分离流、附着未偏向流和附着偏向流等3种背风坡次生气流。前者以弱的反向流为特征,多发生在横向气流条件下,坡度较陡的背风坡上;后二者具有相对高的风速,多发生在坡度缓和的背风坡上,其方向在横向气流条件下保持原来的方向,在斜向气流作用下发生偏转,且其强度为原始风入射角的余弦函数。根据3种次生气流强度、方向等特征,阐述了其相应的风成沉积过程和可能产生的层理类型,并对利用风成交错层理恢复古气流环境中的有关问题作了初步探讨。
    Data from different types of dunes suggest that the near surface air-flow over dune lee side varied with dune morphology and primary wind direction relative to dune crest-line. It is found that three types of secondary air-flow exist according to their directions and magnitudes, they are: return flow, attached and not deflected flow, and attached and deflected flow. Return flow, characterized by lower velocity, occurred on stepper lee slops in transverse flow conditions; attached flow with higher wind velocity occurred on gentle lee slops. The attached flow could be deflected in the oblique primary wind environment but not deflected in transverse flow conditions, and its magnitude is the cosine function of primary wind direction relative to dunes . According to the nature of three types of secondary flow, the authors expound the corresponding sedimentary processes and possible stratification types, and also discuss the aeolian cross-strata as an indicator of paleowind environment.
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