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CN 22-1124/P
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  • 地理科学
      2006年, 第26卷, 第5期 刊出日期:2006-09-20 上一期    下一期
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    论文
    山东省发展轨迹比较与反思
    任建兰, 周鹏
    地理科学. 2006, 26 (5): 513-519.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2006.05.513
    摘要   PDF (1179KB)
    根据时间序列性、空间敏感性、指标综合性和趋势可预测性原则,建立表征省级区域发展轨迹的数学模型,并模拟出山东省和浙江、江苏、辽宁、广东五省份1979~2003年发展轨迹及其发展度、协调度、持续度的演变轨迹。从时空比较研究的角度出发,首先在时间维度上分析了山东省三个发展阶段的内在特点,然后在空间维度上总结了山东省25年发展历程的6个特点。最后为山东省落实科学发展观,推进可持续发展提出了7条建议。
    By the guide of the thought of scientific development and based on the principles of ordering in time, sensitivity in space, comprehensiveness of index and tendency of forecasting, the authors build a mathematics model to show the development track in province scale, and then simulate the development track and the developmental degree, the harmonious degree, the sustainable degree of Shandong, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Liaoning, Guangdong provinces from 1979 to 2003. From time and space aspects, firstly, the authors divided the 25 years into three phases: the slow-start phase, the rapid-growth phase and the adjust-development phase, the corresponding characteristics of each phase were given at the same time. Secondly, the authors summed up six characteristics of Shandong Province by comparing with four other provinces: (1) The population pressure was too heavy and the "reverse scale" effect was too visible. (2) The internal efficiency and external communication was little and its regional advantages did not play enough. (3) The economic efficiency was low and the government's macroeconomic regulation and control ability was too weak. (4) Social progress was slow and the difference between twon and country was too large. (5) Technology and education input was low and innovation capacity was too weak. (6) The energy efficiency was low and the energy comsumption grew quickly. Finally, the authors put forward seven suggestions to carry out the thought of scientific development and to promote sustainable development of Shandong Province: (1) Accelerate the space conformity to reestablish the space order structure. (2) Reduce the transaction cost to strengthen the interflow at home and abroad. (3) Strengthen the regulative dynamics to optimize the economic efficiency. (4) Accelerate the urbanization advancement to reduce the urban-rural difference. (5) Breakthrough the backward west region to realizes the common enrichment. (6) Increase the science and technology education investment to enhance the innovation power. (7) Enhance the production efficiency to safeguard the resources supply and demand.
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    广东城市国际化发展的水平与过程研究
    薛德升, 孙丽萍, 李志刚
    地理科学. 2006, 26 (5): 520-528.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2006.05.520
    摘要   PDF (1279KB)
    首先建立了衡量城市国际化水平的综合指标体系,对改革开放以来广东省21个地级(或以上)城市1985、1990、1995、2000、2003年等5个主要年份国际化水平进行了统计分析,探讨了城市国际化的变化过程,归纳出了城市国际化发展的三种类型。研究表明:近20年来广东省所有城市的国际化水平均在不断提高,可见国际化不是少数世界城市或全球城市的独有现象。国际化水平的提高不是一个线性过程,大部分城市会出现波动和反复。
    This is an empirical study about urban internationalization. The development of global city or international city in China has been debated for nearly a decade. Nevertheless, few researchers have ever shed light on the outcome of such strategies. As a case study, this paper examines the level and process of urban internationalization in Guangdong Province, the most opening region of China. The paper firstly builds a comprehensive indicator system to evaluate the level of urban internationalization. All indicators are divided into core and basic types according to their implication upon the process of internationalization. Second, based upon the quantitative data from multi-channels such as Statistical Yearbook, it calculates the international levels of 21 cities in the years of 1985, 1990, 1995, 2000 and 2003 in Guangdong Province, showing the change of urban internationalization levels of these cities during last two decades. According to the quantitative analysis, all the 21 cities are divided into three categories: rapidly growing group, continually slowly growing group and fluctuating group. This indicates that although all such cities have undertaken policies of open-door and internationalization, the extent of changes are by no means the same. In addition, both qualitative and quantitative methods are used to uncover the underlying mechanisms. Socio-economic as well as cultural and historical factors of the cities are examined. On the basis of the study, three conclusions are found. First, after two decades of market reforming, the internationalization level of the cities in Guangdong Province have largely increased. Although none of such cities are truly so-called global city, they are undergoing unprecedented restructuring closely related to global forces. As such, the strategy of open-door has successfully developed a system of globalizing cities in the region. Also, this indicates that internationalization/globalization has tremendous impact on cities on the lower level of the global city hierarchy. Second, the internationalization development is not the only phenomena of the so called Word City and Global City. Rather, it is a widespread process in nearly every city in the world. Even more, the extent of impact by internationalization upon cities is rooted in the regional context of such globalizing cities. It is highlighted that historical, political and cultural factors are significantly factors underlying the process. Different cities have undertaken varied channels to raise their status on the hierarchy of globalizing cities. Third, it is found that the change of urban internationalization is not a linear growing process, but a fluctuating process with occasional growth and decline for most cities. This shows that the process of internationalization is complicated. The level of urban internationalization is not only a result of forces oversea, but also the result of the local variables including both geographical and social conditions.
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    生产要素市场化与江苏城市化动力机制演变
    吴莉娅
    地理科学. 2006, 26 (5): 529-535.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2006.05.529
    摘要   PDF (1127KB)
    江苏是最近中国城市化发展最迅速的地区之一,也是中国乡村工业化和农村城市化样板之一。以江苏为例,从城市化制度变迁和创新、产业结构转换和市场经济体制下经济要素自由流动角度出发,采用空间分析与经济供求分析、新制度经济学分析结合的方法,详细考察生产要素市场化进程和城市化动力机制结构及其演变过程,并总结了1990年代以来江苏城市化的基本特征。
    Jiangsu Province is one of the most rapid urbanization areas in China, as the developed province along the sea and the model of rural industrialization and rural urbanization in China, the changes of the urbanization mechanism in Jiangsu exemplify the development of urbanization mechanism in China. And the paper concludes the characteristics of urbanization in Jiangsu in the 1990s. As a socialist country, up-to-down urbanization mechanism is fundamentally in urbanization process in Jiangsu. After reform and opening, bottom-up urbanization mechanism is more and more important. In the 1990s, under the economic globalization circumstances, outward urbanization become the new urbanization mechanism in Jiangsu. That is to say, the power of urbanization is changing as the development of productivity, and various developmental stages have various power structures.
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    产业结构与就业结构关联研究——以芜湖市为例
    赵春雨, 方觉曙, 朱永恒
    地理科学. 2006, 26 (5): 536-543.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2006.05.536
    摘要   PDF (1371KB)
    以芜湖市作为案例地,从产业结构与就业结构的关系入手,探求两者的互动发展,努力寻求促使有效就业的产业发展方向,为解决迅速工业化地区社会发展问题作出有益探索。
    The employment issue is an important challenge that confronted the current society and economy development of China and the industrial structure evolvement is an important part in regional economic development, and they are closely related to each other. Wuhu is an important city in Anhui Province, its industrial structure has been changed quickly in the last decade and industrialization course developed rapidly. But large quantity of surplus labor force and the difficulty of its transferring is an important hindrance to the rapid and overall development of Wuhu City. This paper, from the angle of the relationship between industrial structure and employment structure, explores the mutual development of the industrial structure and employment structure. Firstly, the relationships between employment structure and three industrial structures, secondary and tertiary industries and current labor force supply and demand condition in Wuhu City have been analyzed respectively. The conclusions show that: (1) The industry development and labor force supply and demand in Wuhu City is out of line considerably; (2) The structure conversion in industry itself is an important reason for labor force transfer and market change; (3) The lack of third industry development is important limiting factor for economy development and employment extension in Wuhu City; (4) The lack of labor force employment training is an important obstacle to employment. At last, the main countermeasures to promoting mutual development of the industrial structure and employment structure include emphasizing establishing industry group, developing the servicing business strongly and strengthening the labor force occuation training facing the market.
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    当代中国城镇体系地域空间结构类型定量研究
    李震, 顾朝林, 姚士媒
    地理科学. 2006, 26 (5): 544-550.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2006.05.544
    摘要   PDF (1211KB)
    当代中国城市的地域空间分布并不具有随机性分布特征,过去运用泊松方程规定的随机分布模型对城镇体系地域空间结构定量划分存在一定的局限性。借助牛顿引力学方程对随机分布模型进行改进,构建城市空间分布的引力模型,利用2002年数据,以省级行政区为基本空间单元,对中国城镇体系地域空间结构类型进行定量研究,得出6个块状组团式城市聚集区、10个条状组团式城市聚集区和8个以大城市为核心的城市群的结构特征,其中东部省区以多核心多组团式的城市块状聚集区为主,中部省区以单中心单组团式的条状聚集区为主,西部省区以大城市为核心的城市群为主。东、中、西三大地带城市发育水平差别较大,梯度现象较为明显。
    The authors found that the past quantitative study on regional spatial structure of the Chinese urban system that was based on the random distribution model of Poisson's equation was imperfect, because the contemporary Chinese cities did not fit the character of the random distribution. A gravity model of the cities spatial distribution was formatted by virtue of Newtonian Dynamical Equation to improve the random distribution model, and made a quantitative study of the Chinese cities by taking province-level administrative regions for spatial cells and using the data of 2002. The conclusions are summed up as follows: first, the urban spatial structure of China was composed of 6 mass-clusters of urban accumulative regions, 10 strip-clusters of urban accumulative regions and 8 urban groups with metropolis as the core; second, multi-cores and multi-clusters urban accumulative regions were mostly distributed in the east provinces of China, sole-core and sole-cluster urban accumulative regions were mostly distributed in mid-China, and large urban groups appeared in the west. The difference of cities development levels was obvious among the three zones, and gradient-phenomenon is very distinct.
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    基于SD模型下的流域水资源-社会经济系统时空协同分析——以渭河流域关中段为例
    李同升, 徐冬平
    地理科学. 2006, 26 (5): 551-556.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2006.05.551
    摘要   PDF (1161KB)
    以渭河流域关中段为例,以SD方法分别建立PRD系统线性增长模型、反馈增长模型和调水耦合模型,并采用Venple软件进行系统仿真,结果显示:基于政府规划目标的线性增长模型是社会经济高速发展模式,但区内水资源供给与需求之间的缺口会持续加大;反馈增长模型可根据流域内水资源承载力状况调整社会经济发展目标,但难以完成关中地区所承担的发展和带动使命;调水耦合模型引入了区外水资源,地区缺水状况得到明显改善,社会经济发展保持较高的增长速度,是解决关中地区PRD问题有效途径,而调水工程和社会经济之间的协同则是近期需要解决的关键问题。
    The water resources and socio-economic system (PRD) in river valley is studied in this paper by system dynamics (SD), and based on it the dynamic behaviors of PRD system in river valley are simulated under different conditions, which can be the basis of solving the problem of river valley PRD system. Taking Guanzhong segment of the Weihe River valley as an example, three PRD system models (the lineal-growth model, the feedback-growth model and the water diversion coupling model) are respectively set up by SD, and simulated by the Venple software. The lineal-growth model based on government planning objective is the pattern that society-economy can develop at a super-speed, but it can also continuously enlarge the gap between the demand and supply of water resources. The feedback-growth model could adjust to the target of socio-economic development according to the conditions of water resources carrying capacity within the river valley, yet it is difficult to fulfill the developing and driving mission that Guanzhong area takes on. The water diversion coupling model introduces water resources outside, by which the situation of water shortage can be improved clearly, also the socio-economic development can keep on increasing at a sustainable higher speed, so it is an effective way to solve the PRD problem in Guanzhong area, however, the synergy of water diversion project and society-economy becomes the critical problem to be solved at present.
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    冬季北大西洋海温年际、年代际变化与中国气温的关系
    曲金华, 江志红, 谭桂容, 孙力
    地理科学. 2006, 26 (5): 557-563.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2006.05.557
    摘要   PDF (2083KB)
    利用NCEP/NCAR月平均再分析资料(1951~2001年)海洋表面月平均温度资料、500 hPa月平均高度场以及中国160站月平均气温资料,采用旋转方差极大正交旋转法(REOF)和小波变换等方法研究了冬季大西洋中低纬海表温度分布的主要模态及其与中国冬季气温的关系。结果表明,冬季北大西洋中部海表温度异常主要表现为2个基本模态,其中反映冬季大西洋20°~50°N区域海表温度异常的第二特征模态,在年际、年代际变化关系上与中国冬季平均气温关系非常密切。进一步研究表明,冬季北大西洋中部海表温度异常,可激发欧亚EU型环流,致使中国冬季气温异常。
    The main models of the distribution of mid-low-latitude Atlantic SST in winter and its relation with air temperature in China were researched by using NCEP/NCAR's mean SST, the height at the level of 500hPa reanalysis monthly data from 1951 to 2001 as well as the observed air temperature got from 160 observatories in China. The methods of REOF and wavelet transformation were adopted in this paper. The results show that SST anomalies in central north Atlantic in winter reflected two basic models, and the interannual and interdecadal variability of second model characteristics that can reflect SST anomalies in the field between 20癗 to 50癗 in Atlantic in winter has close relation with mean air temperature in China. In addition, the result also showed that it will result in higher air temperature when the SST anomalies in central north Atlantic in winter motivated Eurasian circulation of EU pattern.
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    博斯腾湖向塔里木河生态输水效果及风险
    左其亭
    地理科学. 2006, 26 (5): 564-571.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2006.05.564
    摘要   PDF (309KB)
    为了挽救濒临毁灭的塔里木河下游生态环境,中国政府2000~2003年实施5次向塔里木河下游生态应急输水,结束塔里木河下游300 km河道近30年的断流历史。文章基于大量数据资料,简单介绍塔里木河断流过程;再分析近期博斯腾湖向塔里木河下游输水效果;最后从博斯腾湖来水水文特性分析、博斯腾湖调节计算和输水风险分析等方面,阐述博斯腾湖向塔里木河下游输水的风险及控制措施。
    In order to resume and protect environment of lower reaches of the Tarim River, Chinese government determined to transport water 5 times from Bosten Lake to Tarim River from 1999 to 2003. The history that about 300km length of river in the lower reaches of the Tarim River was discontinuous near 30 years was over. First, this paper introduces the courses of discontinuous flow of the Tarim River. Second, the paper discusses the effect of water transportation from Bosten Lake to the Tarim River. Finally, the paper discusses sustainability, risk and control measures of water transportation from Bosten Lake to the Tarim River.
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    近20年黑龙江省土壤水储量变化趋势研究
    赵秀兰, 延晓冬
    地理科学. 2006, 26 (5): 569-573.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2006.05.569
    摘要   PDF (851KB)
    从33个农业气象试验站土壤湿度实测资料出发,探讨了近20年黑龙江省土壤水储量变化趋势及时空特征。结果表明:全区生长季0~50 cm土壤水储量总体呈减少趋势,区域差异明显,呈现出山地比平原、气候湿润区和正常区比半干旱区更易变干的特征;在0~50 cm深度范围内,从地表面开始,随深度增加,土壤水储量的减少幅度逐渐增加;季节特征明显,即春秋季减少幅度大于夏季。在土壤水储量变化趋势的研究基础上,结合黑龙江省生态和气候特点,探讨了土壤水储量变化对农业和生态的不利影响,并提出相应的水分管理与调控的措施。
    The soil moisture data from 33 agro-meteorological stations are employed to investigate the linear trend of soil water storage of Heilongjiang Province, north of Northeast China in recent 20 years. The results show that the whole trend of soil water storage from soil surface to top 50cm for growth season is decreasing. Moreover, not only the dry trend in mountainous regions is more significant than in plain regions, but also the climate wetness of normal regions are easier to be dry than the semi-arid region. From soil surface to top 50cm, the decreasing extent of mean soil water storage for the whole growth season over the region increases with vertical soil depth. The decreasing trend in spring and autumn are more evident than in summer. Combining the local and regional ecological and climatic characteristics, the paper discussed the disadvantageous influences of soil moisture storage on agriculture and ecology in Heilongjiang Province as well as the corresponding regulative measures and water managements.
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    基于山地垂直带谱的秦岭土地利用空间分异
    罗勇, 张百平
    地理科学. 2006, 26 (5): 574-579.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2006.05.574
    摘要   PDF (934KB)
    为揭示秦岭山地垂直带与土地利用之间的相互关系,文章基于2000年夏季卫星遥感影象和1∶25万DEM数据,采用目视解译的方式提取出秦岭南北坡的土地利用类型。将垂直带与土地利用进行叠加分析得出:秦岭山地林地占44.83%,草地占35.93%,耕地占18.42%。土地利用在垂直带上地空间分异显著,由基带往上耕地的比例呈指数关系减少,林地呈正抛物线变化,草地则与林地相反。在秦岭南北坡同一垂直带土地利用上也有明显的变化,特别体现在栓皮栎林带、锐齿栎林以及冷杉林带上。
    As water tower for human kind in the 21st century, mountains and their resources and ecology have increasingly become the focus of many studies. The Qinling Mountains serves as the climate boundary between sub-tropical and warm-temperate zone in China. Its vertical belt structure is different between the northern slope and the southern slope, and the state and type of land use accordingly differ greatly. This article makes use of satellite images in summer of 2000 and 1∶250000 digital elevation model (DEM) to acquire the data of land use types distribution on different vertical belts in order to disclose the interrelationship between montane vertical belt and land use. In Qinling Mountains 44.83% of the land is woodland, 35.93% is grassland and 18.42% is farmland. Land use change on different vertical belts is obvious. From the base belt to top, the proportion of farmland reduces to zero according to exponential curve, the woodland changes according to plus parabola and the grassland changes in inverse proportion to the woodland.Land use change on the same vertical belts is visible too, especially in Quercu variabilis forest, Q. aliena var.acutiserrata forest and Abies forest.
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    重庆地区末次冰期气候变化的石笋记录研究
    王建力, 王丽, 何潇, 吴文戬
    地理科学. 2006, 26 (5): 580-585.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2006.05.580
    摘要   PDF (1377KB)
    对采自重庆金佛山梁天湾洞穴的1 根长达295 mm的石笋进行了高精度的TIMS-U系定年和碳氧同位素测试分析,建立了末次冰期晚期(31.90~15.21 ka B.P.)长江中游较高分辨率(平均为280 a/mm)的古气候变化序列。从石笋的氧同位素曲线中明显地检出Heinrich事件,并且氧同位素曲线与南京葫芦洞和贵州董歌洞的石笋记录有着良好的对比关系。但明显的差别是,重庆地区石笋的同位素记录表明,该地区末次冰期晚期古气候是受西南季风和东南季风双重影响的。
    A relatively high-resolution paleoclimatic change sequences was established based on a mass-spectrometric uranium-series dated stalagmite from the Jinfu Mts. Caves of Chongqing region during the late period of Last Glaciation (31.90 ka-15.21 ka B.P.). The stalagmite began to deposit at 31.90 ka B.P. and ended at about 15.21 ka B.P. without any obvious hiatus. The depositional ratio is about 1.77 mm/100a in average. A high-resolution δ18O records of the stalagmite demonstrates not only the existence of the abrupt climatic change, the Henrich events, but also bears a high similarity to the δ18O-paleotemperature record of Nanjing Hulu and Guizhou Dongge caves, indicating the paleoclimate of Chongqing region, even at the middle reaches of the Yangtz River, was confined by both the influences of Indian summer monsoon and East Asia summer monsoon at the late period of the Last Glaciation.
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    中亚热带第四纪红粘土的粒度特征
    朱丽东, 叶玮, 周尚哲, 李凤全, 杨立辉
    地理科学. 2006, 26 (5): 586-591.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2006.05.586
    摘要   PDF (506KB)
    中国南方第四纪红粘土的成因尚有洪积、冲积、风成、坡麓堆积风化等多种说法。中亚热带5个红土沉积剖面的粒度组成分析结果表明:(1)5个红土沉积剖面的粒度组成表现出较好的一致性,粉砂(4~63 μm)为优势粒组,其含量的平均值为48.12%~68.89%, 粘粒(<4 μm)含量平均值变化于23.83%~50.10%,砂(>63 μm)含量平均值<5%。推测中亚热带红土母质具风成特性,沉积后经历了较强的风化成壤过程。(2)粒度参数高度相关,频率曲线以双峰为主体,概率累积曲线表现为三段式和五段式,表明中亚热带各地红土的沉积环境较为一致,但分选具一定复杂性。(3)在剖面上,红土粒度分布随时间变化而变化,棕黄色层的平均粒径值较均质红土层和网纹红土层粗,粉砂含量较高。
    There are different opinions on origin problem of the red earth in the Pleistocene, namely diluvium, alluvium, aeolian, and so on. Based on the grain-size analysis of five representative sections from the mid-subtropics, deposit-environment of the red earth is discussed in this paper. The results show that: (1) Grain-size distributions of five red earth sections in mid-subtropics are very similar,which probably indicates aeolian characteristics from their parent materials and the weathering process. The average content of 4-63 μm particle group ranges from 48.12% to 68.89%, the one less than 4μm and the one over 63μm are respectively from 23.83% to 50.10% and less than 5%. Generally speaking, the grain-size frequency curves of the red earth show the double-peak mode—the 10-63μm paticle group is "the dominated mode", and the one less than 4μm is "the secondary mode" or "the dominated mode" of some samples. (2) The particle parameters are highly correlation, which suggests that the sedimental environment of brown-yellow unit, typical red clay unit and vermiculated red earth unit are similar. However, the probability accumulation curves of red earth could be divided into two types—three-segment pattern or five-segment pattern, which maybe show the more complicated sorting-environment. (3) Mean grain-size value and content of 4-63μm particle group of brown-yellow unit are larger than those of typical red clay unit and vermiculated red earth unit.
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    三峡库区紫色土微量元素含量的变化
    董杰, 杨达源, 周彬, 陈可锋, 胥勤勉
    地理科学. 2006, 26 (5): 592-596.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2006.05.592
    摘要   PDF (749KB)
    以三峡库区典型坡面紫色土为例,对土壤中微量元素的含量及其在不同坡度、不同利用方式下的变化进行初步研究。结果表明,库区紫色土中Fe、Mn、Ni、Zr、Sr和Ti的含量相对较多,Mo的含量较为丰富,Zn和Pb的含量相对较低。Pb、Cu和Co的含量在一定坡度范围内随坡地坡度的增大而减少,Zr和Cr的含量则增加。紫色土中Cu、Pb、Co、Ti、Zr、Ni、Cr、Sr等微量元素的含量随坡度的变化具有一定的相关性。耕作土和非耕作土中微量元素含量差异明显,人为活动是引起库区紫色土微量元素含量变化的主要因素。
    As a case study of purple soil on typical slope lands in the Three Gorges Reservoir region, this paper primarily explores trace element contents in purple soil and their changes under the different grades as well as the different land-use types. The result shows that the contents of Fe, Mn, Ni, Zr, Sr and Ti in purple soil in the Three Gorges Reservoir region are higher than the background values of purple soil (A layer) in China and the average value of all the soil (A layer) in Sichuan, that of Mo is very rich, but those of Zn and Pb are lower relatively than the ones of Sichuan and China. Contents of Pb, Cu and Co are decreasing along with grade increase among some grades. By contraries, the contents of Zr and Cr are increasing. The contents of Cu, Pb, Co, Ti, Zr, Ni, Cr, Sr, etc. in purple soil have some correlations with the changes of slope grades. Difference of trace element contents is remarkable between cultivated land and uncultivated land. The man-made activities are primary factors leading to the changes of trace element contents of purple soil in the Three Gorges Reservoir region.
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    不同土地利用类型对城市地表温度的影响——以广东东莞为例
    刘宇, 匡耀求, 吴志峰, 黄宁生, 周静
    地理科学. 2006, 26 (5): 597-602.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2006.05.597
    摘要   PDF (1030KB)
    利用Landsat TM6热红外遥感数据、土地利用专题图件、气象观测资料反演了快速城市化的典型地区东莞市的城市地表温度。构建了三个热效应评价指数:热效应贡献度指数、热像元权重指数和区域热像元权重指数,来定量分析不同土地利用类型对城市地表温度的贡献度,发现城乡工矿居民用地、林地和耕地的热效应贡献度较大,水域和草地的热效应贡献度较小,未利用地对区域热环境的贡献最小。此外,研究表明,随着平均温度的升高,东莞市水面和陆面1988~1998年的温度反差明显增大。
    As a typical city of rapid urbanization, the urban land surface temperature of Dongguan City was retrieved through interpretation of Landsat TM6, combined with land use map and meteorological observational data, and three thermal effect estimating indices (thermal effect contribution index, thermal pixels proportion index, regional thermal pixels proportion index) were designed to discuss the impact of various types of land use on urban thermal environment, which shows that urban and rural construction land for industry and residence take an important role, while water area and grassland gives little impact, and the thermal contribution of heath land to regional thermal environment is the least one. The result of the three indices also proved that it maybe untrue if we only consider the contribution of average temperature to urban thermal environment. The research also shows that the average temperature in winter had obviously been increased from 1988 to 1998 in Dongguan, and the land surface temperature was 2.21℃ in 1998 higher than that of 1988,while the water surface temperature had been changed little(0.76℃),in a word, the difference in surface temperature between water surface and land surface rise sharply as the average temperature rising from 1988 to 1998.
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    最近150 ka河西地区河流阶地的成因分析
    胡春生, 潘保田, 高红山, 徐树建
    地理科学. 2006, 26 (5): 603-608.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2006.05.603
    摘要   PDF (610KB)
    文章通过对河西地区最近150 ka河流阶地年龄数据的处理,发现存在7个明显的河流阶地发育时期,即150、100、70、40、30、12和6 ka B.P.。经过相关构造和气候资料的论证,文章认为,在150和70 ka B.P.附近形成的两级河流阶地代表了河西地区两期主要的构造抬升,而在100、40、30、12和6 ka B.P.附近形成的5级河流阶地则对应于河西地区5期气候变化事件。
    Through processing the age data of river terraces in Hexi area since 150 ka B.P., this article discovers that the river terraces formed obviously at seven different periods including 150 ka B.P., 100 ka B.P.,70 ka B.P.,40 ka B.P.,30 ka B.P., 12 ka B.P.and 6 ka B.P. After demonstrated by the correlative tectonic and climatic literature, we hold that the two river terraces formed respectively around 150 ka B.P. and 70 ka B.P. indicate two tectonic uplifts, and the five river terraces formed respectively around 100 ka B.P.,40 ka B.P.,30 ka B.P.,12 ka B.P. and 6 ka B.P. are results of five climatic changes.
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    金沙江三堆子乌东德河段阶地研究
    胥勤勉, 杨达源, 葛兆帅, 陈德基, 薛果夫
    地理科学. 2006, 26 (5): 609-615.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2006.05.609
    摘要   PDF (477KB)
    中更新世晚期,古金沙江曾在金坪子河段发生堵江,使得金坪子河段成为金沙江发育的局部侵蚀基准点,并影响着三堆子-乌东德河段的河流下切速率。金坪子、凹嘎、龙街和鱼鲊的平均下切速率分别为196~217、145~172、257~305、82~97 cm/ka。凹嘎河段和鱼鲊河段在河谷地貌形态和阶地堆积物形成年代上都有很大差异,其原因为金沙江河谷中存在着多级构造裂点或岩性裂点,两河段性质存在差异,所以该河段不宜做传统的阶地位相分析。金沙江三堆子-乌东德河段的阶地沉积物的重矿物种类较多,以磁铁矿、赤褐铁矿、绿帘石、石榴石为主,并含有稳定矿物锆石、金红石和白钛石,以及十字石、兰晶石等典型的变质矿物。
    After the research of sedimentology, geomorphology and chronology in the Sanduizi-Wudongde reach, we come to the conclusion that the geomorphic feature of the lower reaches of the Jinsha River was formed in the late middle Pleistocene. The ancient Jinsha River was jammed in Jingpingzi and it turned into a local base level of stream, which influences the incision rate along the Sanduizi-Wudongde reach of the Jinsha River. The average incision rate of Jinpingzi, Aoga, Longjie and Yuzha are 196-217 cm/ka, 145-172 cm/ka, 257-305 cm/ka, 82-97 cm/ka respectively. Because of the tectonic knickpoints and lithology knickpoints of the Jinsha River and the distinctions of the fluvial characters, there are some differences in the valley geomorphic feature and the TL datings of the terraces between Aoga reach and Yuzha reach,so the analysis of the terraces height relative to the Jinsha River do not make out. The Sanduizi-Wudongde reach of the Jinsha River contain many kinds of heavy minerals, such as magnetite, russet iron ore, epidote,garnet, and contain many steady minerals and degenerative heavy minerals, for example zircon,rutile, white-titanium, crossed-stone, cyanite, and so on.
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    基于DEM的重庆三峡库区水系提取试验研究
    俞雷, 刘洪斌, 武伟
    地理科学. 2006, 26 (5): 616-621.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2006.05.616
    摘要   PDF (1161KB)
    以重庆三峡库区为试验研究对象,论述基于数字高程模型提取流域水系的方法、原理。应用"burn-in"算法,对DEM进行再处理,即将发生河道偏差的平坦区域上的实际河网叠加到DEM中,对河道及河道两侧所在栅格单元高程值进行修正,重新生成流域河网。在原有DEM不作较大修改的前提下,使得生成的河网与实际河网更加匹配,同时也保证了模拟结果的准确性。
    Taking three Gorges Reservoir area in Chonqing as study area, this paper discusses the methods and principles of extracting river network based on DEM. The "burn-in" method was used to re-process the DEM data. Firstly the true river network was overlaid on DEM, then through modifying the elevation of grid cells where river Channels were distributed, the new river network was generated again. Under the condition that DEM was not modified too much, the generated network matchs up to the true better. Meanwhile, the veracity of simlation results also have been ensured.
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    中国城市居民出游潜力的空间分异格局
    史春云, 张捷, 尤海梅, 单勇兵, 章锦河
    地理科学. 2006, 26 (5): 622-628.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2006.05.622
    摘要   PDF (928KB)
    基于城市不仅是重要的旅游目的地,也是目前中国主要的旅游客流产生地,以中国国内旅游抽样调查资料中的39个城市为空间单元,选取18项指标,运用SPSS统计分析软件,对中国城市居民的潜在出游力进行主成分和聚类分析,得到中国城市居民出游潜力的回归模型,进一步分析结果表明:① 城市经济实力、城市规模辐射、城市规模集聚、城市人口素质等是影响城市居民出游潜力的四个主要因子;② 中国城市居民潜在出游力的空间分异格局为"四、三、二、四",即39个城市可以划分为四种类型,存在北京、上海、广深三个极点,沿海与内陆两大城市居民出游潜力空间分异带,环渤海、长江三角洲、珠江三角洲、成渝四大游客流产地;③ 经过与城市居民的实际出游力进行相关分析,模型得到了充分验证。城市居民整体出游力空间分异格局的研究对旅游目的地的营销、各地旅游业的发展具有重要意义。
    Tourism and traveling behavior happens between destination and origin. The competition between different tourist destinations manifests itself in the contest for tourists from different origin regions. Reviews of relevant literatures reveal that most of the studies undertaken have been mainly focused on tourist destinations, and till now little attention has been paid to origin regions. However, it is of great significance to understand the spatial pattern of the integrative emissiveness of residents in different origin regions for the promoting and marketing of tourist destinations and the development of the tourism industry. Cities are not only important destinations, but also main tourist origin regions. Both domestic tourism receipts and capita expenditure suggest that urban residents are important tourists in the present China. Therefore 39 cities in the Spot Check of Chinese National Tourism are chosen as spatial units in this study. The methods such as principal component analysis, cluster analysis and correlation analysis are used mainly in the research. Based on the statistical data and the SPSS analytical software, spatial disparities of latent emissiveness of urban residents in China are discovered by using 18 indexes. Firstly, urban economy, urban diffusion impact, urban agglomeration impact and urban population quality are main factors relevant to the tourism latent emissiveness of urban residents. Secondly, according to the results, the capacity of the latent emissiveness of 39 cities can be divided into four types, from the strongest to the weakest respectively. Moreover, urban residents in coastal zones are more inclined to go traveling than those dwelled in inland zones. There exist three apices that have strongest latent emissiveness, i.e. Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou-Shenzhen. Bohai Sea Rim, Changjiang Delta, Zhujiang Delta and Chengdu-Chongqing area are found to be four important tourist generating regions in China. Then the model is well testified by the actual emissive ratio of these cities. Conclusion can be drawn that latent emissiveness is stable generally influenced by urban integrative characteristics while actual emissiveness is unstable likely to be influenced by exceptional events. However the actual emissiveness can be viewed as indicator of the latent emissiveness in term of the significant relevant relation being found between them. Two issues which we have difficulty in accounting for at present are put forward so as to settle in the near future. First, latent emissivenesses of Shanghai and Xi’an are quite different from their actual emissivenesses. The actual emissivenesses of residents in Shanghai from 1999 to 2002 kept low while the actual emissivenesses in Xi’an kept the first in the country during this period. Second, tourism emissivenesses in rural areas are not dealt with in this paper due to the length. With the development of the rural areas, it will be of necessity to give the enough attention to the tourism emissiveness in rural areas.
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    中国生态旅游机会图谱(CECOS)的构建
    黄向, 保继刚, 沃尔·杰弗里
    地理科学. 2006, 26 (5): 629-634.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2006.05.629
    摘要   PDF (1320KB)
    依据游憩机会图谱(ROS)和生态旅游机会图谱(ECOS)的理论基础,基于中国的国情提出了面向规划需要的,具有可操作性的生态旅游产品规划和管理工具中国生态旅游机会图谱(CECOS)。主要创新包括:① 提出生态旅游产品非仅仅是观光型产品的观点,论证了森林瑜珈这类参与型产品符合生态旅游的基本要求;② 克服二元思维,以连续轴的思想将生态旅游产品分为高等级生态旅游产品(HCET)、中等级生态旅游产品(MCET)、低等级生态旅游产品(LCET)和大众生态旅游产品(MNT)四种类型,并在CECOS中用资源、与社会的联系、管理因素、对环境影响的可接受性、对可持续性的要求和可参与性六个一级因子明确了四种类型的区别。
    Building upon the Recreation Opportunities Spectrum (ROS) and Ecotourism Opportunities Spectrum (ECOS), this paper presents a new ecotourism planning and management tool for China—the Chinese Ecotourism Opportunities Spectrum (CECOS). The innovations in CECOS include: (1) introducing the concept of participation to ecotourism product design, and demonstrating "forest yoga" as a representative product that can meet all ecotourism requirements; (2) dividing ecotourism products into HCET, MCET, LCET and MNT based on use of resources, management, relationship with society, acceptance of environmental impacts, sustainability and possibility of participation. Dinghu Mountain in Zhaoqing City is discussed as a planning application.
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    旅游城镇化的居民感知研究——以九华山为例
    焦华富, 丁娟, 李俊峰
    地理科学. 2006, 26 (5): 635-640.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2006.05.635
    摘要   PDF (1380KB)
    旅游城镇化是以旅游业为推动力的城镇化类型,居民对此类型的城镇化的影响感知有其独特性。本文选取四大佛教名山之一的九华山为案例,在大量实地调查资料的基础上,利用SPSS软件进行统计分析,着重就当地居民对旅游城镇化的经济、社会生活和环境影响感知进行了分析,并对不同人口学特征的居民与旅游城镇化影响感知的关联性进行了探讨,在此基础上,提出了促进旅游地旅游城镇化健康发展的对策建议。
    In order to provide series of service for tourists, including traffic, accommodation, visiting, entertainment, shopping, etc., many people are gathered in tour area, so tourist town was emerged. This process is called tourism urbanization. Analyzing the impacts of tourism urbanization is an important part of tourism urbanization research. This paper takes Jiuhua Mountain as an example, on the basis of on-the-spot survey, studies residents’ perception of the economic, social life and environmental impacts of tourism urbanization. By comparative study, some differences of residents’ perception and attitudes are found. There are some different opinions on economic, social life and environmental impacts among the residents with different ages, genders and education degrees. The research results show that the residents have strong perception on both advantageous and disadvantageous economic effects carried by tourism urbanization, and their perception on good social life effects are much stronger than those bad, additionally, they have very strong perception on harmful environmental effects with tourism urbanization. Furthermore, the residents of different groups distinguished by age, gender, education degree, career, etc., have different perception even on a same effect factor of tourism urbanization. In the last, some countermeasures are put forward, such as selecting the rational location of tourist town, coordinating the relationship between urban planing and tourism planing, protecting the ecological environment in tour area, uniting the management of tourism industry and tourist town, etc.
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