Forest is a main component of the terrestrial ecosystem, and its monitoring is the vital support for sustainable utilization of forest and global change researches. The home and aboard progress of remote sensing techniques application on monitoring forest ecosystems was concluded in this paper from four respects: classification and changes detection, the retrieval of vital ecological parameters of forest ecosystems including tree height, leaf area index, canopy density, etc., the estimation of stand volume and biomass, and disturbance monitoring. After summarized remote sensing data and models used in forest ecosystems monitoring, research prospect of establishment of integrated forest ecosystems monitoring platform with multi-dimension, multi-scale and high time density were put forward, which synthesized filed data, land-to-air high-resolution radar scanning techniques, multi-source optical remote sensing modeling and process models.
Human Geography is an essential branch of Geography and an indispensable aspect for regional geographical research. Since the founding of Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences (IGA) in 1958, Human Geography has become one of the major research areas in IGA and made remarkable progress. Our research has always adhered to a stable discipline orientation in the field of Human Geography with clear times characteristics for solving key issues on regional development in Northeast China. In discipline division, Human Geography research in IGA incorporate agricultural geography, industrial geography, urban geography and regional planning etc. In the past 60 years, human geography scholars have carried out a large number of basic and application research works in the fields of agricultural development and distribution, industrial development and layout, urbanization and urban development, regional sustainable development, and regional planning and so on. And based on these research works, fruitful achievements have been achieved, and these achievements played an important role to the economic and social development of the Northeast region. Especially since the beginning of the 21st century, the central government implemented the strategy of revitalizing Northeast China and other old industrial bases, IGA has undertaken a series of projects covering regional urbanization, city reconstruction and transformation, agricultural economy and commodity grain base layout, regional planning and sustainable development strategy etc.. In the field of human geography and regional development, our institute got 26 projects which granted by National Science Foundation of China. In 2007-2009, IGA researchers completed the Major Function Oriented Zoning for Jilin Province and Heilongjiang Province. Based on these projects, 10 books and more than 300 journal articles were published, and some research results have been used by governments at all levels. Facing the developing trend of human geography and the requirement of the national strategies in the future, the human geography research will still focus on the theme of revitalizing the old industrial bases and sustainable development in Northeast China. The major research will be oriented to modern agriculture and rural revitalization, new-type urbanization and urban transformation, industrial adjustment and layout optimization, territory spatial planning and regional governance, cross-border economic cooperation, resources-environment and sustainable development and so forth. It is very needed to further explore the evolutionary pattern of human-earth interaction system in the Northeast old industrial base and uphold the research feature of human geography. In order to improve the capability to serve the national socioeconomic development, human geographical research should keep developing the theory and pursuing more advanced methodology and strengthen the academic team.
通过中国科学院东北地理与农业生态研究所（简称东北地理所）及其前身（长春地理研究所）自1978 年以来40 a的遥感基础理论与应用研究工作的回顾,以主持的国家与地方重要遥感研究项目为主线,首先展现了研究所在遥感队伍建设、人才培养、平台建设、光学与微波遥感基础理论与遥感应用研究、微波遥感器的设计与研制等方面的大量工作;然后结合东北地理所在东北地区及东北亚周边国家开展的研究工作,回顾了研究所在自然资源、土地利用/覆被变化、生态环境演变、灾害监测、农情遥感监测等领域所取得的成就;最后,根据国内外遥感科学与技术的应用发展态势和东北地区资源环境特征,对东北地理所遥感研究的发展前景和优先发展领域进行了展望。
Through reviewing the basic theory and the application research of remote sensing for the past 40 years since 1978, and also referencing to the national and local research projects funded by national and local government with the major investigator from Northeast Institute of Geography and Agricultural Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and its predecessor (Changchun Institute of Geography), the major achievements were outlined or briefly concluded in this article. Through this review, it can be concluded that a lot of achievements have been made in the past forty years, including the building of the remote sensing research team, personnel training, platform construction, basic theory development for the optical and microwave remote sensing, remote sensing application research, the design and development of microwave remote sensing devices, and shows its achievements which obtained by combining the researches on the characteristics of natural geographical environment in Northeast China and its adjacent countries (Northeast Asia) in the fields of resources, land use / cover change, ecology, environment, disaster monitoring, remote sensing monitoring and mapping of agricultural conditions and others. Finally, the institute’s development prospects and priority areas of remote sensing research are preliminarily proposed, according to the application and development trend of remote sensing science and technology at home and abroad and the characteristics of resources and environment in Northeast China.
The black soil region in Northeast China is one of the world’s four black soil regions. It is well known for its high organic matter content and high fertility. It is not only the basis for the development of agriculture in Northeast China, but also the granary of China, which plays a decisive role in safeguarding the national food security. According to the characteristics and problems of black soil in Northeast China, this review first elucidates the forming conditions of the black soil and the natural characteristics. Secondly, we describe the evolution of soil properties and fertility in the process of the reclamation of black soil. The soil organic matter content and soil fertility decreased significantly, which have severely affected the sustainable development of agriculture in black soil region in Northeastern China. Besed on this analysis, different protection pathways and their controlling mechanisms on soil fertility are analyzed. Future research on black soil should be emphasized on the development of new technologies, new methods, and cross-disciplinary theories to ascertain the evolutional characteristics of soil fertility and their influencing factors. It is necessary to cultivate high-yield, high-quality crop varieties that are more suitable for the climatic conditions in Northeast China, to optimize the cropping system in combination with the current technological regulation pattern in this region, to improve the quality and yield of crops, to increase the overall productivity and competitiveness of agriculture soil, and finally to ensure the sustainable use of agriculture in the black soil region.
Currently, both developed and developing countries emphasize the green development of their economy, which is also the focus against the context of the revitalization of Old Industrial Base(OIB). This article takes OIB in Northeast China as a case study to show its green development condition by evaluating its green development level and identifying its obstacle factors. Firstly, this article introduced the features of green development of OIB based on the existing literature both domestic and abroad. Secondly, we established a comprehensive index system which consists of five aspects: 1) The capacity of resource utilization; 2) The green industry; 3) The quality of economic development; 4) The environment protection and treatment; 5) The green residence environment. This index system includes 25 evaluation indices. Thirdly, the article analyzed the spatial distribution and regional differences of the green development level of 11 typical old industrial cities in Northeast China. The results are as following: First, we find that green development level of Shenyang and Changchun are much higher than other cities in 2014, the next are Dalian and Harbin, the rest cities are lower than these four cities. Second, these 11 cities can be divided into four categories by calculating the standard deviation of their green development level. We find that Shenyang, Changchun, Dalian are in the first group, Harbin is in the second group, Fushun is in the fourth group, and the other cities belong to the third group. Third, the capacity of green development has increased significantly from 2008 to 2014, but the polarization phenomena are even apparent. It gradually formed a green development level pattern in the space that took the four major cities as the center. The index of coefficient of variation shows that regional differences and spatial polarization of green development among old industrial cities tend to decrease. Fourth, based on the factor analysis of the obstacle degree, we find that the development of local economy and green industry is the major factor of rule hierarchy that affects green development in general. Their negative influence on green development becomes stronger over time. From the view of index hierarchy, we can see that the top five obstacle indicators didn’t change during the study period, shows a stable status. The ratio of technology expenditure to GDP are the major obstacle factors that affect green development level, and the major influences of each index on each city’s green development level show an obvious regional characteristic.
As one of the most rapidly modernized agricultural areas, reclamation areas play an exemplary role in the development of modern agriculture in China. In this article, we take the Heilongjiang reclamation areas as the study region and discusses the agricultural modernization level of Heilongjiang reclamation areas in two aspects. First, this article make a international comparison of agricultural modernization between the Heilongjiang reclamation areas and the developed countries. Second, from the essential meaning of agricultural modernization, this article establishes a comprehensive evaluation index system, including 5 aspects changing: agricultural production, material and equipment, management, agricultural life, and agricultural environment. Based on the method of entropy, the measure and evolution of Heilongjiang reclamation areas’s agricultural modernization are analyzed since 2000. The international comparison result indicate that the Heilongjiang Reclamation areas has reached the level of developed countries in crop yield, agricultural machinery level, fertilizer application and organic crop cultivation. However, there is still a big gap in scale of operation and the industrialization of agriculture. The comprehensive evaluation result shows that Heilongjiang reclamation area’s agricultural modernization level continues improving. Agricultural production and agricultural life modernization are the main features of rapid evolution of agricultural modernization, followed by the equipment and management, and the agricultural environment is the least advanced. The evolution of all the five subsystems has unique characteristics. To realize the agricultural modernization, Heilongjiang reclamation area still has a long way to go, hence more policies should be formulated to solve problems of modern agriculture development.
The automotive industry is at the heart of Germany's advanced manufacturing industry and has the world's leading competitiveness. The significance of Automotive Industry Competitiveness to National competitive advantage, Based on the research results of the three major automobile manufacturers such as Volkswagen, Daimler and BMW and their industrial competitiveness from 2008 to 2016, a partial least-squares regression model was constructed in R software to analyze the performance of the three major automobile manufacturers in industrial competitiveness and Key Factors and Heterogeneity of Development. The results show that: in 2008-2016, Volkswagen, Daimler and BMW's industrial competitiveness experienced "recession-recovery", "uptick-down" and "adjustment - rebound" three small cycles. Based on the four competitive dimensions of Manufacturing, R & D, Capital operation and Market profitability, the three major automotive manufacturers have formed different coupling adaptation competitive advantages. In the development of automotive industry competitiveness, Volkswagen, Daimler, and BMW showed the heterogeneity of the industrial transfer of global diffusion, the industrial agglomeration of knowledge spillover and the location advantage of resource endowment.
This paper studied the urbanization development level and its spatial differentiation of the Siberian and Far East federal districts in Russia. The paper first built an index system to evaluate the urbanization development level of Siberian and Far East federal districts. Then based on the comprehensive weighting method of entropy weight and variation coefficient, this paper calculated the urbanization development levels with regard to the population, economic and social aspects during 2005-2015. The results are as following. First, the comprehensive urbanization development level of Siberian and Far East federal districts has increased from 2005 to 2015. The urbanization development levels of the population, economic, and social aspects in Siberian federal district are all higher than those of Far East federal district. The population urbanization levels of the Siberian and Far East federal districts have decreased. Both the urbanization levels of the economic and social aspects of the two districts have been growing slowly. Second, from 2005 to 2015, the urbanization development levels of most federal subjects are lower than the average level of all the federal subjects. The urbanization development levels of Kemerovo Region, Novosibirsk Region, Altay Territory, Omsk Region, Krasnoyarsk Territory, Primorsky Territory, and Irkutsk Region are higher than the average level of all the federal subjects. Compared with other federal subjects, the urbanization development levels of Magadan Region, and Chukotka Autonomous Area are the lowest. Third, the urbanization development levels of the population, economic, and social urbanization aspects were all spatially imbalanced while taking the Siberian and Far East federal districts as a whole regional area. Spatially, the urbanization development level of the whole area shows a "High West, Low East" spatial pattern. The areas with a high urbanization development level are concentrated in the west of Siberian federal district. The areas with low ones are mostly in the eastern part of the Far East federal district. Finally, we suggested policies and strategies that can boost the growth and development of the population, economy and society of Siberian and Far East federal districts.
借助从货运网站上抓取的2015年水路货运、公路货运、铁路货运、航空货运OD数据55 623条,基于物质流的视角,采用回归分析,对长江经济带物流联系现状及其影响因素进行了研究。研究发现：① 长江经济带货运网络总体上呈现东部发达、西部落后格局,阶梯状发展特征显著,上海龙头作用显著,省会城市地位突出。② 从影响因子来看,空间尺度越大,规律性越强。航空货运受地区间物流服务能力和基础设施差异的深刻影响,而水路货运主要受地区间转运能力差异影响、陆路货运受多种要素综合影响显著。③ 为助推长江经济带综合立体交通走廊建设,建议东、中部地区注重发挥不同运输方式的协同作用,着力提升区域运输效率。对地形崎岖的西部地区而言,应合理开发和搭配水运和少数空运中心,改善交通区位。
Typically speaking, logistics is an important way to the flow of basic elements, and its linkage specifically reflects the “flow space”. This article describes the logistics connection pattern of the Yangtze River economic belt, and quantitatively studies the influencing factors of logistics, obtaining 55 623 OD data of waterway freight, road freight, rail freight and air freight from the freight professional websites in 2015. Conclusions are as follows: 1) Airway freight is the most active in the western provinces, because it is less affected by underlying surface elements. While in the cross-regional linkage, the feature performed by the east-west linkages among big cities is extremely significant. The waterway freight network is the most developed in the eastern area (especially in Jiangsu), followed by the central region, and the western waterway freight network is still in the initial stage of low-intensity link. Compared with the first two freight network, the overall land freight network is well developed which has formed the pattern of the capital city as the network center. Moreover, the eastern region has begun to develop into multi-center network model. 2) Each mode of logistics linkage is affected by different factors. For example, airway freight is influenced by the difference of inter-regional logistics service capacity and infrastructure, which is more likely to make contact with the greater gap between the cities. Waterway freight is mainly affected by the difference of inter-regional transport capacity. The contact form of “Weak transport capacity of the city: strong transport capacity of the city” is extremely obvious. In general, land freight has the most obvious effect of all aspects, which is the result of comprehensive impact of the various elements. 3) In the provincial scale, it is not obvious of the influence from the various factors due to the distinct conditions of each province. Overall, the larger the scale, the stronger the regularity of the impact of the various aspects, the logistics will reflect.
以长江经济带为例,采用耦合协调度模型研究陆路交通可达性与城镇化的耦合协调度空间格局。结果显示：① 城镇化发展大致表现为“东高西低”和“大城市群高边缘城市低”的分布特征,且人口与经济城镇化发展不同步;② 各类陆路交通可达性存在“东中部高,西部低”的分布特征,且高铁可达性区域差异远大于普通铁路和公路;③ 陆路交通综合可达性与城镇化耦合协调度总体较高,由东向西耦合协调度逐渐降低,其中,公路耦合协调度结果与陆路综合交通耦合协调度结果最匹配,高铁和普通铁路对城镇化发展承担跨区域协调作用,高铁作用更明显,公路对城镇化发展影响有限,仅能带动周边区域。
Taking the Yangtze River economic zone as an example, the article studies the geographic pattern and coupling-coordination degree between urbanization and land transportation accessibility by using the coupling-coordination model. The results show that: 1) There are significant spatial differences in the development of urbanization, showing the distribution of ‘east high west low’ and ‘urban groups high edge city low’, and the development of population urbanization is synchronous with that of economic urbanization; 2) The accessibility of each land transportations shows the distribution of ‘east high west low’, and the regional difference of high-speed railway accessibility is far greater than the ordinary railway and highway accessibility; 3) The coordination degree between urbanization and transportation accessibility is high generally, decreasing gradually from east to west, and the coordination degree between economic urbanization and transportation accessibility is higher than that between population urbanization and transportation accessibility; What's more, The coordination degree between urbanization and highway accessibility best matches that between urbanization and overall land transportation accessibility. At the same time, high-speed railway and ordinary railway play a role of cross-regional coordination in the development of urbanization, and the effect of high-speed rail is more obvious. What’s more, the impact of highway on the development of urbanization is limited, only driving the surrounding cities development.
Owing to the differences in economic and social development level, national policy orientation, natural geographical environment, poverty causes, etc, there are some regional differences in the practice work of poverty alleviation between provinces in China. Based on geographical perspective, used relevant data in provincial scale, this article analyzed the precise poverty alleviation’s provincial difference in poverty alleviation standard, poverty alleviation method, poverty alleviation subject and etc. This article also analyzed the impact of regional natural environment conditions, provincial resource endowment, economic and social conditions and other factors on targeted poverty alleviation. On the standard of poverty alleviation, provinces with high economic development level have higher standards of poverty alleviation, provinces with low level of economic development have low standard of poverty alleviation. In the identification of poverty alleviation object, each province had summed up the identification methods of poverty alleviation with regional characteristics, which based on their own targeted poverty alleviation practice. In the form of poverty alleviation, industrial poverty alleviation, financial poverty alleviation and etc, had been used by each province with varying degrees. In the subject of poverty alleviation, the central government's fiscal transfer payment, and the poverty alleviation at the provincial level by governments and personnel at all levels, are the main subjects of poverty alleviation in each province of China.
基于中国规模以上工业企业数据,运用标准差椭圆、空间自相关、热点分析和核密度估计等多种空间统计方法,从省域、区域、县域及县域以下多个空间尺度,对1998年、2003年、2008年和2013年浙江省制造业企业空间分异格局进行点、面结合测度,并运用地理探测器,解析影响全省以及杭嘉湖绍、宁台温舟和金衢丽三大区域制造业企业空间分布的地理因子。结果表明：① 浙江省制造业企业空间集聚程度呈递减态势,空间分布沿着“西南-东北-西北”的Z字型路径向外扩散; ② 浙江制造业经历了“三核并立”-“三核多中心”-“三核连片发展多中心”空间分异格局; ③ 环杭州湾地区一直处于全省制造业热点地区,浙江省冷热点区域空间格局大体呈现“东北-西南”的走向; ④ 影响全省制造业企业分异格局的核心因素主要为信息化、地形、市场规模、城镇化和技术创新等,影响三大区域制造业空间布局的核心因素存在时空差异性。
Chinese manufacturing industry has undergone spatial restructuring since reform and opening up. The rapid economic development of the eastern coastal areas under the background of globalization has become the core area of China's manufacturing industry. Based on Chinese industrial enterprises data, using multiple spatial data analysis such as the standard deviation ellipse, the global spatial autocorrelation, hotspot analysis and kernel density estimation, from multiple spatial scales such as the provincial, regional, county and sub-county scale, this paper analyzes the levels of spatial agglomeration, spatial distribution and variation pattern of manufacturing in Zhejiang Province in the year of 1998, 2003, 2008 and 2013. This paper uses the geographical detector tool to analysis the spatial differentiation pattern manufacturing enterprises in Zhejiang from provincial to sub-provincial scale. The results show that: Firstly, from 1998 to 2013, the spatial agglomeration degree of the manufacturing enterprises in Zhejiang province is decreasing, and the spatial distribution is spread out along the z-path of "southwest - northeast - northwest". Secondly, Zhejiang's manufacturing industry experienced "three core parallel" -- "three core, multi-center" -- "three core expanding, multi-center" spatial differentiation pattern. Thirdly, the Hangzhou Bay area has been in the hotspots of the whole province. The spatial layout of the hotspot in Zhejiang province generally presents the trend of "northeast-southwest". Lastly, the core factors that affect the differentiation pattern of manufacturing enterprises in the whole province are informatization level, terrain, market scale, urbanization level and technological innovation, etc. The geographical environment, economic basement and the process of development have spatial heterogeneity, which lead to spatial-temporal differences between the core factors that influence the spatial distribution of the manufacturing enterprises of three regions.
在厘清服务业与城镇化的关系机理基础上,构建了服务业系统与城镇化系统综合发展评价指标体系,运用熵值法对1987~2015年珠三角城镇化与服务业发展综合水平进行测度,利用耦合协调度模型对两者协调关系的时空演变特征进行了分析。结果表明：① 时序演变上,珠三角服务业与城镇化综合发展水平保持持续稳定增长态势,两者协调度不断增强,2008年开始进入协调期。② 空间演变上,服务业与城镇化的协调度呈现以珠江口城市为核心,逐渐向外圈层递减的空间分布规律;空间差异较大且保持相对稳定状态。③ 珠三角服务业与城镇化空间协调关系演变总体可分为均衡发展、惯性发展、反转发展3种模式,由1987年的4种失调类型演变为2015年初级协调等4种类型。④ 从加强服务业专业化分工和提升服务业发展潜力、加快空间城镇化和社会城镇化的发展、缩小服务业与城镇化协调关系的空间差异等方面提出对策建议,以推动珠三角服务业与城镇化的协调度向更高级别方向发展。
On the basis of clarifying the relationship between service industry and urbanization, this article constructs an evaluation index system for the comprehensive development of the service industry system and the urbanization system, and uses the entropy method to measure the comprehensive development level of the urbanization and service industry in the Pearl River Delta from 1987 to 2015. With the help of the coupling coordination model, the spatial-temporal evolution characteristics of the coordination relationship between the two are analyzed. The results show that: 1) In terms of the evolution of the time series, the comprehensive development level of service industry and urbanization in the Pearl River Delta has maintained a sustained and stable growth, and the coordination degree between the two has also been increasing. The relationship began to enter a coordination period in 2008. 2) In terms of spatial evolution, the coordination degree between the service industry and urbanization presents a spatial distribution pattern of taking the cities in the Pearl River Estuary as the core and gradually decreasing to outer circle; The spatial pattern is quite different and relatively stable. 3) The evolution of spatial coordination relationship between service industry and urbanization in the Pearl River Delta can be divided into 3 models: balanced development, inertial development and reversed development, it evolves from four imbalanced types in 1987 to 4 types of primary coordination in 2015. 4) This paper puts forward the countermeasures and suggestions from strengthening the specialized division of labor in service industry, improving the development potential of service industry, speeding up the development of spatial urbanization and social urbanization, narrowing the spatial differences of coordination relationship between service industry and urbanization, so as to promote the development of the coordination degree of the service industry and urbanization to an even higher level.
The equalization with characteristics based on consumers’ differences is an important director for developing compulsory education in following years. Factorial ecological analysis method is used to analyze the survey data of questioned students from 189 middle schools in Dalian City. Five principal factors are extracted and classified into five kinds of middle school consumers. Four kinds of middle school consumers could be divided with the hierarchical cluster analysis methods and concentration index. At last, according to the distribution characteristics of different middle school consumers, it summarized that what is the distribution characteristics of the middle school students’ social space structure in Dalian. The following conclusions can be drawn. 1) There exists a significant difference in spatial structure of middle school students in Dalian, which is shown differently with diversified classification standards. As a whole, it presents such the complex spatial characteristics as the urban and rural division of occupation and the north-south education difference. 2) Given the demand-side, the middle school education consumers in Dalian can be divided into four categories: the first is for children in highly educated and high-income families,the second is for children in urban middle-income families, the third is for children in farmers and migrant workers families, and the forth is for children in the workers and staff families. There are significant differences in the composition of the social groups represented by the students and their students in each type of school, which further leads to the emergence of schools with different characteristics and types. 3) The differences of social groups with a unit of school show obvious spatial distribution characteristics. The core layer, the core of a city, has the schools for children in highly educated and high-income families. The second layer, which is the marginal area and the new urban area of a city, has schools for the children of upper-middle income families and industrial workers as well as office workers. The outer layer where the outlying counties area, has schools for children of farmers and migrant workers.
At present, China is in the period of 'mass tourism' and 'new urbanization'. Tourism and urbanization are mutually reinforcing, and become 'new kinetic energy' to promote economic and social development. Domestic tourism consumption as the most intuitive expression of tourism economy, representing the level of domestic tourism development. To explore the interaction between domestic tourism consumption and urbanization, we can not only clarify the interaction mechanism between the two, but also promote the coordinated development of tourism and urbanization. Taking the ten provinces and cities in eastern China as the research object, this paper constructs the domestic tourism consumption and urbanization evaluation index system, and uses the entropy method, co-integration test, TOPSIS evaluation method and coordination degree model to measure the level and the degree of coordination between domestic tourism consumption and urbanization in the eastern region from 2000 to 2014. And the dynamic spatio-temporal evolution analysis is carried out, and four kinds of development types are divided according to the K-Means clustering method. The results show that: 1) From 2000 to 2014, the domestic tourism consumption and urbanization in the eastern region showed a trend of increasing year by year in general. 2) There is a long-term and balanced co-ordination relationship between domestic tourism consumption and urbanization in the eastern region. For each unit increase in urbanization, domestic tourism consumption will increase by 0.673 units. 3) The coordination between domestic tourism consumption and urbanization in the eastern region has risen by 3 levels in 15 years, and the overall trend has shifted from an imbalanced state to a coordinated one. There is obvious difference in the coordination level between provinces and cities, with high and low poles. 4) According to the K-Means clustering method, the types of coordination of domestic tourism consumption and urbanization in the eastern region are divided into four types: excellent coordination type (Beijing and Tianjin), urbanization lag type (Jiangsu, Zhejiang and Guangdong), domestic tourism consumption lag (Shanghai), double lag (Hebei, Shandong, Fujian and Hainan). There are significant differences among the four types of coordination types. The excellent coordination type should take the road of both domestic tourism consumption and urbanization; The urbanization lag type should focus on tourism as the driving force for urban development and promote the urban economy through the tourism economy; The domestic tourism consumption lag should take urbanization as the driving force and rely on the advantages of urbanization to promote the tourism industry to expand its scale, improve its functions, and enhance the supply and consumption capacity of tourism; The double lag need to first measure the comparative advantages of domestic tourism consumption and urbanization, select the dominant side as the driving force for egion development, in order to stimulate the other side of development.
以张家界为案例地,运用数据包络分析法（DEA）、Malmquist指数模型及Tobit回归模型对张家界2005~2015年城市旅游效率进行分析,并从综合效率、纯技术效率、规模效率以及技术进步变化、全要素生产率变化进行实证研究,最后从公路、铁路及民航等不同交通方式探讨张家界对旅游效率的影响程度。结果显示：① 综合效率、纯技术效率呈现先下降后上升的趋势,全生产要素变化基本呈上升趋势。② Tobit回归模型中,劳动力投入、资本投入、旅游资源吸引力以及铁路客运量和航运客运量在0.01的水平上对综合效率、纯技术效率有显著影响,而其他因素对规模效率的影响不大。③ 交通条件的优化对提升旅游交通有着正向影响作用,且铁路、航运对张家界旅游效率有显著影响,而公路对其有影响但不显著,因此针对不同交通方式提出要进一步完善张家界景区内外部交通网络建设,形成公路交通、铁路交通、航空与景区交通无缝对接以及建成立体交通网络体系等优化策略,以提高张家界的旅游效率,实现旅游产业健康快速和可持续发展,这将为张家界实现旅游效率最优化水平提供理论指导。
Tourism efficiency is an important indicator to measure the level of tourism development. The evaluation of tourism efficiency is a focus in tourism geography and tourism management. Transportation is one of the important factors influencing the tourism efficiency. This article analyzes tourism efficiency of the city, Zhangjiajie, from 2005 to 2015 by using the methods of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), Malmquist index model and Tobit regression model. In the evaluation of efficiency, this analysis takes labor, assets, attraction of tourism resource and transport as the input indicator while arrivals of tourists and income of tourism as the output indicator. This article empirically analyzes the comprehensive efficiency, pure technical efficiency, scale efficiency, technological progress and total factor productivity. Finally, the article discusses the influence of different modes of transportation on the tourism efficiency of Zhangjiajie. Comprehensive efficiency and pure technical efficiency shows an upward trend after a decline. The total factor of production basically shows an upward trend. For the results of the Tobit regression model, labor input, capital investment, tourism resource attraction, passenger volume of both railway and shipping has a significant effect on comprehensive efficiency and pure technical efficiency at the 0.01 level, but other factors have little impact on scale efficiency. In the development of tourism, Zhangjiajie should expand the input scale of each element to improve the efficiency level. The optimization of traffic conditions has a positive effect on the promotion of tourism traffic. The railway and shipping have a significant impact on the tourism efficiency of Zhangjiajie. The highway also affect but not significant. Therefore, it should further promote the construction of internal and external highway traffic network of Zhangjiajie scenic spots and improve the capacity of railway transportation. Then, it will form a traffic network system consisting of highway transportation, railway transportation, aviation and scenic transportation, which can promote the transportation between urban area and the scenic spots. Following above, it can improve the efficiency of Zhangjiajie tourism industry, and promote a healthy, rapid and sustainable development of tourism industry. These results can provide theoretical guidance for the optimization of Zhangjiajie tourism.
Due to pollution, overpopulation, the agglomeration of population and industry, the deterioration of urban human settlements is becoming more and more common. Therefore, many scholars at home and abroad have carried out extensive research on the suitability of urban residence, mainly focusing on the concept, content, influencing factors and evaluation methods of it. On the basis of large sample questionnaire surveys, with series of mathematical statistical analysis tools, this paper explores factor structure, factor loading, orientation types and spatial distribution of human settlements demand under different attributes. The results are as follows：1) Because the characteristics of regional relation, economic income, age, and occupation have the significant impact on the human settlements, the resident subjects can be divided into different types of groups with strong representativeness, of which different groups have different demand orientations according to factor loading intensity and common factor structure. 2) The dimensions of human settlements demand have broken the hierarchy of needs, are mainly embodied in the functional structure of housing conditions, transportation, public facilities, community quality, self-improvement and so on. 3) There are obvious spatial differences in regional human settlements demand, of which the core zone is higher than the fringe zone. The spatial disparities of the quality of human settlements intensify the differences of human settlements demand. Spatial differentiation of human settlements demand in different resident groups determines that urban construction faces different issues in different regions. The supply of resources in the construction of human settlements should match the core needs and spatial distribution of residents. This paper holds that it is very important to guide the classification of regional construction based on the balance of resources supply and demand, and puts forward some policy suggestions on urban planning and construction according to the needs of different groups of human settlements.
基于黑龙江省13个地市2000~2015年的农业投入和产出数据,采用随机非参数包络分析法（StoNED）,估算黑龙江省农业灌溉用水的技术效率和影子价格,提出了基于技术效率和影子价格的农业灌溉用水弹性需求分析模型,研究表明：在相同的产出条件下,2015年农业灌溉用水技术效率无效比2000年降低了23.68 %、农业灌溉用水技术效率有效提高了25.02%;哈尔滨市的农业灌溉用水技术效率最高,达到了0.978 8;齐齐哈尔市的农业灌溉用水技术效率最低,为0.685 4;黑龙江省农业灌溉用水影子价格平均值在2.04~3.86元/m3之间波动,各地市农业灌溉用水影子价格平均值波动性较大,其极差达到了11.92 元/m3;当其他投入保持不变的条件下,黑龙江省农业灌溉用水价格、农业总产出和农业用水技术效率每增加1%,农业灌溉用水量将分别减少4.64%、增加1.10%和减少0.20%。
Based on the input-output datas of agriculture in 13 cities of Heilongjiang Province from 2000 to 2015, the input-output index system was built. The input indexes included cultivated area of the crops, total power of agricultural machinery, fertilizer amount, the number of agricultural employment and water consumption for agricultural irrigation and the output indexes included agricultural output value. Then the method of stochastic nonparametric envelopment of data was introduced to build the technical efficiency model of agricultural irrigation water. Based on the measurement results, the shadow price of agricultural irrigation water was calculated with the shadow price theory. Last the empirical model of flexible demand analysis on agricultural irrigation water was established using the Shephard theory. On the basis of the above analysis, the model bulit in this paper can estimate the noise in the data of the agricultural irrigation water sample correctly and formulate the economic relations between the agricultural irrigation water and the agricultural production adopting the crop production function reasonably. Compared with 2000, in the condition of the same output, the agricultural water use inefficienint in 2015 decreased by 23.68% and the agricultural water use efficienint increased by 25.02%. The most agricultural water use efficienint of all cities in Heilongjiang Province is Harbin with 0.978 8, the least is Qiqihar with 0.685 4. The average agricultural water shadow prices of Heilongjiang Province are between 2.04-3.86 yuan/m3. But the average agricultural water shadow prices of different cities differ largely, and the range is 11.92 yuan/m3. On the condition of other inputs no change, the agricultural water consumption will decrease by 4.64%, increase by 1.10% and decrease by 0.20% respectively with each increase of 1% of agricultural water price, total agricultural output and agricultural water efficiency. Due to the shortcomings of relying on the functional form of SFA (Stochastic frontier analysis) model and ignoring the data stochastic noise of DEA (Data envelopment analysis) model, the StoNED model can better solve these problems and satisfy the the concepts and principles of SFA and DEA. The empirical model for the analysis of agricultural irrigation water elasticity demand can effectively reveal the impact mechanism of the agricultural irrigation water price and the technical efficiency to the agricultural irrigation water demand in Heilongjiang Province. The research results have important theoretical and practical significance for drawing up the agricultural water use price scientific and rational, promoting the reform of agricultural water use price and saving agricultural water resources in Heilongjiang Province.
以长江中下游流域实测降水数据和亚洲季风指数为基础,采用Mann-Kendall检验、线性相关和偏相关分析、小波分析等方法,揭示长江中下游夏季降水的时空变化特征及其与亚洲季风系统之间的相互关系和影响差异。结果表明,近50 a来长江中下游夏季降水量呈显著的增加趋势,其与亚洲主要夏季风指数之间均呈负的线性相关关系,且显著性影响范围东亚夏季风大于南海夏季风大于南亚夏季风。不同亚洲夏季风子系统间存在复杂的相互作用关系,尤其是东亚夏季风和南海夏季风之间的相互作用对长江中下游夏季降水产生了重要影响。长江中下游夏季降水量与亚洲主要夏季风指数存在2~4 a时间尺度上的显著相关性,且以反位相关系为主。此外,长江中下游夏季降水量与东亚夏季风的相干性最为突出,在小于8 a的时间尺度上,两者之间的相关性在近50 a来呈现减弱的趋势,特别是自20世纪80年代中后期以来。
The Asian monsoon system is the most typical and complex monsoon system on the earth, which plays a decisive role in the spatio-temporal distribution of summer precipitation in the central and eastern China. Based on the measured precipitation data across the middle-lower Yangtze River Basin, the current study investigated the spatio-temporal variation of summer precipitation in middle-lower Yangtze River Basin and its connection with main components of Asian summer monsoon system by using the methods of Mann-Kendall test, correlation and partial correlation analysis and wavelet analysis. Result demonstrates that the summer precipitation in the middle-lower Yangtze River Basin has increased significantly during the past 50 years, and shows a negative linear correlation with the main components of Asian summer monsoon indices. Specific significant influencing area shows the largest for East Asian summer monsoon, followed by South China Sea summer monsoon and South Asian summer monsoon. With reference to the linear correlation, the partial correlation coefficient between the summer precipitation of the middle-lower Yangtze River Basin and the main Asian monsoon indices decreased remarkably, and all the correlations were not significant. The three Asian monsoon subsystems show strong interactions which exert important influence on the local precipitation. Cross wavelet transform and wavelet coherence analysis revealed that summer precipitation in the middle-lower Yangtze River Basin and the main Asian summer monsoon indices shows multi-time scale oscillation period, which is dominant by anti-phase relationship. Wavelet analysis also indicates that significant coherence between summer precipitation and the Asian summer monsoon indices seems to be weakened in recent years since the middle 1980s.
The East Tiaoxi River(ETR) is one of the dominant branch of Tai Lake Watershed where is one of the most developed area in China. In recent years, water pollution in the ETR has become so serious that the current water quality of some drinking water destrict can’t meet the drinking water district standard grade. This article aims to assess the benefits of water quality improvements in the ETR and adopt the Binary Logistic Model to make empirical researches towards affective factors of the ETR, which is based on contingent valuation method(CVM) questionnaire investigation. Results on a contingent valuation study are shown: 1) 357 of 534 residents have willingness to pay for water quality improvements in the ETR, willingness payment is from 104.01 to 128.54 yuan/(a·home) or 115.63 yuan/(a·home) . 2) 34.1% of the residents have zero willingness to pay for improvement of the water quality in the ETR,the first cause is that they think it is not their duty but government or enterprises’s duty. 3) By using Binary Logistic Model, it shows that resident population, degree of education, knowingness of their drinking water comes from the ETR or not have the positive effects on willingness payment, but satisfaction or not with their own tap-water quality has negative effect. Suggestions are as follows: Increasing water fee to improve the water quality; Founding water environment information system to make residents to know; Executing serious environmental standard to push industries to decrease pollutants.
The soil water retention curve (SWRC) is the basic parameter of soil hydraulics to study soil water movement and soil water balance, which is closely related to soil physical and chemical properties. But the parameters of model is difficult to estimate. In this study, black soil samples with different erosion intensity were collected in the black soil region of Northeast China, and soil moisture under 7 soil water suction, mechanical composition, organic matter and bulk density were measured. We used Rosetta model to estimate the parameters of Van Genuchten (VG) model and compared the estimated soil moisture with the measured soil moisture. And then the simulation accuracy of different soil physical and chemical indexes and the suitability of the method to the black soil in Northeast China were evaluated. The results showed that there had little effect for the residual water content (θr) and saturated water content (θs) between 4 or 6 soil properties index, but had large difference for the scale parameter (α) and shape parameter (n). When the 6 indexes were used, shape parameter n decreased with the increased of scale parameter α. The relationship between the shape parameters m and n of the VG model was further modified, which improved the accuracy of model fitting obviously. The results of the 6 indexes were better than the 4 indexes. But the estimated values were different from the measured values and the estimated values were larger than the measured, which means soil moisture estimation need to be corrected according to the estimated value of relatively large degree. The fitting precision of Rosetta model for lightly and moderately erosion black soil was higher, and the precision of severely erosion black soil was lower. The model was suitable for sand content less than 46%, the clay content more than 28% of black soil in Northeast China.