利用美国冰雪资料中心（National Snow and Ice Data Center）提供的前苏联1948~1994年逐日积雪深度资料,定义了冬季雪深增量的概念,探讨了欧亚大陆秋末雪深、冬季雪深、冬季雪深增量的时空演变规律,通过比较分析三者的异常变化特征,揭示了三者之间可能存在的联系。经验正交函数分解（EOF）结果表明：欧亚大陆冬季雪深、冬季雪深增量的第一模态的空间分布特征均为大致以50°N为界的南北反相变化,欧亚大陆北部的积雪深度和冬季雪深增量都呈现出一致性的变化趋势;两者对应的时间序列均反映了显著的年代际变化特征,且年代际转变均发生在20世纪70年代中期前后。第二模态则呈现出欧亚大陆东、西部反相的偶极型空间分布特征。进一步分析表明,欧亚大陆秋末雪深无论从空间分布还是时间演变来看与冬季雪深几乎不存在相关性。欧亚大陆冬季雪深变化主要是冬季雪深增量影响所致,与秋末雪深无关。
Using the former Soviet Union daily snow depth data during 1948-1994 provided by the National Snow and Ice Data Center, USA,an index used to reflect the winter fresh snow depth was defined, the basic features of the variation of snow depth in both late Autumn and Winter as well as the winter fresh snow depth over Eurasian Continent are investigated. The possible linkages among them are disclosed by comparing the variabilities of them. Results from Empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis suggest that the leading EOF modes of both the winter fresh snow depth and winter snow depth show a coherent negative anomaly in the Eurasia Continent north to 50°N and positive anomaly in the south part. The winter fresh snow depth and winter snow depth show a consistent trend in the northern Eurasia Continent .Both of the EOF time series display a significant decadal fluctuation and the transition of interdecadal changes happened in the middle of 1970s. The second modes of EOF reflect a east-west diople pattern over the whole Eurasian Continent. Further analysis suggest that there is no correlation between late autumn snow depth anomaly and winter snow depth anomaly in aspects of both their spatial pattern and temporal evolution. The varibility of winter snow depth over Eurasian Continent are mainly decided by the variability of winter fresh snow depth but not that of the snow depth in late autumn．
Using data of Pb concentrations within soil samples from the Tongling Mining District area as an example, Kriging and Sequential Gaussian Simulation were used to determine the local singularity exponent within a dataset with low spatial density sampling. Within this highly variable dataset, when Sequential Gaussian Simulation was used ,the calculated maximum concentration of Pb and the standard deviation and coefficient of variation were similar to those of the raw dataset, whereas when the method of Kriging was applied the same statistics were significantly lower than those within the raw dataset. This means that the Sequential Gaussian Simulation method can be used to interpolate soil geochemical data without significant smoothing of the dataset, enabling the highlighting of spatial variations over even short distances and potentially being a better method of interpolation prior to interpretation than Kriging, which may leading to a loss of resolution. Furthermore, the method of Kriging can also compress the range of the singularity exponent calculated by this method, whereas when the Sequential Gaussian Simulation method was applied to the data, the range and contrast between individual data points were significantly increased, improving the user’s ability to identify anomalies within the dataset. Semi-variograms constructed from data interpolated using the Sequential Gaussian Simulation method are more homogenous and correspond well with the semi-variograms constructed from the raw data, especially between shorter distances, when compared to those constructed from Kriged data. For datasets with low spatial density, for example those generated by regional governmental or reconnaissance soil sampling, when compared with the raw and Kriged data, the Singularity Exponent calculated using Sequential Gaussian Simulation is significantly better at locating spatial structures and highlighting significant anomalies. Within the Tongling mining district this is demonstrated by the good correlation between areas highlighted during Sequential Gaussian Simulation and areas with known Pb-Zn mineralisation; this is not necessarily the case when using the raw soil Pb concentrations and when using data that has been Kriged. This indicates that, for the datasets with low spatial density sampling, calculation of a singularity exponent based on Sequential Gaussian Simulation could produce significantly improved results, and therefore improved interpretation, than using the data of raw or Kriged during the identification of anomalies within soil geochemical data.
Based on the panel data of House Sales Price index of 35 cities in China from 1998 to 2009 monitored by the National Development and Reform Commission, the unit root and Granger causality test shows that there is transmission of the house price fluctuations among the major cities in China. It shows that: ① the transmission is Geo-directional in the horizontal transmission; ② the transmission has a "4-4-9-9-9" hierarchy structure in vertical direction. The research suggests that the fluctuation of urban house prices in China is a process of geographical spread and it has a feature of neighborhood diffusion and hierarchical diffusion coexisting, which is consistent with research on foreign relevant literature. The article supports that geographical spread of house price is “the geographical spread of development”. It has a nature of regional externality and can reveal the process and pattern of regional externality spread from one side.
In this paper, the relationship between construction land and socio-economic development of 30 provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions of China in 2008 was studied by using spatial econometric models. The results show that: construction land area, GDP, total population and urbanization rate all have the significant space-related features of 30 provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions. A regional socio-economic development will not only drive the expansion of construction land itself, and lead to construction land growth of the ambient areas. The traditional research ideas only focused on the time dimension, but ignored the relevance and heterogeneity of spatial dimensions, underestimated the social and economic development of region in the role of construction land growth. Spatial variables must be introduced to modify the general panel linear regression model. From the general model and the spatial error regression model test results, the spatial error model′s logL and AIC, SC values ??were significantly improved, and these regression variables are significant. Due to space spillover effects, the sum of three elements′ coefficients of the spatial error regression model is greater than the general model. It indicates that the estimation methods ignoreing spatial factors underestimate the regional socio-economic development′s effect to construction land′s growth. SEM model in the spatial error coefficient of 0.706 is significant at 1% level, indicating a regional socio-economic development will not only drive the expansion of its construction land area, and will lead to the growth of the adjacent areas′ construction land. The spatial error regression model estimation results, compared with the general model, show that the contribution of the total population was significantly greater than the contribution of GDP and urbanization, which means that the urbanization should be speed up, and population growth be strictly controlled. The econometric model tests show that the urbanization level′s coefficient is very small and has minor effect to the total amount of construction land. In general, with the urbanization level′s increase, the rural population will gradually decrease and rural residential land also should be reduced. However, the various regions of China showed that the positive role of the urbanization, and rural residential land was weakened. At present, the total village construction land is 4.6 times more than that of urban construction land. The rural residential land per capita is much larger than the urban construction land per capita. It indicates that the land use efficiency in most provinces′ rural residential is low generally. Therefore, the adjustment and optimization of rural residential land is imminent. In the long run, to improve the level of urbanization, break the urban and rural dualistic land structure and to establish a unified land market are effective ways to ease the shortage of land resources and improve the land use efficiency.
利用区域城市体系经济规模等级分形理论,选取长江三角洲1995~2009期间4个年份的县级以上行政单位经济发展数据,计算了经济规模等级分形维数。以该地区城市体系经济规模等级分形维数的演变特征为载体,探讨了长江三角洲地区城市体系经济规模等级演变规律。结果表明： ① 虽然当前长三角地区各城市的经济社会发展水平差异较大,中心城市垄断性仍然较强,但其均匀化趋势明显。② 经济规模等级的空间梯度特征明显,经济规模等级的均匀性随着距离区域核心城市距离的扩大而降低。③ 产业空间布局层次化逐步分明,中心城市的第三产业比重不断提升,区域控制能力不断增强,与以第二产业为主导的中小城市形成有机整体,区域经济竞争力整体得到提升。
According to the fractal theory of economic scale in regional urban system, we select four-year economic data of the administrative units that above the county level in the Changjiang River Delta between 1995 and 2009, and calculate the fractal dimensions of the economic scales. Under the evolving characteristics of the fractal dimensions of the Changjiang River Delta, we explore the evolving law of economic scale levels in the urban system of the Changjiang River Delta. The results show: 1) Although the differences of levels of economic and social development between cities in the Changjiang River Delta are quite big currently and the central city has more monopoly, the trend of homogenization is obvious. Overall, the fractal dimensions of the economic gross data and economic density data have shown a rising trend among all the economic sectors. Furthermore, the evolution pattern of fractal dimensions for both data demonstrated a strong consistency. The trends of variations can be summarized into three types: decreased at first and then increased, fluctuating increased and sustainable increased. The type of decreasing at first and then increasing is evidently demonstrated in the evolution of the fractal dimensions of the economic gross data, while the fluctuating increasing type is evidently demonstrated in the evolution of the fractal dimensions of economic density data. The sustainable increasing type is evidently demonstrated in the evolution of the fractal dimensions of the foreign trade data. Under the cooperation of the various economic departments, the trend of homogenization for spatial pattern of the regional GDP is obviously revealed. 2) The levels of economic scale have a significant gradient feature in space, and the uniformity of the level of economic scale is reducing with increasing distance from the core cities of the region. The cities in the core region, which have higher level of economic scale, constitute the first non-scaling interval. The fractal dimensions of the first non-scaling interval are higher than the corresponding dimensions of all the cities in the same region. This result indicates that, along with the enhancement of the economic develop zone, the pattern of regional control evolves gradually from core cities leading to economic development zone leading. 3) The hierarchy of spatial layout of the regional industrials is gradually clear. The proportions of the foreign trade and the tertiary industry of central cities are improving constantly, and the ability of the regional control of central cities are improving, while the secondary industry has been put in leading position in medium and small cities. The central, medium and small cities all contribute to the formation of an organic whole, which result in improving of overall competitiveness of regional economy.
自“世界城市”和“全球城市”研究开始,在对城市控制力的相关研究中,除了传统的人口、经济等属性数据外,研究对象高度集中于生产性的工作空间,即制造业企业和高端生产服务业企业。但卡斯特对其流动空间的理论阐述中明确表述了商务人士除工作地点以外的以高端消费者服务业为代表的消费性空间也应纳入流动空间的控制层-商务精英层之中的观点。因此,在对城市控制力结构的研究中,高端消费者服务业可以成为制造业企业和高端生产者服务业的一个有效的补充。从高端消费者服务业视角出发,通过对高端时尚消费品销售网络空间分布的研究,在多个层面对中国城市的高端生活服务控制力中心结构进行解析。通过研究得到以下主要结论： ① 城市控制力中心在中国国土范围内呈现菱形结构,从东部直接跳跃至西部,中部呈现为低洼地带;②三大城市群内部的城市控制力多中心结构开始显现,其中长三角地区的发育较为明显; ③ 西部和东北仍呈现单中心据点发育格局。
As attribute data of population and economy, the productive working space—companies in advanced consumer service industry and manufacturing industry has always been treated as one of the main index for measuring power of cities since Friedmann′s 'World Cities Hypothesis' and Sassen′s researches on ‘Global Cities’. But as the material basis of ‘Space of Flows’ on the tertiary level, an approval of spaces of consuming—the advanced consumer service industry is an equivalent to the advanced producer service industry, which could be found in Castells’ theory of the Network Society. Hence, in the paper the advanced consumer service industry, which is treated as a supplementary index in addition to the productive working space in the analysis of structure of urban energy level. Based on this understanding, the study attempt to analyze features of the polycentric structure of central cities of consumption function in China from an advanced consumer service industry perspective, picking spatial patten of advanced fashion goods sales distribution as object of the study. Based on data including location of 280 stores of 11 brands, the analysis in the paper is divided into 3 levels: First, the analysis on the general feature of spatial patterns of the layout of cities located by relevant brands; Second, the analysis on the acceptance degree of the power of cities located by relevant brands by the market; Third, the analysis on locating preference degree and capacity of market of cities located by relevant brands. After these 3-level's analyses, the paper classifies all cities located by relevant brands according to 3 factors, including acceptance degree of power of cities by the market, locating preference degree and capacity of market of cities. The conclusions are as follows: 1)The centres of powerful cities show a rhombus structure in China, the belts of concentrated consumption could be found in the eastern and western area of China, excluded the central area. 2) Polycentric structure of the three greatest metropolitan areas—the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, the Changjiang River Delta and the Zhujiang River Delta—is clearly manifested, with the Delta playing the leading role. 3) The spatial pattern of western and North-eastern China is more single-central than polycentral, and the results of analyses in the paper do not find agglomerating trends of power in these areas.
：Using the input-output method, it defines the producer services basing on the intermediate demand, and analyzes the different demands of manufacturing (resources-based manufacturing, low technology manufacturing, middle technology manufacturing, high technology manufacturing) to producer services. Then it puts forward the interactive positive feedback mechanism and negative feedback mechanism of producer services and manufacturing. The conclusions are as follows: 1) producer services in Dalian City include transportation industry, transports supporting industry, postal industry, information transmission, computer services and software industries, wholesale and retail industry, financial industry, leasing business service industry, development information industry and comprehensive technical service industry. 2) For resources-based manufacturing, it should be enlarged the resources depth process; for low technology manufacturing and middle technology manufacturing, it has paid more and more attention to development information industry; for high technology manufacturing, key core technology industry of manufacturing in Dalian is still lack. 3) From the mechanism perspective, it is negative feedback mechanism between resources-based manufacturing and producer service, and the same as low technology manufacturing; it is positive feedback mechanism between middle technology manufacturing and producer service, and the same as high technology manufacturing. 4) During the development between producer services and manufacturing, it should try to take positive feedback mechanism and take technology manufacturing structure for the leading.
For the reasonable delimitation of typical districts of Chinese inbound tourism, using panel data by SPSS and vector data from ArcGIS, based on the Spatial Field theory, this paper studies the intensity, potential and regional structure of spatial field effect of concentration and diffusion of inbound tourism flows, with the typical district of the eastern part of the Silk Road as an example. The result shows that there is a trend of sustained growth of the spatial field of inbound tourism flows in the typical district of the Eastern Part of the Silk Road. However, the typical district of the eastern part of the Silk Road is more a destination than a transit hub for inbound tourists. It shows the diversity, hierarchy of regional structure of concentration and diffusion spatial field of inbound tourism flows of the eastern part of the Silk Road are significant. It reveals that the spatial interaction of concentration and diffusion of inbound tourism flows can be attributed to the polarization effect as well as the trickle-down effect. Besides, the spatial regularity of the long distance of concentration and diffusion of inbound tourism flows derives from the hierarchical diffusion effect. As a result, it must be admitted that the dynamic mechanism of concentration and diffusion relies on the natural characters of movement as well as the existence of the spatial field of inbound tourism flows. Thus, the key to controlling inbound tourism flows is to acknowledge the natural characters of movement of inbound tourism flows and appropriate guidance to the spatial field of inbound tourism flows. Furthermore, it also depends on the suitable grasp of characters of the spatial field of inbound tourism flows and the proper applying of them. Moreover, this article aims to provide a typical case for probing into characters and the mechanism of dynamic disparity of inbound tourism flows in dual view of spatial and temporal scale.
通过实地问卷调查方法获取旅游者行为数据,运用空间使用曲线、客源吸引半径、游憩活动空间等方法,阐述了重大事件型目的地——上海世博会国内旅游者的客源地空间分布、游憩活动空间、空间行为模式等。结果显示,上海世博会国内客源市场空间分布广泛,距离衰减现象明显,空间使用曲线是Boltzman型和基本型的复合,世博会的引力场半径为1 400 km;基于旅游目的地,世博会旅游者的旅游行为具有明确的世博会目的地指向性,旅游者在上海市域内的主要目的地是世博会,向长三角城市扩散基本上以苏州、杭州为中心向外呈同心圆衰减,游憩活动空间不连续;世博会旅游者空间行为模式以直游式、直游—周游式为主,旅游者个体属性不同,空间行为模式有一定差异。
Tourists′ spatial behavior is one of the most important research fields of human geography. Studies have focused on the tourists′spatial behavior of scenic spots and urban destinations, but few about event tourists′ spatial behavior. This paper studies the domestic tourists′ spatial behavior characteristics of 2010 Shanghai World Expo, which belongs to the mega-event destination. Through the on-the-spot survey to obtain tourists′ behavior data, the paper expounds recreational activity space based on tourist origins, tourism destinations and spatial behavior patterns of domestic tourists of Shanghai World Expo, utilizing methods such as spatial use curve, attraction radius and isotourist line. Firstly, it is found that tourist origins are widely distributed in the space, the Yangtze River Delta is the major tourists source markets. Shanghai World Expo domestic tourists′ distance decay is obvious with a certain degree of volatility. Spatial distance of the peak tourists flow is at 300 km from Shanghai, with the increase of spatial distance, the proportion of tourists swiftly increases within 300 km from Shanghai, while the proportion of tourists gradually decreases outside 300 km, and its spatial use curve is complex, which is the compound Boltzman type and basic type. Population scale, economic level and spatial distance are the main factors impacting the spatial distribution of domestic tourists. The attraction radius of World Expo is 1 400 km. Secondly, in view of tourism destinations, Shanghai Expo tourists′behavior has a clear destination point to the World Expo. Shanghai World Expo is the main destination selected by tourists in Shanghai City, fewer tourists choose to go to other scenic spots. The secondary destinations of Shanghai World Expo tourists are located in the Yangtze River Delta, and are conscentrated on Suzhou and Hangzhou. Those tourists′recreational activity space is discontinuous, which is attenuated outward concentrically as Suzhou and Hangzhou for centers. Thirdly, Direct Route pattern and Partial Orbit pattern are the main spatial behavior patterns of World Expo tourists. Tourists′ spatial behavior is influenced by their individual characteristics.
对采自中国东部亚热带地区的浙江天目山、江西庐山及江苏南京紫金山地区的金钱松（Pseudolarix kaempferi）、冷杉（Abiesfab ricraib）及马尾松（Pinus massoniana）树轮,分别测定它们不同方位10 a、20 a及3 a树轮δ13C序列,探讨不同树种树轮δ13C存在的方位差异与年际变化普遍性。结果表明,在中国东部亚热带地区,树轮δ13C方位差异与年际变化存在普遍性。表现为3个地区、3个树种之间存在差异;同一地区不同树种及相同树种不同个体之间也存在差异;同一个体在相同年份存在方位差异及相同方位存在年际变化等;表明研究树轮δ13C的方位差异与研究其年际变化同样具有重要价值与意义。
After measuring respectively the δ13C annual series in different azimuths based on cross-dated tree ring age for ten years, twenty years and three years of Pseudolarix kaempferi （PK）tree discs collected from Tiamu Mountain, Zhejiang Province, Abiesfab ricraib（AF） tree discs collected from Lusan Mountain, Jiangxi Province, and Pinus massoniana（PM） tree discs collected from Purple Mountain, Jiangsu Province, the universality of the tree ring δ13C azimuth change and inter-annual variability in different species were discussed. The research result shows that the azimuth change and inter-annual variability of the δ13C in tree ring exists universally. The δ13C is different in different areas and in different species, there are differences in different species in the same region and in different individuals in the same species, the δ13C of the same individual has azimuth change in the same year and inter-annual variability in the same azimuth, etc.
To discover the relation between Betula ermanii population dynamics and climate change on treeline ecotone of Changbai Mountains, 53 plots were selected on three different slope aspects (northeast, southeast, east slopes) through treeline ecotone on north slope of Changbai Mountains. Distributing character of the diameter-class (diameter at breast height (DBH)) structure of shrub and single-trunk forms were described by four aggregation indices. Trend analysis of distributing character was carried through by unitary linearity equations. Different reflection of the dynamics response of Betula ermanii population to climate change on different slope aspects was analyzed by stepwise regression and correlation analysis. The results are as follows：the results of trend analysis of the diameter-class distributing (slopes of equations are negative) shows the capacity expansion rate of shrub form is east slopes>southeast slopes>northeast slopes and that of single trunk form is northeast slopes>east slopes>southeast slopes. The population expansion is leapfrog and pulsatile from low to high (p>0.01).The result of One-way ANOVA displays that daily mean temperature on three slopes are significant differences (p<0.05) and the temperature change has synchronism. The results of correlation analysis between annual stem recruitment of Betula ermanii population and 14 ecological preferences of air temperature (1953 - 2008) show that the different response of population dynamics to climate change caused by different temperature on three slopes. The difference of climate change lead to different expansion of Betula ermanii population on different positions.
基于福建将乐玉华洞一支石笋（YH1）4个230Th年龄和370个氧同位素数据,并利用具有年层时标的湖北清江和尚洞石笋氧同位素记录的校正,重建了AD 1530 以来1~3 a分辨率的石笋氧同位素序列。与当地现代器测气象资料对比发现,最近60 a来玉华洞石笋δ18O与当地夏半年降水量相关性最为显著（R=-0.35,n=55）,而受温度的影响较弱,玉华洞石笋氧同位素较好的指示了当地夏半年降水量变化的信息。最近100 a来,福建玉华洞石笋的氧同位素组成具有逐渐变重的趋势,与其他地区高分辨率石笋δ18O具有相同的变化趋势,而且也与季风指数指示的季风减弱趋势相一致,进一步证实季风区石笋δ18O反映了东亚季风大尺度环流特征;在小冰期中后期（AD 1530~1850）,玉华洞石笋δ18O在平均值-5.9‰高频振荡,存在一系列的数十年际尺度的季风增强和减弱事件,与亚洲—太平洋涛动（Asian Pacific Oscillation,APO）指数密切相关,说明玉华洞石笋δ18O所指示的降水信息受APO变化的影响。
Based on 4 230Th dates and 370 stable oxygen isotope ratios (δ18O) obtained from a stalagmite collected from Yuhua Cave, Jiangle, Fujian, and combined with the age calibration of the top 100 years using the annually band counting stalagmite from Heshang Cave, an high-resolution oxygen isotope profile of the past 500 years was established. Comparison of the stalagmite δ18O record with instrumental precipitation data at Yong’an in the past 60 years indicates a high parallelism between the δ18O record and the total summer months (April to September) precipitation, suggesting that the stalagmite δ18O is a good proxy for the local summer monsoon precipitation. A comparison with other high-resolution stalagmites records shows that the trend of increase value of the δ18O during the past 100 years was similar in the East Asian Monsoon area. This supports the idea that the δ18O of the stalagmite from monsoon area indicates characteristics of the East Asian monsoon circulation. Comparison between the δ18O of stalagmite with Asian-Pacific Oscillation index shows a big similarity. On centennial to dacadal time scales, when IAPO is of the high value, the δ18O values will get much lower, and vice versa. Our result demonstrates a strong linkage between Asian monsoon precipitation and the Pacific Ocean via ocean/atmosphere interaction.
Volatile chloroalkanes are important short-lived atmospheric chlorine source gases, and have important contribution to global warming and ozone depletion, and play important role in the global C and Cl cycle. The fluxes of chloroalkanes were measured seasonally using static flux chambers along an elevational gradient of a coastal salt marsh of eastern China. Main results showed that, difference of relationship among the fluxes of chloroalkanes between methyl chloride and higher chloroalkanes is mainly manifested in the three aspects. First, poor correlations were found between the fluxes of methyl chloride and higher chloroalkanes, but the fluxes of various higher chloroalkanes were closely correlated in the present study. This suggests that methyl chloride and higher chloroalkanes may have different sources and sinks, whereas various higher chloroalkanes share a common source and sink, and that lower chloroalkanes were formed from the degradation of higher chloroalkanes. Second, the contribution of fluxes of methyl chloride of high plant showed differences is positive, while the contribution of fluxes of higher chloroalkanes of high plant is negative. Third, the contribution of fluxes of chloroalkanes of salt marsh soil is negative, but sources and biodegradation of methyl chloride and higher chloroalkanes are different.
以6期（1985年、1990年、1995年、2000年、2005年和2008年）土地利用数据和1984~2008年的粮食产量数据为基础,对冀中南地区农田生物生产力和碳截获能力进行了估算,并对其时空差异特征及其影响因素进行了分析。结果表明：自20世纪80年以来,冀中南地区农田中生物生产力和碳截获能力表现为增强趋势,总生物量和碳截获总量分别达到0.065 Pg 和0.025 Pg。农田的碳截获能力具有空间差异性。山前平原地区农田的生物生产力和碳截获能力均比较大,而在西部山区和东部低平原区表现较低。随着农田生物生产力和碳截获能力的增强,加速了碳循环和碳汇的过程。虽然农田碳截获总量很大,而且只是动态的碳库,但是如果能够合理利用必将增加农田的实际固碳能力。
Based on six period of land-use data (1985, 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005 and 2008) and grain yield data(1984-2008), biological productivity and carbon capture capability of crops in the mid-south parts of Hebei Province were estimated. Meanwhile, the spatial-temporal change of biomass and carbon capture capability were analyzed. The result showed that: biological productivity and carbon capture capability appeared increasing trend from 1980s. The total biomass and carbon capture reached 0.065 Pg and 0.025 Pg, respectively. Moreover, crops capture capability showed spatial variability. Biological productivity and carbon capture capabilities in the piedmont farmland are much larger than the western mountains and lower plains areas. On the other hand, with the increase of biological productivity and carbon capture capabilities, the carbon cycle and sequestration process were accelerated. Though the farmland is only a dynamic carbon pool, by the large quantity of carbon capture, the carbon sequestration capacity will increase with the reasonable use.
利用DEA方法和Malmquist生产率指数模型方法对吉林省2001~2009年农地要素资源的投入生产效率及其变化特征进行了深入的研究,结果如下：① 农地生产效率研究显示,2001~2009年吉林省农地生产综合技术效率相对较高,在未达到DEA有效的年份,规模效率对综合效率有着较大的影响;从区域特征上看,2001~2009年中部地区平均综合效率水平高于东西部地区,东西部地区平均综合效率水平相当;② 农地生产效率变化研究显示,吉林省各地区2001~2009年相邻年份农地利用的综合效率变动相对较小,历年全要素生产率则在总体上保持了一定的增长趋势;2001~2009、2001~2005和2005~2009三组对比时间点的农地生产效率变化显示东中部地区的农地生产平均综合效率呈现下降趋势,西部地区综合效率呈增长趋势,东中西部地区的农业要素生产率均呈增长趋势,西部地区变化最为明显。
The rapid urbanization and industrialization activities have limited the amount of land available for extensive agricultural purposes. Hence, it is of prime importance to evaluate the efficiency of land utilization so as to guarantee food security and industrial production of raw materials. An analysis of the efficiency of land utilization in Jilin Province from 2001 to 2009 was carried. Several agricultural inputs such as labour, total power of agricultural machinery, effective irrigated area, consumption of chemical fertilizer and total sown area were examined. The Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) method and Malmquist index model were used to evaluate the production efficiencies and the various features in the land. The results showed that efficiency change (EC) is relatively high, while the scale efficiency had a great impact on the EC in the years that the DEA was ineffective. The central region was found to have a higher comparative mean EC. However, the mean EC of the Western and Eastern regions were equivalent. The variation of agricultural production efficiency showed that the annual total factor productivity change (TFPC) and the EC in 2001-2009, 2001-2005 and 2005-2009 were in a gradual trend; some like the Eastern and Central Jilin Province were increasing slightly while the Western Jilin Province had an evident upward increase.
通过分析扎龙湿地克钦湖水体高光谱反射率与水质参数的相关关系,采用单波段、波段比值等算法分别选取特征波长建立水质参数的高光谱定量模型,并且结合修正营养状态指数(TSIM)和综合营养状态指数法,对水体的富营养化程度进行了监测和评价。结果表明,单波段归一化反射率对叶绿素a估测模型效果较为理想;利用高光谱一阶微分反射率,诊断各水质参数的敏感波段,建立线性模型,确定了TN、TP、SD、CODMn的敏感波段分别为733 nm、765 nm、782 nm、680 nm。单因素水质参数评价水体富营养化水平具有一定的局限性。综合考虑多个水质指标,对水质的富营养化程度进行了评价,结果显示,克钦湖水体呈现出中营养化状态,需要采取一定的措施,防范于未然。
The approach of field reflectance spectra was used to monitor and evaluate the trophic state in Keqin Lake, Zhalong wetland, China, based on 30 in situ water sampling data, together with the analysis of algorithms of chlorophyll-a, SD, TP and CODMn. The field reflectance hyperspectral was measured with ASD Fieldspec spectrometer. Furthermore, with the TSIM trophic state index model, the trophic state of Keqin Lake was monitored and evaluated. The results showed thatThe single band is significantly correlated with the concentration of chlorophyll-a, it is higher than that gained with other models. On the basis of analyzing the water reflectance spectral characteristics, the sensitive wave band of water quality parameters is diagnosed with the methods of differential spectroscopy and statistical analysis, the sensitive wave bands of TN, TP, SD and CODMn are 733 nm, 765 nm, 782 nm, and 680 nm, respectively. To compared with multi parameter TSIM, single parameter TSIM is limited. So the assessment of trophic state was performed by multi-parameter TSIM. Keqin Lake is in mesotrophic state, and needs to be prevented from further worsen.
利用X衍射法分析了苏北平原浅钻剖面（YZ1）的粘土矿物类型和含量,并对其环境意义进行了探讨。结果表明,YZ1浅钻沉积物粘土成分主要由4种粘土矿物（伊利石、高岭石、绿泥石、蒙脱石）和少量长石、石英碎屑组成;研究区的古气候环境演变主要经历3个阶段,13 770 ~11 600 cal a B.P.期间的低温冷干阶段;11 600~9 610 cal a B.P.期间的逐步升温阶段;9 610~1 520 cal a B.P.期间的全新世暖湿阶段,在这3个大的阶段背景条件下也存在一些次级波动。
The clay mineral was widely distributed in the quaternary sediments. The present research shows that the clay mineral was a product which effects by the diagenesis and sedimentation, under the certain climatic and sediment source condition. And it was a good substitution index for reconstructing the change of palaeoenvironment. This paper chosed the lacustrine sediment as study object which was near the subsidence center of Subei plain. Based on X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, the clay mineral components and their assemblage feature of one core sediments（YZ1）in Subei plain were measured. The characteristics and environmentical significance of clay minerals were analyzed. The results show that the main clay minerals in YZ1 core sediments were illite, kaolinite, chlorite and smectite, and feldspar and quartz piece were minor. The palaeoclimate of the study area has experienced three stages: 13 770 -11 600 cal a B.P.,relative cold-dry period in climate. During the period, kaolinite content was with relatively low value, illite, smectite content and crystallinity were relatively high, indicating a cold-dry palaeoclimate. 11 600-9 610 cal a B.P., it grew warmer and went intowarm-moisture period. Kaolinite content increased observably, and smectite and illite decreased, suggesting atemperature and humidity gradually increase palaeoclimate. 9 610-1 520 cal a B.P.,relative warm-moisture period. Kaolinite content was with relatively high value, while illite and smectite content were relatively low. Crystallinity also showed relatively low, suggesting a relatively warm and humid palaeoclimate. In addition, theclay mineral indexes also recorded several sub cold-warm changes under the background of three main period.
在GIS和遥感技术支持下,利用1973年MSS遥感影像、1983年航空遥感土地利用图、1990年TM、2000年TM和2005年CBERS遥感影像对新疆塔里木河干流区土地利用/覆被变化过程和生态环境效应进行了分析。结果表明,1973~2005年塔里木河干流区土地利用/覆被发生了显著变化,耕地、未利用地和城乡居民及建设用地面积分别增加了25.72×104 hm2、17.33×104 hm2和0.51×104 hm2,林地、草地和湿地面积分别减少了29.10×104 hm2、8.63×104 hm2和5.84×104 hm2。在1973~1983年、1983~1990年、1990~2000年、2000~2005年4个时段中土地利用变化呈“显著变化—缓慢变化—显著变化—急剧变化”的过程。土地利用类型转移的主要方向是林地和草地转化为耕地、耕地转化为城乡居民及建设用地、草地转化为未利用地。土地利用/覆被的变化引起了干流区水环境恶化、土壤质量改变、天然植被严重退化、土地荒漠化和盐渍化加剧、湿地面积减少和生物多样性丧失等一系列生态环境问题。
Combined the integrated technology of ecological quantity analytical method with GIS technology, based on the MSS images in 1973, TM images in 1990 and 2000, CBERS images in 2005 and the land use data of 1983, the changes of land use/cover were analyzed in this paper in the main stream of Tarim River from 1973 to 2005. The results showed that the areas of farmland and residential land increased 25.72×104 hm2, 17.33×104 hm2 and 0.51×104 hm2 while the areas of grassland, forest and wetland decreased 29.10×104 hm2, 8.63×104 hm2 and 5.84×104 hm2 respectively. Land use change underwent a process of obvious change - slow change - obvious change - tremendous change in 1973-1983, 1983-1990, 1990-2000, and 2000-2005. The major patterns of land use change were the conversions of grassland, forest and wetland to farmland, farmland to residential land, and grassland to unused land. The main eco-environmental effects by land use/cover change in the mainstream of Tarim River were as following: Land use/cover change caused water environmental degradation, soil physicochemical properties change, severe degradation of the natural vegetation, soil salinization, land desertification, wetlands area reduction and loss of biodiversity.
以内蒙古锡林郭勒盟正蓝旗为研究区,应用中国环境与灾害监测预报小卫星数据（HJ-1A CCD）及美国陆地卫星数据（Landsat ETM+）,在充分考虑区域土壤和植被类型等背景基础上,先后使用了MNF、二维散点制图以及PPI方法,得到具有时空针对性的纯净像元;以此为基础,运用像元二分模型计算得到研究区植被覆盖度空间分布数据;最后,结合研究区其它权威土地覆被和土地利用（LUCC）数据,对比分析了本研究所得的植被覆盖度数据精度,评价了2000~2009年间区域植被覆盖度动态变化过程,指出本区在实施有关生态工程后植被覆盖度恶化趋势得到遏制。研究结果证明,在锡林郭勒盟正蓝旗地区应用像元二分模型计算植被覆盖度的方法是简洁且有效的。
Vegetation fraction is a general and quantitative index related with vegetation growth, and it has many important applications in the water resources, land desertification, regional ecology and global change research. The authors selected Plain Blue Banner of Inner Mongolia as a case study region, and used the remote sensing data from the Chinese Environmental Disaster Monitoring and Forecasting Satellite data (HJ-1A CCD) and the American Landsat ETM+ data. In the study, the background factors including soil and vegetation type were fully considered firstly, and then the MNF (Minimum Noise Fraction), 2-D scatter plot, and PPT (Pixel Purity Index) method were then applied to obtain the pure soil pixels and pure vegetation pixels. Based on the above NDVI index of pure pixels, the dimidiate pixel model was applied to calculate the regional vegetation fraction distribution. Finally, the result datasets were compared with other authoritative land cover / land use dataset and the accuracy was believed to be acceptable. The regional vegetation change tendency during 2000 and 2009 was also assessed, and it infer to a good transition after the implementation of large scale ecological engineering in Plain Blue Banner from 2000. In the paper, the method of dimidiate pixel model was proved simple and effective in the case study region. Also, a meaningful conclusion about the effects of ecological engineering was deduced base on ETM+ and HJ-1A data sets.