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ISSN 1000-0690
CN 22-1124/P
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  • 地理科学
      2005年, 第25卷, 第3期 刊出日期:2005-05-20 上一期    下一期
    选择: 合并摘要 显示图片
    论文
    中国农村聚落空心化问题实证研究
    王成新, 姚士谋, 陈彩虹
    地理科学. 2005, 25 (3): 257-262.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2005.03.257
    摘要   PDF (1103KB)
    城市和农村是两种主要的人类居住群落。在中国城市化迅速发展的进程中,广大农村却出现了日益严重的空心化问题。以山东省新泰市北公村为例,通过广泛的问卷调查和实地调研,总结了村落空心化发展的三个阶段,阐明了村落向心力与离心力失衡、经济发展迅速和观念意识落后、新房建设加速和规划管理薄弱等三大矛盾是村落空心化的内在机制,针对村落空心化对耕地资源、小康社会建设以及农村人居环境等带来的不利影响,站在科学发展观的角度,从管理、规划、基础设施建设等方面提出相应的对策措施。
    Cities and countryside are the main inhabitation communities for human being. There is showing "village-hollowing", which is one of the problems in the countryside and becoming more and more serious because of the rapid development of urbanization in China. This article takes Beigong village as an example and summarizes the three phrases of "village-hollowing" based on deeply research and analysis. It expounds that the mechanism of "village-hollowing" lies in the three contradictions, unbalance between centripetal and centrifugal forces in village, unbalance between rapid economic development and behindhand ideology, speedup of house building and weakness of administration. Some countermeasures are given against the disadvantageous impacts caused by "village-hollowing", such as strengthening administration, making planning scientifically, improving infrastructure and etc.
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    新世纪山东省城镇化可持续发展问题研究
    王富喜, 林炳耀
    地理科学. 2005, 25 (3): 263-267.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2005.03.263
    摘要   PDF (625KB)
    新世纪的山东省城镇化必须尽快实现由外延式向内涵式发展模式的战略转变,走可持续发展之路。以城镇产业的发展和向高层次跃进为支撑,以完善和强化城市功能为核心,全面提高城镇发展质量;变农村工业化为城镇工业化,以工业和服务业的联动发展推动城镇化水平的提高;加快相关制度改革步伐;统筹规划、分区推进全省城镇化进程的对策。
    Based on the analysis of the current character and the central problem of shandong provinceś urbanization since the reform and open policy, the author thinks that the urbanization of shandong province must achieve the transformation from the intramural development to extensive development as soon as possible in order to realize the sustainable development under the guidance of the thought of scientific development. The author points out that urban industry and urban function is the core in promoting the process of urbanization. Meanwhile, the author gives many strategies for promoting them, such as changing the rural industrialization to urban industrialization, improving the quality of the urbanization through the linkage of industry and service, stepping out the reform of the relative regime and planning the region as a whole.
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    近年来新疆城镇空间集聚变化研究
    杜宏茹, 张小雷
    地理科学. 2005, 25 (3): 268-273.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2005.03.268
    摘要   PDF (595KB)
    传统绿洲城镇的显著特点之一为相对孤立,封闭性强。但改革开放以来绿洲城镇的快速发展使集聚能力显著增强,相互作用日益密切。1990~2002年新疆87个城镇集聚能力的度量及其评析表明,新疆城镇集聚能力呈现进一步极化的趋势,中心城市的集聚功能突现,城市经济区实体开始形成,而处于中心城市集聚阴影区的城镇集聚能力相对弱化,并且表现出明显的南北疆地域差异。新疆城镇的集聚变化受绿洲扩展、资源开发和政治因素的深刻影响,集聚发展态势为今后新疆城镇化道路和城镇体系变化提供了有益的启示。
    One of prominent features of traditional oasis cities is remote and closed from each other. After reforming and opening, the rapid regional development and improvement of transportation promotes that urban agglomeration capability of oasis cities amplified obviously and contact with each other strengthened widely. The measurement on urban agglomeration indexes of 87 cities and towns in Xinjiang in the period of 1990-2002 is based on the synthesis of four aspects, which are population growth, economic development, urban construction speed and melioration of dweller's living. The results of analysis can draw four conclusions: 1) the polarization of urban agglomeration index shows that the gap of urban agglomeration capability among Xinjiang cities and towns is more widened in the past 12 years; 2) central cities, such as Urumqi, Karamay, Korla and Kashgar, are bulging their agglomeration functions rapidly and seven urban economic regions are forming; 3) the aggregation force of cities and towns which located in agglomeration shadow area of central cities has reduced, including the exurb of largest city, Urumqi, and outskirts of middle-size cities, such as Shihezi, Yining and Kashgar; 4) there are apparent spatial differences between northern and southern Xinjiang. The polarization of agglomeration capability of the northern Xinjiang is stronger than that of the southern Xinjiang. Three factors deeply effect the change of urban agglomeration capability in Xinjiang, which are the enlargement of oasis, exploitation of petroleum resources and adoption of policies. The trend of urban agglomeration development can give some illustrations to urbanization and urban system in Xinjiang. Central cities should be the leading actor in the urbanization of Xinjiang and some urban clusters can be form in the near future, which are represented by Urumqi Metropolitan area and urban region composed by Kuitun, Wusu and Dushanzi. Specialization and diversification will become the features of cities functions and the special layout will make for the integer advantage of urban system of Xinjiang. The developing model in the northtern Xinjiang is urban and rural incorporation and the model in the southtern Xinjiang is regionally drived by central cities and rapid-growing axis.
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    江苏省沿江城市带的构建与发展研究
    王志宪, 虞孝感, 刘兆德
    地理科学. 2005, 25 (3): 274-280.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2005.03.274
    摘要   PDF (919KB)
    江苏沿江地区的社会经济发展水平及城市化率都比较高,且交通通信发达,但中等城市偏多、小城市较少,规模等级不完善。 通过把沿江地区的城市作为一个体系研究,研究城市间的空间组合及其协调发展问题,并突出了城镇间的跨江联动发展具有重要意义。沿江城市带可构建成"三轴三组团"式的空间格局,即宁通、宁苏、苏通三条城镇发展轴,宁仪、三江、泰扬三个城镇发展组团,其中宁通、宁苏二条沿江发展轴是城市带的中心轴线,沿江地区的高等级公路、铁路及跨江大桥是构建沿江城市带空间格局的主要依托。根据各发展轴及发展组团的特征,构建出了各发展轴(组团)的发展战略及城市发展方向。城市带的构建要以市场运作为主,并辅以行政手段,把区域共同发展作为目的。
    There are 6 cities directly administrated by the province and 15 counties in the city strap along Yangtze River of Jiangsu. These cities are Nanjing, Zhenjiang, Changzhou, Yangzhou, Taizhou and Nantong. The area is 24623 km2 and the population is 24.01?106, which are 25.9% and 30.2% of the whole province respectively. The previous researches were done from varied aspects, but no overall analysis about cities along Yangtze River was found. The level of social and economic development in city strap along Yangtze River is higher in Jiangsu, for instance per capita GDP, total government revenue and revenue from postal and telecommunication are 1.6, 1.5, 2 times to the average of the whole province. In the city strap along Yangtze River, there are 2 super cities-Nanjing and Changzhou, 4 big cities-Zhenjiang, Taizhou, Nantong and Yangzhou, 9 middle cities and 6 minor cities. The classification of city is not perfect yet. The main functions are very different in the 6 cities directly under the province, though some cities have similar functions, their development ways are not same yet. The spatial pattern of "three Axes and three Group" was constructed: 1) Ning-Tong(Nanjing-Nantong) cities and towns development axes, including: the northern part of Yangtze River in Nanjing, Yizheng, Yangzhou, Jiangdu, Taizhou, Taixing, Nantong, Rugao, Haimen and Qidong. Nantong should be developed into a super city of the axes, Yangzhou and Taizhou also be grown actively at the same time. The progress, Yangzhou joining into Nanjing Economic Circle and Taizhou and Nantong joining into Su-xi-chang(Suzhou-Wuxi-Changzhou) Circle, should be accelerated. 2) Ning-su(Nanjing-Suzhou) cities and towns development axes includes 9 cities,namely, Nanjing, Jurong, Zhenjiang, Danyang, Changzhou, Jiangyin, Zhangjiagang, Changshu and Taicang. The city space should be optimized in this zone.To pay attention to assorting with the other area of South Jiangsu, strenghtening the cooperation between the port and the inland, joining into Nanjing and Su-xi-chang Circle actively at the same time. 3) The Su-tong(Suzhou-Nantong) cities and towns development axes includes 5 cities: Rugao, Tongzhou, Nantong, Haimen, Changshu. The chief task is to improve the level of urbanization and the development axes should join into Shanghai Super Circle actively. 4) Ning-yi City Group is constituted by Nanjing and Yizheng. The cooperation of four chemical industry groups should be strengthen in order to become the most influential base of chemical industry in the world. 5) Tai-Yang(Taizhou-Yangzhong) City Group includes Taizhou, Taixing and Yangzhong. Group should accelerate the construction of river ports and port industry on the base of cooperation of Taizhou's downtown and Taixing's river line resources. High technological industry should be developed actively relying on the predominance of big industries in three cities. 6) Sanjiang City Group compose of jIangyin, jIngjiang and Zhangjiagang. To improve the level of economic and social development all-round, group should exert the function of Zhangjiagang as the opening base and the superiority of Jiangyin's transportation and the bridgehead of Jingjiang linking the south and north of Jiangsu. Although the level of urbanization of city strap along river is higher than other areas in Jiangsu Province, it still lags behind the economic and social development of along river areas. So its urbanization needs to be further accelerated, especially the north of the river whose level of urbanization is only 44.6%. The development of along river cities should exert its advantages, strengthen the function of cities, reinforce dividing and collaboration of industries among cities and put an end to contend blindly items in the process of the indraught of foreign capital. At the same time the programming and construction of infrastructure should be strengthened to ensure a good environment in the city.
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    抚顺主导产业演替与城市经济发展及对其它煤炭城市的启示
    李国平, 玄兆辉
    地理科学. 2005, 25 (3): 281-287.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2005.03.281
    摘要   PDF (743KB)
    一个城市经济的发展是由主导产业有序更替从而推动产业结构不断演进来实现的。由于煤炭产业存在着明显的生命周期现象,所以以煤炭产业为主导地位的煤炭城市适时培育、发展新的非煤主导产业显得尤为重要。抚顺市的煤炭产业经历了生命周期的全部过程。曾经作为城市主导产业推动城市发展和产业结构演进,并最终将其在抚顺经济中的主导地位逐步让位给石油工业,从而保证了抚顺城市经济的持续快速发展。这对中国其他煤炭城市具有重要的借鉴意义。
    The leading industries' evolution promotes the industrial structure's optimization, through which a region's economy can keep sustainable development. The coal industry has a life cycle process without except. So it is very important for a city that takes coal industry as its leading industry to foster and develop new non-coal industries timely. The coal industry of Fushun has experienced all stages of the coal industry's life cycle process. As the leading industry of the city of Fushun, coal industry had promoted the development of the economy and the optimization of the industrial structure of the city in history. But just because oil industry had become the leading industry of the city before the coal industry's declined, the economy of Fushun have kept developing for so long time. The experience of Fushun is a good example either in theory or in practice to all the other coal-dependent cities in China.
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    基于城乡互动的衡阳市城市空间结构重组:理论与实践
    陈修颖
    地理科学. 2005, 25 (3): 288-293.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2005.03.288
    摘要   PDF (826KB)
    地方级中心城市的市域空间结构是全面反映城乡关系特征的空间尺度,也是体现中国城乡二元结构的基本尺度。因此,地方级区域空间结构重组的主要内容就是以协调城乡关系为主线展开的,在现代城乡关系理论的指导下,通过构建新的产业关系、优化区域城镇空间关系和等级规模结构、优化城乡通道系统、理顺城乡"流"动、探索新的城乡空间结构模式等措施,从而建立起符合区域发展实际和宏观社会经济发展大背景的城乡空间结构。以衡阳市为实证,论述了基于城乡互动的市域空间结构重组的具体途径与措施。
    The spatial structure of local urban area is a spatial scale giving fully expression to relations features between urban and rural area, also a basic scale reflecting economy of urban and rural area. So the main cotents of spatial structure reorganization of locational scale are spreaded according to coordination of relations between urban and rural area. Judging by the modern theory of relations between urban and rural area, through setting up new industry relations, optimizing space and rankscale structures of urban system, optimizing passages system of urban and rural areas, putting "flows" in good order, exploring new spatial structure model of town and countryside relations, etc., a new spatial structure of town area coinciding with the reality of area development and the background of macroscopic society and economy should be set up. With Hengyang City as a case study, this paper discusses some concrete methods and steps reorganizing spatial structure of town area based on interaction between towns and countrysides.
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    黄河北流河道变迁与史前的灾害事件
    王若柏
    地理科学. 2005, 25 (3): 294-298.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2005.03.294
    摘要   PDF (608KB)
    水利史的研究已经证实,历史上黄河北流的河道以禹贡河为北界,以现行河道为南界,在这一区域内摆动迁徙。黄河北流从未进入河北平原的中-西部的白洋淀流域区。造成河道这种演化特点的主要原因是河北平原基底活动构造等因素的影响。除此之外,另一个尚未探索的原因是远古时代河北平原曾发生过一次规模宏大的陨石雨撞击灾害。撞击的结果壅塞了当时黄河下游河道,形成了白洋淀流域区,最终促成了北流河道演化的基本格局。文章最后推测这一史前的天文-地质灾害可能是"女娲补天,大禹治水"等神话的事实基础。
    The study on the hydraulic history have suggested that the northward removal channels of the Huanghe River migrated back and forth, with the ancient Yugong River as north boundary and current channel as the south boundary. The northward removal channel of the Huanghe River had never entered into Baiyangdian drainage area in the middle-west part of Hebei Plain. This kind of channel evolution is affected mainly by the basement tectonic activity in Hebei Plain. In addition, another reason that is not yet discovered might be a large-scale meteorite shower impact disaster occurred in Hebei Plain in the ancient time.As the result of impact, the lower reach channel of the Huanghe River was silted up at that time and Baiyangdian drainage area were formed. Finally, the basic pattern of the northward removal channels of the Huanghe River was taken shape. It is the inferred in the paper that this astrogeological disaster might be the basic fact of some ancient legends and myths, as "Nuwa mended the sky" and "Dayu controlled water" etc.
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    分布式流域水文模型水量过程模拟——以黄河河源区为例
    李道峰, 吴悦颖, 刘昌明
    地理科学. 2005, 25 (3): 299-304.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2005.03.299
    摘要   PDF (807KB)
    文章分析了分布式水文模型、遥感和地理信息系统技术在流域径流模拟过程中的结合点,采用数字网格技术,以流域水量变化对地表土地覆被和气候变化响应过程为目的,讨论利用分布式水文模型研究下垫面和气候变化下流域水量响应过程的一般方法,并以黄河河源区为实例进行验证。
    Physical-based distributed hydrological model based on Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographic Information System (GIS) has been the main developing direction for hydrological process simulation. The paper analyzed the conjunction point of physical-based distributed hydrological model, RS and GIS in watershed runoff process simulation. The general method of studying runoff response process under climate and land-cover changes with supporting of RS and GIS was discussed for reflecting the response of watershed rainfall-runoff factors to climate and land-cover changes.
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    近50年来人类活动对博斯腾湖水位影响的量化研究
    高华中, 姚亦锋
    地理科学. 2005, 25 (3): 305-309.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2005.03.305
    摘要   PDF (751KB)
    博斯腾湖是新疆最大的湖泊,也是中国最大的内陆淡水湖,其巨大的环境、生态和经济价值一向为人们所关注。近50年来,博斯腾湖水位发生了很大变化,1958~1987年水位持续下降,1988~2002年水位又转为持续上升,目前处于50年来的最高水位。针对其水位变化,利用近50年来的实测数据分析了人类活动对水位变化的影响,定量还原了天然状况下博斯腾湖的水位。研究结果表明,自1958年以来人类活动对博斯腾湖水位变化的影响经历了弱→强→弱的变化过程,其中20世纪70~80年代人类活动对水位变化影响最为显著,90年代以后影响强度有所减弱。
    Bosten Lake, which is located in arid and desert zone, is the largest lake in Xinjiang, and is the largest inland freshwater lake in China. It has giant value in environment, ecology and economy. The water level of Bosten Lake has changed tremendously in the recent 50 years, the water level descended from 1048 m above sea level in 1958 to 1045 m in 1987, and ascended from 1045 m to 1048.9 m during the period of 1988-2002, it is in the highest level now. According to the records in recent 50 years, this paper analyzed the effect of human activities, restored the water level of natural environment quantitatively. The research results show that the change of human's effect undergo the process from weak to strong to weak, in which, the effect of human activities is the strongest from the 1970s to the 1980s, the effect has been weakened since the 1990s.
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    渭河(陕西段)河道自净需水量研究
    宋进喜, 曹明明, 李怀恩, 马俊杰, 陈大年
    地理科学. 2005, 25 (3): 310-316.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2005.03.310
    摘要   PDF (1129KB)
    建立了河段自净最小需水量计算模型。为了使研究区段内的水质达标,该区段内的自净需水量应该是从区段内所有河段最小需水量中取其最大量。应用该方法分达标排污和现状排污对渭河(陕西段)河道自净需水量做了计算。结果分析表明:渭河河道自净需水量随年径流流量变化不大,自净缺水严重,主要出现在非汛期,达标排污较于现状排污,自净需水量大幅度下降,自净缺水主要出现在1,2,12三个月。
    The ecological status of rivers is determined mainly by pollution levels, which are increasing under conditions of enhanced low flow. It is therefore very important to determine those volumes of low flow that will maintain good water quality, such flows can be termed water requirement for the stream's self purification. Based on the water environmental function division of the river, the water quality should meet the stream's environmental quality standard of the surface water so as to keep in good utilization. If only considering water pollutants from point source, the river can be divided into several reaches marked by each sewage discharge port. Taking into account of the degradation of pollutant substance along the stream, it proposes that minimum stream flow requirement of each should be ascertained according to the environmental quality standard of the surface water, the instant it is mixed with the pollutants at the discharge port. Then, one of the calculation methods of water requirement for the stream's self purification is set up. It further considers that water requirement for the stream's self purification of the study zone should choose the maximum among the reach's self-purification water requirements so as to meet water quality standard of each reach. Using the method, the water requirement for the stream's self purification of the Weihe River is calculated on the basis of BOD5 influx along 85 point source discharge ports. The investigative spatial scale is instream inside; the temporal scale is multi-even year (from year 1995 to 2000) and representative years which include P=25%( year 1963), P=50%( year 1990), P=75%( year 1982), P=90%( year 1979) and even every month of each year. The result shows that the water requirement for the stream's self purification varies little with annual stream flow, the degree of water requirement shortage for stream's self purification is severe, most of which appears in non-flood season. Estimated by even flow year (P=50%), the water requirements for the stream's self purification of Linjiacun, Weijiabao, Xianyang, Lintong and Huaxian sections are 29.4?108 m3/a,34.93?108 m3/a,54.80?108 m3/a,45.00?108 m3/a,42.09?108 m3/a respectively as sewage discharge at present, while that are 10.79?108 m3/a,13.19?108 m3/a,31.24?108 m3/a,26.57?108 m3/a,31.04?108 m3/a as sewage inpour at discharge standard. Compare sewage inpour at discharge standard with that at present, on the one hand, the water requirement for the stream's self purification declines in the gross according to the pollutant discharge concentration decrease as sewage inpour at discharge standard. On the other hand, the degree of water requirement shortage for the stream's self purification is still severe as sewage inpour at discharge standard, which appear in January, February and December.
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    赛博空间地理分布研究
    卢鹤立, 刘桂芳
    地理科学. 2005, 25 (3): 317-321.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2005.03.317
    摘要   PDF (543KB)
    如何界定虚拟的赛博空间与地理实际(如人均国内生产总值和人口)之间的关系,是一个备受关注的问题。文章首先运用Lorenz曲线和吉尼系数研究了中国互联网地区域名的时空分布,然后运用指数定律对中国互联网地区域名数量、地区人均国内生产总值和地区人口数量进行了分析,得出的结论是:赛博空间分布是地区人均国内生产总值的反映,与地区人口分布联系不大。这证实了赛博空间与经济活动的紧密相关性。研究中还发现,赛博空间仍然处于高速增长期;最后给出了中国互联网增长的速度,以及到达成熟稳定时期所需的时间。
    As the development of cyberspace represents the cutting edge of the new global economy, its size and content are likely to reflect the distribution of GDP per capita and population of the real world. In this paper, we firstly discuss the spatial-temporal distribution of Internet in China with the methods of Lorenz Curve and Gini Coefficient. Then we use the power law to analyze the domain distribution in each province, the distribution of GDP per capita and the population in each province. It was found that cyberspace is still at its high speed, and the cyberspace distribution reflects the distribution of regional GDP per capita, not the regional population. The correlations that we found between regional domain distribution and population was low, although that between the regional domain distribution and regional GDP per capita was much higher, confirming our general intuition that the economic development of region is all the more important in explaining cyberspace size. The power law relations that we have examined all display the tendency for the number of small events -regional domain distribution, regional population, and regional GDP per capita -to be less than what power law predicts, this can easily be explained by the smaller domains having not yet reached maturity. We illustrate the plausibility hypothesis that the largest domains approximate power law while the smaller domains are growing towards this steady state. The differences in power law that we computed between these two sets confirms this notion. Finally, the paper gives the developing speed and the years to reach the mature and steady state of Internet in China.
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    陕西咸阳人工林地土壤干层研究
    赵景波, 杜娟, 周旗, 岳应利
    地理科学. 2005, 25 (3): 322-328.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2005.03.322
    摘要   PDF (642KB)
    根据咸阳庞西村苹果林地、梧桐林地和草地土壤含水量测定,研究了0~6m土壤含水量的变化和土壤干层特点与分布。结果显示, 咸阳人工林地从表层向下含水量呈现由高到低再到低的变化;10龄苹果林地2~4m深处土壤含水量平均为8.3%,12龄梧桐林2~4m深处土壤含水量平均为8.6%,均发育了明显的土壤干层;4龄苹果林下土层有干化显示,但无干层发育;草地土层含水量明显较苹果林地高,无土壤干化的显示。研究表明,土壤干层形成的具体原因一是降水量少决定的薄膜水带埋藏深度小,二是薄膜水的运移速度缓慢和含水量低。为保持人工林基本正常的生长和土壤水的正常运移,应避免严重的土壤干层出现。咸阳附近土壤干层的出现表明土壤干层在黄土高原广泛分布,该区的植被恢复首先应以疏林或森林草原为主,待土壤水分改善后再考虑恢复森林植被。
    According to soil moisture content determination of apple forest land and the Chinese parasol forest land at Pangxi and Dongshi villages in Xianyang, the change of 0-6-m soil moisture content and the characteristic and the distribution of dry soil layers were studied in this paper. The result shows that the soil moisture content in 6-m soil profile under artificial forest in Xianyang is high in the upper layer and becomes low in the middle and then become high in the lower layer; mean soil moisture content is 13.2% in 0-1-m earth layer under 10-year apple forest, 8.3% in 2-4-m earth layer, and 10.8% in the 4-6-m earth layer. Mean soil moisture content under Chinese parasol trees forest grown for 12 years is 12.8% in 0-1-m earth, 8.6% in 2-4-m earth layer, and 12.2% in the 4-6-m deep earth layer. Mean soil moisture content is 12.4% in 0-1-m earth layer under 4-year apple forest, 11.9% in 1-4-m earth layer, and 13.6% in the 4-6-m earth layer. Mean soil moisture content is 12.3% in 0-1-m earth layer under grassland, 13.2% in 1-4-m earth layer, and 14.5% in the 4-6-m earth layer. The change of the above mentioned indicates that, dried soil layer develops in 2-4-m earth layer under 10-year apple forest and 12-year Chinese parasol trees forest; soil drying also occurs in 2-4-m under 4-year apples forest, but has no the development of dry soil layer. The soil moisture content is obviously higher in grassland than in the apple forest land, soil drying does not occur in grassland. The research result indicated that one of development causes of dry soil layer is that burial depth of film water belt is small, which is decided by the a little precipitation; anthor is slowly moving speed of the film water and low moisture content. In order to maintain normal growth of the artificial forest and the normal circulation of soil water, we should avoid the development of serious dry soil layer. The development of the obvious dry soil layer nearby Xianyang indicates that the soil drying layer is distributed widespread in the Loess Plateau, and the vegetation reconstruction in this area should first develop the thin forest or the forest-steppe, then restore the forest vegetation after the soil moisture improvement. Taking the project measure and improving soil structure, enhancing soil permeability, also can increase burial depth of film water belt and reduces the development intensity of dry soil layer.
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    苏南经济快速发展区土壤重金属含量的空间变化研究
    万红友, 周生路, 赵其国
    地理科学. 2005, 25 (3): 329-334.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2005.03.329
    摘要   PDF (592KB)
    文章以经济快速发展的江苏省昆山市为研究区,研究了该区土壤重金属含量的空间变化。结果表明:土壤重金属平均污染指数大于1的有镍、锌、汞,其中汞的污染指数最大,是主要污染物。土壤重金属复合污染严重,综合污染指数达1.52,变异系数以汞、镉、铅、铜较大。不同功能区土壤重金属元素全量综合污染指数按以下顺序递降:化工区(1.84)>养殖区(1.54)>大棚菜地区(1.22)>印染造纸区(0.99)。不同地貌区土壤重金属元素全量综合污染指数按以下顺序递降:中部平原区(1.71)>北部洼区(1.57)>南部湖荡区(0.99)。测定的剖面样品中各重金属元素在剖面上一般都有表聚、亚表聚特征,总体上是上层含量高于下层,增加了环境风险。
    Spatial variation of the content of soil heavy metals in Kunshan City of Jiangsu Province was studied. The results show that the average contamination index of Ni, Zn and Hg is more than 1, and that of Hg is the biggest one, Hg is the main contamination; compound contamination of soil heavy metals is severe, integrated contamination index gets to 1.52; variance coefficients of Hg, Cd, Pb, Cu are bigger than that of others. Integrated contamination index of total amount of soil heavy metals in different function areas decreases as follow: area of chemical factory (1.84)> area of aquiculture and poultry (1.54)> area of vegetable plot (1.08) > area of printing, dyeing, and paper-making (0.99). Integrated contamination index of total amount of soil heavy metals in different physiognomy areas decreases as follow: plain area in middle (1.71)> low area in north (1.57)> lake area in south (0.99). Heavy metals have the character of top gathering and sub-top gathering in soil profiles, and the content of heave metals in top layer is higher in general, thus leads to the increasing of risk to environment.
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    沼泽沉积剖面特征元素比值及其环境意义——盐碱化指标及气候干湿变化
    王国平, 刘景双, 翟正丽
    地理科学. 2005, 25 (3): 335-339.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2005.03.335
    摘要   PDF (226KB)
    沼泽发育过程中堆积的各类沉积物真实地记录下区域环境演变与沼泽发育过程的信息。以向海沼泽湿地为研究对象,由137Cs、210Pb法定年实现沉积层深度坐标向年代坐标的转换,对典型沉积剖面特征元素比值进行了综合剖析。结果表明: Sr/Ba、Rb/K、(CaO+K2O+Na2O)/Al2O3等比值具有盐碱化和气候干湿变化的指示意义。该区域的盐碱化并非只发生在近几十年,而是由来已久,只是近年来人类活动促进了盐碱化进程。霍林河流域近240年来气候存在冷干-暖湿-冷干的多次波动,1880年之前气候以冷干为主,并有小幅度波动;1880年后气候开始转暖,但仍以冷暖波动振荡为主。
    The Xianghai Wetlands Nature Reserve (122?05'-122?31'E, 44?55'-45?09'N) was situated in the western border of the Songnen Plain in Northeast China. It has been listed in the List of Wetlands of International Importance since 1992 (Ramsar site No. 548). As downstream freshwater wetlands of the Huolin River, the Xianghai Wetlands, covering an area of 360 km2, located at parts of the semi-arid climatic zone and border with the Keerqin Desert. Except for rainfall, the main hydrological inputs (about 55.2%)of the Xianghai Wetlands were from the Huolin River. The Huolin River originated from the Da Hinggan Mountains, flowed about 320km, and lost its watercourse and end at the Xianghai riverine wetlands. Xianghai Wetlands were located at transition zones of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, where they received sediment inputs from both systems. Accumulative sediments during marsh development really recorded the region environment change and marsh processes. Here we reported a case study on the Xianghai marsh wetlands at downstream of an interior river-Huolin River. By segmented sample with centimeter and assorted with 137Cs, 210Pb age measure, high-resolution analyzed sediment element geochemistry in two typical sedimentation cores. Through analysis of ratios of elements in the typical sedimentation profile, the following results are revealed: the ratios of Sr/Ba, Rb/K, and (CaO+K2O+Na2O)/Al2O3 are good indicators to diagnosis salinization and climatic change between the arid and the humid. The salinization in this area not only is occurred in recent several decades, but is long-standing, however, human activities have enforced the progress and periods of salinization in recent years. Too much vibration has occurred between cool arid and warm humid during the recent 240 years in the Houlin River catchments.
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    人文地理学“空间”内涵的演进
    石崧, 宁越敏
    地理科学. 2005, 25 (3): 340-345.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2005.03.340
    摘要   PDF (982KB)
    空间是人文地理学的核心概念之一,随着人文地理学经历三次变革:"区域差异-空间分析-社会理论",空间的内涵也随之不断演进。从区域学派到空间分析,传统的空间认识使得人文地理学归属于自然科学范畴。1970年代以来人文地理学萌生了新的空间认识,关注到空间的社会性,具有了更多的社会科学的特质。通过勾勒出人文地理学空间内涵演进的轨迹,提出空间内涵应是自然与社会属性相统一的观点。
    Space is one of the most important concepts of human geography. How human geographers understand space is always changing. Human geography came through three revolutions in 20th century. The connotation of space evolved among the above process. From Kant, Humboldt to Hettner and Hartshorne, the tradition of "areal differentiation" thought that space is an unchanging box within which objects exist and events occur. After WW II, human geography turned gradually from "areal differentiation" to "spatial analysis". New human geographers thought that "spatial relation" is to be defined between objects and events and thereby made relation with the objects and events that constituted a spatial system. Location Theory, which rooted in economics, became the emphases of human geography. New human geographers just took the only physical factor-distance-into account and excluded the other physical and social factors. From the 1970s, a relational or social view of space has been put forward. Henri Lefebvre interpreted how the production in space is changed to the production of space. Although the feminist geographers and cultural geographers were suspicious of the ways whose accounts deriving from historical materialism, they all agreed with the viewpoint of social space or social attribute of space. At the same time, the concept of "space-time" became the focus of spatial epistemology. More recently three basic propositions have emerged from these intertwined formulations. 1) Space and time (or space-time) are now seen as being produced or constituted through action and interaction. 2) Space and time cannot be held fast in fixed compartments, measured intervals or regular geometries. 3) Production of space is inseparable from production of nature. Based on the above, this paper draws a conclusion on the connotation of space. Space is not a given neutral and passive geometry but rather is continuously produced through socio-spatial relations. Space is constituted through social relations and material social practices. In a word, space is the unification of its physical attribute and social attribute.
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    安徽省新石器和夏商周时代遗址时空分布与人地关系的初步研究
    朱光耀, 朱诚, 凌善金, 王吉怀, 杨晓轩
    地理科学. 2005, 25 (3): 346-352.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2005.03.346
    摘要   PDF (781KB)
    安徽省新石器早期遗址有淮北的小山口和江南的沟汀,该时期淮河流域的聚落多于长江流域。新石器中期,考古发掘的野生动物骨骼和孢粉分析表明聚落周围是一个河湖密布、森林草原并存的生态环境。新石器晚期,古人已能分辨土壤的优劣并很可能会利用环境条件改善土壤的不良特性;蒙城尉迟寺遗址的剖面分析表明,环境只是古聚落分布和数量变化的基础因素,生产力的因素也在起作用,因为长时间的持续降温和夏初的大洪水侵袭。夏商周时期全省聚落总数增加,但淮北平原因为长时间的持续降温和夏初的大洪水侵袭,聚落大规模缩减。皖中和皖南的丘陵山地地貌使那里所受洪灾较轻,灾后这些地区因热量条件好使聚落迅速发展起来。新聚落大多建在利于农业生产、能躲避洪水的地方。
    The early Neolithic sites in Anhui Province include Xiaoshankou in the area north of the Huaihe River and Gouting in the area south of the Changjiang(Yangtze) River. The wild animal bones and pollen analysis from middle Neolithic age sites excavating show there are rivers, lakes, forest and grassland around the sites. The sites distribution of the late Neolithic age illustrates that, the ancients had able to distinguish the soil quality and to use environment condition to improve the soil. The profile analysis for Yuchisi Site, Mengcheng County shows that, environment was only the basic factor for ancient sites disitribution and quantity change, the productivity factors were also operated. In Xia-Shang-Zhou dynasties, the total number of sites in the whole province increased, but that in Huaibei Plain reduced on a large scale, for which the reson was air temperature continually drop and the flood invaded in the early Xia Dynasty. By popular highland landform, middle and south Anhui suffered only light flood effect, and after flood, the sites recoveray and development were rapid in these area. Most new sites were built in the place which were advantageous to agricature production and avoiding flood disaster.
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    城市交通系统对土地利用的影响作用研究——以广州为例
    毛蒋兴, 闫小培
    地理科学. 2005, 25 (3): 353-360.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2005.03.353
    摘要   PDF (1208KB)
    在评述国内外城市交通系统对土地利用影响作用研究的基础上,以广州为案例,利用有关政府部门资料、统计资料和实地调查资料,引入定量分析和GIS、RS空间分析技术,系统全面地研究了城市交通系统对土地利用的影响作用。首先,作者论述了城市交通系统发展对城市空间格局演化的引导作用;接着,应用GIS和RS技术分析论证了城市交通系统建设对土地利用开发的刺激作用;第三,应用GIS技术和多元统计分析方法探讨了城市交通系统对土地利用价格的影响作用;最后阐明了城市交通系统对广州各类用地布局的影响。
    Recently, along with the acceleration of urbanization, motorization, the urban transportation problem has been deteriorated increasingly in China. So the study on the mutual relationship between urban transport system and land use has aroused the attention of the Chinese scholars and specialists more and more. As one of the rapid-growing mega-cities in South China, Guangzhou now has stepped into a transformation period, both in industried structure and social system. Urban land use is in typical high density. Urban transport system began to change from the traditional foot-and-bicycle pattern to a motorized pattern. Land shortage and traffic congestion have brought great tension. A case study in Guangzhou, revedling the specific impacts on land use of urban transport system and its mechanism, will surely benefit the solution of urban transport problems in Chinese cities, and then promote their sustainability. On the basis of literature review about the impacts on urban land use of transport system, quantitative methods and special analysis technology like GIS and RS are cautiously adopted besides traditional methods, this paper studies the impacts on urban land use of transport system in Guangzhou, in terms of documents, data and on-the-spot investigation. Firstly, it discusses the evolvement of urban space pattern affected by the development of transport system of Guangzhou. With the impacts of urban transport system, the urban space pattern of Guangzhou has experienced the evolvement from compacted city to sparsely distributed group city, belt-and-group city and multi-core, half-networked city at last. Then, the simulative effects on land use development of urban transport system construction are examined. Through GIS and RS analyses methods, it gives an all-around research on the effects of urban transport system on urban land use and land exploitation. And it is found that there is an intensively simulative and attractive effect on urban land use of urban transport construction. Thirdly, the impacts on urban land use price of urban transport system characters are explained. Through the quantitative and GIS methods, it is discovered that the transport system has a profound impact on commercial and residential land use price in Guangzhou. Fourthly, the impacts of urban transport system on urban land use layout are illustrated. It is founded that there is profound impact on commercial, residential, industry land use layout in Guangzhou too. Finally, a brief conclusion is drawn on. We hold the opinion that the study on the impacts of urban transport system on urban land use will benefit to the searching for the root of urban transport problems and the solving measures of transport problems in China.
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    坡面日出日没时角的配置关系与太阳赤纬
    孙汉群
    地理科学. 2005, 25 (3): 361-366.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2005.03.361
    摘要   PDF (250KB)
    若坡面的坡向β和纬度φ满足条件| sinβcosφ|≥sin 23°26',则坡面日出日没时角的配置关系不随太阳赤纬的变化而变化;反之,则存在两个绝对值相等、符号相反的一般临界赤纬δc,以-δc、δc为界,坡面日出日没时角的配置关系具有三种不同的形式。坡面日出日没时角的配置关系及其随太阳赤纬的变化,可根据δ=δc时,非水平面日出日没时角和水平面日出日没时角的相等关系、坡向、坡度确定。在水平面或非水平面极昼、极夜前后,坡面日出日没时角的配置关系也会发生变化。
    For any given slope surface, if slope azimuth β and latitude φ meet with the condition: |sinβcosφ|≥sin 23°26ˊ= 0.3977,then,the match relations between sunrise and sunset hour angles will not alter with the solar declination. And, in this condition, the match relation is always ω1=-ω02s2 for slope azimuth β between 0°and 180°,or ω1s120 for slope azimuth β between 0°and -180°within all the year. On the other hand, if |sinβcosφ|c, which are called general critical solar declinations, where their absolute values are equal but their signs are oppositional. Between the two general critical solar declinations, the match relation is always ω1=-ω02s2 for slope azimuth β is between 0°and 180°,or ω1s120 for slope azimuth β is between 0°and -180°. Beyond the two general critical solar declinations, match relations are alternate with eath other. If the match relation is ω1=-ω02s2 when δ>δc, then the match relation is ω1s120 when δ<δc. If the match relation is no sunshine when δ>δc, then the match relation is two sunshines when δ<δc,vice versa. Beyond the two general critical solar declinations, the match relation are symmetrical about slope azimuth β and solar declination between the northern hemisphere and southern hemisphere. The solar declinations,when the horizontal surfaces or no-horizontal surfaces are just polar day or just polar night,are called special critical solar declination. The absolute value of special critical solar declination is larger than the the absolute value of general critical solar declination.So the match relations between sunrise and sunset hour angles may be dealt with separately after the polar day or polar night appear on the horizontal surfaces or no-horizontal surfaces. Beyond the two general critical solar declinations,dividing with a special critical solar declination,there are maybe two different match relations between sunrise and sunset hour angles. The match relations of two sunshines before polar day on the no-horizental surfaces can be transformed into one sunshine after polar day. The match relations of one sunshine before polar night on the no-horizental surfaces can be transformed into no sunshine after polar night.After polar day appears on the horizental surfaces,There may be three different match relations:one sunshine,two sunshine and slope polar day. After polar night appears on the horizental surfaces,the slope will be no sunshine.
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    综述
    生态环境需水的理论和方法研究进展
    汤洁, 佘孝云, 林年丰, 麻素挺
    地理科学. 2005, 25 (3): 367-373.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2005.03.367
    摘要   PDF (874KB)
    生态环境需水研究是目前国际上学科前沿研究之一,涉及生态学、水文学、环境科学等多学科。文章论述了国内外生态环境需水研究的进展,分析了生态环境需水的内涵、概念、分类和特征,总结了河流、植被、湖泊、湿地和城市生态系统生态环境需水量计算的理论基础和方法。最后,从区域水资源优化配置和可持续发展的角度,对今后生态环境需水研究的方向与技术、区域性范围和水资源优化配置等问题进行了讨论。
    Eco-environmental water demand is one of global foci research subjects in environmental related field, which has an inter-relationship with ecology, hydrology, environmental science etc. This paper discusses the current research status and future study on eco-environmental water demand, analyses the intention, concept, sort and character of eco-environmental water demand, and studies the calculation theory and methods. On the basis of above analyses, some question about current study on eco-environmental water demand are put forward for reasonable water allocation and sustainable development.
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    研究报道
    土壤可蚀性模拟研究中的坡长选定问题
    孔亚平, 张科利, 杨红丽
    地理科学. 2005, 25 (3): 374-378.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2005.03.374
    摘要   PDF (538KB)
    土壤可蚀性是评价土壤对侵蚀敏感程度的重要指标,是土壤侵蚀预报的重要参数,准确评价土壤可蚀性、建立不同土壤类型的土壤可蚀性K值库具有重要意义。在总结前人研究成果的基础上,运用室内模拟试验、野外模拟降雨试验资料和野外观测小区资料,计算了不同坡长小区的K值,并对坡长对K值的影响加以分析研究。结果表明,坡长较短时,土壤可蚀性随坡长的增加而增大,且变化明显;坡长大于15 m时,K值相对趋于稳定,该结论为K值模拟研究中小区的坡长选择提供了一定的理论依据。
    Soil erosion is now universally reckoned as an ecological environment problem, which results in land degradation and a band of ecological problems such as water pollution and flood disaster. And soil erosion is one of the most serious environmental issues in China. A key to restoring ecological environment is to control soil erosion. Soil erodibility, the susceptibility of soil to erosive forces, is generally considered an inherent soil property with a constant value. Which being an important index to evaluate the soil sensitivity to erosion, how to precisely study and evaluate soil erodibility is an important factor in soil loss prediction. It is of great significance to determine soil erodibility and develop the database for the factor K for different soil types. Since the study on the effect of soil properties on erosion began in the 1950s in China, an abundance of achievements about soil erodibility has been scored. But a number of problems still exist. The first problem is the selection of slope length to evaluate the soil erodibility, which have few studied in China for recent years. In this paper, K values for soils on plots with different lengths were computed and the effects of slope length on Kwere analyzed, based on the data from lab simulation experiments, field simulation experiments and field plots in Zizhou, Lishi, Fuxian and Zhangjiakou respectively. According to the results, we can concluded that though the value of soil erodibility variance with the slope length, K values increased markedly with slope length in cases of short-length slopes and K values tended to be consistent for slopes with lengths>15 m. So, when the experiments of the soil erodibility simulation are carried out, the slope length should be no less than 15m. The result may be used to select slope length in Ksimulation experiments.
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    浙江磐安蕨类植物地理成分及区系相似性分析方法的研究
    郝朝运, 刘鹏
    地理科学. 2005, 25 (3): 379-384.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2005.03.379
    摘要   PDF (260KB)
    分析了浙江磐安蕨类植物区系的组成和分布区类型,现知磐安共有蕨类植物34科、60属、112种(包括各种变种和变型)。磐安蕨类植物以东亚分布类型为主,特别是中国-日本分布类型最多,亚热带、暖温带特征显著,该区应置于中国-日本森林植物亚区从暖温带向亚热带过渡的范围内。最后,文章生成了反映22个蕨类植物区系相似性关系的二维投影图和最小生成树图,对区系间的相似性关系进行了研究。结果显示,两种方法相结合能较客观地反映蕨类植物区系间的异同,可为多区系比较提供参考。
    Based on investigation and statistical analyses, the pteridophyta geographical elements of Pan'an, Zhejiang Province was studied in the present paper. There are 112 species (include varieties) of pteridophytes belonging to 60 genera, 35 families in Pan'an. At species levels, the East Asia and endemic Chinese element takes the largest proportion (accounting for 83.3%), showing that the region is one part of the center of East-Asian elements(especially China-Japan elements). So the region should belong to the East Asia zone and represents to the feathure of subtropics transition to warm temperated zone. At last, two-dimensional scatter plot of principal coordinates analysis (PCO) and the minimal spanning tree (MST) on the basis of the floristic spectrum (FS) of Pan'an and other twenty-one pteridophytic floras are drawn. The result shows that the methods can objectively reflect the similarities of different floras.
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