The cities in China are the administrative regions of different scales, and they are actually a kind of the city-region. So, the population size of a city in China can not represent the city’s real urban size. Based the concept of metropolitan area and the urban-rural definition from the 6th National Census, and adopted the related indices of population density and urbanization rate at the same time, the article firstly identified 128 metropolitan areas of China in 2010. Secondly, the article studied the characteristics and change of population size and spatial distribution of metropolitan areas of China. Structurally, the scale of population size in urban China obeys the rank-size rule, while the index of q rose from 0.787 to 0.891 in past 10 years which indicated the concentration of metropolitan system in China; nevertheless, the model of mega metropolitan areas has been seen since 2000, and there remains to be some developing space for those advanced metropolitans. Spatially, most metropolitan areas concentrate in the Eastern China, and three metropolitan interlocking regions have been emerging; the number of metropolitan areas is increasing in Middle China, but the population proportion accounted for the total population of metropolitan areas is lower; the development of metropolitan areas in the Western China lags behind other areas, with a characteristics of polarization. Lastly, the paper put forwards some suggestions.
高度集聚是城郊聚落景观最明显的空间格局特征,是郊区城市化的直观反映。针对目前景观集聚程度研究空间计算方法缺乏筛选、不具可比性等问题,通过4种集聚空间算法在不同角度分析典型区域的城郊聚落景观集聚特征,并在西安市长安区作以简单应用。结果表明：① 景观聚集度适于区分出同类连续大斑块和不同类破碎小斑块,核密度适于宏观上集聚组团的识别,空间关联算法适于空间定位具体要素点的集聚特征,Ripley’s L函数适于识别空间距离以确定搜索半径;② 根据核密度计算结果,从研究区聚落景观中提取出3个大型组团,分别命名为“政府商业中心聚落组团”“沣渭新区聚落组团”和“旅游度假区聚落组团”,其划分模式符合研究区各经济板块的未来发展方向。
The spatial pattern of high level concentration on settlement landscape in suburban is the most obvious characteristics of urbanization in the outskirts. The present spatial agglomeration methods for landscape are usually used without selection, and they are also lack of comparability. Therefore, this study proposes 4 different analysis of spatial clustering algorithms in a typical area to describe the agglomeration of settlements. And then a simple application in this typical area which realized by one of the 4 analyses is shown. The results reflect that: 1) The landscape aggregation index (CONTAG) is adapted to distinguishing similar continuous large patches and small fragments which are in different types, and the search radius is relatively limited; nuclear density algorithm is adapted to identifying the macro clustering groups, and it’s not usually used in a small spatial scale; spatial correlation algorithm is suitable for spatially locating the specific elements, and the spatial gradual changes are not seen; Ripley's L function is suitable for recognizing different spatial scales to determine the search radius, but the result is rather a chart than a map; 2) Based on the results of the nuclear density algorithm, three large groups are draw on the settlement landscape in the study area, respectively named "government business center settlement groups" "Feng Wei new settlement group" and "Tourism Resort settlement group", the division mode is consistent with the direction of future development for each economic sector in the study area. Landscape planning itself is a subjective process and may not have the only correct process. Quantification of spatial agglomeration is one of the important ways to study the settlement geography from qualitative methods to quantitative methods. Therefore, calculation results may clearly reflect the rationality of the planning, which is currently in need in the landscape research. The quantitative calculation cannot replace the qualitative description, and the diversity of methods leads to a more perfect planning. It goes without saying that more practicable and objective spatial agglomeration algorithms are looked forward to be applied in the settlement landscape studies.
以南京市江宁区为例,基于2004~2011年住宅用地出让数据,利用空间扩展模型和GWR模型对都市新区住宅地价空间异质性及其驱动因素进行研究。结果表明：① 空间扩展模型与GWR模型分别可解释采样区63%、61%的住宅地价变化,较全局回归模型(47%)有显著提升,更有利于研究土地市场的空间异质性。② 空间扩展模型可有效表征各解释变量及其交互项对住宅地价作用的空间结构总体趋势,其拟合效果相对较优。GWR模型则在局部参数估计方面存在优势,借助GIS可将各变量的地价作用模式可视化,从而比空间扩展模型更能有效刻画住宅地价影响因素的空间非平稳性特征,各因素对地价的平均边际贡献排序为水域> 地铁> 大学园区> CBD> 商业网点> 医院,且商业网点、 医院系数值具有方向差异性。③ 距地铁站点、水域、大学园区以及CBD的距离是研究区住宅地价的关键驱动因素,各自存在特有的地价空间作用模式,可为研究区住宅土地市场细分提供科学依据。
Based on the spatial properties of the database and the final retained Jiangning District Residential land transfer data from 2004 to 2011, spatial expansion method and geographically weighted regression (GWR) model are applied to simulate the spatial heterogeneity of residential land market in urban district. The influencing factors of residential land price were also tested and analyzed. The results show the following aspects.1)Spatial expansion method and geographically weighted regression (GWR) model can be well applied to simulate spatial heterogeneity of land market in target area. The model could respectively explain 63% of the price changes of residential land and 61% of the price changes of residential land. The interpreting abilities improve significantly than that based on global regression model (47%). Both explanations capacity increased by 16%, 14% and spatial expansion method is slightly better than geographically weighted regression (GWR) model. 2) Spatial expansion method can effectively characterize the spatial structure of the overall trend, which is reflected from the explanatory variables and their interaction term effects on residential land. Geographically weighted regression (GWR) model has advantages in terms of the local parameter estimation. It can make the mode of action of each variable premium visualization by means of GIS. This is a strong rebuttal of the traditional assumptions that hedonic price model has coefficient stability. Overall, the spatial expansion model fits relatively better results. Compared with spatial expansion method, geographically weighted regression (GWR) model can more effectively depict spatial non-stationarity of the influencing factors. In the geographically weighted regression(GWR) model, the order of the average marginal contribution on the land premium from high to low is the distance from water, subway, college and CBD, facility, hospital. Additionally, two variables, the distance from facility and hospital, have the directional difference. 3) The distance from subway, water, university and CBD all have positive effect on marginal residential land price in the entire sample area. They are the key driving factors of residential land price .Each of the affecting patterns has a unique land premium space mode of action. Therefore it can provide scientific basis for segmentation of residential land market in target area. Marginal price effect of waters in residential areas of rapid urbanization is generally greater than industrial areas surrounding. The construction of the subway greatly contributed to construction land expansion of Crisscross and upgrading of residential land price. The construction of University City is also an important strategy for urban development in Urban District, The higher the density of University City, the more significant Its role in promoting residential land price. The marginal price effect of entral business dstrict(CBD) on residential land is progressively decreasing trend from the periphery inward City, but it still has upgrading effect on the surrounding residential land price.
地理要素影响城市社会经济发展是经典地理学研究的重要内容之一,湖泊通过系统自组织力和人为干预影响周边城市经济的发展。将渤海看作一个巨大的湖泊,以环渤海地区3省2市为研究区域,基于“湖泊效应”和BASS模型构建理论体系,利用缓冲分析和非线性回归分析确定分层边界和圈层结构。结果表明：① 湖泊对城市经济的影响呈现随距离增加先下降后上升最后大幅下降的趋势;② 将环渤海地区分为核心区、重点区和边缘区,边界线依次为66 km、216 km和区域边界;③ 圈层结构特征明显：重点区中心城市与核心区港口城市形成双核结构;随着距离增加,从核心区、重点区至边缘区城市经济发展水平呈现倒“U”型结构。
One of the significant contents of the classical geography research is the influence of geographic factor on the social economic development of the city. The lake impact the economic development of surrounding cities through the power of systematic self-organization and human intervention. The urban economic effect region is that the largest geographical range of central urban economic activity impact and promote the development of regional economy, and it represent the relationship between the top city and the other regional cities. The urban economic effect region is a economic region based on the objective economic connection between central city and surrounding region, the spatial organization of it reflects the competition of the city at all levels for the regional economic hinterland. The influence of lake on the temperature, precipitation and soil structure of the surrounding land is called the “Lake effect”. Regard the Bohai as a huge lake and three provinces and two cities of the Bohai rim as the study area, based on the “lake effect” and the BASS model construct the theoretical system, and ensure the hierarchical boundary and circle structure using the buffer analysis and nonlinear regression analysis. The results show that: 1) The influence of lake on the urban economy showed the tendency that decline first and then rise and sharply decline finally with the increase of the distance. 2) The Bohai rim is divided into the core area, the key area and edge area, the line of boundary were 66 km, 216 km and the boundary of the region successively; 3) The characteristics of circle structure was obvious that the central city of the key area and the port city of form the two-core structure; from the core area, the key area to the edge area, the development level of urban economic showed inverse "U" type structure with the increase of the distance. Finally, the advantages and disadvantages of the model are discussed.
将空间句法理论与GIS相结合,基于1989~2010年武汉城市圈城乡道路网数据,定量分析城乡道路网发育的空间通达性演化规律：① 1989~2010年,城乡道路网拓扑连接位序-规模结构日益发育典型,形成稳定的“金字塔”结构,高等级、高控制力的高通达性轴线发育水平较低,导致整个网络伺服效率和应对“拥堵”能力的低下;② 武汉城市圈城乡道路网生长发育具有时空惯性,呈现典型的“核心-边缘”和“等级圈层”复合结构;并生成两条带状城乡交通走廊和多个不同等级有序融合的“轴-辐”网络体系;③ 城乡道路网这种通达性等级空间格局与圈域城镇体系、交通设施和社会经济发展状况密切相关,尤其是与高速公路为代表的高等级路网发育水平,表现出复杂的共轭协调关系,表现出周期性和螺旋式的空间嬗变,是城乡道路网自组织生长机制支配,以及路网扩张和细分两种内力共同交互作用的结果。
The spatial accessibility has been a prerequisite to the linkage and development of regional integration. The relationship between the spatial evolution of metropolitan area and the development of transport network is a kind of spatial interaction. The transport network becomes a material basis and essential prerequisite to the foundation of metropolitan area, and the transport accessibility determines material flow, energy flow and information flow between city and region, and it’s an important gene to the development of metropolitan area. With taking Wuhan metropolitan area as example, this article explores the spatio-temporal evolution of the road network accessibility with the support of space syntax model, GIS technology and statistical analysis method. The basic conclusions are obtained as follows: 1) Pyramid structure shows that the overall level of high-grade road network topology connectivity is relatively low. The above structures and patterns of the road network have a great impact on the transportation system of the city. For instance, some roads with very low accessibility are easy to have traffic jam and low efficiency for distributing traffic flow to the entire road network. 2) Caused by the hierarchy of the road network topology links, the spatial differentiation of urban-rural road network traffic axes is significant, showing a typically composite structure of center-marginal and rank circle, two banded city corridors were formed around the east-west roads along the Yangtze River and the north-south roads along the Beijing-Guangzhou Railway. At the same time, the centrality advantages of Wuhan have been strengthened and a number of different levels orderly integrated “node -spoke” network system were developed. 3) The spatially uneven accessibility pattern of road network has a close relationship with the city and town system, transportation facilities and social-economic development of the area. It should also be noted that there is a complex reciprocal-coordinate relationship between highly developed road networks; the growth of urban-rural road network exhibits a kind of characteristic of cyclical and spiral space evolution, which is resulted from the interaction of two kinds of internal force: expansion and subdivision. Therefore, the metropolitan area should pay more attention on the construction of transport infrastructure, especially those high-grade traffic lines and joints which would have a great impact to the regional accessibility, all these is propitious to the servo and validity of transport network; secondly, the metropolitan area should better have some secondary cities in order to form a multi-polar structure of transport network, it could enhance the balance and stability of total transport network; thirdly, the construction of regional expressway network should been strengthen in order to promote the operation level and efficiency of transport network.
Under the background of tourism developing, Huishang ancient town, a cultural heritage and tourist destination, is experiencing the conflict and integration between local tradition and modern development. Based on documental analysis, the thesis teased out the documents on space production, space identity and the application of them in ancient town research. Applying the method of participant observation, in-depth interview content analysis and tomography of anthropological film, it also made a survey on the production of the physical, social and multi-cultural space in Huishan ancient town as well as analyzed the tendency of the multi-body identity. During the transformation, the physical space of the ancient town tends to be capitalized; social space tends to be a non-community with connection of business and industry relation. The Greater liquidity of it is increasing. The function and association of it tend to be socialized with the main body generalizing. Different culture appears to be mixed and coexists in cultural space. The residents, elites and some tourists show the tendency of humanistic identity and focus on the internal identity formed subjectively. Space developing leaders, developers and some tourists show the tendency of structuralistic identity and focus on observing problems with a perspective of regeneration. They emphasize the process and construction. Study shows the identity tendency that the residents prefer tangible development to intangible increase. This basically reflects that it is remarkable whether the result of tourism development can meet the needs of the residents and be shared with them. Identity is basically culture related. But culture always tends to be rheologic. In order to keep the culture produced open and multiple, make the residents and tourists not be doubted or confused, the independence, inheritance and orientation of production in ancient town should be maintained. Culture balance based on the third space should be constructed actively.
运用空间分析法、位序-规模法则、多元回归等方法,对中国旅游微博的空间分布格局进行分析,并揭示旅游微博空间分布的影响因素。研究表明：① 中国旅游微博以政府旅游微博为主体,旅游专业网站微博为重要补充,旅游景区、旅游协会微博所占比重较小。② 旅游微博东密西疏的梯度分布格局较为突出,省际分布集中性强,且大多分布在人口规模大、行政级别高的城市。③ 旅游微博规模分布满足齐夫法则,双分形结构明显,但不同类型旅游微博规模等级结构以及发育程度差异较大。④ 旅游微博空间分布受人口规模、信息化程度、旅游资源禀赋等因素的综合影响,不同类型旅游微博空间分布的影响因素表现出一定的差异性。
Tourism micro-blogs, an increasingly important tool for tourists to acquire information, also play a pivotal role in promoting tourism marketing for tourist sectors and enterprises, which are of great social and economical values. Compared with traditional tourist websites, tourism micro-blogs can be more informative, interactive and convenient. Therefore, a study of spatial distribution of tourism micro-blogs not only uncovers the spatial distributing law, but also has a profound significance to the betterment of their structure, spatial distribution and on-line tourism information. Recently, however, in academia little attention has been paid to tourism micro-blogs, even there are few qualitative researches in traditional ways, the study has still remained in the infancy. In view of this, the study is to explore the distribution rules and its influencing factors in a perspective of geographic space, with an aim to further study its content and direction, to uncover its spatial distributing rules and to provide a sound basis for the advancement of tourism information and service. By means of using a comprehensive method of Spatial Analysis, Zipf theory, Multiple Regression, the study reveals the influencing factors on the basis of the analysis of its spatial pattern. The results are as follows: Firstly, in China, there are two main tourism micro-blogs: the government tourism micro-blogs in dominance, and the ones on the professional websites as complementation. But beyond all that, the tourism micro-blogs of tourist attractions and tourism associations constitute little proportion and remain to be further strengthened. Secondly, significant regional difference can be shown in spatial distribution of tourism micro-blogs. The density in East China, such as Beijing, Shandong, Shanghai, Jiangsu and Zhejiang, is much larger than that in West China. Moreover, the majority of tourism micro-blogs tends to be distributed in comparatively higher-level cities, and different types of micro-blogs have the same characteristics of centralized concentration. Thirdly, the distribution of tourism micro-blogs obeys to the Zipf principle, showing obvious double fractal structure. The state of development is far from ideal, which falls into two differential levels, and there is still a long way to go for the cause of the disharmony in its degree, scale and structure. Lastly, the spatial distribution of tourism micro-blogs is an integrated effect of population size, informatization degree and tourism resources. Because of the diversity in users and functions, the influencing factors of spatial distribution of different kinds of micro-blogs do have certain difference, and so does the same influencing factor to different kinds of tourism micro-blogs.
Migration in China is not a simple one-step process and usually involves two stages: the initial stage for migrants to leave the place of origin and arrive in the first place of destination, and the subsequent stage for them to move across different cities before their finally settlement. So far most studies have been focused on the first stage and have neglected the subsequent stage, which is nevertheless indispensable for a complete understanding of migration patterns in China. Based on the individual-level event-history data from a random sampling questionnaire survey of 2 977 migrants in Fujian Province in 2009, this article examines patterns and characteristics of migrants’ mobility across cities in the subsequent stage of their migration, using various migration indicators and survival analysis. The article first analyses migrants’ mobility across cities in terms of mobility frequency and intensity, the destination city’s size categories and distance categories, the duration in the first destination cities, the mean residence time in each destination cities, and the temporal distribution of mobility events by their sequence, and then analyzes the time-space paths of the migrants’ mobility across cities from a gender perspective. The results show that migrants’ mobility across cities is a common phenomenon, and its mobility patterns are complex in terms of both migration direction and spatial trajectory. Migrants tend to move to places of longer distance and larger cities with the increase in the number of times of their subsequent migration; but compared to that of the initial stage migration, the distance of the subsequent stage migration is usually shorter. The majority of migrants’ movements across cities occur in the early period of their migration career, and they become less mobile with the increasing duration of their migration. On gender differences, although the mobility frequency of women migrants is lower than men migrants, their mobility intensity is stronger than men migrants. Furthermore, women migrants are more likely to move to large-sized cities than men migrants, and men migrants tend to move in wider spatial ranges and stay in the destination cities for longer periods of time, with no preference in their selection of destination cities between small-sized and large-sized cities. These results suggest that there are some temporal and spatial characteristics of migrant subsequent stage of migration that have not been revealed by conventional research treating migration as a one-step and gender-neutral process, and more efforts are still needed to achieve a better and more complete understanding of them.
以人均服务业增加值为服务业发展衡量指标,分析东北三省服务业变化的空间特征,利用基尼系数和崔王指数,从整体和局部两个角度对东北三省服务业发展的非均衡性和极化特征进行测度,以人均服务业增加值的极化水平为因变量,人均GDP、工业增加值、实际直接利用外资、政府财政支出和市场发育指数的极化水平为自变量,建立多元线性回归模型,并对驱动因子进行综合评价。研究结果认为：① 2000~2012年间东北三省服务业发展程度显著,区域发展差异在波动中小幅上升;形成了以沈阳、大连、长春和哈尔滨4城市为核心的服务业发展格局;中心城市、资源城市及交通枢纽城市主导着服务业发展,差异具有显著的地域性。② 东北三省服务业发展差异和空间极化在趋势上均呈现先升后降。服务业发展差异系数在总体上呈增长态势,空间极化指数呈减少态势。③ 不同驱动因子的作用和重要性不同,在推动服务业极化发展中起主导作用的是人均GDP和政府财政支出。
From the overall and the partial angles this article values the degree of service industry with added service industry per capita to analyze spatial characteristics of service industry in Northeast China by using the Gene coefficient and Tsui-Wang index. Using the polarization level of added service industry per capita as the dependent variable, and per capita GDP, the added value of the second industry, the actually utilized foreign capital, government expenditure and market development index as the independent variables, this article establishes multiple linear regression model and comprehensively evaluates the driving factors. The results of research are:1) The degree of development of service industry is improved greatly between the year 2000 and 2012 in Northeast China. Difference between them is risen within a narrow range and service industry development pattern is formed with the core in Shenyang, Dalian, Changchun and Harbin. The service industry development is dominated by the geographical location, transportation and resources of these cities. 2) The differences and spatial polarization of service industry development all represent a trend of first increase and then decrease. On the whole, the differences of service industry development are showing the trend of accelerated growth and spatial polarization is showing the trend of diminishing. 3) The role and importance of driving factors is different and per-capita GDP and government finance spending is playing the leading role in the service industry spatial polarization development.
In the context of economic globalization and demographic urbanization, using interaction between regional population and economic development as the main line, the correlated coupling between population system and economic system was studied. Taking 91 counties (cities, districts) of Jiangxi Province as the investigated subject, with the support of GIS and gray relative analysis method (GRA), the model of coupling between population and economy was established by selecting 6 indicators of population system and 5 indicators of economic system. The distinction of coupling development research and coordination development research is shined here. This article associates economic growth stage theory and regional industrial structure evolution theory with coupling, so that the coupling characteristics of population and economic development in Jiangxi Province can be analyzed thoroughly. The following conclusions are found: In spatial sequence, according to the coupling degree and the distribution of economic development level, 91 counties (cities) of Jiangxi Province can be generally divided into four types: harmony (there are 2 districts), amelioration (there are 6 districts), conflict (there are 32 districts) and low-level coupling (there are 51 districts). The features of the coupling type regions are as follows: 1) Low-level coupling. It is the broadest all over the province, concentrated in the southern part of the province. It is mainly in the stage of agricultural economy (the coupling degree of population and economy is very large, and confliction of population and economy is very intense) or the original stage of industrialization (high correlation coupling, population and economic development are both relatively backward). 2) Conflict. It is a large range, mainly in the northern part of Jiangxi Province. And it is roughly in the initial stage of industrialization. Including two cases, one is in the development of counties and cities, and the population structure of employment is lag, constraining economic upgrading of industrial structure. The other one is in a higher degree of industrialization of the city, and the population quality status is a bottleneck of its economic development. 3) Amelioration. Scattered in urban areas, it is in the middle stage of industrialization. The contradiction between population and economy experiences the process of running and adaptation constantly. 4) Harmony. Located in Nanchang and Jiujiang cities, it is in the transitional period of advanced industrialization stage. Its population and economy develop simultaneously, promoting each other. The majority type of the whole province is low-level coupling, supplemented by conflict coupling. The dissertation analyzes characteristics and trends of associated coupling between population change and economic development from the time series. The spatial distribution of coupling degrees conforms to the law of north and south spatial variation. Its spatial distribution appears like "+" shaped, of which the horizontal axis of the concentration of population and economy is Jiangxi section of Zhejiang-Jiangxi railway, the vertical axis is Nanchang-Jiujiang railway, and they intersect in Nanchang. In time series, the sequential changes of the coupling degree between population and economy of Jiangxi Province present significant different phases and undulations, during the transition phase of which gradually from a low level to the stage of amelioration.
China’s urbanization process and urban construction have taken a notable achievement in the past 30 years since the reform and opening-up. At present, the Chinese urbanization has entered a new stage. The urbanization speed is fast in recent years in China, but China’s urbanization level is still lower than the average level of the world, especially the urbanization quality is low. The high-speed urbanization which develops healthily will have to face many severe problems. We must pay attention to construction of healthy urbanization while paying attention to the urbanization speed. This paper presents urbanization coordination development is very important to construction of healthy urbanization. This paper decomposes composite urbanization into four parts, namely population urbanization, economic urbanization, land urbanization and social urbanization. With further consideration, the four parts must be in the coordination coupling state, if not that, composite urbanization will be in an un-health state. The technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) method is applied to evaluate the coordination degree of the four categories of urbanization which is the results of decomposition of comprehensive urbanization. Base on the demographic data at a district level, the article analyzed the coordination development and spatial disparities of urbanization in Henan province in 2012, by a comprehensive application of software Excell and IBM MapInfo 20.0. The result shows that: 1) these cities belonged to high grade coordinated category include Jiyuan, Xinxiang and Jiaozuo. 2) These cities belonged to secondary grade coordinated category include Zhengzhou, Shangqiu, Luoyang, Anyang, but these cities are backward in land urbanization. 3) These cities belonged to primary coordinated category include Hebi and Luohe, but these cities are backward in social urbanization. It may be the cause that is ignored that sufficient supply of public service, when urban develop rapidly. 4) These cities belonged to slight disharmony category include Kaifeng, Nanyang, Pingdingshan, Xuchang, Sanmenxia, these cities’ one part in four parts which namely population urbanization, economic urbanization, land urbanization and social urbanization must be specially excellent or terrible. 5) These cities belonged to medium disharmony category include Zhoukou, Xinyang, Puyang, Zhumadian, these cities’land urbanization obviously developed faster than population urbanization, economic urbanization and social urbanization. Excessive land is employed in city construction, to a large extent land is losed. Based experience of world urbanization development, we judge that urbanization in Henan province is in initial stage of rapid expansion as a whole, urbanization in Henan province will keep to develop rapidly in 20 years. Based anticipation of urbanization fast development in Henan province, and urbanization coordination development situation in every city, the paper analyzes the evaluation results and the spatial disparities of evaluation results to provide the basis for regional urban development policy.
The urban development pattern is an important perspective to understand the matter of regional coordination development, and the comprehensive development of urban economic, society and ecosystem is the important carrier and collective representation of a region’s comprehensive, coordinated and sustainable development. This article chose 16 cities of Hubei Province as study objects, set the 30-years reform and opening as its study period (1984-2013), and constructed an evaluation index system, by which economic production, social life and ecological landscape are included as its subsystems, to calculate the yearly comprehensive development levels of the cities. It used AHP to assign weights for the system’s factors and built measure mode respectively, which includes three dimensions comprised of the growth coefficient, coordination coefficient and comprehensive coefficient. Based on ArcGIS10.0, DPS7.05 and SPSS19, this study used tools such as hierarchical clustering, two-step clustering, ordinal swatches classification, nonlinear mapping analysis, Pearson correlation analysis, Mann-Kendall mutation analysis, global Moran’s I, variation coefficient, Local Moran’s I, and so on, to simulate the analysis of the collective temporal evolution, individual temporal evolution and spatial pattern evolution (whole and part pattern) of urban comprehensive development level (urban clustering, temporal partition and evolution trend ) . The result shows that the comprehensive development levels of most cities have been presenting positive changes and the sub-scale cities were more predominant. The total gap was obvious, while the gaps between two adjacent cities have been gradually converged. The changes in national development concepts, regional strategies and system mechanisms, the urban development basic patterns, the city scale’s dialectical role and the city’s regional features were all have a profound influence in the special-temporal pattern of urban comprehensive development.
在实际的气象观察中,受站点迁移、城市化及仪器更换等影响,气象观测数据往往存在不均一性。这种不均一性会掩盖气候变化的真相、造成气候变化诊断结果的失真。因此,观测数据序列均一化具有重要的科学和实际意义。选择1961~2010年期间北疆地区37个气象站点（其中14个站点发生过大的迁移,迁移次数达17次之多）,首先以乌鲁木齐站点为例子,说明新的HOMR-HOM方法数据断点检测和数据订正过程。然后,对北疆地区逐日最高气温和最低气温进行均一化处理。结果表明：① 新的均一化HOMR-HOM方法能较好的检测断点和订正北疆地区的逐日气温数据;② 经过均一化处理,北疆地区最高气温观测数据比均一化后数据高,最低气温观测数据比均一化后数据低。
Human activities and the environment are greatly affected by climate and weather extremes. A growing interest in extreme climate events is motivated by the vulnerability of our society to the impacts of such events. In the world, the occurrence of flood over the seven big river valleys is of high frequency, and both flood and geological disasters increased due to the increase of intense precipitation events and the consequent increase of their concentration degree. In practice, climate data is inhomogenous meteorological observations series in northern Xinjiang. Climate data is affected by meteorological site migration, meteorological instruments to replace, change the number of observations, urbanization, and so on. In present study, we applied HOMER-HOM methods to detect and adjust the inhomogeneities of daily temperature series. Based on the HOMER-HOM method, we analyzed the inhomogeneities in daily maxima and minimum temperature series at Urumqi station caused by relocations in 1976, 1999 and 2002. Comper of Meta data, we find Urumqi station relocation in 1975 and in 1999, instrument replacement in 2003. It shows that the HOMER-HOM method is a good effect method. The adjusted series exhibited a long-term daily maxima and minimum temperature series for the annual mean series during 1961-2010, in which the daily maxima temperature series bias is high by comparison of correct data and the daily minimum temperature series bias is low by comparison of correct data.
通过黔北三星洞2支石笋(编号：SX3-a和SX14)的 25个高精度230Th年龄（测年误差≤76 a）和740个氧同位素数据,重建了末次冰消期至早全新世（16.82±0.04~8.29±0.03 ka B.P.）平均分辨率达10 a的亚洲夏季风演变历史。无论在千年尺度还是百年尺度,甚至是十年际气候事件上,三星石笋δ18O记录的季风气候与北高纬气候都存在耦合关系。然而,在波令-阿勒罗德（B?lling-Aller?d）时期,与格陵兰冰芯所记录的温度逐渐回冷的趋势相反,亚洲夏季风表现出逐渐增强的过程。太阳辐射能量的增加和越赤道气流的增强有可能是引起此时期夏季风增强的主要原因。在前北方期(11.7~9 ka B.P.)时,南极温度、大气CO2浓度和CH4浓度等在新仙女木（Younger Dryas, YD)结束后均达到最大值,而石笋δ18O记录表明在YD冷事件结束后,直到9 ka B.P.左右亚洲夏季风才达到最盛期。冰消期结束后,虽然太阳辐射能量已经达到高值,但直到9 ka B.P.之前,北美大陆仍然残留较大的冰盖,有可能对夏季风的增强起到一定的限制作用。另外,早全新世南极变冷同样有可能通过加强越赤道气流来影响夏季风气候。
The last deglaciation, transition from the last glacial maximum to the present interglacial (Holocene), has great importance in understanding how Earth’s climate system can abruptly switch from one state to another. This transition was also characterized by several abrupt climatic oscillations, including Heinrich event 1, B?lling-Aller?d, and Younger Dryas. However, uncertainty remains regarding the similarities and differences in monsoon history in different region. Here, we present a high-resolution (10-year on average) monsoonal record covering the time range from 16.82±0.04 to 8.29±0.03 ka BP, Based on 25 high-precision 230Th dates and 740 Oxygen isotopic data from stalagmite SX3-a and SX14 from Sanxing Cave, Northern Guizhou Province, China, an average 10 a resolution Asian Summer Monsoon (ASM) record during the last deglacial was produced. Millennial- to decadal- scale coupling between the ASM and northern high-latitude climate persisted through whole last deglacial period, suggesting that the Atlantic meridional circulation play a role in monsoon climate. Decoupled from decreasing temperatures in Greenland during the BA, the concurrent intensified AM is likely attributed to the increasing insolation and the strong cross-equatorial flow. During the “Preboreal episode”, Antarctic temperature, atmospheric CO2 and CH4 were reached to its maximum values after the abrupt transition of Younger Dryas. Howerver, ASM experienced a 2.7 ka-long gradual increase of the monsoon rainfall. The summer insolation in the North Hemisphere was maximal at around 11,000 a B.P., however, until about 9 000 a B.P. a large remnant ice sheet persisted in North America, which could be impede the rebound of ASM. In addition, the cooling of the Antarctic during the early Holocene maybe also influenced ASM through the strong cross-equatorial flow.
根据江苏沿海不同年限围垦区土壤剖面有机碳稳定同位素（δ13C）与粒度资料,研究了不同年限围垦区土壤粒度特征变化情况与有机质来源变化特征。结果表明,在气候和母质基本相同的条件下,土壤δ13C和粒度特征主要受围垦年限和人类活动干扰影响。随着围垦年限的增加,土壤平均粒径显著降低,表现为DT7(33.93 μm,林地,已围垦近60 a)<DT1(46.10 μm,农用地,已围垦16 a)<DT6[48.21 μm,盐蒿（Suaeda salsa）滩,已围垦2 a]。其中,DT6、DT7（30 cm以下）、DT1剖面粒度记录均具有自下向上逐渐变细的特点,粗颗粒组分逐渐减少,反映了粉砂淤泥质海岸围垦前原始潮滩沉积物的自然演化特点,DT7剖面30 cm以上逐渐变粗则可能主要由于已围垦近60 a里表层堆积了大量枯枝落叶所致。人类活动干扰在沉积记录中也较明显,DT6盐蒿滩剖面δ13C值总体上表现为海洋自生有机碳,主要反映原始沉积母质特征。DT1农用地剖面0~40 cm耕作层由于受开垦、翻耕、除草、施肥等各种人类活动干扰较大,各粒度组成及粒度参数均开始出现显著变化,这在表层迅速变轻的δ13C值也有所反映。DT7林地剖面尽管受人类干扰相对较小,但由于受到表层堆积的大量枯枝落叶等凋落物的影响,各粒度组成及参数在上部均也表现出明显变化,特别是表层0~10 cm δ13C值已呈明显的陆源性。δ13C值所表现出的陆源和海洋自生有机碳特征与根据经验公式计算的结果也具有较好的一致性。
Based on stable carbon isotope (δ13C) signatures and particle size of coastal saline soil of Dongtai, changes in the particle size characteristics and soil organic matter source with different reclamation age were analyzed. Results showed that under the same climate and parent material conditions, soil organic carbon isotope and particle size were mainly affected by reclamation age and human disturbance. Along with the increasing reclamation age, the mean particle size significantly reduced, with DT7 (33.93 μm, forest, with the reclamation age of ~60 a) <DT1 (46.10 μm, farmland, 16 a) <DT6 (48.21μm, salt artemisia beach, 2 a). Particle size of DT6, DT7 (below 30 cm) and DT1 showed an decreasing trend from the bottom to the top, with coarse particle component reduced gradually, reflecting the natural evolution process of tidal flat environment in the silt muddy coast.The gradually coarsening of the top 30 cm layer of DT7 may be mainly due to the large amount of forest litter. The disturbance of human activities was also very apparent in the sedimentary record. δ13C values of core DT6 mainly reflect the characteristics of the original marine sediment. Due to large interference by human activities, all the particle size parameters show an obvious change in the top 0-40 cm soil layer (cultivated layer) of core DT1, a quick lighter shift of δ13C values also support this. Although core DT7 was less interfered by human activities, but due to the large accumulation of forest litter, the particle size parameters in the upper layers showed significant change, the dramatic variation of δ13C value at 0-10 cm layer in core DT7 also suggested the obvious presence of a land-derived component. Relative contribution of terrestrial-derived and marine-derived organic matter showed by δ13C values were in good agreement with the empirical formula calculation results.
Bailongjiang River watershed (BRW), a typical geomorphic area with frequent-hazards, located in the transitional ecotone among the Loess Plateau, Qinba Mountains and Tibet Plateau, was chosen as the study area to analyze the landscape ecological security (LES). Based on the Pressure-State-Response (PSR) conceptual framework and platforms of GIS and RS technology, an evaluation system for landscape ecological security was suggested with three dimensions (Pressure, State and Response) from 1990 to 2010. The three components, namely each of the three dimensions and two factors specific to the particular dimension, were determined separately from each other, and then integrated into a single rating. The factors were also divided into two types, depending on their impact on the ecological security: positive (+) or negative (-). Here the pressure index, which reflected the pressure that geomorphic hazard exerted on the environment, consists of landslides, debris flows, soil and water erosion. The landscape state index, which was related to the quality of the environment, was composed of landscape vulnerability index and ecological service value. The response index, which was described as reaction of human beings to landscape dynamics, was defined as adjusted intensity of natural reserve districts, water area, forest, grazing district and crop lands. And then, the landscape ecological security was classified into 5 levels: low, slight, medium, medium-high and high. In the same time, the evaluation units were Landsat TM pixels and the fundamental data set was obtained by classifying raw TM data in this study; and the factors used in PSR model were obtained by using different data from meteorological station, soil surveys and maps, digitized topographic maps, NDVI, DEM and Landsat TM images. The results showed that: the maximum value of landscape pressure index was 0.697, 0.699, and 0.709 in 1990, 2002 and 2010 respectively, although the average value change was not obvious, which means the landscape pressure increased locally. The values of landscape state index and response index increased from 0.531 and 0.802 in 1990 to 0.550 and 0.815 in 2010, respectively, suggesting that landscape security became more secure. After then, landscape ecological security, which was the weighted sum of the pressure index, the landscape security state index and the response index, increased from 0.623 in 1990 to 0.636 in 2010. In the meantime, the change of LES pattern was small and trended to be better, and the cover area of medium to medium-high grades increased (2 089.95 km2) during the whole period of 1990-2010; especially after 2002, the proportion of above high ecological security levels was up to 52%, showing that the performing of ecological engineering (such as Grain for Green, Construction of Shelter Forest System in the Upper- Middle Changjiang River.) were very effective. As to the spatial distribution pattern, the districts with low ecological security mostly located along the Bailongjiang River and its tributaries, northwestern part of Tanchang County and northern mountains of Diebu County, while the high ecological security happened as nature reserve and forest district. And then, the distribution pattern of LES was opposite to that of landscape ecological risk on the landslides, debris flows, soil and water erosion. This research showed that the PSR model based on gridding GIS was a useful way for the quantitative evaluating and mapping LES under natural hazard stress and can be used in other similar regions.
将经过配准的同一地区不同空间分辨率和光谱分辨率的遥感影像进行融合是提高土地覆盖/土地利用分析精度的有效途径。采用PCA、IHS、HPF和小波变换融合法对内蒙古杭锦后旗中部地区的ALOS全色和多光谱影像进行融合,并对融合结果进行了定性和定量评价。基于地物光谱特征、解译标志和监督分类法提取试验区土地盐渍化信息,比较多光谱影像和融合影像的土地盐渍化信息提取精度。结果显示, PCA、IHS和HPF融合影像的空间细节表现能力得到提升,而PCA和小波变换融合影像的光谱保真度优于IHS和HPF融合影像;PCA融合影像的盐渍化分类精度、总分类精度和Kappa 系数均为最高,是最适于试验区土地盐渍化分类研究的融合方法。
Land salinization is a land degradation phenomenon which deteriorates the eco-environmental quality and agricultural production security, especially in arid and semi-arid areas. Particularly, the land salinization in Hetao irrigation area of Inner Mongolia (including Hangjinhouqi) is a major problem due to the arid climate, high salinity soil material, high mineralized groundwater, as well as high groundwater level caused by improper irrigation and drainage. Therefore, the monitoring of salinized land distribution is significant to prevent land salinization. Fused images based on different spatial and spectral resolutions are an important approach to improve the accuracy of land salinization classification. In this article, ALOS panchromatic and multi-spectral images of central Hanjinhouqi in Inner Mongolia, China, from August, 2010, were fused by employing the four image fusion methods, i.e., principal component analysis transform (PCA), intensity-hue-saturation transform (IHS), high pass filter (HPF) transform and wavelet transform. The effectiveness of each fusion method was evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively to examine the image quality and classification accuracy of land salinization. The result showed that: 1) spatial resolution of images improved after fused by PCA, IHS and HPF transform. 2) Image fused by HPF fused showed higher streaking noise. 3) Edge information of the object in wavelet transform image lowered compared to other fused image. 4) Spectral distortion of the images fused by PCA and wavelet transform was lesser than ones fused by IHS and HPF. In addition, the analysis of spectral signature showed that the mean gray value of different land cover pixel in the study area has the same change trend in the B2 and B3 bands, while different change trend was observed in B4 band because of the vegetation cover. The highest value of mean gray in the B2 and B3 bands was observed in resident cover, followed in sequence by salinized land, cultivated land, traffic land and water body. The highest value of mean gray in the B4 bands was observed in cultivated land .Furthermore, the land cover and land salinization information of researched area was also studied and extracted based on the interpreting marks, spectral signature and supervised classification. The extracted accuracy of multi-spectral images and fused images were compared as well. The classification results showed that the total classification accuracy and Kappa coefficient of PCA image, wavelet PCA image and wavelet IHS image are higher than multispectral images, while IHS image, HPF image and wavelet single band image are lower. The highest and the lowest value of total classification accuracy and Kappa coefficient were determined in PCA and HPF image respectively. The corresponding highest value of total classification accuracy and Kappa coefficient is 89.60% and 0.879 4 respectively while the corresponding lowest value is 65.20% and 0.654 2, respectively. Specifically, the PCA images had the highest classification accuracy of cultivated land (90.30%)and salinized land(90.90%) and HPF images had the lowest classification accuracy of cultivated land (69.23%)and salinized land(62.72%). The evaluation results of fused image quality and classification accuracy showed that PCA fused images is the best image for land use and land salinization information extraction in the study area.
借鉴系统科学中的结构-功能关系理论,构建了城市土地集约利用评价指标体系,研究了1996~2011年武汉市中心城区土地集约利用内部协调性的时空演变,探索了土地结构、土地功能对土地集约利用水平的影响。研究结果表明：① 武汉市中心城区土地结构与土地功能之间的协调性逐渐增强,但是土地功能一直滞后于土地结构,阻碍了土地集约利用水平的提高。② 土地利用目标与土地利用强度之间的协调性逐渐提高。在研究前期,土地利用目标超前于土地利用强度,而在研究后期,两者的关系则相反。土地利用静态结构与土地利用动态变化之间的协调性比较稳定。两者之间的相对发展速度却起伏不定。③ 土地集约利用水平与土地结构之间的局部协调性逐渐上升,且所处的协调发展阶段也不断提高。而土地集约利用水平与土地功能之间的局部协调性也稳步上升,但所处的协调发展阶段却没有明显变化。④ 武汉市中心城区土地集约利用水平逐步提高,尤其在研究后期提高的速度变大。⑤ 土地集约利用水平与土地结构-土地功能之间的协调性有显著的正相关关系,且前者对后者的影响很大。土地结构、土地功能对土地结构-土地功能之间的协调性均有显著的正相关关系,且土地结构对协调性的影响小于土地功能。
According to the structure-function relationship theory of system science, we established a evaluation index system of intensive urban land use, and analyzed the internal coordination characteristics of land intensive use of Wuhan downtown from 1996 to 2011. This article also investigated the influences of land use structure and land use function on the level of land intensive use. The results show that: 1) The coordination between land use structure and land use function in the downtown of Wuhan is gradually enhanced, but the land use function has been lagging behind the land use structure, which hinders the enhancement of the level of land intensive use. 2) The coordination between land use target and land use intensity gradually increases. At the previous stage of this study, the land use target was ahead of the land use intensity. At the later study period, the relationship between them is opposite. The coordination between land use static structure and land use dynamic change is relatively stable, but the speed of relative development between them fluctuated. 3) The local coordination between the level of land intensive use and land use structure gradually increases. Besides, the stages of coordination development also improve moderately. The local coordination between the level of land intensive use and land use function improves continually, while the stages of coordination development have no significant change. 4) The level of land intensive use in the downtown of Wuhan gradually increases, and it increases faster especially in the latter half study period. 5) There exists remarkable positive correlation between the level of urban land intensive use and the land use structure-function coordination, and the former has great influence on the latter. Both land use structure and land use function have strong positive correlations with the land use structure-function coordination, and the effect of land use structure on the coordination is less than that of land use function.