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ISSN 1000-0690
CN 22-1124/P
创刊于 1981 年 (月刊)
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  • 地理科学
      2008年, 第28卷, 第3期 刊出日期:2008-05-20 上一期    下一期
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    论文
    中国湿地研究进展——献给中国科学院东北地理与农业生态研究所建所50周年
    吕宪国, 刘晓辉
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (3): 301-308.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.03.301
    摘要   PDF (998KB)
    中国湿地研究经历了由面上考察到长期定位研究、由资源调查到结构、功能、过程研究、由沼泽研究扩展到湿地各种类型研究等过程。中国湿地研究逐渐形成了自己的特色,近年来取得了长足进展。文章对近30年中国湿地研究主要进展进行了回顾,并对湿地科学进一步研究方向提出了建议。
    Wetland is the very important natural resource and it is one of the important living environments for humans and wild propagations. The biodiversity is very rich in wetlands. There were thousands of histories for wetland researches. There were several processes of wetland researches which include from observation to long-term location experiments, from investigation to structure, function and process, and from research on marsh to research on all kinds of wetlands. Wetland researches have their own characteristics in China and have gained great advancements in recent years. It reviewed our own research results in China in nearly thirty years. It mainly included seven aspects, such as concepts and classifications of wetland, formations and development rules, the hydrological processes and function which represented providing space for water storage, pollution reduction and water purification, biogeochemical cycles which represented greenhouse gases emissions, metal elements migration and nutrients withholding, succession of vegetation communities in which the species diversity always changed and it declined when up to climax communities, services value estimation, and finally research on soil carbon fraction in wetland cultivation and reverting farmland to wetland. It puts forward the main problems in wetland research which include the weakness of wetland basic theories, the lack of wetland classification systems suitable for Chinese wetland types and the shortage of long-term orientation observations of wetland ecosystem. So suggestions about wetland researches in the future are proposed from two aspects which were the construction of wetland science system info should be strengthened and the directions of wetland research.
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    沼泽湿地环境演变研究回顾与展望——纪念中国科学东北地理与农业生态研究所建所50周年
    王国平, 吕宪国
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (3): 309-313.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.03.309
    摘要   PDF (652KB)
    沼泽湿地是地球表层功能独特的生态系统,在其形成发育、时空演化及分异等方面与其它生态系统存在明显差异。中国科学院东北地理所(原长春地理所)在沼泽湿地形成发育、时空演化研究方面有丰富的学科积累。1958年,中国科学院确定沼泽为该所的主攻方向,成为中国最早的专门性沼泽研究机构之一,至今已满50周年。50年来,几代科研人员为沼泽湿地环境演变研究工作贡献了他们的青春年华,取得了丰硕的研究成果。
    The marsh wetland is a unique ecosystem within the Earth surface. Its forms and evolution existed obvious difference with other ecosystem. Northeast Institute of Geography and Agricultural Ecology (former Changchun Institute of Geography) has rich accumulation of research on evolution and records of environmental and climate changes: In 1958, Chinese Academy of Sciences determined marsh as the main research direction for this Institute. For 50 years, several generation of researchers have contributed their youth time to wetland environment evolution research work, and have obtained the plentiful research results. This article will pay full respective to all of them when the 50th anniversary coming.
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    基于城市扩张的动态选址模型——以深圳垃圾转运站选址为例
    伍少坤, 黎夏, 刘小平, 龚友夫
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (3): 314-319.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.03.314
    摘要   PDF (963KB)
    现有的许多选址模型研究,主要集中在对选址算法的改进,而忽略了城市作为复杂地理系统所具备的不确定性和动态发展性对选址结果的影响。这往往导致最终的选址结果在设施投入使用后,无法满足新的需求甚至出现不适应新环境的情况。本文将基于GeoCA(地理元胞自动机)的城市扩张模型引入到传统的Location-allocation选址模型中,构建一个动态的选址模型框架,探索如何将选址结果建立在动态的、科学的城市形态预测基础上,促使选址结果更具有客观性、先见性和更符合可持续发展观,这也正是本研究的重要意义所在。同时,框架中的许多子模型都能够单独被优化,具有高度的可伸缩性,能够自适应于特定区域的选址要求。
    Most research papers of the site selection model, such Location-allocation, focus on the algorithm itself, while ignoring the influences of the city, as a complex geographic system which has uncertainties and will develop dynamically. Therefore, it’s quite possible that the results of such models will dissatisfy the new demands, or even be incompatible with the new situation after the utilities located have been put into service. Based on the GeoCA urban land use simulation model, this paper establishes a new dynamic Location-allocation model so that the selection result has characteristics of extension, forecast and sustainable development. Besides, all the sub models, e.g. the population forecasting model, of this dynamic site selection model are able to be optimized alone. Hence, this model has a highly flexibility and is competent for special region’s requirements.
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    区域经济发展动力系统的构建与运行机制研究
    谷国锋
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (3): 320-324.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.03.320
    摘要   PDF (1048KB)
    区域经济发展需要动力,解决动力问题一直是区域经济学、经济地理学、发展经济学等学科长期研究的重点领域。单一动力对区域经济发展能够产生一定的功效,但缺乏系统动力是区域经济发展中一个普遍存在的问题。在科学发展观背景下,通过对区域经济发展要素的分类与综合分析,提出了"合动力网络"的概念,以自组织结构动力、技术创新动力、制度创新动力和文化动力为子系统,初步构建了区域经济发展的动力系统,并分析了动力系统及其子系统的相互作用关系和运行机制。
    Regional economic development needs motive force. It is always the key to solve the power problem for a long time in Regional Economics, Economic Geography, Development Economics, etc. Single motive force could produce certain efficiency to regional economic development, but it is a general existing problem in regional economic development to lack systematic motive force. Under the background of Scientific Development View, the paper classifies and analyzes synthetically regional economic development element, and puts forward the concept of "resultant force network ", then establishes the dynamical system of regional economic development tentatively, involving the subsystems for self-organization dynamical system, technological innovation dynamical system, institution innovation dynamical system and culture dynamical system. It also analyzes the interaction relationship and operating mechanism of dynamical system and its subsystems.
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    产业集聚、市场结构与生产率——基于中国省份制造业面板数据的实证研究
    陈良文, 杨开忠
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (3): 325-330.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.03.325
    摘要   PDF (586KB)
    利用1987~2003年中国制造业8个产业分省份面板数据对集聚经济效应的存在与否进行了实证研究,研究结果显示在制造业8个产业中,大部分产业存在地方化经济效应和城市化经济效应,即产业自身规模以及其他产业规模对该产业的劳动生产率具有正向影响,从而验证了集聚经济效应的存在性。研究同样对市场结构与生产率之间的关系进行了实证检验,并没有支持"竞争性的市场结构更能促进创新"这一理论预期,在一定程度上说明企业的内部规模经济效应要强于市场竞争对创新的促进作用。
    Agglomeration economy effect is considered as a key factor deciding the spatial distribution of economic activity. Many researches have examined the existence of agglomeration economy effect. The most common method to examine the existence of agglomeration economy effect is to investigate the relationship between industry or city size and productivity. Economy agglomeration is very distinct in China, and the trend has enhanced ever sine 1978. An obvious evidence is that the total GDP of Changjiang(Yangtze) River Delta Metropolitan Area, Zhujiang (Pearl) River Delta Metropolitan Area and Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Metropolitan Area accounted for 34.74% of the whole China, but the ratio grew to 40% in 2004. We have to investigate the economic mechanism of the economic factors. This paper examines the existence of agglomeration economy effect in China’s manufacturing industries by investigating the relationship between industry size and productivity. We use the provincial panel data of 8 industries from 1987 to 2003, and the result approves localization economy effect and urbanization economy effect in most of the 8 industries. The detailed result is that the localization economy effect exists in the industries of foods manufacturing, textile manufacturing, processing of petroleum and coking, medicines manufacturing, transport equipment manufacturing, and the urbanization economy effect exists in the industry of textile manufacturing, paper and paper products manufacturing, raw chemical materials and chemical products manufacturing, processing of petroleum and coking, medicines manufacturing. In order to check the robustness of our model, we use the total output, instead of value-added of industry, to denote industry size. The result is almost the same with the original model, which approves the robustness of the model. It need to be pointed out that we do not find the relationship between industry technology level and agglomeration economy effect. We find urbanization in low technology industry as well as in high technology industry. The industrial market organization is also an important factor that influences the industry productivity.We consider the impact of industry organization in our model by introducing the variable of average firm size, and the result shows that the average firm size has positive influence on productivity". A feasible explanation is that internal scale economy inside firms has stronger influences on the industry productivity than the innovation effect does, which derived from competition. we just use the provincial level and two-digit industry data, so the next step is to use more detailed data to investigate the existence of agglomeration economy effect in future.
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    浙江省工业型村落:发展模式及其形成动力研究
    朱华友, 蒋自然
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (3): 331-336.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.03.331
    摘要   PDF (343KB)
    工业型村落是中国新农村建设中的一种典型村落类型。浙江省工业型村落在空间表现为"块状经济"形态,其空间分布与各地级市的经济发展水平基本一致,局部地区出现了"跨越式"发展。浙江省工业型村落的形成模式与浙江省农村工业化密切相关,按照地域不同,表现分为综合型模式和内生型模式两种,而尤以内生型模式最具浙江特色。作者认为,这种特色村落模式是在其深刻的内部动力和外部动力的作用下形成的。通过对村落形成动力的综合分析,作者认为其发展路径表现为改革开放条件下的历史偶然性与路径依赖,并对此进行分析。最后,文章对主要观点做了概括和思考。
    Compared with agriculture-based and market-based village, the industry-based village is a typical one in China's new rural reconstruction which refers to the village relying on industrial production. It is a long research history abroad, but ours' begins till the implement of reform and open policy. However, as far as the documents about the industry-based village concerned, there are really few written records kept which can keep along with the highly developed social and economic level of Zhejinag province. Regarding as the industry-based village of Zhejiang province, it is with a character of "block economy" in space. Although some areas develop by leaps and bounds, the number of industry-based village's progress is in accordance with economy level. According to the features of different zones, they can be divided into two models-syntheses and endogenesis(taking northeast and southeast of Zhejiang for examples respectively), and especially the latter represents the typical features of industry-based village in Zhejiang province with deep internal dynamics and external force. Based on the analysis above, the author concludes that the development path of Zhejiang's industry-based village shows historical contingencies and path-dependence under the condition of reform and opening-up policy. Firstly, Zhejiang's industry-based village is formed under the internal and external factors and can not be achieved without one of them; Secondly, the production organization is very difficult to be transplanted. Based on contingencies, the industry-based village of Zhejiang demonstrates "path-dependence", and it appears "circulation-cumulative" effect. The formation way of industry-based village can be indicated as follows: "Market-oriented-endogenic force (primarily)+ The overflow effect (auxiliary)-enterprises agglomeration- rural industrialization". Finally, the author makes a comprehensive summary about the main idea and thinks that it is a very important issue to promote village's structure transition and upgrading.
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    中国耕地保有量的动力预测模型及对策
    孙燕, 林振山, 金晓斌, 周寅康, 徐健
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (3): 337-342.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.03.337
    摘要   PDF (340KB)
    围绕如何确保2010年1.2×108 hm2的耕地保有量,运用经验模态分解方法分析中国耕地保有量的趋势作为建模依据,构建了中国耕地保有量的动力预测模型,并对中国耕地保有总量现状进行了分析和预测。从建设占用、耕地补充、生态退耕、农业结构调整和灾害损毁五个方面进行单要素分析,在数值模拟的基础上提出高、中、低三种方案,研究结果表明:只有在各方面严格把守的前提下,才有可能实现目标保有量,并且科学的确定生态退耕的数量具有关键意义。
    The total area of farmland is decreasing at a rather high speed in recent years in China. The major reasons include: constructional land use, ecologic comeback, agricultural structure adjustment, catastrophic and so on, which will badly affect the food safety in China. By a new national plan, the insurance quantity of cultivated land should be 1.2108hm2 by the year of 2010.The author analyzs that the number of farmland in China will decrease in short time based on the intrinsic model function,and advances several dynamic equations on arable land change, brings forward three projects based on numerical simulation . The result of the study shows: we must adopt the most severe measures, for the aim to nsure quantity of cultivated land of 1.2108hm2. At last, the author presented three suggestions based on the numerical simulation results, which are to enhance the mprehensive plan of land use, to strengthen economical use of land, and to consolidate the management of land use.
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    三江自然保护区耕地与湿地协调发展水平的评价研究
    张春丽, 佟连军, 刘继斌
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (3): 343-347.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.03.343
    摘要   PDF (733KB)
    构建了衡量耕地—湿地协调发展的评价指标体系,并以三江自然保护区为例,采用综合指数法对耕地生产与湿地环境的协调发展水平进行了评价。结果表明:1954~2000年耕地生产与湿地环境比较协调,1995年协调度达最高点0.992,2000年二者综合发展水平达最高点0.389;2000~2005年协调度和综合发展水平开始出现大幅度下降,湿地开垦已经超过其临界规模,湿地面积的急速下降已威胁到区域的可持续发展。1995~2000年这段期间三江自然保护区耕地与湿地协调水平最高,此时耕地面积大约为2.6×104 hm2,湿地面积大约为3.5×104 hm2。此结果可以作为三江自然保护区湿地恢复重要的参考标准。在该标准下,通过改变传统农业发展模式和提高单产水平,三江自然保护区粮食可满足目前的需求,湿地重要的生态功能也可大大恢复。
    The wetlands in Sanjiang Plain are significant for regional ecological security owing to their important ecological functions such as conserving water source, keeping biodiversity, and so on. On the other hand, Sanjiang Plain plays a very important role in ensuring the Chinese food security with its suitable climate and allocation of water and land resources. But, during the course of constructing Chinese commodity grain base, the expansion of the farmland led to the shrink of wetlands. Human activities changed the pattern of land use in Sanjiang Plain and negatively affected on regional ecology and led to the declination of the regional ecological quality, even menace the ecological security. To lessen those contradictions require the coordinated development of arable land and wetlands. In order to seek rational proportion between the arable land and wetland, this paper analyzes the relationship between arable land and wetland in Sanjiang Plain, and constructs a set of index system for coordinated development between both. With the help of the exponential evaluation model, the coordinated development level of arable land and wetland in Sanjiang Reserve is evaluated. The results show that the coordinated development level between the arable land production and the wetland environment is better from 1954 to 2000.The topmost point of coordinated development level was attained in 1995, while that of comprehensive development level in 2000. However the coordinated index and comprehensive index take on a great degressive trend appeared in 2000, which is mainly resulted from the decline of wetland exploitation carrying capacity, particularly the reduce of wetland value has threaten the sustainable development of Saijiang Reserve. From 1995 to 2000 when the coordinated index and comprehensive index attained the topmost point, the area of arable land was about 26, 000 hm2 and the wetland was 35, 000 hm2 in Saijiang Reserve, which can be taken as a reference standard when defining the level of wetland restoration.
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    城市边缘区耕地面积变化时空特征及其驱动机制——以北京市顺义区为例
    于伯华, 吕昌河
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (3): 348-353.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.03.348
    摘要   PDF (851KB)
    城市边缘区的土地资源紧缺而利用方式多样,土地利用变化既与城市发展有关又和粮食安全密切联系,因此加强城市边缘区的土地利用研究既必要又迫切。利用1990年和2000年TM影像获取的土地利用数据、 1991~2002年社会经济统计数据,借助GIS空间分析方法以及数理统计方法,系统探讨了北京市顺义区耕地流失的时空格局特征及其驱动机制。结果显示,1990~2000年顺义区流失耕地的57%转为建设用地,43 %转为生态用地。农用地中粮食作物的种植面积大幅减少,菜地和果园面积快速增加。工业发展是耕地流失的第一驱动力;人口城市化、房地产发展等加速耕地流失。
    With the rapid economic development, land demands of different stakeholders are increasing the pressure on the limited land resources on the urban fringe, resulting in fast farmland loss. Based on the TM data in the years 1990 and 2000, combined with social-economical statistic data from 1978 to 2002, this paper explored the spatial and temporal characteristics of farmland change and its driving forces in Shunyi District, Beijing Municipality, by means of spatial analysis, GIS-based buffer analysis and mathematical statistics method. It was found that fast loss of farmland take place after the 1978. From 1978 to 2002, 38% of the farmland area in Shunyi was lost, which were mainly converted to built-up land (57%) and ecological land (43%), and driven by land demands for urbanization and better environment. Meanwhile, agricultural land use structure changed substantially due to the expansion of urban land and economic force/market change. For example, in 2002, the sowing area of food grain crops decreased by 35.12%, while the area of vegetable and orchard increased by 3 times compared to that in 1991. This change increased income of farmers, but led to a problem of food insecurity. Three major factors contributed to these land use changes. The first is the great gap of benefits among industrial and agricultural land use in Shunyi District. The second the investment of fixed asset, e.g., the investment to real estate increased 5 times from 1998 to 2003, while that to agriculture decreased to 1/29 at corresponding time. The third is development of transportation infrastructure to meet the need of its industrialization and urbanization. The quick development of villa and other residential land use with low plot ratio caused loss of fertile farmland and other ecological land. Additionally, this paper proved that the combination of Principal Component Analysis and Stepwise Regression was an effective means to discover driving factors of farmland loss. The former was used to distinguish main factors in each category, and the latter was used to give a rational explanation of land use change.
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    黄河下游河道泥沙存贮-释放及其临界条件
    许炯心
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (3): 354-360.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.03.354
    摘要   PDF (1186KB)
    确定了黄河下游河道处于泥沙存贮-释放临界状态的水沙临界条件。当场次洪水平均含沙量小于31.68 kg/m3,或者来自中游多沙粗沙区场次洪水来沙量小于4 543×104 t,下游河道将由泥沙存贮状态变为泥沙释放状态。当河口镇以上清水区径流占场次洪水总径流量比率大于0.70时,也会由泥沙存贮状态变为泥沙释放状态。场次洪水泥沙输移比随洪水平均流量的增到而增大,流量为4 000 m3/s(相当于平滩流量)时达到峰值,此后有所减少。这表明,平滩流量时泥沙存贮最少,低于平滩流量和高于平滩流量时泥沙存贮均增大。
    Based on data from the Huanghe (Yellow) River, the sediment storing-releasing process in an alluvial channel has been studied. The results show that in a hydrological year, sediment storing occurs during the high-flow season and sediment releasing occurs in the low-flow season. The amount of sediment storage in the high-flow season exceeds that of sediment release in the low-flow season, and net storage is positive for the whole year. Some thresholds for the critical storing-releasing state of the channel have been identified. When the event average suspended sediment concentration is smaller than 31.68 kg/m3, or the event sediment amount supplied from the "coarse sediment producing area" is smaller than 45.35?106 t, the channel would change from a state of sediment storing to sediment releasing. When the ratio of event water amount supplied from the "clear water source area" in the upper Huanghe River to the event total flood water is high than 0.70, the channel would also change from a state of sediment storing to sediment releasing. The event sediment delivery ratio (Rsd) of lower Huanghe River channel increased with the event mean water discharge (Qmean) to a peak, at which Qmean=4 000 m3/s, roughly equaling the bankfull discharge, and then Rsd decreased. This indicates that channel sediment storing is the least at bankfull discharges, and when Qmean is larger or smaller that bankfull, sediment storing increased.
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    三江平原不同流域水土流失变化特征分析
    卜坤, 张树文, 闫业超, 王文娟, 张宇博
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (3): 361-368.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.03.361
    摘要   PDF (1661KB)
    运用地理信息系统(GIS)结合美国通用水土流失方程(USLE),根据研究区现状合理选择USLE中水土流失各因子的计算方法,求算出三江平原1954年、1976年、1986年以及2000年的水土流失状况图。通过与2000年遥感普查结果进行对比,验证了方法的有效性。分别对三江平原六个流域水土流失变化情况进行分析,认为土地利用方式对水土流失有重要影响,农田开发是造成水土流失面积增加、强度增强的主要原因。土地垦荒活动强度降低以及部分旱地改种水田后,水土流失面积增加的幅度明显下降。
    By reasonable selection of different factors in the Usual Soil Loss Equation (USLE), the serial of soil erosion maps of Sanjiang Plain in 1951, 1976, 1986 and 2000 are obtained under the support of GIS. The calculated result is approved to be valid comparison with the result of the second remote sensing survey for soil erosion of China in 2000. Then the change of soil erosion of the 6 watersheds in the Sanjiang Plain is analyzed to indicate that the way of land use impacts soil erosion significantly, and the reclamation is the main reason for the area increase intensity and of the soil erosion. The expansion rate of soil erosion slowed down obviously after the reduce of wasteland reclamation and replanting some dry land to paddy field.
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    内蒙古典型草原地上生物量的空间格局及其气候成因分析
    陈效逑, 郑婷
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (3): 369-374.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.03.369
    摘要   PDF (1072KB)
    内蒙古典型草原区的格点地上生物量与格点的纬度和经度均存在显著正相关关系,呈现北高南低、东高西低的空间分布格局;各气象站点所在地的草地地上生物量与多年平均年降水量之间存在显著正相关关系,与多年平均年均温之间存在显著负相关关系,而与多年平均年干燥度之间亦存在显著负相关关系,且在干燥度介于1~1.5的地区,地上生物量对干燥度变化的响应非常敏感;草地地上生物量的空间分布格局主要是在水热条件共同作用下形成的,年降水量的近东西向分布决定地上生物量分布的近东西向分异特点,而气温和降水的共同作用决定地上生物量分布的近南北向分异特点。
    Studying a high spatial-resolution distribution pattern of observed aboveground biomass of grasslands and its climatic attributions within a continuous geographical area and during a specific time period is crucial for assessing responses of the net primary production of grasslands to climate change, and validating satellite derived and model estimated grassland aboveground biomass. Using statistical data of the grassland investigation in Inner Mongolia during the 1980s and Geographic Information System techniques, we produced a distribution map of the grassland aboveground biomass with a 1km?1km spatial resolution for the typical steppe of Inner Mongolia, and then analyzed the spatial patterns of the aboveground biomass and its relation to thermal-moisture conditions. The grid aboveground biomass has a significantly positive correlation with latitudes and longitudes of the corresponding grids (P<0.001), representing a decreased tendency from north to south and from east to west. The aboveground biomass at meteorological stations has a significantly positive correlation with mean annual precipitation (P<0.001) and a significantly negative correlation with mean annual air temperature (P<0.001) and mean annual aridity index (P<0.001). It is worth to note that in areas with the mean annual aridity index between 1 and 1.5, the aboveground biomass has a very sensitive response to changes of the aridity index. The spatial patterns of the aboveground biomass was therefore shaped under the controls of thermal-moisture conditions: longitudinal distribution characteristics of the aboveground biomass were mainly determined by mean annual precipitation, whereas latitudinal distribution characteristics of the aboveground biomass were influenced by both mean annual air temperature and mean annual precipitation.
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    天山北麓黄土发育特征及形成年代
    吕红华, 李有利, 南峰, 司苏沛
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (3): 375-379.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.03.375
    摘要   PDF (616KB)
    对天山北麓黄土年代的认识还存在一定分歧。文章在对天山北麓河流阶地进行划分的基础上,通过分析黄土分布与地貌单元(河流阶地与冲积扇)的依附关系,同时结合黄土-古土壤序列分析与ESR测年,初步确定天山北麓地貌面上覆盖的最老黄土年代为0.54 Ma B.P.,这为分析黄土所赋含的环境信息提供时间标尺。
    The loess is of importance to understand the progress of environmental evolution in Northwest China, which should be based on the reliable age. Because of the limit of the dating means, the conclusions on the age of loess along the north flank of the Tianshan Mountains are controversial, which makes it difficult to understand the environmental implication of the loess. Loess-paleosol series and the dating method based on the structure of geomorphologic complexs make it possible to date the geomorphologic complex and the related deposites. This study aims at giving the age of the loess along the north flank of the Tianshan Mountains. Based on the detailed field work, seven fluvial terraces have been identified along major river channels, and the distribution of loess is thought to be related with these terraces and corresponding alluvial fans. The oldest loess in the north piedmont of the Tianshan Mountains is distributed on the highest terrace T7, and the younger loess on the T6 is more extensive. Loess-paleosol series and the ESR age indicate that the age of the oldest loess in the north piedmont of the Tianshan Mountains is 0.54 Ma.
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    基于小波变换的三江平原低湿地井灌区年降水序列变化趋势分析
    刘东, 付强
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (3): 380-384.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.03.380
    摘要   PDF (431KB)
    近年来,由于水田面积迅速增加,导致三江平原低湿地井灌水稻区地下水位普遍下降,"吊泵"、局部超采现象时有发生,因此,三江平原的地下水资源平衡急需恢复。为解决上述问题,以853农场为例,应用小波理论对853农场实测年降水时间序列的多时间尺度变化特征及突变特征进行分析,揭示该区年降水变化的主要周期及旱涝变化趋势,为853农场乃至整个三江平原充分利用天然降水、地下水资源恢复及可持续利用提供科学依据。
    The rapid increase of paddy field acreage has led to widely descending of groundwater level in well irrigation paddy area of low-lying wetland in the Sanjiang Plain recent years. More and more "hanging pump" and partial overpumping have been occurring in well irrigation paddy area of low-lying wetland. Therefore, the groundwater resource balance in the Sanjiang Plain need to be recharged urgently. In order to solve above-mentioned problems, the authors took Farm 853 as example, analyzed the multi-time scales variation characteristics and jump characteristics of actual annual precipitation time series in Farm 853 through using the wavelet theory, and the main periods of annual precipitation change and variation trend of drought-flood in this area were revealed. The study can provide scientific gist for fully utilizing natural precipitation, groundwater resource recharge and sustainable utilization in Farm 853 so much as the entire Sanjiang Plain.
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    19世纪后半叶至20世纪初叶梅雨带位置的初步推断
    萧凌波, 方修琦, 张学珍
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (3): 385-389.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.03.385
    摘要   PDF (823KB)
    提取《湘绮楼日记》中1869~1916年间长沙、衡阳地区夏半年(4~9月)的逐日天气记录,重建4~9月逐旬平均降水日数序列和6~7月逐候平均降水日数序列,与现代(1951~1980)长沙气象观测数据进行对比,发现当时梅雨期结束于7月3候,较现代推迟2候;梅雨持续时间2~3旬,比现代长约1旬。参考物候信息(历年平均蝉始鸣日期)得出结论:19世纪后半叶至20世纪初,冬季风势力强于现代,压制了副热带高压北进,当时梅雨带位置较现代偏南1~2个纬度。长衡地区因此较现代更接近梅雨带中心,出现了更明显的梅雨。
    In this paper, an ancient diary named Xiangqilou Diary, which was written by Wang Kaiyun during 1869-1916 in the area around Changsha and Hengyang in Hunan Province where he lived, has been dug out. By using of the daily weather recordation in the diary, a series of average precipitation days of every ten days in summer-half-year (Apr.-Sep.) from 1869 to 1916 around Changsha and Hengyang, as well as series of precipitation days of every penta-day(5 days)during June to July, can be reconstructed. After comparing with meteorological observation data in Changsha (1951-1980), it is found that the end of Meiyu period (the third penta-day in July) was about two penta-days(10 days) later than present, and the length of Meiyu period (20-30 days) was about ten days longer. According to phenological recordation on cicada in the diary, the average date when cicada first sang around Changsha and Hengyang was the 30th June. Compared to the modern phonological data, the date was later than Changsha and Hengyang, while similar to several cities along the Changjiang (Yangtze) River, such as Shanghai, which are now in the core area of rainbelt of Meiyu in the eastern China. Consequently, climate during Meiyu period of the two has some similar characters, especially temperature and precipitation. In conclusion, during the second half of the 19th century to the early 20th century, Meiyu was more typical than present around Changsha and Hengyang, which means the area might be much liker to the core area of rainbelt of Meiyu, and the location of rainbelt of Meiyu then was about 1?-2? south to nowadays.
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    古海蚀与相似地形的区别:形态与成因——以广东黄圃海蚀遗迹为例
    王为, 曾昭璇, 吴正, 黄山
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (3): 390-395.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.03.390
    摘要   PDF (3561KB)
    对比黄圃镇海蚀遗迹与其它非海蚀成因相似地形,得出其形态特征差异:海蚀槽穴同时切过软硬相间的岩石,仅出现在某一水平面;片流和风化作用形成的凹槽与结构面或岩层完全平行而且连续延伸,出现在整个山坡面上,凹槽前无平台;河流侧蚀作用在同一水平面上,不能同时形成凹槽和平台;河流溶蚀作用也是水平的,在石灰岩河岸侧壁形成凹槽,槽上有突出屋檐,无平台;波浪作用不强的石灰岩海岸也可形成凹槽和突出屋檐,但无海蚀平台;只有波浪作用才能同时形成(海蚀)平台和(海蚀)凹穴。
    The origin and the age of many ancient marine eroded landforms in the coastal areas of Guangdong cannot be determined due largely to no sediments kept with or within the landforms. Arguments about the origin for the marine eroded landforms are, therefore, often raised by the fact that non-marine eroded landforms also have similar morphological features. The difference between marine and non-marine eroded landforms is originally caused by the different erosion processes resulting in the different morphological features, although, some of which are similar. The focus of this study is trying to highlight a number of such differences important for distinguishing marine eroded landforms from non-marine ones. Ancient marine landforms found at Huangpu. Town is one with typical marine eroded features. In this article, morphological features of the ancient marine landforms at Huangpu were compared to those with similar features but formed from non-marine origin. The difference among those feature and their origins are analyzed based on the principles of dynamical geomorphology. The comparison indicates: (1) Ancient marine notches or caves associated with marine benches only appeared at a same horizontal level such as the hill foot that was a formal sea-level, and could cut off both hard and soft rock layers along this level. (2) Differential weathering or erosion by sheet flows on a hill slope with structural difference would produce notch-like features or grooves along the soft rock layers or the structural weaknesses of the slope, no matter they were horizontal or not. The notch like features could develop all the way from the top to the foot of the hill slope but without any benches formed in front of the grooves. (3) The lateral erosion of a river is also horizontal but could not produce notches and benches at the same time. (4) The dissolution process of river water was also horizontal, by which horizontal grooves were formed in limestone river banks at the height of the water surface. A prominent roof could often formed over the groove but no benches formed in front of it because of more dissolution under the water than in the air. (5) By the same reason, marine notches without marine platforms or benches developed on limestone coasts with short fetches. (6) The width of the marine bench apparently increased with greater wave energy.
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    复杂地形对城市空气污染影响的数值试验研究
    刘宁微, 王扬锋, 马雁军, 洪也
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (3): 396-401.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.03.396
    摘要   PDF (1040KB)
    以辽宁为例,通过改变其中部地区的地形高度,利用新一代空气质量模式系统Model-3对2006年11月24日的一次污染过程中气象场和污染物浓度场的分布进行了敏感性试验。结果表明,地形的存在会导致风的辐合,风速降低,逆温增强,这些都构成了不利于污染物输送及扩散的因素,容易造成污染物的堆积和滞留,从而使污染物浓度较高
    In order to study the influence of complex terrain on urban air pollution, a sensitive test is made by using the new generation air quality models system Models-3 by means of modifying the terrain height of central Liaoning Province to research the meteorology and concentration filed in the course of pollution on 24 November 2006. The results show that the complex terrain will make the wind convergent, the wind speed diminish and the inversion temperature strengthen, all of which form the negative factors for polluants to be transported and dispers, causing the pollutant piles and resorts, therefore brings high concentration of the pollutant.
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    西藏拉萨桑达地区第四纪植硅体组合特征
    陈陵康, 郭建秋, 顾延生, 陈海霞
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (3): 402-406.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.03.402
    摘要   PDF (975KB)
    测制西藏拉萨桑达乡第四系剖面,系统采集并分析植硅体样品,根据植硅体的形态分类及组合、温暖指数等特征,划分为5个植硅体组合带:Ⅰ为齿型-平滑棒型、石屑型、网脊块状,反映气温温凉;Ⅱ为长方型-平滑棒型、多面体型,气候转暖;Ⅲ为长方型、齿型-平滑棒型组合带,气候干旱; Ⅳ为长方型-亚铃型、齿型-平滑棒型、多面体型组合带,气候温暖潮湿;Ⅴ为齿型、帽型-平滑棒型、多面体型、石屑组合带,显示气候寒冷。探讨拉萨桑达地区第四纪古植被 、古环境。
    Based on the section plane of Quaternary system at Sangda Village in Lhasa, Tibet, this paper analyses the phytolith characteristics such as morphological classification, combination character, warmth index and divides five assemblage zones. First assemblage zone is tooth model-smooth bar model, chip model, and muri block, reflecting the temperature of warm-cool. Second, the phytolith characteristic is rectangular model-smooth bar model, polyhedron model, it reflects the climate getting warmer. Thirdly, it is rectangular model, tooth model-smooth bar model, showing the climate drought; the next assemblage zone is rectangular model-dumbbell model, tooth model-smooth bar model, and polyhedron model, reflecting the weather getting warmer and dampness. Lastly, the phytolith characteristic is tooth model, cap model-smooth bar model, polyhedron model, and chip model, showing the climate getting colder. The study of morphological classification and combination could be applied for palaeoenvironment and paleo-vegetations of the Quaternary in the Sangda village, Lhasa area.
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    黄河包头段常见离子对重金属在沉积物上吸附影响机制研究
    薛红喜, 何江, 樊庆云, 吕昌伟, 孙英, 梁英, 白萨茹莉, 沈丽丽
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (3): 407-411.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.03.407
    摘要   PDF (435KB)
    常见阴阳离子对重金属在黄河包头段相对清洁河段表层沉积物中的吸附影响研究结果表明,不同的环境离子浓度范围内,起主导作用的影响机制不同,黄河包头段水环境中Na+、Mg2+和Ca2+对Zn2+的吸附影响较大,K+对Cu2+、Pb2+、Zn2+和 Cd2+吸附影响均较大, Cl-、SO42-对Cu2+、Pb2+、Zn2+和 Cd2+的吸附影响均较小,而HCO3-对Pb2+的影响较小,对Cu2+、Zn2+、Cd2+的吸附影响较大。
    Taking the surface sediments from the clear reach in Baotou section of the Huanghe(Yellow) River as the adsorbent, the heavy metal adsorption mechanism and affecting factor caused by ions of natural water on particulate was studied in this paper. According to the results obtained from the experiment, the affecting mechanism of heavy metal adsorption on particulate can be as follows: (1) the adsorption and disadsorpiton capacities of the heavy metal increased with the increasing of the ionic strength which caused the compress of electric double layer on mineral and reduced activity of heavy metal. As a result, there always is re-equilibrium between adsorption and disadsorption; (2) the additive cations have the competitive adsorption to the heavy metals when the cations and the heavy metals have the similar structure or physicochemical properties; (3) the heavy metal complexations caused by the anion lead to decreasing of the ionic activity and the valence state of the heavy metals, and effect on physical adsorption of the heavy metals caused by electrostatic pull. Generally, in slight acidic environment, the mineral with positive charge will adsorb the anion, and then cause the increasing of the adsorption of the heavy metals by complexations with the anion. As an important conclusion, the heavy metals into the water are affected by different adsorption and disadsorption mechanisms, and there are different dominant mechanisms in different ion concentration ranges.
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    经济发展梯度影响下的江苏农用地土壤重金属含量分布格局
    吴绍华, 周生路, 张红富, 赵其国
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (3): 412-418.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.03.412
    摘要   PDF (1053KB)
    根据江苏省农用地22个标准样地的7种重金属元素含量测定结果,应用TWINSPAN分类、CCA排序的多元统计方法,对江苏农用地耕作层土壤重金属元素含量格局和影响因子进行了定量分析。研究结果表明,江苏耕作层土壤重金属元素含量整体特征具有明显的沿经济发展梯度(苏南-苏中-苏北)的递减格局。空间位置、人类活动强度、土壤理化性质是控制梯度分布格局重要的环境因素,通过变量分离,空间变量解释的部分占21.5%,人为活动变量解释部分占17.9%,理化性质变量解释部分占17.5%,三组变量总解释量占56.9%,不能解释部分占43.1%。人类活动与空间位置因素一起可以综合反映江苏经济发展的空间梯度,其占了总解释量的69.2%,经济发展梯度对农用地重金属元素含量有着深刻的影响。
    Seven kinds of heavy metals content at 22 norm sample plots were determined in Jiangsu Province. Using heavy metals content data, we analyzed the pattern of heavy metals and its influencing factor by TWINSPAN and CCA. The results showed that the distribution of heavy metals in Jiangsu Province was different obviously. Entire distribution feature of heavy metals distribution had a clear gradient with "Subei North Jiangsu-Suzhong (Central Jiangsu)-Sunan (South Jiangsu)". The elements which controlled the entire feature distribution of heavy metals were Hg, Cd and Cu in the Sunan region, Pb, Cr and Ni in the Suzhong and region Subei district. Spatial location, soil physicochemical property and human active intensive were the most important influencing factors which controlled the distribution pattern of heavy metals in Jiangsu. The explanation of three influencing variations accounted for 56.9%, of which the explanation location variation independently was 21.5%, soil physicochemical property was 17.5%, and the human active intensive is 17.9%, but 43.1% could not be explained. This research showed that the spatial distribution pattern of Theavy metals in soil was affected deeply by economic development gradient in Jiangsu Province. The method of WINSPAN and CCA is good for analysis the relations between heavy metals content and influence variations, and it may be a potential method for soil environment research.
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    哈尼梯田土地利用空间格局及其变化的信息图谱研究
    胡文英, 角媛梅, 范弢
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (3): 419-424.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.03.419
    摘要   PDF (1131KB)
    以云南省元阳县为例,建立土地利用空间格局及变化信息图谱,对其图谱特征进行分析。结果表明:土地利用时空演变征兆图谱更直观形象的揭示区域土地利用变化的基本模式,提供时空复合的表达方式;土地利用斑块形态与空间扩展图谱的建立应用空间格局研究中的相关概念和方法,将微观、宏观层次图形信息与变化过程结合;土地利用变化景观特征图谱建立以度量空间格局变化为目标的景观指数体系。
    Taking Yuanyang County in Yunnan Province as an example, based on remote sensing, GIS spatial analysis and statistical analysis model, this paper establishes the information Tupu of land use spatial pattern and its change from the following three aspects: land use spatio-temporal change mode, the expansion process of space, and landscape characteristics. Then it analyzes the characteristics of these Tupu. The results show that: (1) The established land use spatio-temporal change premonition Tupu can reveal the basic modes of land use change in the study regions more visually, including the quantitative and structural changes of various land use types. Unlike the previous study, it provides the digital and vector graphics information for the further study of its spatio-temporal changes, and can real-timely update, edit, process, and use the time as the axis to describe and explain the process of land use change, and provides a spatio-temporal expression way. (2) The land use patch shapes and spatial expansion Tupu can provide the macroscopic and microscopic information of land use dynamic change. Through establishing mathematical models to analyze the expansion intensity and expansion patterns of various land use types, the land use spatial expansion process can be visualized, abstracted, and modeled, which has a certain theoretical research value for understanding the internal mechanism of spatial changes and then predicting the future land use changes.(3) The fractal dimensions of three land use types of forest, paddy field and garden are all positively correlated with the patch areas. Through the horizontal (the relation between patch area and landscape index) and vertical (the interannual variation of landscape index) quantitative description of indexes, the land use change and landscape characteristic Tupu has established the landscape index system for measuring the changes of spatial patterns to analyze the change trend of various land use types (i.e. the landscape types) in the study regions, and their relations with human activities, so as to provides the basis for the formulation of sustainable land use policies in the study regions.
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    基于文献分析的土地退化评价指标研究
    许宁, 郭旭东, 洪友堂, 张聪, 董华
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (3): 425-430.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.03.425
    摘要   PDF (875KB)
    中英文献综合统计,土地退化评价应用频次较高的指标有植被盖度、坡度、经济收入水平、有机质含量和土地利用类型等;土壤侵蚀应用频次较高的有植被因子、坡度、地貌类型、有机质含量和土地利用类型等;沙化有植被覆盖度、沙地占地率、土地利用类型、有机质含量、人口数量等。土地退化、土壤侵蚀和沙化遥感监测指标也集中在植被盖度、坡度、土地利用类型等指标。
    The monitoring and assessment indicators of land degradation play a very important role in protecting and using land resources. In this paper, the authors respectively search the literatures on land degradation, soil erosion and desertification which were published at home and abroad, and then the authors record, count and analyze the indicators selected from those literatures based on the method of bibliometrics. The result indicates that these indicators can be divided into six classes, including soil, vegetation, society and economy, zoology and biology, climate and topography. According to the analysis result, vegetation cover, slope gradient, level of income, organic substance content and type of land use, etc. are frequently used in Chinese and English literatures about land degradation assessment, meanwhile vegetation factor, slope gradient, type of topography, organic substance content and type of land use are frequently used in the literatures about soil erosion assessment, and vegetation cover, percent of sandy land, type of land use, organic substance content, population, etc. are frequently used in literatures about desertification assessment. And for remote sensing monitoring, the high frequency indicators include vegetation cover, slope gradient, type of land use, etc.
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    基于GIS的佛山城市文化遗产景观风险性的评估
    李凡, 符国强, 齐志新
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (3): 431-438.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.03.431
    摘要   PDF (1354KB)
    首先从城市文化遗产景观所处背景环境和存在状况的两个角度,构建城市文化遗产景观风险性评估体系和评估模型,应用GIS开发佛山历史文化地理信息系统,并实现城市文化遗产景观风险性的评估功能。通过对1994年和2005年佛山的城市文化遗产景观在环境风险、发展风险和遗产状况的分析表明:大气环境在环境风险中贡献较大,传统建城区的大气环境风险性呈下降趋势,而其周边地区增强;发展风险总体上增加,但随着缓冲区不同,其中土地利用变化带来的风险性最为显著;佛山城市文化遗产景观风险性随着缓冲半径有不同的变化趋势,分析认为应该建立适宜的文化缓冲区。
    Being a major research object of cultural geography, urban cultural heritage landscape goes together with urban environment, but its vulnerability and risk are increasing with urban development, population increasing and environment changing. However research on risk of urban cultural heritage landscape was lagged behind. Foshan City is chosen as the study area. As one of the famous historical cities in economically developed region, Foshan is changing greatly in natural and sociocultural environment. Thus it is most important to evaluate the risk of urban cultural heritage landscapes ought from change of environmental setting. Centering around the two points of the environment background and existing status of urban cultural heritage landscape, the paper sets up a system and a model of risk evaluation, and has designed and exploited FSHCGIS(Historical Cultural GIS of Foshan)based on VB.Net and MapObjects, simultaneously achieves evaluation function to the risk of urban cultural heritage landscape. By analyzing the risks of development, environment and heritage status on urban cultural heritage landscape from 1994 to 2005, the authors expound the characters of risk difference of urban culture heritage landscape in different blocks of Foshan. 1) Risk of atmosphere environment contributes more in environmental risk, and it shows downtrend in traditional urban blocks, but boosts up in the surrounding area of traditional urban blocks. If elaborating on the risk difference between various atmosphere pollution indexes, we find the risks from SO2 and NOx evidently increase, and acid rain has become the main risk of urban cultural heritage landscape here in Foshan. 2) Developmental risk increases totally, but in the different buffer area risk change of close distance is very little in the old urban area, that of middle and farther distance tones up, and the risk brought from change of land utilization is the more prominent among all developmental indexes. 3) The risk of urban cultural heritage landscape shows distinct change trend along with different buffer radiuses. The article considers that the radius of cultural buffer area lies commonly between 50m to 200m based on analyzing the trend curves of RC.
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    经济欠发达山区农业旅游发展研究——以广东梅州市为例
    陈义彬
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (3): 439-444.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.03.439
    摘要   PDF (1047KB)
    农业旅游是指以农业资源、农村景观为旅游资源,通过以旅游内涵为主题的策划和开发,把农艺展示、田园风光观赏、民俗体验、旅游休闲、度假娱乐融为一体的旅游方式。梅州地处广东省东北部山区,是经济欠地达地区。梅州市农业旅游是在农业庄园的基础上、在"三高"农业观光旅游成功案例的示范和带动下发展起来的,它经历了雏形阶段——兴起阶段——蓬勃发展三个阶段,已经发展成为梅州市旅游业的支柱和品牌。分析梅州市农业旅游发展现状,总结农业旅游发展特征,剖析其发展存在问题,探讨促进其农业旅游健康、持续发展的对策,对经济欠发达山区"三高"农业和旅游业可持续发展具有积极的意义。
    Agriculture tourism is such a style of tourism which depends on agricultural resources and county landscape including culture, ecology, settlement, farming activities, agriculture display, countryside sight-seeing, folk custom, leisure, entertainment. Meizhou, in the north-east mountainous part of Guangdong Province, is an under-developed area. The Meizhou agriculture tourism, based on agricultural manor and driven by the successful three-highs (namely, high output, high quality, high efficiency) sightseeing agriculture, experienced the following three stages: the embryonic section, the growing-up section and the flourishing section, and now it has been the mainstay and famous brand of Meizhou tourism. The Meizhou agriculture tourism resources are rich and of high level, which mainly reflected on such points as development model towards diversification, various products, scenic spots with high quality, local tourism spreading within province, mature holiday market for leisure and self-driving tourism market. The agricultural tourism with dominant position has been the main force in the tourism industry in Meizhou. However, there are still some problems: aimless development, lack of scientific plan, its product with low level, extensive management with the product-oriented features, traffic condition and tourism infrastructure urgently including. So, the awareness of agricultural tourism planning development should be strengthened, tourism resources be scientifically developed, agricultural tourism environment be improved, the level of agricultural tourism management be enhanced, and agricultural tourism policy be positively conducted. Surveying actual condition of the agriculture tourism in Meizhou, summarizing its characteristics, analyzing its problems in its development and discussing how to promote its healthy and sustainable development will generate positive help to three-highs agriculture and sustainable tourism in the under-developed mountainous area.
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    古村落社区旅游参与度及影响因素——西递、宏村、南屏比较研究
    杨效忠, 张捷, 唐文跃, 卢松
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (3): 445-451.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.03.445
    摘要   PDF (1432KB)
    以社区家庭为视角,建立基于利益导向的社区旅游参与水平测度指标,以皖南古村落西递、宏村、南屏为实证研究对象,揭示了古村落社区旅游参与度异同及其影响机理。研究结果表明:① 古村落内部、古村落之间的旅游参与度均有不同程度的差异,归因为家庭微观因子与社区中观因子交互作用所致。② 通过家庭微观因子对家庭人均旅游收入影响的通径系数分析,得出三个景区相应的直接通径系数和间接通径系数,发现古村落家庭微观因子的影响方向趋同而影响程度分异,与问卷调查结果分析的一致性也显示了该方法的较强解释力和潜在应用价值。③ 提高古村落社区旅游参与整体水平、缓解参与度空间差异的根本途径在于"让利于民",增强社区分利能力,政府在其中扮演着重要的引导角色。
    This study attempts to build measurement index of level of community tourism participation based on the benefit from the perspective of family after setting up probable influencing factors. Taking examples of ancient villages including Xidi, Hongcun and Nanping in South Anhui, levels of tourism participation of community and their formation mechanism are analysed. The results indicate that: 1) The differences of level of tourism participation within each ancient village and between ancient villages are owing to interactive impact between family micro-factors and community middle-factors. 2) According to direct path coefficient and indirect path coefficient, we find that influencing directions of family micro-factors are the same while their influencing extents are different. This is accorded with the result of questionnair so strong interpreting power and potential application value of this method are proved. and 3) the main means of improving level of tourism participation of community and weakening its spatial difference are to give benefit to residents and strengthen the ability for getting benefit, and in this course, government should play a leading role.
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    温州海洋旅游区位特征与吸引力分析
    苏北春
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (3): 452-456.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.03.452
    摘要   PDF (836KB)
    温州海洋旅游资源丰富,种类较为齐全,其区位特征是优势资源集中于海岛。由于温州海洋旅游资源禀赋价值总体上低于内陆性旅游资源,特别是近海岸海洋环境问题的影响,因而使海洋旅游的发展受到了很大制约。作为区域性的海洋旅游中心地,温州海洋旅游无论是资源区位还是客源区位明显处于一种被"边缘化"了的劣势,客源地与海洋旅游地之间属于内陆性风景名胜区与海洋旅游地的间接关联。因此,温州海洋旅游吸引力的形成,必须借助于各种旅游资源和产品所产生的聚合效应,特别是要借助于温州经济的巨大品牌效应。
    The tour resources of Wenzhou are abundant and the variety is great comprehesive. Wenzhou's location characteristic is that its advantage resources are concentrated on its islands. Because the value of the ocean tour resources of Wenzhou is generally lower than that in the inland, especially the influence of ocean environment problem of inshore, the development of the ocean tour industry is limited. Being regionally central place of ocean tour, ocean tour of Wenzhou is obviously marginalizated in both its resources location and its tourist source location. The relationship between the tourist source and the ocean tour location is belonged to the indirect connection between the inland scenery and ocean tour spot. Therefore the cultivation of the ocean tour attraction of Wenzhou has to ask for help from the gathering effect of various tour resources and products, especially from the huge brand effect of Wenzhou economy.
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