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CN 22-1124/P
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  • 地理科学
      2002年, 第22卷, 第5期 刊出日期:2002-09-20 上一期    下一期
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    论文
    全球气候变暖条件下黄河流域降水的可能变化
    刘晓东, 安芷生, 方建刚, 陈广善
    地理科学. 2002, 22 (5): 513-519.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.05.513
    摘要   PDF (932KB)
    利用最近50年气象站观测的降水量以及根据史料和树轮重建的近400年来的降水量,根据回归分析和合成分析研究了黄河流域降水与全球气温变化的关系及其可能成因。结果表明,全球平均气温偏高(低)与黄河中游地区年降水量偏少(多)存在一定的对应关系。夏末秋初的8~9月是决定全年降水变化的关键时期,全球气候变暖会引起8~9月西太平洋副热带高压增强、扩大,从而有利于东亚夏季风锋面位置北移,进而使东亚夏季风北界南侧黄河中游一带的降水减少。
    Using the recent 50-year precipitation data observed at weather stations and nearly-400-year precipitation data reconstructed with historical documents and tree rings in the Yellow River valley, the relationship between variations of the precipitation and global average temperature was examined by regression and composite analyses. The results show that the higher (lower) global average temperature corresponds to the less(more)-than-normal precipitation in the middle reaches of the Yellow River to a certain degree on different time scales. When the global mean air temperature increases by 1℃, the annual precipitation is found to decrease more than 20% over the middle reaches of the Yellow River from Shaanxi to Shanxi provinces. The difference between the annual precipitation averaged for the warmest three years and that for the coldest three years can reach 40% in the study area in last 50 years. However, the annual precipitation near the area of China-Mongolia boundary is decreased with the global warming. Our result from the observational study is consistent with that obtained from climate models under conditions of the atmospheric CO2 doubling and the global climate warming. The present result also shows that August-September, late summer-early autumn, is a key period which determines inter-annual variations of annual precipitation in the middle reaches of the Yellow River. The variation of August-September precipitation contributes more than 50% variance of inter-annual variability of annual precipitation in this area. Moreover, it is found that there is a close relationship between the rainfall anomaly and activity of the subtropical West Pacific High in August and September. A warmer global climate may intensify and enlarge the subtropical West Pacific High, thus induce the front of East Asian summer monsoon to move northwards and to act frequently there, and eventually bring about the decreased rainfall in the south side of north boundary of the East Asian summer monsoon. The situation will be opposite when the global climate becomes colder. This study suggests that we should pay great attention to the dryness induced by the global warming over the Yellow River valley.
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    关于夷平面的科学问题——兼论青藏高原夷平面
    潘保田, 高红山, 李吉均
    地理科学. 2002, 22 (5): 520-526.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.05.520
    摘要   PDF (889KB)
    长期地貌演化研究表明,夷平面的形成有4种基本方式:准平原、山麓剥蚀平原、双层水平面和冻融剥夷平原。它们的形成都需要上千万年至数亿年的构造相对稳定时期。青藏高原上的层状地貌面可以划分为两级夷平面和一级剥蚀面。山顶面形成于渐新世至中新世早期;主夷平面是以双层水平面或山麓剥蚀平原形式发育的,大致形成于20~3.6 Ma B.P.期间,完成时的高度低于1000m;剥蚀面形成于3.6~1.7 Ma B.P.期间。
    Planation surface is a remnant of landform in old age and the erosion surface is of a mature landform, according to the Davisian cycle. Studies on the long-term landscape evolution show that there are four types of planation surface, peneplain, pediplain, double leveling surfaces and cryoplain. The peneplain is formed through lowering of relief in wet region. The pediplain is developed by slope retreating in dry region. The double leveling surfaces appeares in Savanna landscape. The cryoplain is formed in periglacial environment. Measurement of erosion rates and retreating rates of slope indicated that formation of planation surface needs the tectonic equability for severl million years or thousands million years. In the the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau, there are two planation surfaces and one erosion surface, Summit Surface, Main Surface and Erosion Surface. The Summit Surface have formed in the Oligocene and early Miocene, and the Main Surface between 20-3.6Ma B.P. Tectonics on the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau were relatively stable between 3.6Ma B.P. and 1.7Ma B.P. and the Erosion Surfaces was formed. Because the Main Surface is a "jumping-off point" of the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau, studies on its mode of formation and height have great significance in determining the altitude of the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau before uplift. Synthesizing the proofs from mammal fauna, regolith and geomorphology, we think the Main Surface was developed as a typical double level surface. There could be the peneplain in the south of it and the pediplain on north. Its altitude should not exceed 1000 m when it was formed. The Intense tectonic uplift, which resulted in the present Qinghai-Xizang Plateau with an altitude of 4500-5000m, happened in last 3.6Ma when the Main Surface was destroyed.
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    近10年来黑河流域生态环境变化特征分析
    王根绪, 王建, 仵彦卿
    地理科学. 2002, 22 (5): 527-534.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.05.527
    摘要   PDF (337KB)
    对比分析黑河流域13万km2范围内2000年遥感影像数据资料及1987年流域遥感影像资料,结果表明:近10年来黑河流域生态环境总体上仍然向恶化方向发展,流域内天然森林分布面积减少6.35%,中游取代下游成为流域沙漠化发展的主导区域,上游山区土地沙漠化发展最为迅速;下游草地生态退化十分强烈,草地面积减少达2095.39km2。但局部或生态环境的某些方面出现明显逆转。
    Selecting the 13 items of land use or land cover index, which indict the changes of regional eco-environment, from the remote sensing data of 2000 over the whole river basin with an area of 13.0?104km2. At the same time, the remote sensing data from 1987 was analyzed to output the eco-environmental index of 1987. Comparing with the two time phase analysis results of eco-environmental index, and integrating the field surveying results, the trends and extent of eco-environmental changes in the Heihe River basin were analyzed. The features of eco-environmental changes were quantitatively discussed. Those features showed that, in recent 10 years, the eco-environment of the Heihe River basin was degrading as a whole. Forest area in the river basin decreased by 6.35%. The middle reaches, which replaced the lower reach, was the most serious desertification region, and the upper reaches was the rapidly exacerbated desertification region. Grassland ecology showed a continuous degradation tendency in the lower reaches, the total area of degraded grassland occupied 2095.39km2. But in some regions of the river basin, the eco-environment was improved.
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    西辽河流域全新世以来人地系统演变历史的重建
    胡金明, 崔海亭, 李宜垠
    地理科学. 2002, 22 (5): 535-542.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.05.535
    摘要   PDF (1030KB)
    古研究表明,西辽河流域是我国古代文明的起源地之一,全新世以来先后演绎了多期古文化,文明一直延续至今。利用野外考古材料和已有考古研究成果,系统地梳理了本区文化景观的演变历史;利用土壤剖面、古土壤年代数据、文化遗址中的碳屑显微结构等证据,结合前人的研究成果,系统地复原了本区自然景观的演变历史;详细探讨了全新世以来本区人地系统的耦合演变进程,揭示了本区人地系统演变的历史规律和内在机制。
    Using the field archaeological data and some research results in archaeology and environmental evolution, this paper analyzes the historic evolution of the cultural landscapes and natural landscape since the Holocene in the Xiliao River Basin. Based on the historic evolution of natural and cultural landscapes, the authors systematically reconstruct the coupling evolution history of man-land system and unveil the interactional mechanisms between human and nature in the Xiliao River Basin.During the earlier Holocene, evolution of pre-historic cultures, including Xiaohexi Culture and Xinglongwa Culture, had been closely linked with climatic evolution. Climatic changes into warm and humid resulted in the germination and development of the pre-historic cultures, while decline of pre-historic cultures had close relationship with climatic deterioration. During the middle period of the Holocene from Zhaobaogou Culture to Lower Layer Culture of Xiajiadian, prosperity and decline of cultures correlated with multifold factors. Evolution of natural landscape was the external driving force. While humańs cultural accumulation, inter-regional cultural diffusion and intercommunication were the internal driving forces. Humańs disturbances upon natural landscape would feed back to cultural landscapes and influence the development of cultures. Cultural transformation between Upper Layer Culture and Lower Layer Culture of Xiajiadian was a gradual changing process. Climatic change was the main driving force, while inter-regional cultural communication further advanced the development of animal husbandry of Upper Layer Culture of Xiajiadian.During historic period, multifold factors, such as prosperity and decline of the Han and minority dynasties, ethnic policy of the Han dynasties, cultural intercommunication between the Han nationality and minority, development of social productivity level, changes of natural environment, etc, comprehensively acted on the evolution of cultural landscapes. In fact, it was the ebb and flow of different nationś cultures, which were the most important. Development of culture and productivity level promoted humańs ability to adapt to and remodel nature, and culture played more and more important role in the evolution of man-land system.
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    4280 a B.P.太行山大地震与大禹治水后(4070 a B.P.)的黄河下游河道
    任美锷
    地理科学. 2002, 22 (5): 543-545.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.05.543
    摘要   PDF (501KB)
    我国古籍所载黄河下游最早河道有禹贡河和山经河,它们在今郑州以北均沿太行山东麓北流。其原因可能与公元前4280年太行山大地震有关。
    The earliest courses of the lower Yellow River are: the Yugong River and Shanjing River. Near Zhengzhou, Henan Province, they both turned abruptly to the north along eastern foot of Taihang Mountains to north of Beijing. It is suggested that this may be due to a great earthquake of 4280 a B.P. in Taihang Mountains. There is also an E-W active fault in Yanshan Mountain with its downthrow side on the south. The Shanjng River probably followed this fault valley and entered the Bohai Sea north of Tianjin.
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    太湖流域公元960年以来的气候干湿变化研究
    王张华, 陈中原, 寇莹, 陈宇
    地理科学. 2002, 22 (5): 546-551.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.05.546
    摘要   PDF (259KB)
    利用史料和文献建立了太湖流域公元960~1992年的逐年干湿等级序列,对此序列进行了周期分析和突变分析。分析表明,本区近千年来的历史干湿气候变化是一种复合振动,其主周期是准100年,另外还有多个周期,这些周期与天体活动密切相关。统计还发现1247~1263年附近由干变湿和1618~1635年附近由湿变干的两次非局地性气候突变事件。其中,14、15世纪是太湖流域近千年来最湿润的时期,它可能是东亚地区大范围气候变湿波动的体现。
    The present study collected historic climatic records since 960 A.D. from the Taihu drainage basin. A dry/wet series, i.e. a five-grade index of severe flood (1), flood (2), normal (3), drought (4), and severe drought (5) from 960 A.D. to 1992 A.D. was reconstructed and χ2-test was used to examine the evenly distribution of the series. Power spectrum analysis was made for the present 1033-year dry/wet grade series with different lagging of 280, 200, and 150. Process of "Red Noise" was applied to make the significance test (α=0.05). Moving t-test was applied to detect the abrupt climate changes of the study area. The 11-year and 30-year moving average curves and their 6-degree polynomial regression curves are also presented to help the detection of climate jump. Spectral analysis reveals that the change of drought-wet climate in the study area was a superposed phenomenon with the major period of ~100-year, and other notable periods of 36-year, 26-27-year, 11-year, 22-year, 15-year, 19-year, 2-3-year, 8-year, and 5-6-year. Compared with those of celestial activity and climate change collected by previous work, these periods are supposed to be closely related to the celestial activities that control the planetary wind system and East Asia monsoon circulation. The moving t test detected two large-scale abrupt changes, i.e., 1247-1263 A.D. and 1618-1635 A.D. The climate between these two abrupt changes was relative humid. Before 1247 A.D. and after 1635 A.D. it was relative dry. The 14th to 15th centuries was the wettest episode during the last 1000 years in the study area. This getting-humid event occurred widely in East Asia.
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    黄河中游降雨特性对泥沙粒径的影响
    卢金发, 刘爱霞
    地理科学. 2002, 22 (5): 552-556.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.05.552
    摘要   PDF (595KB)
    以黄河中游36个有泥沙粒径资料的水文测站流域为样本,在不同自然地理类型流域划分的基础上,建立了流域泥沙粒径特性与降雨特性的关系。结果表明,在不同类型流域,流域泥沙的粗细与降雨季节性变率和年际变率之间存在着相当好的线性正相关关系;而与年降雨量和降雨不均匀系数之间呈明显的非线性关系。流域地面物质、植被和地貌发育程度等下垫面环境因素对泥沙粒径特性与降雨特性之间关系起着十分重要的控制作用。不同类型流域曲线的斜率各不相同,在图中所处的位置也不相同。
    Thirty-six river basins, where the data of measured grain size of sediment are available, were chosen for an analysis on relationships between grain size of sediment and rainfall features in the middle reaches of the Yellow River. These basins fall into 5 types of different physio-geographical environments. Annual average rainfall, unevenness, seasonality and yearly variation of rainfall were taken as the indices of rainfall to relate to grain size of sediment. It was shown that good linear positive multi-relationships exist between grain size of sediment and seasonal and annual variation of rainfall when taking the different types of basin as perameters, but simple non-linear relationships between grain size of sediment and annual average rainfall and unevenness of rainfall. Vegetation, surface material and landform exert an important control on the relationships between grain size of sediment and rainfall features. Different slope and positions of curves were observed in the relationships between grain size of sediment and seasonal and annual variation of rainfall for different types of river basins. The slope of curve decreases and the position moves down subsequently from the basins of windy sand, sandy loess and heavily weathered siltstone and mudstone to those of loess and clayey loess. The different positions were also observed in the relationships between grain size of sediment and annual average rainfall and unevenness of rainfall for different types of river basins. From the upper to the lower of the curve the type of river basin changes from the basins covered by windy sand, sandy loess or heavily weathered siltstone and mudstone to those of loess and clayey loess subsequently.
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    泥河湾盆地东部中全新世晚期的干/冷干事件与中全新世湿润状况的结束
    王红亚, 汪美华, 谢强, 于澎涛, 刘鸿雁, 崔海亭
    地理科学. 2002, 22 (5): 557-562.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.05.557
    摘要   PDF (1295KB)
    对取自泥河湾盆地东部化稍营镇(114°36’E,40°18’N)附近一剖面以泥炭为主的沉积物做了AMS 14C测年、粒度、碳酸钙含量、碳酸盐中δ18O和δ13C组分、有机质含量、TOC、CN分析以及χlf和SIRM测量。结果表明,这些沉积物大致是在5320~3370 a B.P.堆积的;在5320~3600 a B.P.,气候仍较为湿润温暖;在3600~3460 a B.P.和3430~3400 a B.P.,有两次明显的干冷干事件。气候的这种波动,可能是中全新世湿润状况的结束过程。
    AMS 14C dating, analyses of grain-size, CaCO3 content, δ18O and δ13C in carbonates, content of organic matter, TOC content and C/N ratio, and measurements of χlf and SIRM are performed with sediments, consisting mainly of peat, from a profile near Huashaoying Town (114°36’E, 40°18’N), the eastern part of Nihewan Basin. The results indicate that these sediments were deposited mainly during 5320-3370 a B.P.; the climate was still rather humid and warm during 5320-3600 a B.P.; there was a marked dry/cold-and-dry event occurring respectively at 3600-3460 a B.P. and 3430-3400 a B.P. Such climatic fluctuations might be the terminating process of the mid-Holocene wet conditions.
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    我国经济地理学学科理论发展脉络辨析
    王士君, 陈才
    地理科学. 2002, 22 (5): 563-567.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.05.563
    摘要   PDF (939KB)
    以新中国成立以来50年为背景,以近20年为学科发展的重点时期,回顾和总结了经济地理学理论发展的4个时段及阶段性特点和历史贡献;对当代中国经济地理学理论进行了框架性的透视,并指出其主要有一个核心、两个方向、双重属性、三大领域、以及“产业结构网络论”、“劳动地域分工论”、“经济地域运动论”三大基础理论,和“条件论”、“产业要素论”、“结构与功能论”、“体系与类型论”、“地缘关系论”等多个分支理论。其中,三大基础理论是支撑学科的主线,相对比较稳定。而其它分支理论,则因研究内容的伸缩而变化,具有鲜明的时代特点,是不稳定的;论文同时还前瞻性地指出了经济地理学理论发展的四个前沿趋势。即:学科的离心倾向和回归趋势、产业经济地理学的复苏趋势、地缘经济理论研究走强趋势、区域开发与区域形象设计热点趋势。
    This paper reviews and summaries the four stages of economic geography development, and the features and contributions in each period in the last 50 years, emphasizing on the recent two decades. And also, it analyzes the framework of current Chinese economic geographic theory, and points out that this subject consists of one core, two directions, dual characters, three fields, three basic theories-industrial structure network theory, regional division of work theory and economic region movement theory, and such branch theories as condition theory, industrial factors theory, structure and function theory, and geo-relation theory. The three basic theories are the supporting skeleton of this subject, being relative stable, while the branch theories vary according to the elasticity of its study substance, being relative unstable, owning clear time characters. Finally, this paper points out four trends of economic geographic theory development, namely, "centrifuge" and "return" of the subject, resuscitation of industrial economic geography, the strengthening of the research on geopolitical and geoeconomic theory, and hot spot of regional development and regional image design.
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    试论城市群区域内的网络化组织
    年福华, 姚士谋, 陈振光
    地理科学. 2002, 22 (5): 568-573.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.05.568
    摘要   PDF (774KB)
    城市群区域内的网络化是城乡之间多种物质的动态流的最高表现形式,也是城市群形成发展过程中理想的城市化模式。在基础设施比较完善的区域内,城市群内网络化组织是比较完善的,具有多种网络化模式。主要研究城市群区域内的网络化基本概念、空间结构模式、以及网络化对城市群内人流、物流、信息流的重要作用。通过深层次的网络化空间组织合理性的研究,尽力表现在市场经济体制下,调节有序的经济活动与无序的指挥之间的矛盾,提高城市综合实力。
    Under the new circumstances of global economic integration, industrialization and the urbanization promote the rapid development of IT industry, especially ’information expressway and internet’-based on computer and remote-sensing technology among big cities gets faster development. Information network has great influences on the formation and the development of urban agglomeration. The network of urban agglomeration is not only the most superior model in material flow between cities and countries, but also is the optimized urbanization model on the process of formation of urban agglomeration. The network organization of urban agglomeration is being perfected and has all kinds of models in the area of well-equipped infrastructure. The article focally discusses the following issues: ①The conception and the spatial distribution of network in urban agglomeration. ②The four network models of urban agglomeration: core region network, towns of dumbbell network, multiple nuclei network, corridor-type network.③The influences of network on the flows of people, material and information in urban agglomeration. Based on the analysis on the reasonability of network in view of spatial organization, the authors try to adjust the contradiction between the planned economic activities and disorderly management.
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    城市轨道交通发展与土地复合利用研究——以广州为例
    李文翎, 阎小培
    地理科学. 2002, 22 (5): 574-580.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.05.574
    摘要   PDF (781KB)
    根据近年来广州市轨道交通发展的现状,分析了广州城市轨道交通对沿线土地复合利用的影响,并对当前轨道交通发展与土地复合利用间存在的问题作了研究。广州城市轨道交通的建设,加快了城市发展轴的成型,强化了城市中心区功能,也加快了旧城更新和土地置换的步伐,促使土地类型均质化,对城市地下空间的开发创造了机遇,并对地铁沿线土地的升值产生巨大影响。由于广州轨道交通的发展尚处在起步阶段,因此对轨道交通的布线、管理及其沿线土地的合理开发还需作进一步的综合与详细的规划设计。
    Based on the recent development of MTR(Mass Transportation Railway) system in Guangzhou City, we analyzed the effects of the land compound use along the MTR lines, and studied the raised problems between the development of MTR system and the land compound use. With the construction of the metro transport in Guangzhou City, the developed axis of the city was shaped quickly, the function of the city center was strengthened, meanwhile the old city was transformed and the land replacement was speeded up, and the unanimous of the land type was urged. However, it also supplies an opportunity to develop the underground space of the city, and has been making an enormous influence on the land revalue along the metro transport lines. As the development of the metro transport in Guangzhou was being starting stage, it is necessary to take nice syntheses plan and design on the MTR lines selection, management, and development of land along the lines.
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    效用最大化、logit变换和城市地理学的数量分析模型
    陈彦光, 刘继生, 房艳刚
    地理科学. 2002, 22 (5): 581-586.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.05.581
    摘要   PDF (1340KB)
    城市地理学的主要数学模型,包括城市化进程的logistic模型,城市位序-规模分布的幂指数模型以及城市人口密度衰减的负指数模型,都可以从两个简单的科学假设出发推导出来。文章证明,上述假设在理论上可以归结为效用最大化原理,其本质与信息熵最大化有着深刻的内在关系。城市地理学的主要模型作为标度定律都可以借助logit变换进行简化处理,从而为理论模型的实际应用以及城市演化动力学的模拟实验分析打开了方便之门。
    Many basic mathematical models as scale laws can be derived from a pair of assumptions, i.e. ① The utility in some sense is proportional to some kinds of variables such as time, space, and class; ② The respondent variables of the utility such as population size and city number is the exponential function of the utility. The basic models include the allometric relationship of urban and rural population, logistical model of urbanization process, the relationship between level of urbanization and that of economic development, i.e. Zhou’s model, urban population density model, i.e. Clark’s model, the generalized Beckmann-Davis model, and the three-parameter Zipf model, etc. It is proved that the exponential relationships between the utility and its respondency come from utility-maximization that is consistent with entropy-maximization, and utility-maximization and entropy-maximization are actually principles of duality. Ont the other hand, the basic models for analytical urban geography can be changed into logit models, for example, the urban and rural population allometric model is linked to binary logit model (BLM), and the Clark model can be connected with multinomial logit model (MNL). This means that we can simulate the urban dynamics based on utility-maximization principle by means of logit transformation that can simplify the researched objects to a great extent. The logit transformation will become an important part of geocomputation and the simulation based on the logit models consociated with utility-maximization principle will contribute to the studies of spatial complexity. Utility-maximization is not only one of the general principles of urban geography but the foundation of urban maximization from which we can develop new methods for urban planning. Perhaps the consistence of utility-maximization and entropy-maximization is the key to solving the problems of spatial complexity. Unlike the concepts such as "the edge of chaos" and "self-organized criticality", the duality of utility-and entropy-maximization can answer many theoretical questions without using one concept to replace another.
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    地貌学与第四纪研究的新手段——陆地宇生核素研究
    徐孝彬, 王建, Françoise Yiou, Grant Raisbeck
    地理科学. 2002, 22 (5): 587-591.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.05.587
    摘要   PDF (859KB)
    暴露岩石表层中的宇生核素的浓度,是产生速率、衰变常数及侵蚀速率的函数。根据该原理,在宇生核素形成速率为已知的条件下,建立宇生核素浓度与时间及侵蚀速率的函数关系,根据该模式可对岩面的暴露时间及侵蚀速率进行计算,这使得该测年技术在地貌学与第四纪研究中有着极大的运用前景。在众多的宇生核素中,取自于石英的26Al和10Be是目前该领域中运用最广泛、最成熟的宇生核素。
    Because of cosmogenic isotopes production, the concentration of cosmogenic isotope in surface layer of the exposed rocks accumulates more and more, and at same time, it becomes less and less with isotope’s radiation and surface’s erosion. With this principle, under the condition of cosmogenic isotopes production rate being well known, the function between the concentrations of cosmogenic isotopes and time and erosion can be calculated. Using this model, we can calculate the exposed ages and erosion rate of the surface. This makes the dating technique be very useful and have a good provision in the study of Geomorphology and Quaternary. In cosmogenic isotopes, 26Al and 10Be deriving from quartz are used most widely and maturely in this field.
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    虚拟现实技术及其在地理学中的应用
    段学军
    地理科学. 2002, 22 (5): 592-598.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.05.592
    摘要   PDF (825KB)
    虚拟现实是一项涉及计算机图形学、人机交互技术、传感技术、人工智能等领域的综合集成技术。它用计算机生成逼真的三维视、听、嗅觉等感觉,使人作为参与者通过适当装置,自然地对虚拟世界进行体验和交互,最终使得参与者产生身临其境之感。在分析虚拟现实定义及软硬件构成的基础上,提出了虚拟地理环境的概念及其技术实施路线,探讨了虚拟现实技术在地理学中的应用前景。
    The Virtual Reality is a composite technique. It can create the lifelike feeling such as visual, hearing and smell sense, make people participate the virtual world, and give people the sense of being personally on the scene. The Virtual Reality System is composed of the hardware such as the graphic workstation, the display equipment and the sensor instruments; it is composite with 3D modeling, virtual scene driving and sensor controlling software, etc. 3D modeling, interacting, sensing and computing technique supports the Virtual Realty. The Virtual Geographical Environment (VGE) comes out of the using of the Virtual Reality in Geography. VGE makes it realized that the geographer could design and modify the geographical correlation, analytic and engineer model according to the personal technology, supposition and plan, and observe the result through interacting with it. With the developing of application of the Virtual Reality in Geography, the science of Geography will be explored more deeply. In geographical education, because the Virtual Reality expresses the technology and concept in lifelike feeling, the educated person will be more interested in it, and it may lead to better results. In theory study, the Virtual Reality may realize the virtually reappearing of the most part of geographical studying activity, which can help the geographer immerse in certain 3D scene wholly, so that they can give full play to their geographical ability of thinking and imagination. The virtual geographical experiments can be done by the Virtual Reality, which makes geographical simulation repeatable. Furthermore, the Virtual Reality is important in the practice of urban planing, tourism, and disaster prevention, and so on.
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    基于遥感和GIS一体化技术的三峡库区土地利用变化研究
    范月娇
    地理科学. 2002, 22 (5): 599-603.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.05.599
    摘要   PDF (233KB)
    采用遥感和GIS一体化技术,即以遥感实时数据为基础,以GIS技术为手段,对三峡库区15年(1986~2000年)的土地利用变化状况做了研究和分析,旨在为当地政府或管理部门提供土地资源合理开发、利用和正确管理的理论依据和科学方法,同时也为山区土地利用时空变化研究提供方法借鉴。
    This paper is based on an achievement of knowledge innovation project of CAS named the space-temporal information analysis of territorial environment by Remote Sensing and pre-research of relative theory and technique of digital earth (part of Southwest China). With the support of core database of the landuse types change, taking Three Gorges’ Project Area as investigated region, the characteristics of landuse degree changes were studied and analyzed deeply from 1986 to 2000 by using the integrative techniques of Remote Sensing and GIS. The core purpose of the article is to provide the theoretic basis and scientific methods of rational development, utilization and management of land resources for the local government and administration section. At the same time, it also provided methods for reference in the space-temporal variation of landuse in mountainous area.
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    北京地区坡面径流计算模型的比较研究
    符素华, 刘宝元, 吴敬东, 段淑怀
    地理科学. 2002, 22 (5): 604-609.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.05.604
    摘要   PDF (956KB)
    利用北京市西南山区房山蒲洼两个坡耕地小区30场降雨径流资料和密云石匣示范区休闲地试验小区13场降雨径流资料,对Chu修正的Mein-Larson-Green-Ampt(GAML)、Phillip、Horton和SCS径流曲线数法4种径流计算公式进行了对比。结果表明:GAML和Phillip计算结果的模型确定性系数较高,Horton入渗曲线和SCS曲线数的计算结果模型确定性系数偏低。根据模型参数的易获得性,建议在北京山区,在有降雨过程资料时,使用Chu修正的GAML入渗曲线进行径流计算;若无降雨过程资料可用SCS径流曲线数进行径流计算。本研究结果可用于北京地区径流量预报和水土资源评价。
    Runoff causes soil erosion and environmental pollution. It is very important for soil loss calculation and soil and water resources evaluation to select suitable runoff calculation method. The 30 single storm data of two conventional tillage plots at Puwa watershed, Fangshan County and 13 single storm data of one fallow plot at Shixia watershed, Miyun County were used. Several runoff calculation methods, including GAML revised by Chu, Phillip, Horton, SCS curve number, were compared. The results showed that the model efficiencies of GAML and Phillip were higher than those of Horton and SCS curve number. According to the parameters easily obtained, GAML revised by Chu is suggested when there are the continuous records of rainfall in Beijing mountainous area. If not, SCS curve number should be used. The results can be served as soil and water evaluation and plan.
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    松嫩平原西部土壤次生盐渍化防治技术研究
    宋长春, 邓伟, 李取生, 王志春, 章光新
    地理科学. 2002, 22 (5): 610-614.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.05.610
    摘要   PDF (655KB)
    根据多年的野外定位观测和试验研究,提出松嫩平原西部土壤次生盐渍化防治应综合考虑灌溉淋洗、潜水位、时间及土壤化学改良4个要素;研究了西部盐碱地治理过程中土壤剖面盐分特征变化及对周边土壤环境特征的影响,认为单一的水利用措施不能从根本上解决西部土壤次生渍化的问题;通过不同用水条件下耕层土壤盐分变化及土壤改良剂综合配套试验研究等,提出本区土壤次生盐渍化防治的技术措施。
    The controlling of secondary soil salinization may take into account four main complex factors: leaching, groundwater table, time and modifier in the west of Songnen Plain. The change of salinity characteristic is analysed for soil profile during comprehensive harnessing and its effects on the characteristic of circumjacent soil are also studied. And through experiment, the paper studies the effects of different water-applying regimes on the changes of soil salinity in plowed layer. Based on a series of comprehensive experiments of applying soil amendment, the comprehensive technology system for preventation and treatment of soil secondary salinization in this region is established.
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    战略环境评价若干问题研究
    董德明, 赵文晋, 王宪恩, 房春生
    地理科学. 2002, 22 (5): 615-618.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.05.615
    摘要   PDF (477KB)
    分析了传统环境影响评价制度的不足,回顾了战略环境评价的研究与实践进展,阐述了战略环境评价与环境可持续发展的关系,并对以实现环境可持续发展为目标的战略环境评价体系所存在的问题进行了分析。
    In this article, the shortages of traditional EIA are analyzed, the progress on the research and practice of SEA is reviewed, the relationship between SEA and environmental sustainable development is elaborated and the problems in the system of SEA, which aim to achieve environmental sustainable development, are analyzed.
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    研究报道
    沼泽甲烷排放及其主要影响因素
    丁维新, 蔡祖聪
    地理科学. 2002, 22 (5): 619-625.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.05.619
    摘要   PDF (309KB)
    综合评述了不同类型沼泽产生、氧化和排放甲烷能力的差异及其主要影响因素。沼泽水位的变化引起沼生植物种群更替,从而形成不同类型的沼泽及其土壤剖面形态特征,进而导致沼泽产生和排放甲烷能力的不同。腐泥沼泽产生和排放甲烷能力最强,泥炭沼泽次之,森林沼泽再次之,苔藓泥炭沼泽最弱。甲烷排放以夏季最多,春秋季次之,冬季最低。在影响沼泽排放甲烷能力中,水位的变化最为强烈,底物、植物种类及数量和温度次之,pH、外源氮和土壤性质也有一定的作用。
    The paper reviews the abilities of methane production, oxidization and flux of different mire types and their influencing factors. The depth of water table affects the pattern of vegetation in mires, which, in turn, strongly influences the development and soil profile of mires, resulting in discrepancy in flux of methane emission from various mires. The patterns of methane emission in different type of mires and different season are as following: marsh > fen > swamp > bog, and summer > spring or/and fall > winter, respectively. The main factors influencing flux of methane emission from mires are the depth of water table, substrate, type and density of plant in mires, temperature, pH, exogenous nitrogen and soil basic properties.
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    龙口市水资源优化调度系统的设计与应用研究
    吴泉源, 孟凡海
    地理科学. 2002, 22 (5): 626-630.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.05.626
    摘要   PDF (582KB)
    水资源优化调度非常复杂,需要考虑各种供水水源与国民经济各部门的需水要求在时空分布上的差异,还要考虑地表水与地下水之间的转化关系、地表水库与地下水库之间的补偿调节,并根据这些变化,在一定调度原则下,确定供水在不同地区、部门、行业及企业之间的分配,使水资源效益最大。介绍了龙口市水资源优化调度系统的构建方法、调度模式及应用效果。
    Water resource optimization dispatch is very complex. The difference in space and time between water supply source and needs of economic departments for water, the translation relation between surface water and ground water and the compensate modulation between surface reservoir and ground reservoir should be considered. In principle of dispatch, the water supply’s allocation in different regions, departments, ways and corporations is confirmed, so as to make water resource benefit most. This article establishes the main restriction conditions, object function and principle of water allocation through detailed representation of the temporal and spatial relation of the Longkou water resource system. Based on these, subsystems of water resource optimization dispatch are established and experimental application studies have been done.
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    气象测报灌溉管理技术
    李秀军, 李取生, 孙长占
    地理科学. 2002, 22 (5): 631-635.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.05.631
    摘要   PDF (210KB)
    节水灌溉是干旱、半干旱和半湿润地区发展农业生产提高粮食产量的重要措施,经济有效的灌溉管理技术可起到既节水又增产的作用。本项技术是在总结国内外研究成果的基础上,把水分土壤作物大气作为一个整体,利用物质能量守衡原理建立水量平衡方程。依据测定土壤的物理参数(土壤容重、田间持水量、凋萎系数、初始土壤含水量),再结合气象预报的温度、降雨资料,用先进的计算方法,获得灌溉时间和灌溉定额,从而确定合理的灌溉制度。应用实践表明此项技术具有很好的增产和节水作用。
    Water-saving irrigation is important to develop agriculture and increase yields in the arid, semi-arid and semi-humid areas. An economical and effective irrigation management technique can save water and increase yields as well. This technique, based on a summation of researches both in China and abroad, takes moisture content, soil, plant and atmosphere as an integral part of the whole, sets up an water-balance equation by means of the law of conservation of matters energy. The equation is: Wsoil=Frainfall+Qirrigation+Worigination-Wrunoff-Wwither-Wpenetrate-nET cSuch physical parameters as soil unit weight, field capacity, withering parameter, original soil’s water content and etc. were surveyed. The meteorological data as temperature and rainfall from meteorological observation and forecast were obtained. The advanced method is applied to calculate crop’s transpiration. According to the relation between soil’s water content and crop’s transpiration, the irrigation time and amount are obtained. Thereby a proper irrigation system is determined. The application shows that this technique has the very good function to increased corn yield and save water.
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    RS和GIS支持下的三江平原沼泽湿地动态变化研究
    汪爱华, 张树清, 何艳芬
    地理科学. 2002, 22 (5): 636-640.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.05.636
    摘要   PDF (695KB)
    以景观生态学理论为基础,采用遥感(RS)和地理信息系统(GIS)相结合的方法,探讨了三江平原沼泽湿地的动态变化特征。结果表明,三江平原沼泽湿地主要分布在富锦、同江和抚远三个县(市),其总面积占全区总面积的51.42%;1980~2000年间三江平原沼泽湿地的分布面积显著下降,1980~1996年间沼泽湿地面积减少了51.33%,1996年之后减少速度明显下降。同时沼泽湿地景观的破碎化显著,斑块数量增加了46%,斑块密度净增加两倍。1980年、1996年、2000年景观的分维值分别1.3121、1.3839、1.3631,表明三江平原沼泽湿地受人为因素的影响较大。除宝清县、汤原县和同江市沼泽湿地面积变化较之全区变化不显著外,其它地区均发生较为显著的变化。
    Based on landscape ecology, remote sensing and Geographical Information System technologies, the dynamic change of mire in Sanjiang Plain is analyzed. The results show that mire is mainly distributed in the counties of Fujin, Tongjiang and Fuyuan, whose area accounts for 51.42% of the total area of mire in Sanjiang Plain. The area of mire decreased greatly from 1980 to 2000, especially from 1980 to 1996, it decreased to 51.33%. Since 1996 the decrease speed of mire’s area has become slow. The results also indicate that the fragmentation of mire landscape was evident in the last two decades in Sanjiang Plain. The number of patch has increased 46%, and the density of patch has increased two times. The fractal dimension of mire landscape in 1980,1996 and 2000 respectively is 1.3121,1.3839 and 1.3631. This means that the shape of mire landscape greatly transforms. The area change of mire in other counties except the counties of Baoqing, Tangyuan, and Tongjiang is greater than the whole region.
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