The ideology of main functional areas is a dominant regional development theory. In the framework of the new theory, the industrial structure evolution path and the new inter-regional coordination mode are key problems that should be focused on. Based on a self-developed inter-province multi-regional dynamic CGE model , this article classifies the regions oriented to the main functional areas, and simulates 3 regional industry policy scenarios. Those scenarios are called 'white scenario', 'yellow scenario' and 'blue scenario' respectively. The 'white scenario' is a baseline scenario for contrast, and economic system runs without external disturbance. In the 'yellow scenario', investment of the finance, insurance and service industry in the optimized development area are increased, which represents a tendency of preferential policies on the optimized development area. In the 'blue scenario', investment of the construction, delivery of warehousing, wholesale and retail, and real estate in the key development areas are increased, which represents a tendency of preferential policies on the key development area. Scenarios' simulations show that the competition among main functional areas always reflect in the competition between optimized development zone and key development zone, and the natural regional convergence force is not enough to narrow regional disparities, so more tough regional regulate policies is needed. The natural evolution of regional industrial structure would induce "automatic" CO2 reduction, which deduct a more rigorous judgment for CO2 reduction policies. In the current development trend, China's regional gap is narrowing. However, once the policies of the main functional areas run, regional economic gaps would be wide again. Moreover, financial policy priorities in optimize the development area would lead to a wider regional gap, which is the most conducive policy to promote overall economic growth on the other hand. How to get more knowledge about regional coordination and regional management needs further research.
Based on the central place theory proposed by Walter Christaller, taking the shortest time and weighted average travel time as the accessibility evaluation index, using the accessibility calculation module as technical support based on the GIS platform, the spatial evolution and reconstruction of the central place system are explored from the aspects of spatial accessibility, spatial interactions, spatial scope of services under homogeneous background and transportation background. Through this way, formation process simulation and spatial expression of central place system are probed preliminary. The result shows that: Firstly, the secondary central place appears in the area which accessibility time is longest to the superior center under homogeneous background. Under the assumption of homogeneous plain, traffic in any direction are the same. The central place appears in the center of the hexagonal market area which accessibility is best and then present the concentric circles diffusion. With this diffusion, the time to the central place get longer. The secondary central places appear in the six vertices of hexagon whose accessibility time is the longest. And so on, the low level central place continue to appear until the production of the central place with the lowest level. Secondly, the accessibility based on weighted average travel time in the same level central place is not same. For same level central places, the closer to the high grade center place, the weighted average travel time is shorter. The same grade central place emerge the differences in growth. The closer to the high grade central place, the growth faster. With the increase of the grade and the quantity of central place, the difference of accessibility and centrality become more and more. As a result, continuous grade central places are formed. With the emergence of transit lines which connect central place, the accessibility of each grade central place is greatly raise. And the “Pole＆Axis System” is formed gradually. Finally, the spatial structure of central place system gets into a comprehensive organizational equilibrium stage which is composed of point, axis and network along with the traffic network evolution.
Based on the cross-city cooperation-patent application data, intensive research has been carried on the cross-region innovation cooperation in China（excluding Hong Kong, Marco and Taiwan）. A new concept, innovation radiation distance, is raised and the corresponding calculation method is also introduced and applied on the selected samples to find out the radiation distances for each city and each industry. The results show that the innovation radiation distance has a negative correlation relationship with the geographic distance and no apparent evidence of positive impact from the information flow amount can be identified either. Nevertheless, the radiation transmission is not universal to all directions and some areas on the radiation periphery feel feeble impact. Moreover, different industries cannot be described by an overall radiation distance rule. The outcomes can be summarized as below:1)The innovation radiation distance does not grow proportionally with the patent amount. For instance, some cities, like Shenzhen and Chongqing, tend to find partners far away, though their cooperation-patent is relatively small. However, some other candidates say Shanghai and Hangzhou, are vice versus.2) The innovation radiation distance cannot be determined by the information flow alone. Some cities show greater incentives of cross-city innovation cooperation through frequent exchange and propagation of technology and knowledge, while other cities display a prominent regional confinement in information communication, which implies a huge potential for further improvement.3) Through the study of innovation radiation distance and range in eight factors on the selected sample, the article find out that Beijing has a profound radiation effect over the whole country, which is unparalleled for other competitors, though the equality of radiation should be attached more attention by putting more weight to the western region. Three cities, Shanghai, Nanjing and Hangzhou, constrain themselves to the pan-Changjiang River delta region and show infinitesimal impact on other regions. By contrast, Xi′an, Chongqing, Chengdu, Wuhan and Changsha have the tendency of cooperation with eastern developed region. More collaboration with the under-developed regions should be encouraged.4) The study in four sectors, electronic engineering, instrumentation industry, chemical industry, and mechanical engineering shows that the innovation radiation distance is not proportional to the cross-border collaborative patent application amounts. The electronic engineering industry in Chongqing, instrument manufacture in Shenzhen and mechanical engineering industry in Xiamen, Chongqing, Shenzhen, Chengdu, Beijing and Changsha tend to plunge into long-distance cross-border cooperation though the collaboration in patent application is insufficient.
At present, the ways and means to solve environmental problems have developed from environmental control, environmental management to regional environmental management. Regional environmental management is an important part of regional management, but it is different from the general environmental management, PRED (population, resources, environment and development) is the core of modern management development, at the same time, we need to carry out the management of population, resources and environment management. Environmental management more and more emphasises on different types of regional environmental management, such as the urban environmental management and rural environmental management. Regional environmental management is the union of regional sustainable development and environment management, it is oriented towards an economy closely, with common environmental problems and collaborative management. The scale is an important part of regional management in the regional environmental management. Scale is a comprehensive concept to ascertain space-time positions and levels. Regional environmental management scale has a macro-medium-micro-scale level. The medium-scale serves as a connecting link between the macro and micro, which includes interregional, regional and sub-regional environmental management. Based on the understandings, this article analyzes the important role of scale in regional environmental management, discusses the basis for confirming the range and expounds the necessity, characteristics and level of mosaicism as well as patterns’ innovation from the medium-scale of environmental management. The above content theoretically expands and enriches the geography’s important role in this field, and it also has important guidance for the construction of environment management system and environment-friendly society in practice.
大都市区建设用地微观空间扩展机理的研究是有效调控城市土地利用布局的科学基础。以南京市市区为例,以经济学的收益最大化理论为基础,构建研究建设用地扩展的成本——收益分析框架。以1 km×1 km为基本研究单元,利用遥感等数据研究1995~2001年、2001~2007年建设用地扩展的微观机理。研究表明,基期建设用地比重、到CBD、到开发区、到高速公路互通口的可达性、邻域建设用地主导单元的数量等收益要素以及耕地面积比重、水域面积比重、地质灾害区比重、坡度、重要生态功能区比重、城市规划建设用地区比重等成本要素是影响建设用地扩展的重要指标。两期比较分析表明,收益要素作用力大于成本要素,其更深层次的作用力则是全球化和市场化。空间政策对于建设用地扩展的约束作用越来越大。基于微观空间机理的研究提出了大都市区基本农田布局的政策建议。
Research on the mechanisms of urban land expansion in metropolitan areas is of significant importance for effective regulation and control of urban land utilization and layout. Based on income maximization theory, this article develops an analytical framework to distinguish the cost- and benefit-related factors of urban land expansion. Cost-related factors of urban land expansion include the proportion of cultivated land and water area, elevation, slope, the proportion of geological-hazard-prone area and key ecological function area, and the proportion of planned construction area. While benefit-related factors include the proportion of construction land area in base year, the distance to central business district, sub-central business district, industrial centers, Entry/Exit points of expressway, railway station, international airport, main port and the nearest grid in which the proportion of construction land is 100%, and the number of neighboring grids in which construction land is the main land use type. Taking Nanjing, a large city located in the Changjiang River Delta of China, as an example, using remote sensing data in 1995, 2001 and 2007 at the scale of 1 km×1 km grid, this study examined the spatial determinants of urban land expansion over the periods of 1995-2001 and 2001-2007. The spatial error model is also applied to taking spatial autocorrelation into account. Results indicate that the benefit-related factors, such as the proportion of construction land area in base year in the grid, the number of neighboring grids in which construction land is the main land use type, the distances to central business district, industrial centers, Entry/Exit points of expressway and so on, and the cost-related factors, such as the proportions of cultivated land, water area, geological-hazard-prone area, key ecological function area, and planned construction area in the grid as well as the slope are the major spatial determinants of urban expansion in Nanjing City. Comparing the magnitudes of factors in two sub-periods, it is found that the benefit-related factors such as accessibility (the distances to central business district, industrial centers, etc) and agglomeration (the nearest grid in which the proportion of construction land is 100%) have greater impacts than the cost-related factors like physical conditions (elevation, slope, etc.) and policy constraints (key ecological function area and the proportion of planned construction area). We also highlight the importance of globalization and marketization as the crucial socio-economic drivers of urban land expansion in Nanjing. Spatial policies such as urban planning and ecological planning have become increasingly important in recent years for constraints of urban land expansion. The article also summarizes policy implications for the location choice of prime farmland in large Chinese cities.
The geopolitical setting study is the second attempt to revive the political geography of the geographical circles, also it reflects the political geography studied from a single element to multiple elements and integrated development. Based on the two “geopolitical setting” international seminar which held in Beijing and the early geographical environment research, the geo-setting is defined which contains geographical environment, geographical relations and geographical structure in this article. Geographical environment is consist of the natural environment, economic and population environment, and the social and cultural environment. Geopolitical relations includes economic relations, political and military relations, and social and cultural environment. The geographical structure contains political military structure, economic structure and space structure. And then, the article uses a combination of AHP decision-making analysis and fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method to evaluate the geo-setting of South Asia quantitatively. The results show that: In South Asia there exists significant space divided differences in the geographical environment, geopolitical relations and geo-structures, which eventually led to the geo-setting in South Asia can be divided into four categories, India for a class, Pakistan and Bangladesh for a class, Bhutan and Nepal for a class, Sri Lanka and Maldives as a class. There are three reasons which caused this spatial differentiation, which are geographic determinism, interdependence theory and institutional theory.
The impact of transportation on accessibility of cross-border scenic area is an important aspect of research on cross-border tourism region. In this article, we focus on cross-border tourism region in Dabieshan Mountain. Through constructing regional internal accessibility, regional external accessibility, analyzing quantitative accessibility of scenic area of cross-border tourism region in Dabieshan Mountain with GIS software, and generating spatial structure schematic drawing, we arrive some conclusions that: 1) Highway plays a crucial role in improving internal global accessibility, but the impacts of ordinary railway and high speed railway on accessibility are not obvious. 2) As far as single transportation way is concerned, the impacts of high speed railway, ordinary railway and highway on improving internal local accessibility are limited. This is due to the characteristics of shielding of them and the limited quantity of entrance and exit of railway station and highway, which also make them not to become universal transportation so far. 3) By measuring boundary effect, we find that the shielding effect of administrative boundaries on low-rank transportation infrastructure is better than that on high-rank traffic facilities. 4) The impact of universality transportation way on external global accessibility is weak, and the effect of ordinary railway and highway on improving global accessibility is greater than the effect of high speed railway. Combined with data from the survey, this article holds that: although highway is not universal traffic way in the case area at present, regional external accessibility of the whole cross-border tourism region in Dabieshan Mountain will be improved based on the continuous construction of highway network, and highway also will gradually become a ubiquitous transportation way. 5) The impact of high-grade traffic facilities are mainly embodied in regional external accessibility. Taking typical cross-border scenic area—Tiantangzhai as an example, by measuring border effect of cross-border scenic area based on construction of time accessibility non-line coefficient, and drawing spatial differentiation figure of accessibility of scenic area, this article finds out: distribution structure of administrative areas on both sides of cross-border scenic area present significant symmetric pattern——with provincial boundaries for axis, cross-border scenic area for the symmetric point, from county administrative region to prefectural-level city, to the capital city, and the higher administration rank, the smaller time accessibility non-line coefficient, the stronger the impact of high-grade traffic facilities. It shows that the shielding effect of boundary on transportation infrastructure exists in cross-border scenic area, and action effect follows the distance attenuation law, which presents significant administrative areas symmetrical pattern. Accessibility of scenic area can reveal border effect of boundary on transportation infrastructure, prove accessibility is a kind of effective method of measuring border effect, and provide a new perspective for the study on cross-border tourism region integration. In order to break the shielding effect of boundary on transportation infrastructure, firstly we should promote the construction integration of cross-border low-rank transportation infrastructure, including state roads, provincial roads, county roads, which make the provincial fringe area traffic facilities be shared, and then improve accessibility of scenic area, transfer shielding effect into intermediary effect in certain extent. Therefore, it is necessary to coordinate traffic infrastructure construction planning and investment distribution relationship about transportation infrastructure in cross-border tourism region. The integration and share of the transportation infrastructure construction must be a common key strategic of cross-border tourism region to implement.
中国优秀旅游城市产生发展的过程是旅游城市宏观管理和基础设施空间效益组织的过程,也是伴随着中国现代旅游和城市建设逐步发展的过程。中国优秀旅游城市近20 a的理论探索和实践建设,取得巨大成绩的同时也存在着其空间分布的地域差异和交通可达的空间效益差异。基于ArcGIS空间定位和空间分析技术,对全国尺度、省级尺度、地市尺度下中国优秀旅游城市的空间格局及其1 h、2 h、3 h交通可达的地区差异进行宏、中、微观的对比分析,结果发现：中国优秀旅游城市交通可达的地区差异与其全国范围的空间分布差异具有高度的一致性,以大理市到黑河市3 h交通可达范围的连线为界限,呈明显的东多西少,南多北少的地理格局形态,不同时间距离的区域经济差异同时表现出以优秀旅游城市为中心的距离衰减特征,中国优秀旅游城市的发展建设有待进一步提高。
The process of emerging and developing in Chinese Excellent Tourism City is the process of macroscopic management and organization of tourism cities and its infrastructure spatial effect is also going hand in hand with the process of China's modern tourism development and China's city construction. In the past 20 years, theoretical exploration and practice construction have made great progress though there are also some problems in the spatial distribution and its spatial effect of the transport accessibility. In this article, regional differences of the spatial distribution and its transport accessibility in 1 hour, 2 hours, 3 hours of the Chinese Excellent Tourism Cities were compared with the ArcGIS spatial orientation and spatial analysis technology. And the results showed that: the regional differences of transport accessibility of Chinese Excellent Tourism Cities have a high degree of consistency to the nationwide spatial distribution differences. Firstly, there are a large number of Chinese Excellent Tourism Cities in the eastern of China while a little in the western, the number of Chinese Excellent Tourism Cities in different provinces is quite different, and the regional difference in different prefecture level cities can be subdivided into 3 kinds of region. Secondly, there are also a great many of differences in the spatial distribution of transport accessibility of the Chinese Excellent Tourism Cities all over the whole country, and the regional economic which based on the spatial distribution also has the same character. From the Heihe City in Heilongjiang Province to the Dali City in Yunnan Province, there can be a line of demarcation of spatial distribution for 3 hours accessed area between the eastern of China and the western. In the southeast coastal area, the Huanghuai area and the JiangHuai River Basin of China,such as Henan Province, Jiangsu Province, Zhejiang Province, Liaoning Province, Hainan Province ,the 1 hour accessed area can be a big advantage for the development of the tourism. While, in the southwestern and northwestern of China, such as Qinghai Province, Xizang Autonomous Region, Yunnan Province and Inner Mongolia, the 3 hours accessed area may be the disadvantage in opposite, just because of the interaction of many factors of regional difference, such as the topography condition, urban terrain settlement distribution, the construction of urban transportation infrastructure facilities and so on. Thirdly, the law of distance decay of tourist market and tourism development potential appear vividly around 1 hour,2 hours, 3 hours accessed area of 339 Chinese Excellent Tourism Cities. And the development and construction of the Chinese excellent tourism city should be further improved.
以中山大学校友作为调研对象,采用目的性抽样法,通过深度访谈和绘制校园意象地图2种方法获取原始资料,援引城市意象和城市空间性理论,探讨大学的怀旧意象及其空间性建构,发现：① 大学具有指示性与评价性怀旧意象,受到大学的客观物质环境、校友不同的个人经历、生活路径、毕业时间和性别等影响;② 大学基于怀旧意象形成的空间性具有物质性、权力性和情感性3个维度,即大学的怀旧空间性以物质性为载体,以情感性为主导,同时情感性与权力性彼此冲突与融合,使之成为修复性怀旧空间和反思性怀旧空间的矛盾统一体。研究验证并补充了以往人文地理学对怀旧及空间研究的相关结论,并对高校校友资源建设和校友制度制定具有一定的借鉴意义。
In the Oxford English Dictionary, nostalgia means sentimental yearning for a period of the past; regretful or wistful memory of an earlier time; and severe homesickness. That is to say, nostalgia has the meaning of desire to back home. As the longing (Gr. algia) for home (nostos), nostalgia is defined as the longing for a home that no longer exists or never existed. This feeling of loss and fantastical romance was identified in the seventeenth century as a curable disease, yet by the late 20th century it had become the incurable modern condition. Nostalgia is also shown to be spatial in its expressions as well as causes, and must be investigated using a ‘dual archeology of memory and place, and a dual history of illusions and actual places’. In addition, nostalgia are both restorative and reflective, and thus aimed to both conquer and shatter space. The emergence of nostalgia is associated with various acts of spatio-temporal distanciation, from the regulation of nation-states to globalization. The locations which can call for the nostalgic motions are not only the so-called hometown, but also the places where are full of our memories of some special times, such as our campus. Therefore, the campus can be made as a kind of nostalgic space. In order to explore the nostalgic environment on the campus and discuss its spatiality, this article regards nostalgia as a spatial issue, selected Sun Yat-sen University as the study case, and its alumnus as the research objects, to describe alumnus image of Sun Yat-sen University and their construction of nostalgic space. The methodologies using to collect data are in-depth interviews and image map drawing, and the analysis method is text analysis. For doing so, we interviewed 27 alumnus and collected 35 image maps, and encoded these data. The results include: 1) For the alumnus, their nostalgic images can be divided into indicated nostalgic and evaluated nostalgic images, which are shaped by their individual and collective memories, and are influenced by the real environment of the campus, the different living experiences and daily routes in the past, graduation time and genders of these alumnus; 2) The spatiality of the campus are constructed by alumnus’ nostalgic images, and can be divided into 3 intertwined dimensions: the space as a container, power space and emotional space. However, the spatiality is internal contradictory, and becomes the unity of restorative and reflective nostalgias. These results can prove and compensate the nostalgic research on the human geography perspective, and the theories about space. In addition, the results can provide the suggestion to the utility of alumni resources and formulation of alumni policies. We hope that the coming research can use other kinds of objects to explore how to construct the nostalgic spaces.
利用DMSP/OLS遥感夜间灯光数据进行电力消费量等社会经济数据的空间化时,往往受到像元过饱和、像元溢出现象的影响。利用夜间灯光数据和植被指数（NDVI）之间的互补性构建人居指数,与NDVI的融合有效减少了夜灯数据的过饱和现象。在人居指数的计算中使用阈值法有效减少了夜灯数据像元溢出效应的影响,并对其进行了海拔修正。借助修正后的人居指数与电力消费量之间很强的相关关系建立电力消费量空间化模型,获得了2010年浙江省1 km×1 km分辨率下电力消费量的空间分布。模拟结果显示,利用修正后的人居指数对浙江省电力消费量模拟的平均相对误差为26%,表明利用多源遥感数据融合后的人居指数对电力消费量进行空间化的精度较高。
The satellite-measured DMSP/OLS nighttime light data was widely used for regional level mapping of socioeconomic activities due to its high temporal resolution, free availability and wide swath. However, the use of DMSP/OLS nighttime light data as covariates for mapping socioeconomic activities faces numbers of problems. One of these is the spatial resolution of the available data. Although the DMSP/OLS sensor has a nominal resolution of 1 km, this has been resampled from the 2.7 km native resolution of the sensor. The second difficulty is caused by “overglow” due to surface reflection and scattering and refraction in the atmosphere which results in the overestimation of lighted areas. The third problem relates to low radiometric resolution of 6 bits (i. e. the digital number value ranges from 0 and 63) which results in data saturation over brightly light built-up areas. Vegetation indexes like NDVI are negatively correlated with the impervious surfaces and can be used for estimation of built-up areas. The incorporation of NDVI can reduce the errors occurring in estimating built-up areas from the DMSP/OLS nighttime light imagery due to data saturation and other factors. In present study, the DMSP/OLS nighttime light data was combined with SPOT NDVI data to develop an index called human settlement index (HSI), which estimated the fraction of built-up area on a per pixel basis. Due to the complementary characteristics between DMSP/OLS data and NDVI, the resultant HSI image conveys more information than both the individual datasets. The model for electricity consumption estimation was developed based on the significant correlation between the HSI and electricity consumption in Zhejiang Province in the article. Preliminary modeling results show general overestimation of electricity consumption, especially in high altitude area in southwest Zhejiang Province. The HSI was further corrected by thresholding method to overcome the overglow effect and elevation effect correction was also conducted. The modified HSI image was then used for mapping the electricity consumption in 2010 in Zhejiang Province at a resolution of 1 km×1 km. The results show that the correction of HSI results in a significant increase in accuracy in mapping the electricity consumption. The mean relative error is 26% when modified HSI was used to estimated the electricity consumption of Zhejiang province, which is much smaller than previous studies. The spatial distribution of electricity consumption is well in line with the economic development level. In addition, more than 75% of the electricity consumption located in area below 50 m in Zhejiang Province. The present research provides an integrated approach for rapid and accurate estimation of electricity consumption in regional scale on a per pixel-basis, which can be very useful for mapping socioeconomic activities from medium coarse resolution data at regional level within limited time and minimal cost.
在贵州省选择40个典型流域为研究样区,根据地物光谱特征,构建土壤粗糙度指数(SRI)、土壤水体指数(SWBI)、土壤相对湿度(SRH);利用面向对象分类技术,提取土壤类型、土壤相对覆盖度、土壤相对粗糙度、土壤相对湿度的遥感信息;从土壤系统结构与土壤系统功能的关系角度,首先,分析土壤单因素单因子储水空间对流域储水能力的影响、单因素双因子耦合生成新的储水空间对流域储水能力的影响,建立单因子、双因子耦合与径流深的拟合模型;其次,分析土壤双因素耦合、三因素耦合以及四因素耦合生成新的储水空间对流域储水能力的影响,建立土壤单因素、多因素耦合与径流深的拟合模型。研究表明：① 土壤储水空间是流域储水能力的综合体现,且深受土壤类型、土壤覆盖度、土壤粗糙度、土壤湿度影响;② 土壤四因素对流域水文干旱影响从大到小排序：土壤相对粗糙度(R=0.968)>土壤相对覆盖度(R=0.56)>土壤相对湿度(R=0.558)>土壤类型(R=0.464);③ 无论是双因素耦合,还是三因素、四因素耦合,耦合生成新的土壤因素对流域水文干旱影响特别显著,且可用线性模型拟合。
In this article, 40 typical watershed in Guizhou Province were selected as the sample areas to build the soil roughness index (SRI) ,soil water body index (SWBI) and soil relative humidity (SRH) according to the spectral characteristics. The remote sensing information of soil type, soil relative coverage, soil relative roughness, and soil relative humidity were extracted using the object-oriented classification techniques. From the relationship perspective between the soil-system structure and function, firstly, the influences of the soil water-storage space of the single-factor and the generating-newly soil water-storage space of two-factor coupled of the single factor on the watershed-storage capacity were analyzed, and the fitted models between the single-factors, two-factors coupled and runoff depths were build up respectively. Secondly, the impacts of the generating-newly soil water-storage space of the double factors coupled, three factors coupled and four factors coupled on the watershed-storage capacity were analyzed, and the fitted models between the single factor, multi-factors coupled and runoff depths respectively were build up. Studies have shown that: 1)The soil water-storage space is a comprehensive reflection of the basin water-storage capacity, affected deeply by the soil type, soil coverage, soil roughness and soil moisture content. 2) The descending order of the influences of the four factors on wartershed hydrological droughts is the soil relatively roughness (R=0.968)>soil relative coverage (R=0.56)>soil relative humidity (R=0.558)>soil type (R=0.464). 3) Whether the double factors coupled, or three factors coupled and four factors coupled ,the influences of the coupled generating-newly factors on wartershed hydrological droughts are particularly significant, and be fitted by a linear model.
Since the Northeast China is an important commodity grain base, the persistent drought events become a serious threat to food production in this area. Now the loss of grain caused by the drought is up to or even more than 10 billion YUAN each year. Due to the significant decrease of river runoff in the periods of drought and the over-exploitation of the groundwater, the situation of gradual deterioration of ecological environment in Northeast China has happened, the drought become a serious challenge in sustainable development of social economic and ecological environment. The study of the cause and its risk assessment of drought in Northeast China are of very important for the reduction of losses in drought disaster, and also important for providing scientific and technological support in the fight against droughts. Based on the daily mean temperature and precipitation data in Northeast China , and considering the influence of summer precipitation on food production, a summer drought index is defined by the use of K index, the space-time variation of summer drought is then investigated. The summer precipitation variation coefficient, the risk index and the risk probability of summer drought are calculated and analyzed. The comprehensive risk index is defined based on four indicators, i.e. the variation coefficient of summer precipitation, the frequency of summer drought, the risk index and risk probability of summer drought, the comprehensive risk division of summer drought is also conducted. Results show that: summer drought in Northeast China is more serious in the west than that in the east. The summer drought in Northeast China is get into the frequently-occurring stage since the 1990′s.The southwest of Heilongjiang Province, the west of Jilin Province and the west of Liaoning Province are the driest regions and they are the high-risk areas of summer drought, the north and east parts of Heilongjiang Province, the central of Jilin and Liaoning Province are the lower risks areas of summer drought, the south-central of Heilongjiang Province, the east of Jilin Province and the southeast of Liaoning Province are the low risk areas. Defensive measures should be taken in the high-risk and the higher risk areas, by promoting the agricultural drought resistant technology vigorously, taking grater efforts on the climate prediction, strengthing the construction of drought resistance so as to reduce the summer drought loss in Northeast China.
：Soli wind erosion, one of the major causes of environmental problems such as farmland degradation and desertification, producing large scale of sandstorm, polluting the environment and harming human beings′ health in arid and semi-arid regions, is the detachment, entrainment, transport deposition of soil particles caused by wind. It is also a serious socio-economic issue which limits the development in those ecologically fragile areas. In the previous studies, methods for accessing wind erosion are based on land use information. In this article, however, another approach that uses GIS and T-S fuzzy neural network model to access soil wind erosion risk is presented. The approach is applied to a case study of the Yulin City located on the wind-sand transition regions of Mu Us sandy land, Inner Mongolian plateau and loess plateau, northwest China, where most serious expansion of desertification is proceeding. Environmental elements of soil wind erosion were selected and their spatial distribution data were extracted using GIS technology and T-S fuzzy neural network model was constructed after training the sample data of different wind erosion risk level. The model was applied to mapping wind erosion risk after inputting the extracted date. The entire jobs were based on the software of ArcGIS9.3 and MATLAB. The results show that: Firstly, the comparison of the risk assessment with land use information in Yulin City demonstrates that the result is in conformity with actual conditions. T-S fuzzy neural network model can reveal the relationship between risk of soil wind erosion and its environment effectively, and provide the basis for predicting wind erosion. Secondly, environmental elements such as wind energy, vegetation coverage, temperature, precipitation, topography control the distribution properties of wind erosion risk in Yulin City. Thirdly, there are 4 divisions of wind erosion risk in Yulin City: the severe risk level, the intense risk level, the moderate risk level and the slight risk level, and the area of different risk level are 4 810 km2, 5 824 km2, 13 239 km2 and 19 234.88 km2. Finally, the distribution of soil wind erosion risk is decreasing gradually from southeast to northeast in Yulin City. Moreover, the assessment of wind erosion risk and its distribution has significant meaning to control desertification and develop economic in wind-sand transition regions.
对汉江谷地的古土壤用6种方法分别进行了前处理,A处理为样品H2O2和盐酸处理后,烧杯注满水静置72 h后加5 mL分散剂。B处理在A基础上再用超声波再震荡10 min。C在A基础上再用超声波再震荡20 min。D处理为H2O2和盐酸处理后,烧杯注满水静置72 h后加10 mL分散剂,再用超声波再震荡20 min。E处理为H2O2和盐酸处理后再搅拌15 min,烧杯注满水静置72 h后再加入10 mL分散剂,用超声波振荡20 min。F处理为H2O2和盐酸处理后,搅拌30 min,余与E相同。用Beckman公司生产的LS1320型激光粒度仪进行测量。结果表明,样品前处理过程中,超声波震荡及振荡时间是影响粒度测量结果的最主要因素。针对汉江上游谷地的样品而言,类黄土的沉积样品（黄土、表土、河漫滩沉积物等）使用前处理方法A后,颗粒可得到充分的分散,能获得了较好的粒度测量效果。而成壤强烈和黏结性较高的古土壤样品,不同的前处理方法对粒度测量结果影响非常大,平均粒径和众值粒径可出现数倍几倍的变化,其中前处理方法C对古土壤样品较合适,样品颗粒能得到较好的分散,测量效果要好于其它方法（A、B、D、E和F）。
：The grain size of sediment is an important tool for the extraction of paleo-climate and paleo-environment change information. This article attempts to study the influence of sample pretreatment methods on particle size analysis result. Loess and paleosol sample were chosen from the Qianfangcun profile in the upper reaches of the Hanjiang river valley as the representative material. They are measured using a laser particle analyzer (LS1320) made by Beckman Company, U.S.A. These samples were performed using 6 different pretreatment methods before their grain-size distribution were measured, respectively. The experimental results show that the pretreatment methods and steps for the grain size measurement procedures have certainly influenced on results of grain- size distribution. Different samples should be used different retreatment methods and steps. In the process of sample pretreatment, ultrasonic vibration and oscillation time significantly influence the results of particle size measurement. Aiming at samples from the upper reaches of the Hanjiang river valley, pretreatment method A（0.8 g sample put into 500 mL beaker, then to pour 10 mL10% H2O2 and 10 mL 10% hydrochloric acid in the beaker, respectively. The beaker is filled with distilled water and static for 72 h, slow pumping to distilled water, putting into 5 mL 0.05 mol/L dispersing agent((NaPO3)6, then to measure particle size using a laser particle analyzer) is more suitable to weak cementation sediment samples, such as loess, modern topsoil and river sediments et al. Using pretreatment method A could obtain better effect of the particle size measurement because its particles can be sufficiently dispersed. The caking property of paleosol sample in the Hanjiang River valley is very high because of its strong pedogenesis. It is difficult to be completely dispersed particles of paleosol because of closely cemented between particles. There exists great differences in grain-size distribution of the palaeosol sample while it was pretreated by the pretreatment method A, B, C, D, E and F（ Method B: In the method based on A, then ultrasonic vibration with 10 min. Method C: 0.8 g sample was put into 500 mL beaker, then to pour 10 mL10% H2O2 and 10 mL 10% hydrochloric acid in the beaker, respectively. The beaker is filled with distilled water and static for 72 h, slow pumping to distilled water, putting into 5 mL 0.05 mol/L dispersing agent( (NaPO3)6), at the same time with using ultrasonic vibration 20 min, then to measure particle size using a laser particle analyzer. Method D: The samples were digested with H2O2 and hydrochloric acid, beaker was filled with distilled water and static for 72 h, putting into 10 mL 0.05 mol/L dispersing agent((NaPO3)6), then ultrasonic vibration with 20 min. Method E: The samples were digested with H2O2 and hydrochloric acid, stirring 15 min, beaker was filled with distilled water and static for 72 h, putting into 10 mL dispersant, ultrasonic vibration with 20 min. Method F: The samples were digested with H2O2 and hydrochloric acid, stirring 30 min, beaker was filled with distilled water and static for 72 h, plus 10 mL dispersant, ultrasonic vibration with 20 min）, respectively. The experimental results show that differences of the grain-size index such as the average particle size can be several times fluctuation. The pretreatment method C is more suitable for palaeosol samples from the Hanjing river valley. Dispersion effect of the pretreatment method C for palaeosol sample is better than those of other pretreatment method, including method A, B, D, E and F.
为了阐明华北隐伏型煤矿深部含水层补给条件,以淮北煤田临涣矿区任楼煤矿为例,采用水化学系统聚类分析与氢氧同位素示踪技术,结合采矿活动影响,分析与探讨煤矿深部含水层中的地下水补给源及其变化机制。研究表明：矿区深层地下水形成机制为大气降水直接但不均匀入渗、滞留入渗以及古地下水混合。矿区深层地下水当总溶解固体（TDS）小于1 000 mg/L时,氢氧稳定同位素组成（δ值）随着TDS的增大而减小;当TDS大于1 000 mg/L时,δ值在平均值线附近。矿区深层地下水平均δD与δ18O分别为-67.4‰与-8.68‰,小于大气降水年平均δD与δ18O（δD=-52.4‰,δ18O=-7.80‰）。在未经采矿活动影响下,矿区深层地下水主要来源于大气降水直接但不均匀入渗补给形成的;经采矿活动影响后深部含水层长期向采空区充水,原地下水循环条件已被打破,在补给区水力交替加快,滞留于地表或土壤层的大气降水补给深部含水层。
In order to find out the recharge condition in deep aquifers in the concealed type colliery in the north of China, taking Renlou colliery and the local Linhuan coal-mining district for example, hydrochemical systemic cluster analysis and hydrogen and oxygen isotopes tracing were carried out to discuss and analyze the recharge sources and its changing mechanism in the deep aquifers under the influence of mining activities. The deep groundwater of the coal-mining district was composed of direct but nonuniform infiltration and retention infiltration of precipitation and ancient underground water. In the case of TDS of deep groundwater at less than 1 000 mg/L, the δ values of stable hydrogen (D) and oxygen isotopes (18O) decreased with the increase of TDS in the coal-mining district. However, in the case of TDS of deep groundwater at higher than 1 000 mg/L, the δ values were around the average ones. In addition, the average δ values of D and 18O were -67.4‰ and -8.68‰ respectively, being relatively small compared with that of precipitation in the coal-mining district. Without the influence of mining activities, the deep groundwater of the coal-mining district was formed by the direct but nonuniform infiltration of precipitation. However, under the influence of mining activities, the deep groundwater of the coal-mining district was formed by the retention infiltration of precipitation, because mining activities had broken the original circulation condition of deep groundwater and the hydraulic alternate had been accelerated in the recharge area.
为促进后备耕地改良技术的优化和水资源的高效利用,在新疆奇台县对不同灌溉量下盐碱地土壤水盐在时间序列上的变化规律进行对比研究。试验设8个处理,对应的灌溉定额分别为：6 800 m3/hm2、5 200 m3/hm2、4 400 m3/hm2、3 600 m3/hm2、2 800 m3/hm2、2 000 m3/hm2、1 200 m3/hm2和0 m3/hm2。结果表明：灌后1~8 d,剖面土壤处于洗盐期,土壤洗盐率与灌溉量成正比;灌溉8 d后,剖面进入积盐期,浅层土壤积盐率与灌溉量呈指数关系,而深层土壤积盐率与灌溉量呈线性关系。灌后1~18 d,各处理土壤碱化现象明显,碱化程度与灌溉量呈正比。灌溉18 d后,土壤碱化现象均减弱。综合考虑高效用水、高效洗盐和低碱化的目标,研究区在灌溉高峰期（7~8月）每次灌溉的合理灌溉量应为3 600~4 400 m3/hm2。
According to the field survey, flood irrigation is usually used to wash salt in crop growth period (summer) and in autumn in the study area. However, it is washing salt that leads to soil secondary salinization and waste of water resources, due to the lack of technical guidance. This article makes a comparative analysis on time series variation of soil water and salt under different irrigation (6 800 m3/hm2, 5 200 m3/hm2, 4 400 m3/hm2, 3 600 m3/hm2, 2 800 m3/hm2, 2 000 m3/hm2, 1 200 m3/hm2 and 0 m3/hm2) in Qitai county, Xinjiang Province. The results show that soil profile is at washing salt period after irrigation 1-8 days and soil washing rate is proportional to irrigation volume; after irrigation 8-45 days, soil profile is at salt accumulation period and the relationship between salification rate of shallow soil and irrigation is exponential while there is linear relationship between salification rate of deeper soil and irrigation. After irrigation 1-18 days, soil alkalization is significant and alkalization degree is proportional to irrigation volume. After irrigation 18-45 days, soil alkalization decreases basically. Under 1 200-6 800 m3/hm2 irrigation amount, the depth of soil wash salt in 60-80 cm and the depth of soil accumulate salt in 140-260 cm. To realize water utilization and washing salt more efficiently and low alkalization, the irrigation volume in the study area is 3 600-4 400 m3/hm2 in the peak irrigation period (July to August).