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ISSN 1000-0690
CN 22-1124/P
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  • 地理科学
      2000年, 第20卷, 第2期 刊出日期:2000-03-20 上一期    下一期
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    论文
    新时期中国区域发展状态的比较研究
    任东明
    地理科学. 2000, 20 (2): 97-101.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2000.02.97
    摘要   PDF (448KB)
    90年代以来,特别是“八五”计划期间,我国经济超高速增长。尽管各地区的社会经济取得了巨大进步,但各地的人口、资源与环境问题却逐渐显露。从区域的可持续发展的观点出发,建立了全国的区域发展指标体系,对全国31个省市区的经济发展、社会进步、资源与环境保障及区域发展能力进行了综合评价,阐述了我国新时期经济高速增长条件下各省市区的区域发展状态。
    The new period refer to the time after the 1990s, roughly between 1990 to 1997. During the new period, the economy increased at the highest speed in China. Although economy and society all made a great achievement, many problems especially the resources and environment are becoming more and more serious. At present, all the provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions have worked out their own RD (regional development) strategy, but the RD state discrepancy is appearing obivously for the difference of the regional condition, development process and the cognition to the RD concept. The article selects twenty-seven indicators and set up the RD indicators system. All the indicators are divided into four types including economy progress, social development, resource-environment insurance and the SD capacity. Then this paper calculates the numerical values of all the provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions and discussed the economy progress, social development, resource-environment insurance and the SD capacity of all the regions in China. At the basis of above discussion, the paper divides all the provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions into six basic-type area (BATs) of RD State. The BTAs include: I-synthetical development state is the best; Ⅱ-synthetical development state is better; Ⅲ-synthetical development state is better medium; Ⅳ-synthetical development state is less medium; Ⅴ-synthetical development state is worse; Ⅵ-synthetical development state is the worst. In the mean well, this paper analyses the state of regional development of the six BTAs. At last this paper gives some policy suggestions: (1) Althogh the synthetical development state of the east part of China is better, there are crisis of resources and environment. Environment civilization should be stressed and tough environmental policies should be carried out as well; its economic development should be moderate, too. The keystone is the industries structure upgrading and technique diffusion being widened. The development of all the industries, which cost more energy and pollute severely, should be brought under control. (2) The middle part of China should choose the way to combine progress with preservation, implement stretch environment polices. Its economic progress should not stop and the strength of environment protection cam mpt redice. In the regions where resources are relatively rich such as Inner Mongolia, Shanxi Province, the keystones of development is the improvement of infrastructure and the investing environment, the natural resources, the keystones of development is the improvement of infrastructure and the investing environment, the natural resources is exploited in a reasonable way. Its main target is to restore economic increase and improve its progressing quantity gradually. (3) As a result of the strict of exploiting condition, a certain resources advantage in the west part of China is not so well as the image of some persons. In fact, the huge cost during the cosmically exploitation of natural resources in west part of China have proved a reality, that there is not suitable to arrange large projects of resources-processing. For the west part, the target is to reinforce the exploitation of parts of resource, improve its infrastructure, enhance people’s living standards, get rid of the threatening of poverty for the future. (4) due to the huge regional discrepancy of development state in China, we should stress the importance of maintain the harmonious relationship between population, recouces and environment in different regional scale.
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    外商对华直接投资的产业与空间转移特征及其机制研究
    李国平, 杨开忠
    地理科学. 2000, 20 (2): 102-109.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2000.02.102
    摘要   PDF (769KB)
    分析了外商对华直接投资资料与数据,并结合企业调查,揭示了改革开放以来外商对华直接投资的发展过程以及主要外资企业在中国的发展状况,研究了外商对华直接投资空间集中、时空推移、技术含量变化、产业结构高级化等特征及形成机制。基本结论为:第一,外商对华直接投资空间高度集中,但随时间推移,从沿海向内陆、从大城市向周围地区转移,集中程度减弱;第二,技术含量逐步上升,产业结构高级化趋势明显;第三,对华直接投资的区位选择主要受劳动等生产要素成本的影响,改革开放以来要素成本在不同区域之间的相对变化,是决定外商对华直接投资空间转移的主要因素之一;第四,随着我国收入水平提高以及技术与人力资本积累,以获取市场份额为中心的对华直接投资日益增加,出现了从沿海向内陆推移的趋势;第五,对华直接投资国家与地区的产业结构转换以及中国国内地区间产业与地域政策的变化也是影响外商对华直接投资的产业与空间转移的重要要素之一。
    In the last two decades, China has become one of the areas that have the greatest potential in industrial production, thus it has ranked second only to USA in the flow of international capital. By the end of 1998, the real value of FDI in China has utilized has added up to $268. 1 billion. The big flow of FDI has not only promoted the development of economy, but it has also worsened the existing regional difference by choosing spatial location. Under this circumstance, our economy faces new restrictions and opportunities while adjusting its regional structure and industrial structure. So it is more and more important for us how to seize the opportunity, to seek the regularity of FDI in choosing location from the aspect of space, to set up relevant strategy to direct FDI at inland regions (areas deficient of capital), and to make appropriate policies, esp. the industrial and regional policies so as for FDI to exert positive influence and avoid negative influence on China and its regional economy and society. Based on the latest domestic and overseas materials and datum of the FDI in China, combining with the investigation of the enterprises, this paper has systematically revealed the progress of development of the FDI in China and the developing conditions of the main enterprises directly invested by foreign capital since the reform and opening-up in China. The characters of FDI such as spatial concentration, transference as time goes by, change of the technical content and up-gradation of industrial structure and their forming mechanism have been studied. Then the basic conclusions have been made as follows. Firstly, FDI has been highly concentrated in space. But as time goes by, it has been transferring from coastal regions to inland ones, from big cities to their surrounding districts, and the degree of concentration is decreasing. Secondly, the technical content of the invested projects has gradually increased and the up-gradation of the industrial structure is obvious. Thirdly, the regional choice of the FDI in China is mainly affected by labor and other productive factors. The relative change of the cost of productive factors in different regions since the reform and opening-up is one of the main factors that have caused the spatial transference of the FDI in China. Fourthly, as people’s income increases and the accumulation of the capacity of the technique and labor advances, FDI whose aim is to get more market has increased and tended to transfer from coastal regions to inland ones. Fifth, the changes of the industrial structure of the main areas and countries who have directly invested in China and the changes of inter-regional industries and regional policies in China are also the important factors that affect the industries directly invested by foreign capital and their and their spatial transference.
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    中国发展精准农业耕作的基本分析及设计
    张柏
    地理科学. 2000, 20 (2): 110-114.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2000.02.110
    摘要   PDF (2630KB)
    精准农业耕作(Precision Farming)是一种把科学的精确性引进农田耕作生产的方法。它根据田间作物生长条件和产量状况等差别,应用地理信息系统技术(GIS)、全球卫星定位系统(GPS)和智能农机技术进行农业生产信息管理及农田投入的调节与控制,从而达到提高效益、避免资源浪费、减少环境污染的目的。目前,经济发达国家已开始推广精准农业耕作,广大发展中国家也广泛开展应用研究和实验示范,中国作为世界上最主要的农业国家和人口大国,为满足经济发展和人民生活水平日益提高的要求,保持农业的持续发展,正在积极启动精准农业耕作试验示范,逐步推广精准农业耕作技术,寻求发展高效生态农业的途径,迎头赶上农业新科技革命的世界潮流。
    From the development history of modern agriculture in the world, we can see that, before the middle age of the 20th century, the developed industrial countries must import foods, agricultural products from the undeveloped industrial countries to sustain themselves. But in the later stage of the 20th century, this condition has changed, the developed industrial countries often export a great deal of foods and agricultural products to the undeveloped industrial countries. In the middle age of the 20th century, since the arable land area of developed countries has not increased obviously, the main reason is technology, including the input of precision agriculture technology that developed stage by stage. It can continuously promote the productivity and utility rate of agriculture resources, explore the potential of agriculture, and decrease the cost, at the same time has reduced the environmental pollution caused by agricultural chemical materials. Thus it attained the synchronal increase of economic, social and ecological benefits and realized the sustainable development of agriculture. The precision farming is a method that introduces the accuracy of technology into the production of agriculture. Based on the difference of growing condition, production of crops and so on, it applies the technology of GIS, GPS and intelligent machine to manage the production information of agriculture and regulate or control the input to the farm, and get the proposal of increasing benefits, avoiding the waste of resources, reducing the pollution to the environment and so on. Nowadays, the developed countries have mainly realized the technology of precision farming and many developing countries have also evolved in the application studies and experimental demonstration. To be the main agriculture and most populated country in the world, in order to satisfy the need of economic development and the continually increase of the standard of peoples living conditions and to maintain the sustainable development of agriculture, China should start experimenting and demonstrating on the precision farming promptly, generalize the technology of precision farming step by step, find a way to develop the effective ecological agriculture, and try hard to catch up the tidal current of the revolution of new agriculture technology in the world.
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    NECT样带1984~1996土地利用变化分析
    康慕谊, 江源, 石瑞香
    地理科学. 2000, 20 (2): 115-120.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2000.02.115
    摘要   PDF (2585KB)
    在分区选择典型样点的基础上,从土地利用结构类型和土地利用强度等方面对中国东北样带(NECT)近年来的土地利用变化进行分析,揭示出样带上土地利用发生变化较剧烈的区域为农牧交错带,变化的原因主要是人类活动强度的增加。此结论对样带上的生态敏感区域制定土地利用开发与管理政策应具有指导意义。
    On the basis of selected 7 sample areas along NECT according to the land-use and land cover,this paper analyzed the land-use change relating to the land-use structure and intensity in NECT during 1984-1996.The preliminary results show that significant land-use change has occurred in the transitional zone between agricultural and pastoral regions,and the change is mainly induced human activities.This preliminary conclusion might have some significance for land-use exploitation and management in those ecological fragile areas in NECT.
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    三江平原沼泽区的现代花粉雨
    汪佩芳, 夏玉梅, 杨青
    地理科学. 2000, 20 (2): 121-126.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2000.02.121
    摘要   PDF (588KB)
    应用库尔式花粉收集器收集三江平原沼泽区1996年6月至1997年7月现代花粉雨滤网样品60块(其中对照滤网样品23块).通过计算空气中各种花粉浓度,对照当地气象记录和现代植被景观,讨论三江平原沼泽区现代植被与花粉组成及传播的关系,从而为应用现代表土和化石孢粉谱对古植被、古环境的恢复提供更为可靠的参考。
    By means of Cour’s samplers 60 modern pollen rain samples have been collected in the mire region of Sanjiang Plain during the period from March 1996 to July 1997, among which 23 samples are comparative ones. Based on calculating the data of the pollen concentrations in atmosphere and comparing the records of local meteorology and the modern vegetation landscape, more emphasis is on the relationship between the local vegetation and the formation of the pollen and the source of pollen, which lays a comprehensive scientific foundation for analyzing the surface sample and interpreting the ancient vegetation of pollen spectrum as well as the ancient circumstances.
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    大连市居住郊区化的现状、机制及趋势
    柴彦威, 周一星
    地理科学. 2000, 20 (2): 127-132.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2000.02.127
    摘要   PDF (539KB)
    以大连市居民问卷调查的结果为基础,分析了居住郊区化的现状特征、微观机制及其发展趋势,认为进入80年代后的旧城改造促使大连市进入了居住郊区化阶段,并且居住郊区化的地域范围偏小,迁居距离有限,自主郊迁者比例较低,但居住郊区化将是大连城市可持续发展的必然趋势。
    Suburbanization is the new characteristics of contemporary Chinese urbanization, that remarked the internal structure of Chinese cities has changed to sparse multi-core structure from single core. Based on a questionnaire survey of Dalian citizens during July 1995, this thesis studies the characteristics, mechanisms and tendency of suburbanization of residence in Dalian City. The questionnaire investigation are made in four residential areas which are typical in period of construction, type of housing and mode of population growth respectively. Chunhai area which located in the old inner city is a typical worker residential area; Zhongcun area which was constructed in 1950’s is also a worker resident-tial one; The other two areas locate in the suburban area, but Linmao area is a cadre residential area and Paoya is a mixed resiential area with both workers and cadres (Fig. 2). Questionnaires were distributed through "street offices" to 400 households mainly composed of working couples and 357 adequate responses were collected and used in the study. Based upon the analyze of mobility, spatial patterns and causes of migration, the authors draw out the status quo and the micro mechanism of the surburbanization of residence. All of the candidates migrate 2. 11 times in average, with almost half of candidates migrate only once, which proves that the residents in Dalian City show a lower mobility. This characteristic of migration is tightly correlative with the causes of moving, that is, most of the migration in the research areas results from the achievement of home from DANWEI (working unit). There is a long way to go before Dalian City get into the stage when the resients are voluntarily to migrate to suburban area, because only about ten percent of candidates migrate voluntarily by house-purchasing or by pooling money to build houses. But what we should pay attention to is that the ratio of voluntary migration is rising in newly constructed residential area, such as Paoya. In the view of the spatial pattern of migration, the type of moving from the core area to the suburban areas is dominate. The tendency of suburbanization of residence can be drawn out from the investigation of intention of residential migration towards the suburban areas and the analyze of its potential motives. About 86 percent of candidates prefer to the core and the adjacent areas if possible, and none of them want to move to the outer suburban towns or villages. Therefore, Dalian City will suffer a hard time to guide residents to live scattered. In the future, the most important potential motives for Dalian City’s residents to migrate towards suburban areas consist of the dissatisfaction with the housing itself and its environment. In shore, Dalian City has already had some signs of suburbanization of residence since 1980s’ the renewal of the old city. The main characteristics of such suburbanization are most of the intra-urban migrations be forced or organized by DANWEI(working unit) and government but not voluntary for the residences themselves, and the destinations are the inner suburbs instead of the outer, then it can be said that now, Dalian City is in a transitional period of the urban internal residence structure. The process of moving from the older built-up area to inner suburb can be seen the first stage of suburbanization of residence. According to the master plan of the city, the process would be continuing till about 2010. When the constructions of newer residential areas in inner suburb be completed in future, the destinations of intra-urban migration should be the new city proper, and the distances of such moving will be prolonged and most migrations will be voluntary. The author considered that the new process would begin roughly at 2010 is the second stage of suburbanization of residence in Dalian City.
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    南四湖演变过程及其背景分析
    韩昭庆
    地理科学. 2000, 20 (2): 133-138.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2000.02.133
    摘要   PDF (544KB)
    建立在前人研究的基础上,对南四湖演变过程及其背景进行了分析,指出四湖成因及演变过程有所不同。昭阳湖演变由大到小而微山湖则相反,独山湖应运而生,南阳湖因下游淤塞而成,它们的演变与黄河泛滥、运河的改道及人工对运河的运作关系密切。
    The Nansi Lake, which lies along the Grand Canal and in the southwest part of Shandong Province, is the name for the four lakes as: Zhaoyang Lake, Nanyang Lake, Dushan Lake and Weishan Lake. Based on the study of the historical records, this paper describes the evolution processes of the Nansi Lake and analyzes the historical background for the changes. It points out that the four lakes all underwent different evolution process. Among them Zhaoyang Lake came out first. At the beginning of the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644A. D.) it was one of the important watersupply places for its western canal in Shandong Province. However, with the canal route being changed to its east in order to avoid the intrusion of the Huanghe River flood in 1567A. D., Zhaoyang Lake’s function changed. It became an accommodation for both the Huanghe River flood and the superfluous water of the canal. From 1723 A. D. Zhaoyang Lake also received the sand from the canal for the safety of the dyke of the canal. With the increasing muddy sediments of the Huanghe River flood and the expansion of the inning area in its basin, also without its primary water resources, Zhaoyang Lake became smaller and smaller. After the canal route had changed, an artificial tank for protecting the canal from the attack of its eastern hilly riptide was needed. Dushang Lake was born for this purpose. Dushang Lake had another name as Nanyang Lake at the turn of the Ming and the Qing dynasties. As a result, some people mistake modern Nanyang Lake for Dushang Lake and think the emergence of modern Nanyang Lake much earlier. In fact, it was the blockage of its backward position that gave birth to the modern Nanyang Lake. This happened only about 250 years ago. At first, the area of Weishan Lake consisted of several lakes. As the governor of the Qing Dynasty took it as the most important water-supply place for the canal and set up strict rule of water control for it, Weishan Lake became a united big lake about 1740A. D. The lower terrain was another reason for its extension. These changes are considered related closely with the Huanghe River flooding, the canal route changing and the human activities.
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    陕甘宁接壤区的区域发展──典型资源型欠发达地区发展战略研究
    李志刚
    地理科学. 2000, 20 (2): 139-143.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2000.02.139
    摘要   PDF (2675KB)
    陕甘宁接壤区能源、矿产资源丰富,但区域经济十分落后,二元结构问题突出,生态严重失调。本区发展战略,要贯彻“国家目标、区域利益和生态效益相统一,多元化发展,城市化和地理建设先行,外力助推”等战略思想,实施“以启动市场为导向的协调─倾斜发展战略模式”。
    The contiguous area of shaanxi-gansu-ningxia, a typical western underdeveloped area, has abundant energy and mineral resources; its location is still nearer from eastern China among most parts of western China, and its greater part belongs to old liberated areas. However its economy is very backward, the problem of dualistic economy structure is serious, and its ecosystem is extreme disturbance. In strategy of development of this area, we should implement such strategic thinking─unify the benefits in three aspect of state, area and ecology; develop with multi-dimension; advance urbanization and geographic construction beforehand; push the area forward with the help of exterior forces. Accordingly, we should practise the strategic pattern of coordination-inclination development with starting up market as guidance.
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    天龙山旅游开发对植被的影响
    程占红, 张金屯
    地理科学. 2000, 20 (2): 144-147.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2000.02.144
    摘要   PDF (397KB)
    以天龙山为例,采用敏感水平、群落景观重要值、物种多样性信息指数、旅游影响系数和伴人植物比例5项指标,对该区植被与旅游的关系进行了分析。结果表明:敏感水平与群落景观重要值和信息指数基本上成反比关系;旅游影响系数与伴人植物比例大小成正比,客观揭示了旅游对植被影响的规律性。利用这一方法评价旅游对植被的影响,具有可行性。
    The relationship between vegetation and tourism industry in the Tianlong Mountains was analyzed in this paper. Five standards─sensitive level, community landscape importance value, information index of species diversity, tourist impact index and proportion of plants accompanied with mankind was used. The results show that sensitive level has inverse relation to landscape importance value and information index; tourist impact index is positively related to the rate of plants accompanied with mankind. These facts indicate the regularity of tourist has an impact on vegetation objectively. It is practical to use these above methods to appraise tourist impacts on vegetation.
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    元谋干热河谷区生态环境变迁探讨
    张建平, 王道杰, 王玉宽, 文安邦
    地理科学. 2000, 20 (2): 148-152.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2000.02.148
    摘要   PDF (480KB)
    干热河谷是我国西南地区特殊的生态环境类型,分析了云南元谋干热河谷地质历史时期的生态环境演变及50年代以来人类活动对环境变化的影响,提出了该区生态环境的整治对策。
    Dry-hot valley is a special ecological type in the southwest area of China. This paper analyzed the eco-environment changes in Yuanmou dry-hot valley in Yunnan Province during geo-historical period and the influences of human activities on environment change since the 1950’ s, proposed management countermeasures for the eco-environment in dry-hot valley of Yuanmou.
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    西北干旱区水中氟的分布规律及环境特征
    王根绪, 程国栋
    地理科学. 2000, 20 (2): 153-159.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2000.02.153
    摘要   PDF (625KB)
    西北干旱区天然水体中广泛分布以NaF和KF为主的氟物质。随干旱区内陆水系的产生、径流消亡,从山区至山前细土平原,F-的迁移分布具有显着的淋溶-径流、径流-蒸发与溶滤-蒸发浓缩富集3个水文化学分带;在白垩系及第四系下更新统以来湖相沉积的湖盆洼地以及沙漠边缘地区,地下水中F-相对富集,且具有深部地下水F-含量大于浅层地下水及地表水的垂直分带性;F-的富集与贫化与水化学特征关系密切,一般情况下,低SO42-的贫钙碱性水环境有利于F-的溶解与富集。干旱区内陆流域丰富的氟物质来源、相对封闭的水文环境与干旱的气候条件为F-在水中溶解、迁移和富集提供了有利条件。
    In arid area of northwest China, the NaF and KF are extensively distributed in the natural water, such as rivers, lakes and groundwater. From mountains to silt plain along with the formation, runoff and disappear of inland rivers, the distributing regularity of F- can be markedly divided into three hydrochemical zones: drench and dissolution-runoff zone, runoff-evaporation zone, dissolution-evaporation zone. In the low-lying land and desertification edge with Lacustrine sediments deposited from Cretaceous and lower Pleistocene of Quaternary period, the contains of F- in groundwater was high with the vertical distributing pattern of larger in lower and letter in upper. There are close relationship between high F- and the hydro-chemical characteristics. Generally, in the alkali water with lower contains of So42- such as Cl稨CO3-Na or HCO3-Na types, the F- can be easily dissolved and rich in water. The arid climatic conditions, rich source of Fluorine and relatively close hydrological environment provide the advantage of F- to dissolution, transformation and rich in some regions.
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    祁连山东段全新世与现代水热组合特征研究
    邬光剑, 潘保田, 管清玉, 刘志刚, 王义祥
    地理科学. 2000, 20 (2): 160-165.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2000.02.160
    摘要   PDF (2690KB)
    位于祁连山北麓的扁都口和哈溪剖面记录了该地区的全新世气候变化。采用磁化率、有机碳含量和碳酸钙含量作为降水指标,其记录的水分变化与冰芯及其他记录的对比,显示了该地区全新世水热组合变化的特征。传统的大暖期鼎盛阶段并非本研究区的气候最宜期。5.2~4.0 ka B.P.本区的环境相当优越,是气候最宜期。4.0 ka B. P.存在一次比3.0 ka B.P.明显的气候恶化,地层和剖面记录突出。 2.0~10 ka B.P.是低温下环境相对较好的时段。在本研究区,温度的升高和水分增加并非一致,超过一定的温度,环境的湿度反而有随之降低的趋势。现代气候的特征为过去气候变化提供了佐证。
    Biandukou and Haxi section recorded climatic changes in Holocene, Eastern Qilian Mountains. Susceptibility, organic carbon content and CaCO3 content are used as excellent proxies to summer monsoon, mainly the precipitation. Compared with the Dunde ice-core record, used as the thermal proxy, here we can rebuild the hydro-thermal characteristic in Holocene in this region. During the 7.2-6.0 Ka B. P., in eastern China and many other regions, climate characteristic was high temperature and high precipitation. But, in eastern Qilian Mountains, this period was not the optimum, it’s only relatively suitable. The climate optimum took place during 5.2-4.0 ka B. P., not in the same time with Megathermal Maximum. Significant environment deterioration took place in 4.0 ka B. P. and 3.0 ka B. P., but the former was more distinct than the latter. So we took 4.0 ka B. P. as the boundary of the middle Holocene and the late. Changes of ancient civilizations serviced as another proof for climatic changes. In 2.0-1.0 ka B. P., scores of climatic proxies showed another climate suitable period, but the leaching depth of CaCO3 was shallow and the Dunde ice-core recorded the drop of temperature. Analysis of modern weather data shows that humidity has an incline to drop beyond a certain high temperature in arid and semi-arid region. While in subhumid regions, humidity increases with the increase of temperature and this may give the possibility of the assembly of high temperature and high humidity as now as in the middle Holocene(7.2-6.0 ka B. P.). Environment qualities in arid and semi-arid regions mainly depend on water since it is the most important in all the factors. So temperature and humidity would not reach their maximum simultaneously in the studied area.
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    城市地理分形研究的回顾与前瞻
    刘继生, 陈彦光
    地理科学. 2000, 20 (2): 166-171.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2000.02.166
    摘要   PDF (549KB)
    简要地回顾了城市地理学的分形研究历程,重点介绍了国内分形城市和城市体系的研究成果,对比了中外有关研究的异同,指出了存在的问题和未来的发展方向,论述了城市地理分形研究的意义和前景。
    Fractal geometry has opened up broad prospects for urban geography, and a new discipline-fractal urban geography is taking shape. This paper treats of the progress of fractal research on cities and urban systems in three respects. First, the origin and development of fractal studies on urban geographical phenomena are narrated briefly, and the Western achievements in the scientific research of fractal cities are introduced and explained. Secondly, the headway of urban geo-fractal studies, especially on fractal systems of cities, made by Chinese geographical workers is expounded, and a comparison is made between the Western and Chinese related researches. Thirdly, the problems, perspectives, significance, and importance of the studies on urban geo-farctals are analysed and discussed, and a number of new tasks set probably in the future are pointed out in order to predict the main developing directions of fractal cities and systems of cities. It is predicated that a theoretical revolution will be certain to take place because of the introduction of fractal theory to urban geography.
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    孢粉地理学的研究方法
    周忠泽, 张小平
    地理科学. 2000, 20 (2): 172-175.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2000.02.172
    摘要   PDF (358KB)
    首次报道孢粉地理学的研究方法,包括花粉类型的精确描述、确定各类型花粉的系统演化关系、花粉类型地理分布的统计分析、花粉类型的分布式样。根据这些方面的研究,可以解决植物的分布中心、次生分布中心、起源地点和迁移路线。介绍孢粉地理学的研究方法,旨在推广使用。
    In the present paper general method of Palyno-Geography is first reported according to the principle of the unity between the phylogeny and distribution of pollen types in plants. The family Polygonaceae is one of the core (or key) groups for studying the Palyno-Geography. It is an important taxon for the botanists owing to its strong differentiation of grass and pollen morphological characters. The general method of Palyno-Geography is divided into the following four parts: (1) accurate description of pollen types, (2) definition of phylogeny of pollen types, (3) statistics of geographical distribution of pollen types, (4) distribution pattern of pollen types. According to all these research results, some problems are solved on the centre of distribution regions, the centre of secondary distribution regions, the centre of development, the area of origin, migration route. The centre of distribution regions is determined by the following two principles: a. a large number of pollen types of a taxon concentrate in a district, namely the centre of the majority; b. pollen types of a district can reflect the main stages of the systematic evolution of a taxon in pollen. The area of origin is determined by the following two principles: a. the centre of distribution regions; b. the primitive pollen types have mostly distributed in the region. The distribution patterns of each pollen type are able to be recognized after analyzing the geographical distribution of the plants of each pollen type. The migration routes may be recognized on the basis of the distribution patterns of each pollen type and the analyses of the origin area. On the basis of the geographical distribution of 110 taxa of 28 pollen types of 14 genera in Polygonaceae of China, Southwest China is considered as the orgin area and the development centre of Polygonaceae except the tribe Atraphaxideae; Kazakstan is considered as the distribution centre and origin centre of the genus Atraphaxis. According to the study on Palyno-Geography of Polygonaceae, six migration routes may be recognized.
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    干旱地区草场荒漠化及其评价
    陈杰, 龚子同, 高尚玉
    地理科学. 2000, 20 (2): 176-181.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2000.02.176
    摘要   PDF (549KB)
    当前世界干旱地区荒漠化已成为全球性的环境问题,对人类社会的生存和发展构成严重威胁,其中草场荒漠化问题尤为严重。论述了全球草场荒漠化现状,探讨了草场荒漠化过程及其驱动因素,并对草场荒漠化的评价提出了看法与建议。
    Desertification of arid areas is becoming a global problem now, bringing about a serious threat to the existence and development of human beings. Range suffer much more desertification than other forms of land. First of all, based on information newly available, this paper outlines the world status of desertification. Furthermore, the process of range desertifcation and its inducing factors are illustrated. Finally, some suggestions are given towards the establishment of a better assessment system of range desertification.
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    小区域水平土壤有机质动态变化的评价与分析
    李忠佩, 王效举
    地理科学. 2000, 20 (2): 182-188.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2000.02.182
    摘要   PDF (626KB)
    采用动态比较的方法,分析评价了中国科学院千烟洲试验站站区范围内开垦利用后土壤有机质含量的总体变化情况及不同利用方式下的变异特点。结果表明,具有我国南方低丘红壤区典型特点的千烟洲试验站在人为利用后,站区土壤有机质含量总体呈上升趋势,11年间土壤有机质平均含量由原来14.78g/kg上升到目前的15.13g/kg.不同土壤之间,原土有机质含量较低的砂红壤、水稻土、潮土有机质含量分别增加了1.41g/kg,2.44g/kg,2.50g/kg,而原土有机质含量较高的泥红壤和暗潮土分别减少了1.78g/kg和3.98g/kg.不同利用方式下,土壤有机质含量变化也不同,水田、菜地、牧草地分别增加了2.04g/kg,4.01g/kg,7.32g/kg,而旱地、杉树林地、荒草地分别减少了4.93g/kg,2.98g/kg,3.68g/kg.不同的地形部位,由于分布土壤类型及利用特点差异,土壤有机质储量明显不同,以顶部林地最高,谷地稻田次之,坡中的旱地、果园最低。
    General changes of soil organic matter content and its variations under different utilizing patterns after reclamation were analyzed and evaluated by the dynamic and comperative methods at the Qianyanzhou Experimental Station of Chinese Academy of Sciences. The results show that the soil organic matter content of Qianyanzhou Experimental Station which has a typical characteristic of low hilly red soil of the southern China was generally a tendency towards increase with a mean change from 14.78 g/kg to 15.13 g/kg after 11-year’s reclamation. The organic matter content of sandy red soil, paddy soil, and chao soil, which were a low native organic matter content, increased by 1.41 g/kg, 2.44 g/kg and 2.50 g/kg, respectively; yet those of silty red soil and umbrihumus chao soil, which were a high native organic matter content, decreased by 1.78 g/kg and 3.98 g/kg, respectively. The changes of soil organic matter content were also different from the utilizing patterns with an increase of paddy field, vegetable land and grassland by 2.04 g/kg, 4.01 g/kg, 7.32 g/kg, and a decrease of upland, Chinese fir land and uncropped land by 4.93 g/kg, 2.98 g/kg, 3.68 g/kg, respectively. The soils of different slope positions, with a different soil type and utilizing characteristics, have a different organic matter storages by the most of artificial forest land on the top, middle of paddy fields on the lower and gentle slopes and vally plains, lowest of upland and orchard soils on the hill sides.
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    煤矿塌陷地复垦还田生态重建研究──以抚顺煤矿为例
    刘景双, 王金达, 张学林, 于君宝, 严登华
    地理科学. 2000, 20 (2): 189-192.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2000.02.189
    摘要   PDF (390KB)
    以抚顺煤矿为例,采用复垦还田与排矸相结合,复垦高质量农田,既可减少占用土地面积,又能在塌陷地复垦还田;同时也将剥离矸石等固体废物掩埋,防止环境污染,有利于保护环境,具有较大经济效益、社会效益和环境效益,为东北区乃至全国类似矿区塌陷地复垦还田生态重建提供示范。
    For recent years reclamation technique has been rationally employed in collapse sites, Fushun coal mine. Collapse sites that had lost original land function were refilled with coal gaugue, then covered with soil, making them cropland. After reclamation, soil nutriton was gradually rising, physical features and struction of the soil were thus formed, and even improved. Heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Cd, As) in the tap soil were decreasing with weathering and leaching. Nutrient elements (N, P, K) have been obviously accumulated in the top soil, their contents have reached to "National standard of land reclamation technique in China". At the same time, such solid waste as coal gangue was buried in the underground, which can play a role in controlling and preventing environmental pollution. It is very useful for obtaining economic, social and ecological benefits. The model for reclamation and ecological restoration in the collapse sites in Fushun coal mine proposed in the paper sets a good example for other mine areas in northeast region, even whole China.
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    向海国家级自然保护区湿地资源保护与可持续利用探析
    俞穆清, 田卫, 刘景双, 朱颜明, 孙道玮
    地理科学. 2000, 20 (2): 193-196.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2000.02.193
    摘要   PDF (401KB)
    为了湿地资源的保护与可持续利用,作为国际重要湿地之一的吉林向海国家级自然保护区的类型应予重新科学界定,明确其保护目标和合理划定功能分区;积极开展湿地生态系统的常规监测、基础与专题性科学研究;认真进行湿地资源开发的环境影响评价,科学选取评价指标体系,注重长期与代际影响的评价和生态保护、补偿与恢复措施的论证;尽快制定保护区旅游开发规划,提倡生态旅游模式并强化环境管理体制,以实现旅游业的可持续发展。
    In order to conserve wetland resources and make sustainable utilization, Xianghai nature reserve in Jilin Province, one of the national key wetlands, should be categorized scientifically again. The conservation targets of Xianghai nature reserve should be made clear and its function zones should be delimited reasonably. Also we should intensify conventional monitoring, basic study and monographic study on wetland ecosystem. It is important to set up scientific index system of wetland resources development EIA (environmental impact assessment) and implement it. The evaluation must lay stresses on long term impact, impact between generations and demonstrating measures of protection, compensation and remedy. To make tourism development sustainablely in reserve, drawing up program on tourism development, carrying out ecotourism and strengthening management system are also needed.
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