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ISSN 1000-0690
CN 22-1124/P
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  • 地理科学
      2003年, 第23卷, 第6期 刊出日期:2003-11-20 上一期    下一期
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    论文
    中国城市化与非农化水平的相关分析及省际差异
    樊杰, 田明
    地理科学. 2003, 23 (6): 641-648.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.06.641
    摘要   PDF (1004KB)
    在探讨了20世纪80和90年代中国城市化进程与产值结构和就业结构非农化演变的相互关系基础上,揭示了城市化与非农就业水平之间的偏差呈逐步缩小的基本规律;并从静态与动态两个方面,对中国城市化与非农化水平进行了省域类型划分;重点围绕省域产业结构演变和产业就业弹性变化,解剖了两者偏差形成的原因及其相关关系的内在机理。
    This paper analyses the relation of urbanization and non-agricultural development in the last 20 years of 30 provinces in China, and concludes that the relativity of urbanization level and non-agriculture employment level is more and more prominent as a whole, but great differences exist among provinces. From the historical review, differed from other industrialized countries, Chinese industrialization begins with the heavy industry under central planned economy system, and this system distorted the industrial structure, employment structure, and urban-rural structure. The proportion of value of non-agricultural industries is much higher than it's employmental level and employmental level higher than urbanization level. After 1980, along with the market economic system setting up and high-speed economic growth, the distorted industrial structure was redress little by little. The deviation among the value proportion, employmental level and urbanization level is also being redressed, not only in the whole country but also in numerous provinces. But, from horizontal review, there are great differences among provinces. First, the developmental speeds of non-agricultural employment and urbanization are various among 30 provinces in last 20a. Second, the ratio of UN (urbanization level and non-agricultural employment level) is different in different provinces. For example, it is 1.01 in Hainan Province, but only 0.51 in Hebei Province. Furthermore, there is little relationship between UN ratio and economic development level. Based on the developmental speeds and the ratios, the provinces of China are classified into some regional types as well. At last, according with the industrial evolution and the changing industrial employmental flexibility in last 20a, the authors explain the mechanism of provincial differences. In the 1980s, light industry and services make a burst growth in several traditional heavy industrial provinces or big cities, and improve non-agricultural employment and urbanization level, especially in north China. On the other hand, in the 1990s, because of the declined employmental flexibility of second industry, central urbanization and rural urbanization show different among provinces. In traditional industrial provinces, unemployment plays down the urbanization; in under-developed provinces rural urbanization has not played much roles as developed regions; but in developed provinces not only rural urbanization but also the urban services play important role. So, the relation between urbanization and non-agriculture employment level show different greatly among provinces.
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    东北地区夕阳产业地域划分及其振兴对策研究
    王国霞, 佟连军, 李国平, 鲁奇
    地理科学. 2003, 23 (6): 649-655.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.06.649
    摘要   PDF (839KB)
    夕阳产业地域(Old Industrial Area)是伴随着工业化而出现的一种地域现象。在参考国内外有关研究的基础上,介绍夕阳产业地域形成的背景及其相关机制;根据夕阳产业地域特征,建立划分夕阳产业地域的指标体系并确定划分方法,将东北地区34个城市经济区进行分类,得出抚顺、本溪、阜新、鸡西、鹤岗、双鸭山、大庆、伊春、七台河、辽源等10个夕阳产业地域;并根据夕阳产业地域形成的根本原因,从主导产业选择和产业结构调整两个方面提出夕阳产业地域振兴的对策。
    Old Industrial Area is such an area emerging during industrialization, which has exist in developed countries with highly industrialization for half an century. The traditional industries like mining, pulp and paper, and the iron steel industry dominated the areas for a long time in the past, and the industrial structure was unbalanced. When the dominant industry declined and the new one had not been established, the whole area appeared economic depressing step by step. Although China has a short industrialization, some regions are the same as ones in developed countries, especially in Northeast China. With enormous capital asserts, many state-owned enterprises and a large number of workers, the northeast of China played an important role in process of Chinese modernization in the past. However, with the rapid industrialization of China and affected by the global economy, some areas are declining because of the being exhausted resources and facing the industrial shunt and labour transfer, or because of low technology development compared with other cities. Some researchers have studied these areas, but they looked them as an unit ignoring the difference among areas or they sampled one area to study without suggestion to national macro-planning though it is useful to regional development. So, the paper supplies a gap and aims to classify the old industrial areas which are really solve the problem of unbalanced development of PRED in Northeast China. Based on the relevant research at home and abroad, the authors briefly introduce the forming background and relative mechanism of OIA, and from the dimension of time and space mainly defines OIA. Then, the authors establish the indicator system believing that the indicator system should include span index and current index, and the method flow of classification. With this system and method, the authors separate 10 OIAs from Northeast of China, which are Fushun, Fuxin, Jixi, Hegang, Shuangyashan, Daqing, Yichun, Qitaihe, and Liaoyuan. At last, as to the forming causes, the paper puts forward macro direction in OIA's development from the choices of dominant industries and the adjustment of the industrial structure.
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    东北地区生态消费水平的区域可持续性研究
    刘力, 郑京淑
    地理科学. 2003, 23 (6): 656-660.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.06.656
    摘要   PDF (213KB)
    生态可持续性评价揭示了区域可持续发展能力的基线尺度。这一领域的评价问题,不仅涉及到对自然环境本底的探究,也涉及到对社会系统行为方式的考察。加拿大生态经济学家创造性地提出了一种生态足迹的分析方法,将人类的消费行为与生态承载力联系起来,评价消费行为的可持续性。通过借鉴这一方法,估算了东北地区的生态承载力与生态消费水平。在此基础上进行区域生态可持续性评价,并进一步探讨促进与改善区域生态可持续性的可能途径与政策目标。
    Assessment of ecological sustainability reveals the base line of capacity of regional sustainable development. The issues concerned to this field involve not only to investigate the background of environment, but also to understand the behavior modes of society. Canadian ecological economists initiatively bring forward the method of Ecological Footprint to assess the sustainability of human consumption by comparing with the ecological carrying capacity. The paper describes the method and use for reference to estimate the ecological carrying capacity and the total ecological consumption of Northeast China. Based on these data, authors assess the regional ecological sustainability and further discusses how to promote regional ecological sustainability as well as relative policies goals.
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    三江平原气候突变分析
    闫敏华, 邓伟, 陈泮勤
    地理科学. 2003, 23 (6): 661-667.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.06.661
    摘要   PDF (813KB)
    采用累积距平法、Jy参数法和Mann-Kendall法联合检测1955~2000年三江平原气候变化过程中的突变现象,讨论了引发三江平原气候突变的可能原因。分析发现,三江平原年降水量在20世纪60年代发生了减少突变;而三江平原在20世纪70年代和80年代连续两次经历的增温突变,使其气温变化与东北北部平原其它地区明显不同;年日照时数和平均风速的减少突变均发生在20世纪80年代。总体来看,三江平原气候变化在20世纪80年代最明显。
    The Sanjiang Plain has gone through 4 periods of large-scale reclamation from 1956 to the present. Over 50% of wetlands in the region had changed into agricultural fields. The underlying surface of the plain has changed tremendously. In this paper, monthly records of 4 climatic factors (air temperature, precipitation, sunshine-hour, and wind speed) for 21 meteorological stations covering the period 1955-2000 were used. The climate jumps in the plain were examined by accumulated departure, Jy parameter and Mann-Kendall methods in the paper. Spring months defined in the paper were March-May, summer was June-September, autumn was October-November and winter was December-February of the next year. The results of seasonal and annual climate jumps showed that a jump of annual precipitation occurred in the 1960s, which had a decrease of 66.5mm; two warming jumps of annual mean temperature happened in the 1970s and the 1980s, which made the plain be different from around areas, and had the increases of 0.4℃and 1.0℃, respectively; the jumps of annual sunshine-hour and mean wind speed of the plain in the 1980s had decreased by 121.3h and 0.5m/s, respectively. The greenhouse effect and large-scale reclamation were probably direct reasons that resulted in climate jumps of the Sanjiang Plain.
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    松辽平原黑土有机碳含量时空分异规律
    刘景双, 于君宝, 王金达, 刘淑霞
    地理科学. 2003, 23 (6): 668-673.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.06.668
    摘要   PDF (266KB)
    松辽平原典型黑土分布区土壤有机碳的空间分异规律及不同开垦年限土壤有机碳含量变化的研究结果表明:随着纬度的增加,黑土总有机碳平均含量由11.43g/kg增加至20.83g/kg,有机碳组分含量和HA/FA比值均表现出增加的趋势。随着土壤剖面加深,黑土总有机碳及其组分含量均呈下降的趋势,土壤中的HA-C逐步被FA-C和HU-C所替代。土壤开垦前50年,黑土总有机碳及其组分含量下降迅速,以后下降趋于缓慢,至开垦130年后,有机碳含量水平基本处于相对稳定状态,变化不明显。
    The spatial variation law of soil organic carbon(SOC) and the content variation of SOC in different tillage periods in typical black soil distribution area of China were studied. The results show that, with the increase of latitude, the average total black soil organic carbon content increases from 11.43 g/kg to 20.83 g/kg, the organic carbon compositions content and HA/FA ratio show a increased trend. With soil profile depth increased, the black soil total organic carbon and HA-C, FA-C, HU-C contents are decreased, the black soil total organic carbon contents in A, AB and C layers are 16.04-40.28 g/kg, 8.04-13.82 g/kg, 4.84-9.13 g/kg, respectively. The ratio changes of FA-C/SOC, HA-C/SOC and HU-C/SOC are different in soil profiles from A to B layer, the ratio of HA-C/SOC is to reduce gradually with soil profile depth increased, and the ratios of FA-C/SOC and HU-C/SOC are to increase gradually with soil profile depth increased, HA-C is substituted for FA-C and HU-C gradually. It is shown that ability of humus wholly decayed is to reduce with soil profile depth change. Black soil total organic carbon and its compositions content decrease rapidly before 50 years tillage, then decrease slowly. After 130 years tillage, the soil organic carbon content is relative stable basically.
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    湿地生态系统的服务功益及可持续利用
    张峰, 周维芝, 张坤
    地理科学. 2003, 23 (6): 674-679.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.06.674
    摘要   PDF (654KB)
    湿地生态系统作为独特的生态系统类型多样,在地球上广泛分布。湿地生态系统在改善环境、调洪蓄洪、为人类提供各种资源等方面,具有调节气候和水文的生态服务功益、保护水禽迁徙和繁育的生态服务功益、丰富的生物多样性、降解和富集污染物的环境服务功益、物质生产服务功益和旅游服务功益等。鉴于目前湿地生态系统服务功益的片面理解和不合理利用问题,对湿地生态系统服务功益的可持续利用现状进行了分析,提出了湿地生态系统服务功益可持续利用的科学对策,包括全面认识和发挥湿地生态系统的生态和环境服务功益;正确处理直接和间接服务功益的关系,提高湿地生态系统的利用效率;寻求实现湿地生态系统综合经济服务功益的最佳开发模式。
    Wetland as distinctive ecosystem on the earth is different from the other ecosystems, has various types and is distributed extensively on the earth. It has an important role in improving environment and reducing and harboring flood, moreover, can provide various natural resources for human and protect biodiversity. Wetland ecosystem has various important service benefits as follows: (1) It has the ecological service benefit of modulating climate and water regime; moreover, it is favorable to prevent flooding. (2) It has an important function of providing habit and reproduction place for waterfowls. (3) There are abundant biodiversities, including gene, species and ecosystem diversity. (4) It has capacity to degrade and enrich contaminations and improve environment, such as purifying sewage, and decontaminating heavy metal irons, fixing CO2. (5) It is capable to produce materials for human being, e.g., fishes, timber, foods, medicines, and various raw materials for industry. (6) There are various tourism resources, especially waterfall, fresh spring, diving, surfing and boating. However, there are some unilateral ideas and non-reasonable utilization for wetland, some problems for the sustainable utilization of service benefit of wetland ecosystem is discussed, and the strategies for wetland sustainable utilization are presented, which are (1) comprehensively understanding the ecological and environment service benefits and reasonably using its ecological and environment service benefits, (2) reasonably dealing with the balance relationship between direct and indirect service benefits so as to improve the utilization efficiency of service benefits of wetland ecosystem and (3) seeking optimal developing model for the comprehensive economic service benefits of wetland ecosystem in order to get much more economic benefit, respectively.
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    洞庭湖湿地资源退化的生态经济损益评估
    庄大昌, 丁登山, 董明辉
    地理科学. 2003, 23 (6): 680-685.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.06.680
    摘要   PDF (853KB)
    洞庭湖湿地是中国最大的淡水湿地生态系统之一,湿地资源十分丰富,但由于人类不合理的开发利用,导致湿地生态系统严重退化,湿地生态服务功能价值受损,制约了湖区经济的可持续发展。在实地调查和试验的基础上,依据生态经济学的理论和方法,对洞庭湖湿地因资源退化引起的一系列自然灾害和生态灾害所造成的湿地生态功能损失进行了价值损益评估,由此得出湿地资源退化对湖区经济可持续发展所造成的损失;并指出只有恢复洞庭湖区湿地生态环境,保护好洞庭湖区湿地资源,才能实现洞庭湖区湿地资源的可持续利用,保证湖区经济的可持续发展。
    Wetland is featured by its unique ecological function and economical value. It is amongst the Earth's most productive ecosystem which has such a huge economical and socio-ecological benefits as food supply, raw and processed materials, water resources, flood control and drought defying, biodiversity protection and tourism etc. The Dongting Lake wetland is one of the largest lacustrine wetland ecosystem in China. There are a lot of wetland resources in Dongting Lake area. It includes 1428 species of plants resources, 216 species of birds resources, 119 species of fish resources, 27 species of amphibians and retile, 22 species of mammals and a great many of other wild living things. But the human's unreasonable exploitation and utilization for a long times lead to the wetland's ecosystem degeneration and ecological value fall victim and to restrict the economic sustainable development in Dongting Lake area. Based on the wetland resources' character, the paper makes use of the eco-economics theory and method in the base of the investigation and the experiment to evaluate the benefit and loss value of the wetland ecological function degeneration as a series of the natural and ecological calamity are leaded by the wetland eco-environment and the resources degeneration. The loss of the direct values in use and the loss of the indirect values in use in Dongting Lake wetland resources are evaluated in the use of the method of tax rate of Sweden. Researching value, travel consumption method, Robert Constanza method, market value method, assets value method. The conclusion can be drawn that the total loss value measure of the wetland resources degeneration is 300.71?108 yuan(RMB) in Dongting Lake wetland. The loss of the assets value has affected economical sustainable development as the wetland resources degeneration in Dongting Lake area. The guarantee to realize the economical sustainable development and to the wetland resources sustainable utilization is to renew the wetland eco-environment and to protect the wetland resources in Dongting Lake area.
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    嫩江下游沼泽湿地变化的驱动力分析
    李颖, 田竹君, 叶宝莹, 张养贞
    地理科学. 2003, 23 (6): 686-691.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.06.686
    摘要   PDF (660KB)
    从20世纪80年代中期到20世纪末,嫩江下游地区年平均气温上升、湿润度逐渐下降、降水量减少、年径流减少等原因导致了沼泽湿地面积大量减少。沼泽湿地减少的面积距主要公路和铁路的最短距离成幂指数关系;与主要城市最短距离的e指数关系并不显著。人口增长、农业现代化水平的提高以及人类对眼前利益的追逐是沼泽开垦为耕地的主要社会经济驱动力。
    The reducing of mire wetland area in lower Nenjiang watershed is much more related to rising of annual mean temperature, declining of humidity, decreasing of precipitation and runoff cutting down during 1986-2000. The reducing of mire wetland is relative to power index of the shortest distance to the road and railway, and is relatively unremarkable with e power exponent of the shortest distance to town. Population growing, improving of agriculture modernization level and aspiring after interests at the movement are main social economic driving forces resulting in mire wetland reclamation.
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    扎龙保护区湿地扰动因子及其影响研究
    许林书, 姜明
    地理科学. 2003, 23 (6): 692-698.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.06.692
    摘要   PDF (871KB)
    扎龙湿地的扰动因子有气候、洪水、火、水利工程、农业活动等因子。这些扰动因子给湿地带来了正反两方面的作用,而扎龙湿地在扰动因子的作用下,导致湿地面积减小、生物多样性降低、水质污染、景观破碎等,进而导致湿地功能下降,生态环境严重恶化。对湿地扰动因子进行分析,掌握它们的作用过程和发生机理,对湿地的利用、保护以及恢复重建具有重要的意义。
    There are many perturbation factors on Zhalong wetlands, they include climate、flood pulsing 、fire、 project construction、farming and grazing. With these action of perturbation factors, Zhalong wetland have been changed greatly, including decrease of wetland area、loss of biodiversity、 contamination of water quality、fragmentation of landscape and so on. Climate influences wetland by the variation of temperature and precipitation, now Zhalong wetland has less rain and a little high temperature than average years, it will lead to the lack of water on Zhalong wetland. Flood has positive influences on wetland, such as supplying water、controlling salinization、improving soil fertility, at the same time flood has negative influences, such as soil erosion、water contamination and habitat destroy. Fire is an important factor which has brought bad effect on Zhalong wetland, it will burn up reed and even harm the root of reed, at last it will result in land salinization where fire touches. Farming and grazing activities become more and more common in Zhaong Reserve. Inning and grazing will destroy seed storage of wetland、bring about soil erosion and sanilization、decrease life diversity and so on. On Zhalong wetland there are many projections, such as ditch and road, these projections lead to fragmentation of landscapes, we often call the phenomenon "landscape island". "landscape island" will obstruct connections between rivers and change form of current, furthermore it will influence fish. At the same time projection construction and resident activities will disturb value birds and lead to the decrease of value bird. In fact these perturbation factors often act on wetland synthetically so that process and mechanism of wetland become more complex. In a word because of the influence of perturbation factors, Now Zhalong wetland function has been declining and ecological environment has been destroyed greatly. Analyzing perturbation factors and understanding their action process and mechanism will have far-reaching influence on utilization、protection and restoration of Zhalong wetland.
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    东天山北麓2000多年以来的森林线与环境变化
    阎顺, 孔昭宸, 杨振京, 倪健, 李树峰
    地理科学. 2003, 23 (6): 699-704.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.06.699
    摘要   PDF (737KB)
    依据吉木萨尔县泉子街乡桦树窝子和小西沟两个剖面进行高时间分辨率的孢粉分析,结合剖面岩性特征分析、历史文献记录和碳屑鉴定,揭示了天山北麓最近2000多年以来的环境变化。2000 a B.P.以前,该地植被为荒漠草原;2000~1300 a B.P.(50 a B.C.~650A.D.),植被为草原植被,其中1750~1400 a B.P.(200~550A.D.),植被为有少量森林的草原植被,当时气候状况较今凉湿,适宜云杉生长,使得云杉林带下移,幅度可达250m左右。当时的年均气温较今低1℃而降水量较高,是新疆历史上一个相对冷湿的环境;约1300~450 a B.P.(650~1500A.D.),植被为荒漠草原;450 a B.P.年以来,植被为荒漠草原-草原。
    Based on the sporo-pollen analysis and 14C sample annual dating on the deposits of Huashuwozi section and Xiaoxigou section in the northern piedmonts of Tianshan Mts., together with lithologic analysis of the two sections and historic records, this article reveals the environment change during the last 2 000 years. With the thickness of 110 cm,the Huashuwozi section is divided into six layers and contains 52 sporo-pollen samples. The Xiaoxigouzi section is divided into seven layers and contains 38 sporo-pollen samples, with the thickness of 190cm. During the experiment, the spore pollens which belong to 45 families and genera are identified. The five collected 14C samples are determined by the librarian at laboratory of the Institute of Geology, China Seismology Bureau. Based on the sporo-pollen assemblage features of Huashuwozi section, four sporo-pollen assemblage belts are separated from top to bottom, which reflect that,from 2 000 a B.P., the vegetation has undergone a succession processes which is divided into four stages.,which are desert-steppe stage, steppe(forest-steppe) stage,desert-steppe stage and desert-steppe,steppe stage in proper order. 2 000 a B.P. ago, the vegetation in this place is desert-steppe; from 2 000 a B.P. to 1 300 a B.P., the vegetation was steppe. More interestingly, from 1 750 a B.P. to 450 a B.P., the steppe, associating with a small quantity of forests, was distributed dominantly. During this period,the temperature was relatively low and the humidity was comparatively high. Therefore, it was comparatively cold and humid in history in Xinjiang. The environment was good for the growth of Pecea asperata at this period of time. As a result, the Pecea asperata timberline declined at most about 250 m. From about 1 300 a B.P. to 450 a B.P., the vegetation was desert-steppe, which was similar to current situation. Since 450 a B.P., the vegetation has been desert-steppe and steppe with odd broad-leaved forest nearby. Birch forest has been in an advantageous position.The Pecea asperata timberline declined and the environment has been comparatively cold and humid.
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    长江三角洲长江以北地区全新世以来人地关系的环境考古研究
    朱诚, 张强, 张芸, 张之恒, 沈明洁
    地理科学. 2003, 23 (6): 705-712.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.06.705
    摘要   PDF (1007KB)
    通过长江三角洲长江以北地区高邮龙虬庄和海安青墩两个新石器时代考古遗址剖面粒度、磁化率、孢粉以及年代学测定,较为全面地分析了该区全新世以来生态环境变化与人类文明兴衰的相互关系,研究结果表明:在有人类活动以前,该区距离海洋较远,但受海面变化影响强烈。此后,气候向暖湿方向发展,7000~6000间的大西洋温暖湿润气候以及3700 a B.P.左右期间,该区气候适宜,人类文明在这样的适宜气候条件下得到长足发展。值得注意的是,海安青墩遗址剖面中出现厚达1m多的自然沉积地层,粒度分析以及孢粉分析表明,这一自然沉积地层是4000 a B.P.以来的海侵事件所致,正是这次海侵事件,使研究区人类文明得以衰落。
    Grain size analysis, magnetism analysis, pollen analysis and chronology analysis are performed on the samples from Longqiuzhuang Site of Gaoyou, and Qingdun Site of Hai'an in the north part of the Yangtze Delta, analyzing the relationship between rise and fall of human civilization and environment changes. The research result indicates that before human settlement occurred in the study region, the ocean is relatively far away from the region but influenced frequently by the high tide. The warm and wet climate occurred in 7000-6000 a B. P. and around 3700 a B. P. in the study region. The comfortable climatic conditions were suitable for human settlement and human civilization. It should be mentioned that, about 1m natural sedimentary layer is contained in the Qingdun profile. Grain size and pollen analysis suggest that this natural layer is the result of marine transgression event occurred after 4000 a B. P., and just this great transgression event caused the human civilization in this study region collapsed. This paper applied sediment deposition from two Neolithic sites: Longqiuzhuang Site of Gaoyou and Qingdun Site of Hai'an in the study of correlation between rise and fall of human civilization and climatic changes during the Neolithic cultural period, avoiding the uncertainty in the archaeological study applying just one site profile. Therefore, the research is theoretically and practically meaningful.
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    河南省城镇体系空间结构的多分形特征及其与水系分布的关系探讨
    刘继生, 陈彦光
    地理科学. 2003, 23 (6): 713-720.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.06.713
    摘要   PDF (1428KB)
    基于河南省城镇体系空间结构的多分形性质及其与水系的分维关系的实证探讨发现如下地理规律:①在较大标度范围内,河南省城市体系的空间结构为简单分形,但在较小标度范围内,系统已经具有明确的多重分形特征;②多分维谱在参数q≈-4处出现标度间断,从而城市体系的空间结构发生对称破缺。③城市体系空间结构的分维小于水系空间结构的分维。由此证明:第一,多分形是由单分形演化而来,城镇体系的多分形结构是基于地球表面的分形支体由测度集中区向测度疏散区渐近发育的。第二,城市体系的分形发育与水系的分维结构具有一定的数理关系,城市体系的分维理当小于水系维数。
    By means of the theory of multifractals, this paper is devoted to studying the spatial structure of urban systems, taking man-land relationships into consideration. Taking the system of cities and towns in Henan Province, China, as a example, and using the box counting method and μ-weight formulae, we calculate the values of the Lipschitz-Hlder exponent α(q), the fractal dimension of the support of singularities f(α), the sequence of mass exponent τ(q), and the dimensions of fractal measures Dq of the urban systems in the studied area. The data processing reveals that the scaling range reflecting log-linearity of complex fractals is narrower than that of simple fractals. This denotes that fractal systems are some kinds of evolving systems, and multifractals usually come from common fractals at least where geographical phenomena are concerned. The computation results show that the spatial structure of the Henan urban system has multifractality to some extent, with a scaling breakdown in the f(α)curve as well as the spectrum of fractal dimensions Dq when the moment order q=-4. That is to say, qc=-3 perhaps is a critical value for q, the multifractals come on well only when q∈[-3,∞], as for q≤-4, the multifractal measures are abnormal: the f(α) curve and the Dq function fail to converge, which maybe implies a sort of phase transition from a rural to urban settlement system during the course of regional urbanization. Moreover, this is another evidence that multifractals generate by evolution from simple fractals. A discovery is made that the fractal dimension of spatial structure of urban systems is less than that of river systems in the same studied region, which maybe means that urban systems as fractals must be included by hydrographical nets, i.e. water systems. We can develop what is called "inclusion principle" about man-land relations that is as important as the "matching principle" about urban systems. Both the matching principle and inclusion principle will be supposed to be the basic principles of fractal urban geography, which will play a significant role in urban plan and geographical space optimization in the future.
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    基于遥感与GIS技术的城镇体系空间特征的分形分析——以绍兴市为例
    赵萍, 冯学智
    地理科学. 2003, 23 (6): 721-727.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.06.721
    摘要   PDF (891KB)
    在遥感技术与GIS技术的支持下,采用分形几何理论对绍兴市城镇体系空间结构特征和形态特征进行分析,探讨城镇体系的演化规律。研究表明,绍兴市城镇体系无论在空间结构上还是在空间形态上都具有分形特征。城镇分布密度由绍兴市区向周围逐渐衰减,且分布不均衡,具有向交通线集中的趋势,形成了优化的空间结构。但1984~1997年间,空间结构的演化趋向于围绕绍兴市在半径方向上均匀分布,分形特性减弱。此外,各城镇基本是以各自的中心逐渐向外扩展,空间关联性大致不变。空间形态则日趋复杂,稳定性越来越低,发展的随意性越来越大。绍兴市区这一特点更明显。
    It is useful for the sustainable development of city to analyse spatial characteristics and evolvement of urban system. In this paper, spatial structure and pattern of urban system in Shaoxing based on remote sensing and GIS are analyzed by fractal geometry. The rule of evolvement is discussed by comparing the data in 1997 with that in 1984. Remote sensing techniques can provide the necessary data rapidly and periodically for the spatial characteristics and evolvement study. GIS is an effective tool to analyze the spatial characteristics and evolvement with the strong spatial analysis functions. Firstly,the study area including Shaoxing City and towns is cut from TM images in 1984 and 1997 after geometric correction based on the 1:50,000 topographic map. Secondly, the spectral characteristics of the urban system and background on the TM images are analyzed by samples statistics. Thirdly, a model is established based on the difference of spectral values between them to extract the urban information. Fourthly, the result of extraction is transformed to vector map in order to correct some errors and imported to GIS. Then the aggregation dimension, spatial correlation dimension and fractal dimension of pattern in different times are calculated one by one based on the attribution table of GIS. The results of analysis suggest that both spatial structure and pattern of urban system in Shaoxing are obviously fractured. The aggregation dimension D denotes the aggregation or dispersion state around the centre of the urban. If D<2, the density of towns is attenuating from the centre to the surrounding. If D=2, the towns are distributed evenly around the centre of the city. If D>2, the density of towns is increasing from the centre to the surrounding, which is not natural. The correlation dimension D denotes the uniform extend of the towns aggregation. If D→0, the distribution of towns is centralized. If D→1, the towns are aggregating to a geographic line. If D→2, the towns are distributed evenly around any town. The fractal dimension D of spatial pattern denotes its complexity and stability, which can discover the trend of the urban evolvement. It varies from 1 to 2,and the greater the D, the more complex the distribution of towns. If D<1.5, the shape of the urban system is becoming more simple. If D=1.5, the stability is worse,and the urban system is in the Brown movement. If D > 1.5, the shape is more complex and instable. If D=2, one place on the plane is filled by the graph of the town. According to the results of the calculation, the aggregation dimension of Shaoxing urban system is smaller than 2, which suggests that the density of towns decreases gradually around the centre. The spatial structure is optimized. The correlation dimension is nearly 1, so the distribution of towns is not proportional, which tend to aggregate to the traffic routes at the same time. As far as the evolution of urban system is concerned, from 1984 to 1997, the towns tend to be distributed evenly around the city, and the fractal dimension of the spatial structure is decreased. Every town expands around its center gradually, and the spatial correlation is unchanged on the whole. But the spatial pattern of urban system becomes more complex, unstable and random. Especially, with the increasing of economy in Shaoxing, the city develops more quickly, and the spatial pattern is more complex and instable than other towns. Lastly,some suggestions about the development of Shaoxing are brought forward based on the conclusions.
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    撂荒后黄土高原坡耕地土壤透水性和抗冲性的变化
    罗利芳, 张科利, 李双才
    地理科学. 2003, 23 (6): 728-733.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.06.728
    摘要   PDF (751KB)
    退耕政策实施后,黄土高原部分坡耕地以撂荒形式来恢复其生态环境,而有关撂荒后土壤性质动态变化的研究还很少。土壤透水性和抗冲性是两个与水土流失关系最为密切的土壤性状指标。通过对黄土高原典型退耕区不同年限撂荒地的表土透水性和抗冲性及其它土壤性质的研究,表明土壤抗冲性随撂荒时间延长变化最大,其次为透水性、非毛管孔隙度和有机质,而容重、饱和含水量、毛管含水量、田间持水量、总孔隙度、毛管孔隙度等随撂荒时间变化相对很小。随着撂荒时间的延长,土壤的抗冲性、透水性都明显的增强。撂荒5年后,水土流失得到很大程度控制,土壤质量也可得到改善。
    The Loess Plateau is well known for its severe soil erosion because of the erodible soil, unreasonable land use and natural vegetation damage. Intense soil loss results in depletion in farmland, deteriorating ecological environment and plethoric silt in channel and so on. Therefore, an important policy was established to return the cropland to forest and grassland on the Loess Plateau. After carrying out the policy, most of croplands have been left alone in their wildness on the Loess Plateau. But little research has been conducted on the change of the soil properties on these lands, especially for the properties closely related to soil erosion. The permeability and anti-scourability are two very important indexes of soil properties. The permeability indicates the potential to produce runoff which is one of the main forces of soil erosion. The anti-courability is the ability of soil to defend the scouring of the flow. The typical region of Ansai was selected to study the permeability, anti-scourability and other soil properties of these lands after being wild for different years. Anti-scourability was measured in a hydraulic flume with slope gradient 15癮nd flow discharge of 1,2,3,4,5L/s. The saturated hydraulic conductivity, organic matter, bulk density, saturated water content, capillary water content and field capacity were aslo measured. The results indicated that the scoured soil module changed most markedly, and the saturated hydraulic conductivity, non-capillary porosity, and organic matter also varied greatly, with the indexes of bulk density, saturated water content, capillary water content, field capacity, total porosity, and capillary porosity altering comparatively little. The permeability linearly increased about 0.044mm/min a year after being wild with solidifying by plant roots, increasing organic matter and non-capillary porosity. The scoured soil module exponentially decreased. That is to say, the soil anti-scourabiltiy improved greatly with the increasing time of being wild, in which plant roots also play a very important role. In addition, soil bulk density indicated some relationship with the soil anti-scourabiltiy and permeability. It was shown that the soil and water loss was controlled to a great extent and soil quality also improved after being wild for over 5 years.
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    河南省植物区系地域分异研究
    张桂宾
    地理科学. 2003, 23 (6): 734-739.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.06.734
    摘要   PDF (604KB)
    在最新植物区系资料的基础上,对河南省境内的大别山、桐柏山、伏牛山南北两坡和太行山等地的种子植物区系的差异性和相似性进行了对比分析,结果为大别山与桐柏山的关系最为密切,伏牛山南北两坡的关系最为密切,而太行山与前四者的相似性系数均小,它们在中国的植物分区中应分属于三个不同的植物地区。大别山和桐柏山应属华东植物地区,太行山属华北植物地区,而伏牛山南北两坡关系密切不宜分为两个植物地区,但伏牛山中国特有种的地理成分更接近华中植物地区。
    Henan Province is located in transition zone from temperate to subtropic, ranging from 110?21'to 116?39'E, 31?23'to 36?22 'N. Its various physical conditions and long geologic history made it abundant in species and complex in floristic elements. This paper studies the difference and recemblance among the floras of different areas in Henan Province based on the latest floristic data. It consists of four parts. The first part gives a brief introduction to the flora as well as the natural factors influencing its development and distribution in Henan Province. There are 2954 wild species in 896 genera and 152 families, accounting for 10%, 29% and 45% of the same kind plants of China respectively; among which 24 species in 14 genera and 6 families belong to Gymnosperm, the others to Angiospermae,1831 species to herb (62%) and 1123 species to xylophyta (38%) in the province. The flora is characterised by complex geographical elements and obvious difference among areas as well as old origin and rich spermatophytes and endemic species to China. The second part mainly analyses the difference among the floras of six areas in Henan, including Dabie Mountain, Tongbai Mountain, the north and the south sides of Funiu Mountain, the Taihang Mountains and the Eastern Plain in the province, in the light of their floristic composition and distribution types. The result is that in Dabie Mountain and Tongbai Mountain, the endemic species to China widely ranging in the subtropic are the most; in the south side of Funiu Mountain, the endemic species to China coexisting in Huazhong floral regions and Sorth-West floral region are the most, and in its north side the percentages of the different geographical elements of the endemic species to China tend to the same. The third part explicates the relationship between five mountain floristic areas by calculating their coefficients of similarity of species(Czehanowski). The coefficient of similarity between Dabie Mountain and the Taihang Mountains is 88.4%, between the north and the south sides of Funiu Mountain 83.7%, between Taihang Mountains and Dabie Mountain, Tongbai Mountain, the north and the south sides of Funiu Mountain,52.7%,57.4%,61.1%,68.5% respectively. It shows the degree of resembles between the five floristic areas in Henan Province. The last part summarizes the characteristic of floristic differentiae among areas in Henan Province. The conclusion is that Dabie Mountain and Tongbai Mountain are closed, the north and the south sides of Funiu Mountain closed but the Taihang Mountains alone in their floristic character. Therefore the 5 mountains area can be divided into 3 floral regions of China. Of them Dabie Mountain and Tongbai Mountain belong to Huadong floral region, the Taihang Mountains to Huabei floral region, the sides of Funiu Mountain to Huazhong region (the ridge of the Funiu Mountain shouldn't be the boundary of Huabei and Huazhong floral regions, its two sides shouldn't be treated as one unit and it more resembles Huazhong region than any other region in China in floristic nature).
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    磷脂脂肪酸在地下水微生物生态学中的应用及存在的若干问题
    潘响亮, 邓伟, 张道勇
    地理科学. 2003, 23 (6): 740-745.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.06.740
    摘要   PDF (785KB)
    磷脂脂肪酸(PLFA)是研究地下水微生物生态的一种新兴技术,它比基于培养基的传统方法有许多明显的优势,但同时也存在一些需要解决的问题。样品中的PLFA总量可以通过转换因子估算地下水微生物的生物量,但微生物群落组成的差异和环境的物理变化都是潜在的误差来源,以传统微生物技术互补和选择合适的转换因子可提高结果的可靠性;PLFA还可以被用来指示地下水微生物在各种环境压力下的生理状态;用特定的PLFA生物标志物、PLFA的组成模式、指纹技术来描述地下水微生物的群落结构和变化特征时,存在的主要问题是不同微生物PLFA的重叠、背景值的干扰和环境因子变化的影响,以PLFA技术为主导,借助于数学统计方法,结合传统微生物技术、核酸鉴定、同位素示踪等多种技术可望有效地消除各种干扰因子,从而揭示完整的地下水微生物的生理生态,为地下水污染的生物修复提供理论指导。
    As a young technology used in groundwater microbial ecology, PLFA technology overcomes several shortcomings of traditional culture-based approaches and has a number of advantages. However, there are still a few of problems to be solved when PLFA technology is applied. Although the groundwater microbial biomass can be estimated from total PLFA by a conversion factor, both the difference of communities and physical changes of environment are potential erroneous sources, which can be reduced by combination of PLFA and traditional technology and employing a proper conversion factor. In some cases, certain PLFA ratio can also indicate the physiological status of microbes under some environmental stresses. In describing groundwater communities and their changes by certain PLFA biomarkers, PLFA pattern and PLFA fingerprint technology, PLFA overlap among different species, background lipids and changes of environmental factors are the main factors influencing the reliability of results. However, with the aid of mathematical statistics and other technologies including nucleic-acid technology and tracer technology, PLFA technology is expected to picture the groundwater ecology and physiology clearly, which can provide theoretical guidance for bioremediation of contaminated groundwater.
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    快速城市化进程中的太湖水环境保护:困境与出路
    高超, 朱继业, 戴科伟, 高松, 窦贻俭
    地理科学. 2003, 23 (6): 746-750.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.06.746
    摘要   PDF (221KB)
    太湖流域经济发达、城市化水平高,伴随着城市化过程的各种环境问题十分突出。城市化过程对太湖水环境质量的负面影响主要表现在生活污水排放量增加、人畜粪便对水污染的程度加剧、化学肥料施用量增加、非点源污染负荷增加以及自然景观对污染物的去除能力降低等方面,由此导致的营养盐入湖量增加将严重制约太湖水质的改善。充分认识并努力减轻这些负面影响是改善太湖水环境质量的前提,在分析问题的基础上提出了一些针对性的应对策略。
    Located in one of the most rapidly developing areas in China, Taihu Lake watershed is undergoing an accelerated process of urbanisation. Concomitant to fast economic bloom and urban expansion is the deterioration of water quality. The eutrophication of Taihu Lake has become a major environmental concern of the region. The main objective of this paper is to summarize the effects of urbanization on eutrophication of the lake. In addition to the increased discharge of domestic wastewater there are also some indirect impact of urbanization on the nutrient status of surface water. Among them are decreased utilization of organic manure, increased dosage of chemical fertilizer, the shift of scattered livestock and poultry breeding to highly concentrated ones, higher runoff due to more impermeable ground, and the encroachment of wetland in which a significant amount of nutrients can be removed from water. All of these can lead to a larger contribution of non-point source N and P to water bodies. To mitigate these negative effects of urbanization on environment some practicable options have been proposed by the authors.
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    研究报道
    战略环境评价指标体系框架构建研究
    赵文晋, 董德明, 龙振永, 王宪恩, 姜百川
    地理科学. 2003, 23 (6): 751-754.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.06.751
    摘要   PDF (517KB)
    从SEA指标体系研究的意义出发,以SEA的目标——环境可持续发展为基础,通过分析SEA指标体系,将其功能确定为准确反映战略实施后环境-人口-资源系统的外在状态、内部协调程度和变化趋势,并建立了SEA指标体系的框架,将SEA指标体系确定为基于驱使力-状态-响应模型(DSR)的层次性指标体系,依据指标作用的不同,将SEA指标分为核心指标和外围指标,并以建立科学、实用和可操作的指标体系为目标对SEA指标的选取原则进行了探讨。
    Based on environmental sustainable development which is the target of SEA, the framework of indicator system for SEA is built by analyzing indicator system and its functions, and the meaning of the research on indicator system of SEA is briefly described. The functions of indicator system of SEA are described as the exterior status, interior harmony and developing direction of the Environment-Population-Resources system. The indicator system is a hiberarchy which is based on Driving Force-State-Response (DSR) model. The indicators can be classified as central indicators and peripheral indicators by its different functions. To build scientific, applied and operable system of indicators, the principles for the choice of indicators and quantitative methods are discussed.
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    江苏省国内旅游结构特征研究
    吴泓, 顾朝林, 马荣华, 徐晓勤
    地理科学. 2003, 23 (6): 755-761.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.06.755
    摘要   PDF (862KB)
    运用西方旅游者研究理论,分析不同社会发展阶段旅游结构特征,通过江苏国内旅游问卷调查,首次对江苏国内旅游结构特征进行系统研究。通过对旅游者社会经济特征、旅游行为特征、旅游产业结构和旅游空间结构的分析,认为江苏国内旅游表现出工业社会初期与中后期交错叠合的阶段特征,产业结构正处在明显转型期。
    This paper makes a critical review about the researches on the tourists, studies the structure characteristics of tourists in different development stages. Based upon quantities of questionnaires and field surveys in Jiangsu, the structure characteristics of domestic tourists to Jiangsu is analyzed. Firstly, the paper shows that the number of tourists increased steadily from 1980s. Then, the paper explores the structure characteristics of domestic tourists to Jiangsu in four aspects. The conclusions include: a) The social economic characteristics of domestic tourists accord with that of initial industrial society. b) The motives of tourists are sightseeing, making holiday, leisure and business. The mass products are preferred. Tourists usually travel with family or partners and only staying less time in one destination. c) The Conventional Mass Tourism is in dominate position, especially the sightseeing. The consumption of hotel, food and traffic is much more than shopping, visiting and amusement. It shows a high efficient organizational network in the structure of Jiangsu tourism industry hasn't been formed. d) Tourists often choose more scenic spots and Partial Orbit Mode or Full Orbit Mode with long distance, but concentrate in the south and middle cities of Jiangsu. e) The spatial distribution is concentrated in the tourist origins near Jiangsu Province. It proves the law of distance decay. But due to the level of economic development, the spatial distribution has developed a pattern which is different from the law of distance decay. Furthermore, the Attraction Radius of Jiangsu is largenning, and the tourist origins are spreading around all over the country. Lastly, the paper demonstrates that the domestic tourism in Jiangsu is in the restructure stage. The features are interlaced both in the initial industrial society and medium-post industrial society. Some guidelines are also briefly discussed such as innovation and organization coordination, strategic alliance, etc.
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    湖区农户对湿地资源和环境的感知研究——以安徽省安庆沿江湖群为例
    卢松, 陆林, 凌善金, 宣国富
    地理科学. 2003, 23 (6): 762-768.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.06.762
    摘要   PDF (960KB)
    湿地具有强大的环境功能和生态效益,在维持地球表面生态平衡中起着极为重要的作用。目前湿地研究是学术界关注的热点之一,成果颇丰,但从湖区农户对湿地资源与环境感知角度进行的研究国内尚不多见。以安庆沿江湖群为例,根据对湖区农户的实地问卷调查,分析湖区农户对湿地资源和环境的感知状况,得出一些基本认识,在此基础上提出湿地资源和环境可持续发展的建议与对策。
    Marked by powerful environmental function and ecological benefits, wetlands play an extraordinary role in keeping the ecological balance on the surface of the earth. Study on wetlands had thus become a focus of academic community. Although abundant results are achieved, few research had been made from lake peasants' perception of wetland resources and environment so far in China. The paper takes a case of lake group along the Yangtze River in Anqing, and analyzes the condition of lake district peasants' perception of wetland resources and environment on the basis of on-the-spot questionnaires. Furthermore, the paper reaches some basic conclusions and proposes some suggestions and countermeasures for sustainable development of wetland resources and environment.
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