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CN 22-1124/P
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  • 地理科学
      2004年, 第24卷, 第2期 刊出日期:2004-03-20 上一期    下一期
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    论文
    中国西部地区高新技术产业发展战略及空间组织形式
    张晓平, 陆大道
    地理科学. 2004, 24 (2): 129-135.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.02.129
    摘要   PDF (910KB)
    在经济全球化背景下,科学技术的发展水平和能力成为国家和地区经济竞争能力的决定性因素。中国西部地区的发展,必须实现科技与经济的紧密结合。只有依靠发展高新技术产业并尽快利用高新技术改造传统产业,西部地区的发展才可能突破传统生产要素的地理局限,为实现跨越式发展提供新的可能性。中国西部重点经济带具有较强的科技实力和较好的技术创新基础,形成了一批独具特色的高科技产业和品牌,在全国具有一定的比较优势。未来西部重点经济带高新技术产业应采取"发展与地区优势相结合的高科技产业群、以高新技术武装的传统产业和以高科技为支撑的现代服务业"相结合的发展战略;在空间组织形式上,应采取高新技术产业带、重点城市和重点园区相结合的模式,形成网络化的空间组织形态。
    Under the economic globalization, the developmental level and ability of science and technology become critical factors affecting the economic competitiveness of a country or a region. Therefore, the development of western China can be achieved by close combination of science and technology with economic development. In fact, only by developing the new & high tech industries and by adopting them into traditional industries as soon as possible, the traditional economy in the Western China could be transformed successfully. Moreover, the development of new & high tech industries in the Western China can make these areas just break through the limitation of traditional factors influencing the social and economic development level and provide them new opportunities for jumping-up development that will contribute much to narrow regional disparity within China. Based upon the analysis of the current situation and comparative advantages of new & high tech industry development in the Western China, strategic orientations and key fields of new & high tech industries are put forward. It suggests that the developmental strategies of high-tech industries in the Western China should put emphasis on three facets as: 1) accelerating the development of new & high tech industries combining with the local advantages; 2) upgrading traditional industries by new & high tech, such as advanced manufacturing; 3) improving modern producer-service industries. From spatial perspective, the development of new & high tech industries in Western China should rely on rational distributions of related sectors in core cities, such as Xi’an, Chengdu, Chongqing, etc. as well as in high-tech parks. Furthermore, suggestions to policy-makers of how to achieve successful development of new & high tech industries in western China are provided.
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    中国中部农区企业集群的竞争优势研究——以河南省虞城县南庄村钢卷尺企业集群为例
    李小建, 李二玲
    地理科学. 2004, 24 (2): 136-143.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.02.136
    摘要   PDF (1233KB)
    中国中部农区企业集群的竞争优势来源既具有一般企业集群的共性——它是规模经济、分工经济和网络联系三者共同作用的结果,又具有其特殊的个性——模仿创新的普遍发生、中原文化背景、制度扶持和较低的劳动力、土地等要素成本起决定作用。以河南省虞城县南庄村钢卷尺企业集群为例,详细分析了中国中部农区企业集群竞争优势的内在来源。
    The competitive advantages of enterprise clusters in rural areas of central China are resulted from not only the triple factors of the economies of scale, the economies of the division of labor and the network linkage, which is the common characteristic of all clusters, but also from the imitative innovation, the context of the central Chinese culture, the institutional support and the lower production costs. This article takes the example of the steel tape clusters in Nanzhuang Village, Yucheng County, Henan Province to examine the theory in view of the practice.
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    上海大都市交通网络分形的时空特征演变研究
    刘妙龙, 黄蓓佩
    地理科学. 2004, 24 (2): 144-149.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.02.144
    摘要   PDF (713KB)
    分形理论的城市形态发生学研究应用,首先是从交通网络的应用开始的。国内外学者进行的大量案例研究表明,分形分维有可能是表征城市交通网络特征、解释城市交通网络发展,演化的一种较为理想的测度指标。以上海这一国际性大都市的交通网络为研究主体,通过测算上海市不同行政区域交通网络的分维值,研究分形特征的空间变化;利用不同时代上海市全域及典型行政区交通网络的分维,研究分形特征的时间演化。研究结果表明,在上海与一些发展相当成熟的大、中城市与城市化地区,交通网络形态1.7左右的分形分维值具有普适性,有可能是判断网络形态与功能、结构完善度的一个较为合宜的测度指标;分维的变化,表现在空间域上,上海城市交通网络的分形特征内域明显复杂于外域,在城市发展主轴方向表现为由内向外分维测度值的有序降低;而在时间域,近期的交通网络分形复杂度明显高于早期,网络的构型不断得到优化;这一总体趋势,与城市形态开发、经济发展的历程相一致。可以相信,分形测度与分维的演化将成为描述城市形态发生学过程的一个最有用的指标。
    The application of fractal theory in research on the urban morphology is initiated from research on traffic network. A lot of case researches made by scholars at home and abroad have been shown that the fractal feature and fractal dimension would become a relatively ideal and useful measured indicator to remark the form and property of traffic network in a city and explain the process and dynamics of developing and evolving of the network. This paper has taken the traffic network in Shanghai Metropolis as a study case, by using the fractal dimension of the traffic network measured and calculated in Shanghai and its some districts, the spatial changes of the fractal feature have been researched. By comparing the fractal dimension in deferent periods measured and estimated in the city and districts, the temporal evolution of the fractal feature have been investigated. The results show that the value of 1.7 of fractal dimension of a traffic and road network in a lot of metropolises, big and medium size cities and some urbanized areas has a universality’s meaning, it will be an appropriate indicator for evaluating and judging the form, function, structure and perfectiveness of the traffic network. As to the changes of fractal dimension in the spatial field, the fractal feature of the traffic network in the inner city of Shanghai is more complicated than that in the outer city, and the fractal dimension is gradually decreased from the inner to the outer city along the main developing axes of the city. In the temporal field, the fractal feature and complexity of the traffic network in the recent period is higher than that in the earlier, the form strength of the network has been optimized gradually. This general evolving tendency is coincided with the developing processes of the city. It is believed that the fractal dimension and its evolution will become a most useful indicator for describing and explaining the morphological process of the city explicitly together with other useful city’s indicators.
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    基于可持续发展的长春市产业空间结构特征及调控措施分析
    谢景武, 娄晓黎
    地理科学. 2004, 24 (2): 150-156.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.02.150
    摘要   PDF (848KB)
    对长春市产业空间结构的现状分、产业空间分布特征和规律进行分析,运用实地考察和数字分析等方法,描绘了长春市社会经济发展现状和产业聚集分散状态对长春市产业空间结构和经济社会发展的影响,从社会经济的发展过程入手,用可持续发展的理论和方法分析认识长春市产业空间结构特征,指出了今后长春市产业空间结构调整的方向。
    Industry structure effect has been one of the important factors affecting regional economy increment. Especially the industry structure and its spatial distribution of central city play an important role for regional economy development. Research on these facets could provide reasons and grounds for adjustment and arrangement of industry structure. Changchun City is the central city of Jilin Province and belongs to a developing city. Its economy and society have made a great progress since the foundation of the People's Republic of China in 1949. However, the existing problems, especially the unreasonable industry structure, have already limited the further development of the city. This paper summarized city's features and law of distribution of the industry structure to provide solutions for rapid development of the economy with the analysis of the current situation of the industrial structure. By means of the investigation and data analysis, we described the current situation of Changchun city's social-economic development and the status of gathering and radiating. Through investigation of distribution of the three industrial structures, the study analyzed the influence of the distribution of the industrial structure on city's economy, and pointed out the direction for adjustment of industry structure in future. The further suggestions on rearrangement of industry structure of Changchun City are: (1) Gathering the auto factory, car factory and their matching companies to the southeast. If necessary, the auto factory can be portioned as a single administration zone separately for efficient management. (2) Dispersing the small enterprise engaging in the tertiary industry to the urban zone. At present, most service enterprises mustered in several big traditional commercial zones, such as Damalu road, railway station, Chongqing road, and Hongqi street etc. Along with the economy development, service industry have taken place an dispersive trend, especially nearbouring the Yatai square. (3) Adjusting the developing direction of the two development zone, i.e. Changchun Economic and Technological Development Zone and Changchun High Technology Development Zone. We can adopted some ways such as land replacement, to expand the Changchun Economic and Technological Development Zone to the Xinglongshan, and to stretch Changchun High Technology Development Zone to the Fufengzhen. In addition, we should place the industry projects at the sides of Chang-Ji(Changchun-Jilin) and Chang-Ping(Changchun-Siping) railways to form an belt distribution. (4) Transiting the enterprises with heavy pollution and big water consumption far from the main city zone. Some introduced projects should be placed at the water sources nearby. The Luyuan district should be constructed as the ecological and green urban zone to lessen the pollution from the windward. (5) Developing and constructing strivingly the important towns along the transportation lines such as Mishazi, Nong'an, etc. The size of the towns should be enlarged gradually to accelerate economy development.
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    西南岩溶山区生态危机与反贫困的可持续发展文化反思
    李阳兵, 王世杰, 容丽
    地理科学. 2004, 24 (2): 157-162.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.02.157
    摘要   PDF (829KB)
    西南岩溶山区生态环境退化严重、贫困人口集中。文章探讨民族传统文化观念在岩溶山区经济活动中的作用,力图寻找岩溶山区生态恶化和贫困的深层次原因,指出岩溶山区存在的山地文化封闭性和典型的贫困文化特性及不合理的现代性转换导致区域生态恶化和可持续发展的滞后。岩溶山区应通过生态恢复模式示范建设、开展参与式社区资源管理、改善居民聚居点环境来实现文化创新和文化整合,实现传统性与现代性的深层次互动与接纳,拓宽现代性生长的内在精神空间,变外源性的"输血"机制为内源性的"造血"机制,从而使岩溶山区实现可持续发展。
    The eco-environment of the karst mountain area in Southwest China has been degraded seriously and is one of the largest poverty-stricken areas in China. This paper probes into the influence of nation tradition culture ideas on society process and economy activities in karst mountains in order to search the profundity reason for eco-environment degradation and nation poverty. The result indicates that occlusive mountainous culture characteristics, typical poverty culture characteristics and irrational modernity diversion result in regional eco-environment degradation and the lag of society sustainable development in karst mountains. Ecological rehabilitation and reconstruction model, community-based participatory natural resource management and amelioration of community environment should be the approaches to realize culture changes including culture innovation and culture conformity, make tradition culture and modern culture assimilate each other in a deepen administrative levels in karst mountains, develop inherence spirit space of modernity, turn outer "blood transfusion" into endogenesis "blood making", accordingly, realize sustainable development in karst mountains in Southwest China.
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    薄板光顺样条插值与中国气候空间模拟
    阎洪
    地理科学. 2004, 24 (2): 163-169.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.02.163
    摘要   PDF (346KB)

    利用720个气象台网的长期平均气象数据拟合具有三维地理空间的气候曲面,并与1km空间分辨率的数字高程模型相结合,对气候变量的规则栅格进行插值估计。对各月平均最低温度、平均最高温度和降水量的插值结果构成了基础数字气候空间,以满足地理信息系统的数据分析需求。插值过程提供的误差统计表明插值的温度误差普遍小于0.6度,降水误差范围在8%~15%,明显优于其它插值方法。样条法利用线性模型反映地形对气候的影响,并提供了简便的误差诊断程序,具有良好的实用性。


    Understanding of climate spatial distribution depending on topography is the key to environmental and resource management. However, there is a limit to factor climate into ecological study because most climatic data are obtained from a sparse, irregularly distributed meteorological network with unchecked data errors. Interpolation technique for estimating climate at any location from data points is demanded. This paper demonstrated the generation of gridded climate data in regular space by coupling thin plate smoothing spline surfaces of monthly mean minimum temperature, mean maximum temperature and precipitation to underlying 1 km resolution digital elevation model (DEM) for China. The thin plate smoothing spline involves topographically dependence of climate with linear sub-model for accurate interpolation. It provides a series of diagnostic procedures for data error detection and correction. The predictive errors of temperature are within 0.6℃ and for precipitation in range of 6%-12%. The data of other climate variables with biological meanings can be derived directly from interpolated surfaces and grids. The developed regular grid of climate will be used primarily as unchanged climate condition for study of climate change. There are various potential applications in spatial prediction of flora species, identifying priority areas of biodiversity and development of ecoregions.

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    GIS支持下的黄土高原地震滑坡区划研究
    王亚强, 王兰民, 张小曳
    地理科学. 2004, 24 (2): 170-176.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.02.170
    摘要   PDF (1026KB)
    分析了影响黄土滑坡的各项影响因子,利用层次分析法(AHP)确定各影响因子的权重。在GIS支持下,建立包括各因子图的空间数据库,对各因子进行分级赋值,然后进行因子加权叠加分析,完成三种超越概率下(50年超越概率2%、10%和63.5%)黄土高原地震滑坡区划图。黄土地震滑坡灾害最严重地区一个是宁夏南部及与其相邻的甘肃白银地区,另一个是甘肃天水地区。
    The Loess Plateau, the region with most extensive and thickest loess deposition in China, is located at middle reaches of the Yellow River and its area reaches 275600km2. And it is the region with severe seismic disaster because of loess characteristics of loosen, big hole and weak cementation and frequent strong earthquake occurring. Landslides are one of the most damaging collateral hazards associated with earthquakes. In fact, damage from triggered landslides has sometimes exceeded damage directly related to strong shaking and fault rupture. Seismic landslide zonation maps representing the susceptibility of slopes to failure during and earthquake could therefore be useful tools for preventing disasters and to help land-use planners to make decisions. Six factors impacting loess landslide are analyzed: seismic acceleration, stratum, morphology type, precipitation, slope angle and natural density, and the relative importance of each determined factor of slope instability was quantitatively determined by pair-wise comparison using the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) method. The result shows that seismic acceleration is the most important factor with weight value 0.3834. The following factors are morphology type and slope angle with weight value 0.2734 and 0.1543, respectively. Stratum, precipitation and natural density are not the major factors with weight value 0.0599, 0.0878 and 0.0416, respectively. Through digitizing, the spatial database including the factor's mapsof the factors and their attribute data is built in AcrView GIS software. Each factor map is converted into grid format with size 200m?200m. Then each factor is classified into several classes with regard to their changing in the nature and each class is valued from 1 to 6 according to their impacting degree on landslide. Subsequently the values of six factors classes are multiplied by derived weights for each factor and then are summed together. So the total value so-called landslide index for each pixel and whole region are achieved. With regard to landslide index, the Loess Plateau is divided to four susceptibility classes: very low, low, moderate and high. Finally the landslide zonation maps of the Loess Plateau with three probabilities of exceedance (2%, 10% and 63.5% probability of exceedance in 50 years) are accomplished. Comparing past landslides distribution with zonation map of 2% probability of exceedance in 50 years shows the most landslides are located in high and moderate susceptibility areas, and the group landslides are located in high susceptibility areas. There are two regions with severest landslide hazard: one is south of Ningxia Province with adjacent Baiyin Prefecture of Gansu Province; the other is Tianshui Prefecture of Gansu Province. The moderate landslide hazard areas include: the areas around the above areas from east Pingliang Prefecture to Lanzhou City; Fen-Wei graben and its around areas. The other areas have low landslide susceptibility, especially Erdos block is the stablest area.
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    Hurst指数估计中存在的若干问题——以在气候变化研究中的应用为例
    江田汉, 邓莲堂
    地理科学. 2004, 24 (2): 177-182.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.02.177
    摘要   PDF (1096KB)
    用7种方法估计中国近百年月平均温度距平序列的Hurst指数,并用随机重排法与高斯随机数做均值对比。结果表明:R/S分析法、小波分析法和Whittle法优于残差方差法、绝对值法、聚合方差法和周期图法;中国近百年月平均温度距平序列的Hurst指数的估计值约为0.76±0.003,表现出较强的持续性。未来中国月平均温度变化将与自20世纪80年代增温的趋势一致,将来整体趋势还是增温。
    The phenomena with self-similarity and long-range dependence are widespread in the nature. One of the main approaches that quantificationally measure the long range dependence is to estimate a Hurst exponent, which has been extensively applied in hydrology, climatology, geology, and seismology, etc. Based on the analysis of several popular estimating methods and their virtues and limitations, some common problems in their applications are pointed out, and the corresponding solutions are proposed in this paper. Then, seven methods are used to estimate the Hurst exponent for average monthly temperature anomaly in China from January,1873 to December,1990.To test the effect of the results, mean values are compared with a set of Gaussian distribution random numbers using the randomly shuffling method. The results are as follows: R/S method, Abry-Veitch method, and Whittle method are superior to Variance of residuals, Absolute Value method, Aggregated Variance method, and Periodogram method. The appropriate value of the Hurst exponent is, indicating persistence, i.e., the trend of temperature variations in China in near future will generally be the same as the past. The temperature warming trend from the 1980s indicates another warming trend for hereafter.
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    河流水质未确知风险评价理论模式研究
    李如忠, 钱家忠, 汪家权
    地理科学. 2004, 24 (2): 183-187.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.02.183
    摘要   PDF (229KB)
    基于河流水文、水力和水质资料信息未确知性的特点,运用未确知数学理论,建立了河流水质模拟预测的未确知数学模型;并提出了河流水质未确知风险、未确知测度概念及其计算模式。由河流水质模拟预测结果,得到下游控制断面污染物浓度分布区间及其相应可信度值,再由未确知测度计算模型确定水质超标风险。实例研究表明,运用未确知数学进行不确定性信息下河流水质模拟与风险评估,理论上是可行的,计算结果是可靠的。这为水质运移扩散规律和风险分析问题的研究提供了一种新方法。
    The river water environmental system is a system with many uncertainties. The risk assessment quantifying the influence of uncertainties on river water quality have been paied attention to widely. Based on the multi-uncertainty characteristics of hydrologic, hydraulic and river water quality information, such as current velocity, flow rate, contaminant concentration, self-purification rate of the pollutant substance concerned, and so on, the concepts of blind number of water quality parameters are defined by using unascertained mathematics theories. On the basis of it, an unascertained mathematical model to describe the transport and conversion rules of organic pollutants is established. Using the unascertained water quality model, the distribution of contaminant concentration of the reach down the outlet of pollutants and its corresponding faith degree can be determined. According to the calculation results, the risk for contaminant concentration exceeding the standard value can be calculated. In order to realize the task, the assessment model of unascertained risk for water quality concentration exceeding the standard value is established, based on the blind number theory in unascertained mathematics. In the assessment model, the contaminant concentration in river water is treated as a blind number and the risk for contaminant concentration exceeding the standard value is expressed with faith degree. As a case, the models established here are applied to evaluate the risk for organic pollutant concentration(COD) exceeding the standard value in Guohe River at a certain section. The results provide more information and are satisfactory.
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    建立省级数字高程模型(DEM)的关键技术——以江苏省为例
    王库, 于东升, 史学正
    地理科学. 2004, 24 (2): 188-192.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.02.188
    摘要   PDF (257KB)
    文章以江苏省的DEM制作为例,介绍利用ARCINFO、ARCVIEW软件生成DEM的全过程中的关键技术。应用结果表明,可以快速查找出采编地形图信息过程中的错误,建立的DEM精度较高,更适合于水土流失的定量监测,显示了该技术方法的可行性。
    The map for producing DEM at provincial scale include mountains, plains, hills and crossing different projection zones, the data are very large, so careful preparation of data are needed to produce eligible DEM. Approaches of error control and some detailed methods are summarized in the paper. Key technique of finding errors and methods of establishing DEM of Jiangsu Province are introduced by using ARCINFO and ARCVIEW software. Results show that using the technique can quickly find errors in vector data. High precise DEM can be achieved by this method. The technique and method are feasible to establish eligible DEM for large areas at provincial scale. And the DEM established by this method is more suitable to apply in monitoring soil and water losses than other methods.
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    基于机载成像光谱数据的宜兴市土地利用/土地覆盖分类方法对比研究
    张定祥, 刘顺喜, 尤淑撑, 周连芳
    地理科学. 2004, 24 (2): 193-198.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.02.193
    摘要   PDF (276KB)
    对宜兴市机载成像光谱数据辐进行射畸变纠正、几何精确纠正和辐射定标等预处理,获得高光谱反射率图像。利用相关系数、均方差、离散度等统计特征进行面向土地利用/土地覆盖目的的波段优选,采用高光谱像元提纯分析工具获得分类所需的终端单元,并利用终端单元进行了研究区土地利用/土地覆盖分类对比研究。研究发现:最大似然法分类精度低,整体精度为84.89%,而二进制编码、神经网络分类和光谱角分类方法精度较高,整体精度分别为87.12%,88.75%,90.41%。这说明光谱角分类是最有效的高光谱影像土地利用/土地覆盖分类方法,文章研究采用的高光谱预处理以及波段选择方法是正确的。
    Taking Yixing City in Jiangsu Province as an example, a map of reflectivity is acquired after serials of pre-processing steps such as the calibration of illumination aberrance, rectification of geometry and calibration of reflectivity have been done. The effective bands are determined by analyzing the parameters of correlation of bands, entropy and separability of 128 bands. Based on the analyzing tools of hyper-spectrum images, some endmembers are acquired, and a comparison study of classification of land use/land cover has been done. The study shows that the overall accuracy of maximum likelihood is about 84.89%, and Kappa Coefficient =0.74, while overall accuracy of binary encoding, neural net and spectral angle mapping is 87.12%,88.75%,90.41% respectively. It also shows that the processing step is correct in the study, and spectral angle mapping is the most effective for imaging spectrometer data classification of land use and land cover.
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    应用卫星影像系列海图叠合法分析沙洲动态变化——以江苏东沙为例
    刘永学, 张忍顺, 李满春
    地理科学. 2004, 24 (2): 199-204.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.02.199
    摘要   PDF (867KB)
    利用1973~2000年9个时相的卫片、海图,提出了卫星影像系列——海图叠合分析法来分析辐射沙洲中大沙洲的动态变化,并将之运用到东沙的动态趋势分析中。研究结果表明:(1)通过卫星影像系列——海图叠合分析法,可避开了不同时相卫片的潮位校正难点,揭示了沙洲的冲蚀淤长变化。(2)东沙北缘向南移动;沙洲东缘向东移动;在沙洲西部遭受侵蚀,边缘东移,但幅度不大。
    The coast of Jiangsu Province is famous for its radial sand ridges offshore the coast, which is the largest tidal sandbanks in Chinese continent shelf. The sandbanks contain 10 great linear submarine sand ridges with center in Jiang-gang harbor. With population explosion and exacerbation of the environment, dynamic change of those sandbanks is highlighted during the past twenty years. But broad, muddy surface and complicated dynamic condition of the sandbanks, which is densely covered by tidal creeks, hinder updating of local landform data through routine measure method. The paper studies dynamic changes of the radial sand ridges offshore the coast of the Jiangsu Province based on GIS and RS technology. In the paper, a method named "superposition analysis" is brought forward and applied to the groupings of radial tidal ridges offshore the Coast of Jiangsu Province, using 9 MSS, TM satellite images (nice photographed in the low-tide period, without cloud in each image) from 1973 to 2000 and sea chart in 1979 (No. 1037), 1:50000 relief maps of research area. DEM of the radial tidal sandbanks area is created from the sea chart. Contour lines of different depth are interpolated from DEM by GIS. Pretreatment to the satellite imageries including research-area selection, atmospheric correction and image mosaic are made to the satellite images.Two crucial problems are resolved in studying dynamic change of radial tidal sandbanks: one is geometric correction of satellite images; the other is feasibility of shape comparison among satellite images acquired in different time. Key point to improve the precision of the result in studying dynamic change of the radial tidal sandbanks by satellite images of different time rests with geometric correction. Because the sandbanks are covered by sea water periodically, the shape of the radial tidal sandbanks dynamically changes with the tidal level. So we make use of the geometrical continuity of satellite images and register the land area first, which locates west of the radial tidal sandbanks. Thus in the symmetrical area extending to the sea, the error will not go far from the error in the land area. In the paper, geometric correction is made to each satellite image according to the 1:50000 relief map, with a high accuracy no more than one pixel. Based on the comparison between images on the same tidal levels, this paper makes use of series of images, that is, adopts the chart overlay analysis method, thus study the dynamic changes of radial sandbanks while avoiding the difficulty of tidal level rectification. This may be more accurate than overlaying satellite images of different tidal levels. By comparing the area of Dongsha sandbank in satellite image of 1979 with the tidal level of 114cm and the area enclosed by the 114cm contour in the sea chart, we can find that the difference of the two areas is lesser than 1% of the total area of Dongsha sandbank. Besides, the clsed shoreline enclosed by the 114cm contour of the sea chart tally with the outline of Dongsha sandbank in the satellite image of 1980 with the tidal level of 113cm on the whole. This indicates that satellite image series—the chart overlay analysis method is feasible in the application of large radial sandbanks.Appling the method mention above to the 9 phases satellite imageries, we discover that Dongsha Sandbank's aera decrease gradually. The sandbank doesn't have a simple moving trend, the motion of sandbank is rather complicated; the figure of the sandbank in the north has a southward movement; the outline of the sandbank in the west is eroded by the Xiyang Tidal Channnel; along with expanding of the Yaomen Tidal Channel in the south, the Jiangjiawu Sandbank has a trend to move to the Tiaozini Sandbank from the Dongsha Sandbank step by step. As a whole, Dongsha Sandbak lies in the range during the past twenty years.
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    基于DEM的地理要素PRISM空间内插研究
    赵登忠, 张万昌, 刘三超
    地理科学. 2004, 24 (2): 205-211.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.02.205
    摘要   PDF (1150KB)
    利用PRISM模型基于DEM、站点数据和其它空间数据图层内插了气象要素,以便准确表达其空间分布特征。为了比较PRISM空间内插结果,采用GIS常用的Kriging内插、Spline内插等方法分别对降水和气温站点数据进行空间插补,并对内插结果进行精度分析、DEM空间分辨率的影响分析和各个权重因子的影响分析。分析表明,PRISM方法比其它内插方法能够更加精确地表达气象要素的空间分布,更适合于在地形复杂地区地表参数的空间内插。由于气象要素空间分布的复杂性,PRISM内插方法不能完全表达地表参数空间异质性。以后研究中,应在更小的站点影响单元内考虑更多因子利用PRISM方法进行气象要素的空间内插。
    On the basis of brief review of several common approaches on spatial data interpolation in GIS, an independent approach based on PRISM concepts for accurately interpolating meteorological parameters, such as temperature and precipitation, were developed and compared with those commonly used. The test and comparison for the proposed PRISM approach was carried out on the Heihe River Basin, Northwest China, by means of DEM, spatially distributed station data and other control factors. The results show the best performance of the PRISM approach compared with other methods discussed in the context, such as Kriging and Spline method, over Qilian Mountain region and the further improvements of the approach are discussed briefly.
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    东北地区参考作物蒸散确定方法研究
    李晓军, 李取生
    地理科学. 2004, 24 (2): 212-216.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.02.212
    摘要   PDF (649KB)
    运用FAO-Penman-monteith方法和Hargreaves方法对中国东北地区4个气候大区16个气象台站的参考作物蒸散(ET0)进行了研究,并对FAO-Penman-monteith方法和Hargreaves方法的计算结果进行分析。发现:Hargreaves方法可适用于东北地区,尤其是亚湿润地区,但是相对于FAO-Penman-monteith方法,该方法还存在偏差,特别是半干旱地区。为了进一步提高Hargreaves方法的精度,对其进行了修正,得出比Hargreaves方法精度更高的适于东北地区参考作物蒸散计算的方程,为精确、实用地确定作物需水量和合理的灌溉制度提供了科学依据,有利于水资源的合理利用,尤其是水资源缺乏的半干旱地区。
    Based on FAO-Penman-monteith method and Hargreaves method, the paper studied the reference crop evapotranspiration (ET0) of sixteen meteorological observatories in four climate zones of the northeastern China, and analyzed the results of the two methods. The results indicated that in the northeastern China the ET0 computed by the FAO-Penman-monteith method and that by Hargreaves method showed the same tendency in the crop growth stage. From the beginning of April to the beginning of June the ET0 increased, and then began to decrease, but a small peak was inserted in the last ten days of August. The tendency proved the lineal relationship between the two methods. The degree of fitness between the results of the two methods indicated that the Hargreaves method was suitable for the northeastern China, especially for the semi-humid area. But compared with the FAO-Penman-monteith method, the Hargreaves method still had deviation on the result, especially in the semi-arid area of the middle temperate zone. So the Hargreaves method needed to be adjusted. In order to improve the precision of the Hargreaves method, the equation acquired by the regressive analysis was recommended in the paper.
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    乌兰布和沙漠北部全新世地貌演化
    贾铁飞, 银山
    地理科学. 2004, 24 (2): 217-221.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.02.217
    摘要   PDF (595KB)
    根据对乌兰布和沙漠北部地区全新世风沙和湖泊沉积记录及其沉积时代进行分析,认为全新世以来,乌兰布和沙漠北部地区地貌演化经历了4个主要的发育时期:Q33~Q41湖泊地貌发育时期,Q41风沙地貌发育时期,Q42湖(河)(屠申泽)地貌发育时期和Q43风沙地貌发育时期。全新世中期屠申泽最为繁盛的时期,湖泊相互沟通,范围几乎占据了整个乌兰布和沙漠北部地区,之后经历了自南向北的萎缩、分化过程,而屠申泽的萎缩、分化过程正是乌兰布和沙漠晚全新世风沙地貌发育并不断扩张的过程,这是一个以自然环境变化为主因、以人为影响为辅因的变化过程。
    According to the record of eolian & lake deposit and their chronology date in the northern Ulan Buh Desert in the Holocene, it is stated that Ulan Buh Desert's process of geomorphic evolution in the Holocene can be divided into 4 stages: (1) Lake Geomorphy stage in Q33-Q41. (2) Eolian Geomorphy stage in Q41. (3) Lake (Tushenze Lake) Geomorphy stage in the middle Holocene (Q42). (4) Eolian Geomorphy stage that the wind power was gradually stronger in the late Holocene (Q43). Tushenze Lake had been the united largest scale in the middle Holocene, when it had occupied the all most of the northern Ulan Buh Desert. Then Tushenze Lake had began to shrink and separate into a several little lakes. The process of the lake shrunk was none other than the one of the desert expanded, which resulted from natural environmental evolution mainly.
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    中国开展战略环境评价中存在的问题及其对策
    王玉梅, 尚金城, 邓朝生
    地理科学. 2004, 24 (2): 222-226.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.02.222
    摘要   PDF (212KB)
    简要介绍了战略环境评价在中国的研究进展,分析了战略环境评价在中国开展的过程中在立法、行政及方法、指标体系和公众参与等方面存在的缺陷和不足,并提出了克服困难的对策。
    This paper mainly addresses the progress of Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) in China, analyses the obstacles which come from exterior and interior of SEA in the progress of developing SEA in China. In exterior of SEA, there is only legislation for plan in China, and SEA looks as some deficiency in statute and policy, but SEA is a strategic system which has many levels, accordingly SEA's developing is blocked in high levels and low levels. The obstacles of SEA's implementation failure include strategies' becoming apparent, spread, lack and substitute. The faultiness of political system is one of the reasons why SEA's implementation is failure. In interior of SEA, the faultiness of means system prevents SEA from developing in high levels, the index system looks as faultiness at present, especially lack integrated index system which reflects environment, society and economy's mutual influence because of complexity, universality and multilayer of objects of SEA research. The obstacles which come from public participation are divided into obstacles of uncertainty of public participation and obstacles of stuff of public participaters. It's a basic situation that the population of China is large, environment education started late, public environment stuff is not high at large. The enthusiasm of public participation is not high, which increases difficulty to develop procedure of public participation during implementation of SEA in China. At last the paper puts forward some basic countermeasures to overcome the obstacles. These basic countermeasures are establishing law system of supporting SEA, developing work of SEA training, increasing participaters and decision-makers' stuff, strengthening propagandizing SEA's production and increasing influence of SEA, perfecting methodology system and evaluation index system of SEA, strengthening intercommunion and cooperation. Although the research and development of SEA is starting in China, most researchers and decision-makers commonly identify with SEA because of its importance of implementation.
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    北京密云水库小流域非点源污染负荷估算
    王晓燕, 王晓峰, 汪清平, 王振刚, 蔡新广
    地理科学. 2004, 24 (2): 227-231.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.02.227
    摘要   PDF (697KB)
    根据不同类型的非点源污染发生区,选择若干径流小区,进行降雨、径流量、径流水质同步监测,分析不同土地利用类型小区地表径流和泥沙中氮、磷的流失情况。根据地貌特征和土地利用情况,利用通用土壤流失方程和SCS法分别计算不同土地利用类型区土壤侵蚀量和径流量,分析氮、磷的流失特点。结果表明:坡耕地和荒草坡单位面积土壤流失量比较严重;村庄中溶解态氮的流失量最多;村庄和坡耕地是氮、磷流失的重点区域。
    Nitrogen and phosphorus, coming mainly from non-point sources (NPS), are major nutrients to cause eutrophication to degrade water quality of Miyun Reservoir, and the only source of surface drinking water in Beijing, China. Based on the land use and geographical condition, the research area is classified into different types of non-point source areas as follows: agricultural land, forestland, orchard, garigue and village. Several runoff units of various land use areas are selected to monitor rainfall, runoff and water quality synchronously for nutrient loss from runoff and sediment at various land use areas. On the basis of geomorphic and land use, this small watershed is divided into several plots. Using USLE equation and SCS runoff curve, soil erosion mount and runoff of each plot are calculated. Considering the actual concentration of nutrient, loading of nutrient of surface runoff and sediment are estimated. The results show that TP, TN concentrations of diffuse samples from villages and livestock units are nearly 10 times of that in other land use areas. High nutrient loads are associated with village land use, which has improper livestock breeding. These areas should be treated as critical areas of non-point source pollution. Different land use influences intensively the loss of pollutants, especially slope tilling in agricultural land. The amount of nutrient loss from per agricultural land and orchard is the highest, then is that from garigue. Nutrient is enriched in sediment. Phosphorus is migrated with sediment, while the dissoluble form in runoff is very little. Being carrier of loss nutrients, the fine particles are thought to be the controlling focus.
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    于桥水库流域农业非点源磷污染控制区划研究
    张淑荣, 陈利顶, 傅伯杰
    地理科学. 2004, 24 (2): 232-237.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.02.232
    摘要   PDF (736KB)
    以于桥水库流域28个次级小流域作为区划对象,以影响该区域农业非点源磷污染的6个主要因子,包括降雨侵蚀力因子(R),土壤可蚀性因子(K),地形因子(LS),植被覆盖因子(C)以及土壤有效磷含量(SAP)和化肥磷施用量(FP),作为区划因子,采用系统聚类法进行区划,将于桥水库流域分为4类磷污染控制类型区,分析了各个类型区的生态环境特征、农业非点源磷污染特征和主要影响因子,提出相应的控制措施。为进一步进行更深入的研究提供科学依据。
    Yuqiao Reservoir Watershed is divided into four pollution-controlling regions of phosphorous loss by using clustering method, taking 28 sub-watersheds as regionalization objects. Six impacting factors of agricultural non-point source phosphorous pollution were regarded as regionalization factors, including 4 factors of Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE): rainfall-runoff factor (R), soil erodibility factor (K), landform factor (LS), vegetation factor (C) as well as soil available phosphorus (SAP) and fertilizer phosphorus application rate (FP). It was found that the important regionalization factors greatly effecting the regionalization results of agricultural non-point phosphorous were rainfall-runoff factor (R), landform factor (LS), vegetation factor (C) and fertilizer phosphorus application rate (FP), which had great variability among four pollution-controlling regions. While soil erodibility factor (K) and soil available phosphorus (SAP) had little importance for the regionalization because of their small variability among different regions. The natural eco-environmental characteristics, phosphorous pollution characteristics and its major impacting factors in each region were analyzed, and based on that, the pertinent control measures were proposed, providing scientific foundation for carrying out the in-depth study in the following work.
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    综述
    矿区生态研究的现状及发展趋势
    尹德涛, 南忠仁, 金成洙
    地理科学. 2004, 24 (2): 238-244.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.02.238
    摘要   PDF (800KB)
    矿区是由资源、环境、经济和社会等子系统构成的复杂生态系统。从矿区生态环境问题、土地复垦与生态恢复方法、矿产资源综合利用、可持续发展、矿产资源利用规划、生态恢复技术、土壤生态环境与生物生态、矿区地球化学、矿区生态系统、矿区景观生态、法律法规和政策研究等11个方面总结了矿区生态研究的现状,提出了矿区生态研究的发展趋势。
    Mining area is a compound ecosystem of nature and human, and composed by the subsystem of resources, environment, economy and society. The emphasis of ecological research varies at different activities. Before mining, plan and ecosystem design should be proceeded to reduce or avoid the harm to environment when mining resources development. In the mining period, the best technique should be utilized to protect and resume the ecosystem of mining area, reduce pollution of the environment. In post-mining area, the main mission is to recover the native ecosystem. The object of the ecological research in mining area is a compound ecosystem. Because of the various kinds and distribution of mining resources, the complexity of the nature and human environment, the complicacy of the internal of mining area, the different relation of mining area and its subsided area, all of these determine the complexity and synthesis of the mining area, and environment and the ecological research in mining area. The ecological research in mining area also includes making policy with its related society, economics of resumption, the evaluation of nature, policy and plan, education, social service, and other society and philosophy realm.
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    研究报道
    江水浊度在污染河段水质净化中的作用分析及建议
    李绪谦, 张建伟, 王奇杰, 邱娜
    地理科学. 2004, 24 (2): 245-249.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.02.245
    摘要   PDF (773KB)
    江水的浊度是水质的重要指标之一,浊度越大,江水的水质越差。但如果能合理的利用浊度,又可以使之成为有效控制水污染、净化江水水质的积极因素。通过试验与实际调查分析了哈尔滨市松花江段河流水质的自净过程和机理,发现江水中悬浮颗粒物的吸附作用和絮凝沉淀作用对江水净化起重要作用。而利用并强化江水的这种净化能力,是一种经济有效的水污染控制手段。为更好的防治污染,还对松花江哈尔滨市江段污染治理提出一些具体建议:(1)控制污染物排放;(2)根据河道水环境容量合理确定污染带范围;(3)利用浊度人工辅助去污。
    Turbidity is one of the most important targets of the water quality of river, higher the turbidity degree, worse the water quality. But in controlling pollution of river water, it may be a good method to control the pollution, even to purify water if use the density reasonablly. Through experiment and investigation on self-purification process and mechansim of water quality in the Songhua River in Harbin, it is found that adsorbent function and coagulative precipitation function of suspended matter play a important part in the river water purification. When the turbidity of river water is between 40 and 400, the Cu and Pb content can be removed 40%-80%, organic matter content can be removed 50%-64%. The main parameters influencing coagulative process according to the theory of orthokinetic Coagulation include effective collision coefficient(α), speed gradient(G) and grain volume density(ô). On the basis of these parameters, the turbidity of river water and the condition of optimal coagulative precipitation of suspended matter is adjusted by draining polluted water to possess different sources. It can get rid of the pollution matter in water even more effectively. This is a economic and effective way in controling water pollution. For controling and teating the water pollution, there are some suggestions:(1) control the exhausts of the pollutant according to total quantity target ;(2) identify the extent of the pollution according to the capacity of the river environment;(3) artificially assist decontamination on the basis of natural water purification.
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    古村落旅游客流时间分布特征及其影响因素研究——以世界文化遗产西递、宏村为例
    卢松, 陆林, 王莉, 王咏, 梁栋栋, 杨钊
    地理科学. 2004, 24 (2): 250-256.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.02.250
    摘要   PDF (1276KB)
    古村落作为传统文化旅游地,旅游发展势头迅猛,关于古村落旅游学研究成果国内尚不多见。在实地调研基础上,以世界文化遗产西递、宏村为例,总结古村落旅游客流时间分布特征:客流增长迅速;客流季节性差异明显,呈现"三峰三谷"型波动;一般性周内客流为斜"Z"分布,黄金周客流呈"井喷"式,客流周内分布不均;客流日内呈双峰型分布,时客流分布集中。从事件、社会因素、自然环境因素、黄山辐射效应、管理体制及经营管理水平等方面,展开客流时间变化影响因素分析。讨论不断攀升的客流给古村落所带来的负面影响。
    As traditional cultural destination, ancient villages have been paid more attention for a swift and violent development. But the achievements about the tourism study of the ancient villages are rare and its theory in fact fall behind with the practice. Taking the world cultural heritage—Xidi Village and Hongcun Village—as an example, on the basis of a considerable on-the-spot survey, this paper summarizes the temporal characteristics of tourist flows to ancient villages as follows: (1) tourist flows increase rapidly; (2) seasonal differences of tourist flows are obvious with the shape of "3-peak-3-valley"; (3) tourist flow distribution is irregular and shaped as slanting "Z" within a week generally, while at peak weeks shaped as "blowout"; (4) tourist flows is shaped as "double-peak" within one day and temporal distribution of tourist flows is concentrated. Furthermore, the authors also discuss the influential factors, such as events, social factors, natural environmental factors, radiating effect of Mt. Huangshan, and management systems. Meanwhile, a preliminary comparison between ancient villages and other kinds of destinations has been brought up. At last the authors expound the impacts coming from the increasing tourist flows. The study contributes to promoting the thorough research on the tourism of ancient villages and providing scientific base of sustainable development of it.
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