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ISSN 1000-0690
CN 22-1124/P
创刊于 1981 年 (月刊)
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  • 地理科学
      2007年, 第27卷, 第2期 刊出日期:2007-03-20 上一期    下一期
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    论文
    作为CAS的复杂城市地理系统的SOC性质
    刘继生, 陈彦光
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (2): 129-135.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.02.129
    摘要   PDF (859KB)
    将城市作为复杂适应性系统(CAS)研究其自组织临界性(SOC)具有重要的理论意义和实践价值,这方面的探索工作刚刚开始。本文从城市的地理空间角度出发,论证城市是一种复杂适应性系统。城市在本质上是不可还原的,我们可以根据积木的机制将城市分解,但分解的结果对解释城市的复杂行为丝毫没有帮助。由于城市和城市体系都具有分形结构、服从Z ipf定律,且具有1/f噪声的特征,由此判断城市地理系统具有自组织临界性质。自组织临界性与复杂性适应性立论的视角不同,但可以统一于“混沌的边缘”这一概念。
    As complex spatial systems,cities are discussed using the theories of complex adaptive systems(CAS) and self-organized criticality(SOC).First,cities are considered as CASs by analogy with four properties including aggregation,nonlinearity,flows,and diversity,and three mechanisms including tagging,internal models,and building blocks.However,cities seem to be divided into a series of building blocks,but we cannot use the interaction of blocks to interpret the behaviors of cities at the macro level.Second,three indications of SOC including fractals,Zipf’s law,and 1 over f noise are researched by means of mathematical transformation and empirical observations.A discovery is that fractals are the principal marks of SOC.Both the concepts of CAS and SOC can be unified on "the edge of chaos",another important concept in complex sciences.
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    地域主体功能区划理论与方法的初步研究
    朱传耿, 仇方道, 马晓冬, 王振波, 李志江, 孟召宜, 闫庆武
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (2): 136-141.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.02.136
    摘要   PDF (1015KB)
    在对地域主体功能区划的理论依据与原则等进行深入分析的基础上,提出通过生态敏感性等级分区与经济社会发展综合潜力等级分区的空间叠置与地域聚类分析,进行地域主体功能区划的理论方法。并以江苏省新沂市为案例,进行地域主体功能区划实证研究,验证了所提出的地域主体功能区划理论方法的可行性。
    The major function regionalization is one of the territorial division methods with specific function,which is based on the factors of natural environment,the level of social development,the features of ecological system,and the spation diversity of human activities.For the ends of constructing rational and spatial arrangement according with the major function of units,the major function regionalization would guide the factors circulating rationally,and formulate the distribution,in which population,resources,environment and economy develop coordinately,with clear major function and aims,and canonical exploitation order.Based on studying progress of geographic regionalization,the dominant ideas,rationale and principles of the major function regionalization preliminarily,this paper give the major function regionalization methods,which is based on the grade subregion of eco-environmental sensitivity and the potentialities of development of economy and society,by spatial overlap analysis within GIS.By a case of Xinyi City of Jiangsu Province,this paper has made the empirical analysis with this method,and verified the feasibility of it.
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    改革开放以来中国城市化的时空演变及其影响因素分析
    陈洋, 李郇, 许学强
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (2): 142-148.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.02.142
    摘要   PDF (1065KB)
    改革开放以来,中国城市化进程进入稳定快速发展时期,国家的经济宏观调控政策以及区域发展战略在时间和空间上均对中国的城市化产生了巨大的影响。在此影响下,中国城市化水平的区域空间格局也由北南差异转变为东中西差异,同时,中国省级城市化水平的差距正在逐渐缩小。在影响中国城市化省际差异的因素方面,传统的农业发展水平对城市化的影响正逐渐减弱,乡镇企业及外商直接投资成为20世纪90年代后期中国城市化发展的重要影响因素。
    After China carried out economic reforming and open-up policy,urbanization process has passed the threshold of stable quick developing period. National macro-adjust economic policies and regional development strategies have made great affects on urbanization process both in spatial and temporal aspects.Owing to the affects,regional spatial distribution of urbanization in China has transformed from North-South differentiated to East-Mid-West differentiated.Meanwhile,province ranking urbanization is gradually decreasing the gap each other.As far as factors which affect urbanization differentiation in different provinces are concerned,traditional agricultural development is gradually diminishing its influence over urbanization.However,township and village enterprise and foreign direct investment turn significant indicators regarding urbanization development in the late 1990s in China.
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    中国省区循环经济预评估及区域差异研究
    白露, 白永秀, 薛耀文, 陈芳
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (2): 149-155.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.02.149
    摘要   PDF (1023KB)
    以省(区)为基本空间单元,构建了区域循环经济预评估指标体系,建立循环经济预评估的数学模型,并对中国大陆31个省(区)进行循环经济的事前评估,为不同省(区)开展循环经济的动态评估奠定了基础,同时对不同省(区)探索差异化的循环经济发展策略起到了基础性的探索作用。评估结果显示不同省(区)发展循环经济前的状况和特点存在明显的地区差异,因此,不同的省份在推行循环经济的发展过程中应实行差别化的策略。
    Based on unit a province as a unit,the paper constrcucted the system indexes of circular economy,and made the mathematical model of beforehand evaluation of circular economy.And by making a beforehand evaluation to 31 provinces in mainland of China,this article made a foundation for provinces to make dynamic evaluation.At the same time,it made a basical search for different provinceson the regional diversity of developed model of circular economy.The result of evaluation revealed that there is an obvious diversity in circular economy among the situantions and characters of different provinces.So,different provinces should take different strategys in the development of circular economy.
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    环境污染与经济增长之间关联性的理论分析和计量检验
    宋涛, 郑挺国, 佟连军
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (2): 156-162.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.02.156
    摘要   PDF (1781KB)
    基于环境-经济的简单理论模型利用跨期消费选择问题最优化求解和稳态方法分析了环境污染与经济增长之间的长期关系和短期关系。这将为环境污染与经济增长之间长期和短期关系的经验研究提供理论依据和技术支持。基于EKC假设,我们对中国1960~2000年人均CO2排放量与人均GDP之间的长期关系和短期关系进行实证研究,结果表明人均CO2排放量与人均GDP之间存在长期协整关系,呈现倒U型的环境库兹涅茨曲线关系,而在短期上,人均GDP单向正向Granger影响人均CO2排放量,反过来未发现人均CO2排放量对人均GDP有明显的影响关系。
    In this paper,we devote our attention to the relationship between environmental pollution and economic growth in theory and econometrics.To throw some light on them,we first build an infinite time horizon inter-temporal consumption choice problem on a simple environment-teconomy model to deduce the long-run and short-trun relationships between them.Next,the general analysis with the methods of cointegration test and granger causality test is used to test the long-trun and short-run relationships in econometrics.Hence,these conclusions can provide some bases of theory and technology for empirical studies. Based on the EKC hypothesis,we use annual data ranged from 1960 to 2000 in China to investigate the long-run and short-run relationships between environmental pollution and economic growth.The results show that there is a long-run cointegrating relationship between per capita CO2 emission and per capita GDP which appears an inverse U-shaped EKC relation.In short-run dynamics,per capita GDP in-directionally Granger causes per capita CO2 emission,but no evidence supporting the response of per capita GDP to per capita CO2 emission.
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    绿色国民经济核算基本问题研究
    李昕, 董德明, 沈万斌, 邱惠哲
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (2): 163-166.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.02.163
    摘要   PDF (532KB)
    绿色国民经济核算为自然资源存量价值与耗竭价值核算、环境污染损失价值核算及环境质量恢复与改善价值核算;绿色国民经济核算理论应依据马克思主义的经济理论、价值补偿理论、效用价值理论和可持续发展理论;自然资源存量和耗竭价值核算可采用支付意愿和供求定价模型法;环境污染造成的生产和固定资产损失价值核算可采用市场法;环境污染对人体健康造成的损失价值核算可采用人力资本法;绿色国民经济核算指标体系包括自然资源核算指标和环境保护核算指标;系统讨论绿色国民经济核算内涵、基本理论和方法以及指标体系以促进绿色国民经济核算的深入研究。
    Green-national-economic accounting is regarded as the value accountings for deposition and exhauson of the natural resources,and for the environmental pollution loss as well as environmental quality restoration and improvement in this paper.The theory of the green-national-economic accounting should be based on the theories of Marxist economy,value compensation,available value and sustainable development.The willingness to pay approach and supply-require price model can be introduced to account the values for deposition and exhaustion of the natural resources.The market method can be adopted to account the loss of production and fixed assets,and human capital approach employed to account the loss of health,caused by the environmental pollution.The indicator system for green-national-economic accounting includes two indicator sub-systems of natural resources and environmental protection accountings.The connotation,fundamental principles,methodologies and indicator system for the green-national-economic accounting are discussed systematically in order to promote the profound research on the greening national-economic accounting.
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    吉林省玉米产业发展可持续能力评价研究
    龙振永, 汤洁, 曹孟
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (2): 167-172.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.02.167
    摘要   PDF (977KB)
    基于地理信息系统(GIS)及空间分析模型,从玉米生产与加工两个方面构建玉米产业可持续能力评价(sustainabliality Assessment SA)指标体系,对吉林省玉米产业发展可持续能力进行评价,并对吉林省玉米产业布局现状和规划的合理性进行分析。结果表明:长春市辖区由于地理条件优越、交通便捷以及丰富的玉米资源,是玉米产业发展的最优区域。吉林市辖区、四平市辖区、公主岭市、梨树县、农安县、扶余县地理条件相对优越、交通便捷以及丰富的玉米资源,是玉米产业发展的良好区域。松原市辖区、前郭县、德惠市、榆树市、辽源市辖区、东丰县是玉米产业发展的一般区域。大安市、乾安县、长岭县、舒兰市、永吉县、双辽市发展玉米产业条件相对较差。
    The maize industry of Jilin Province has a wide prospects relying on maize resources and the preferable location factor.Based on spatial analysis theory,as a means of Geographic Information System,the indexes for sustainability assessment of the maize industries development are constructed from maize producing and maize processing.The sustainability of the maize industry is analyzed in Jilin Province.The sustainable development status in quo and planning of the maize industries are assessed scientifically.In conclusion,Changchun City is the super-region for developing the maize industry.Jilin City,Siping City,Gongzhuling county,Lishu City,Nong′an County,Fuyu County is the favorable region for developing the maize industry.Songyuan City,Qianguo County,Dehui County,Yushu County,Liaoyuan County,Dongfeng County is the common region for developing the maize industry.Da’an town,Qi’an county,Changling county,Shulan town,Yongji county,Shuangliao town is the poor region for developing the maize industry.
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    沙漠化地区可持续发展的概念模型
    包慧娟, 李振山, 王涛
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (2): 173-176.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.02.173
    摘要   PDF (684KB)
    就沙漠化地区可持续发展概念模型进行了分析,并进一步对比了沙漠化地区可持续发展与沙漠化防治实现途径之间的关系。提出,可持续发展与沙漠化防治尽管目标不同,可内容一致、手段相同,就沙漠化地区而言,其可持续发展的过程就是对沙漠化土地的治理过程、是消除沙漠化发生隐患的过程,也是确保区域发展不受沙漠化困扰、可以持续稳定发展的过程。
    A conceptual model and implication of sustainable development in the desertification region have been studied is China,and the relationship between sustainable development and way of control desertification in the sand-desertification region is compared.The results indicated that it was the same in both the context and methodology,although with very different targets,of sustainable development and controling sand-desertification.In the sand-desertification region,the process of sustainable development also is the process of controling sand-desertification,the process of eliminating hidden trouble of the sand-desertification,and the process of resisting to intervening by the sand-desertification.The authors proposed a conceptual model of the sustainable development in the sand-desertification region of China.
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    流域可持续评价的最大熵原理——投影寻踪耦合模型
    张明, 金菊良, 张礼兵
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (2): 177-181.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.02.177
    摘要   PDF (236KB)
    在传统投影寻踪方法的基础上,综合考虑投影向量优化中的不确定性,提出基于最大熵原理的多准则投影寻踪方法,利用加速遗传算法对多准则目标函数进行优化求解。根据投影值与标准等级值的散点图趋势关系,建立了三次趋势曲线评价模型。淮河流域可持续性评价的实例结果表明了该模型在求解评价问题中的有效性。该模型同样适用于其它领域的综合评价问题。
    Along with the gradual implementation of river basins sustainability development strategy,establishing a sustainability evaluation method based on the entire basin evaluation indexes system especially important.Correct appraisement of the sustainability status of river basins is the foundation of basins sustainability development policy’s formulation,implementation,and management.However,basin sustainability evaluation is still at exploration stage,and some existing methods have various shortcomings,such as subjectivity,less differentiation,low computation precision and so on.Therefore an effective evaluation method should be urgently discovered. Aiming to these disadvantages and on the basis of traditional pursuit projection method,we proposed a multi-criterion evaluation model based on maximum entropy principal(ME-PP).The basic idea of traditional projection pursuit method is to project high dimension data to projective values in low dimension space, to describe some structure using a projective index function,to search optimal projective directions according to the projective index function,and to analyze the structure character of the high dimension data using the projective values.However,sometimes we can not obtain enough information for evaluation,and the evaluation system itself has randomness,fuzziness in original evaluation data.So,the results of projection vector gained by pursuit projection method have more uncertain factors called uncertainty,which can be resolved by information theory.According to Jaynes’s maximum entropy principle,it thinks that we should take maximum entropy distribution when we just know partly information about the evaluation problem,which is the only choice that we can make,and any other choices mean that we have added other restraint or assumption,which can’t be acquired according to the information that we have grasped.So in this paper,we present ME-PP model,which considered the uncertainty in projection vector quantity optimization,and used accelerate genetic algorithm(AGA) to optimize the multi-criterion object function. The modeling of ME-PP includes five steps as following: the first step is to standardize each index of the basin sustainability evaluation system to eliminate the dimension of each index and to unify the change range of each index.The second step is to construct a multi-criterion object function,which includes projective index function and maximum entropy function.The third step is the optimization of above multi-criterion object function by AGA.The projection direction vector and each sample’s projective values can be acquired by AGA optimization.In the forth step,according to the tendency relationship of each sample’s projection values and standard grades in scatter dots figure,a cubic tendency curve evaluation model is established,and in the same way we use AGA to optimize the curve model parameters.In the last step,we can evaluate the basin sustainability sample after data standardization,and then we could conclude the basin sustainable status and make suggestions for the basin sustainability.In case study,we appraised Huaihe River basin sustainability and the evaluation results show the efficiency of ME-PP.As an evaluation method,it is also suitable for other comprehensive evaluation problems.
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    景观生态质量评价研究——以吴江市为例
    朱永恒, 濮励杰, 赵春雨
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (2): 182-187.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.02.182
    摘要   PDF (938KB)
    从土地生态学的角度探讨景观生态质量的评价理论和方法。景观生态质量(LsEQ)是景观生态系统维持自身结构与功能稳定性的能力,因此,景观生态质量的衡量标准是景观生态系统的稳定性,其稳定性取决于景观生态系统的自身稳定程度与外部生态学干扰程度的对比。以吴江市为例进行实证研究,结果表明,吴江市景观生态质量等级呈西南高、东北低的空间分布态势,评价结果与实际情况吻合,表明该评价方法有一定可行性。
    This paper discussed the evaluation theory and method of landscape ecological quality(LsEQ) from angle of land ecology.LsEQ is the ability of landscape eco-system to maintain self-stability of structure and function.So,assessment standard of LsEQ is defined to be the stability of landscape eco-system which lies on the contrast of interior stabilization degree and exterior ecological disturbance degree of landscape eco-system.In this paper,demonstration study has been made in Wujiang County.Evaluation result showed that, grades of LsEQ of Wujiang County show the sequence for different space locations in the following order: southwest>northeast.Evaluations result accorded with the fact and showed that this evaluation method has some feasibility.Research on evaluation of LsEQ has important meaning to land ecological management and sustainable land use.
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    贵州省猫跳河流域耕地空间分布格局模拟
    王秀春, 黄秋昊, 蔡运龙, 彭建
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (2): 188-192.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.02.188
    摘要   PDF (1040KB)
    选取贵州省猫跳河流域1995年度海拔高度、坡度、人口密度、人均GDP等栅格数据,通过随机空间采样,建立1995年耕地空间分布概率多元Logistic回归方程。运用GIS技术,结合2000年相关数据,模拟2000年该流域的耕地空间分布格局,并与实际的2000年耕地空间分布格局进行验证,结果较为理想,为土地利用变化的空间分布格局模拟提供一种新方法。
    Land use change is an important research subject of global environmental change and sustainable development.Much attention is paid to land use change simulations because they can betterly display the mechanism of land use change and make out the relevant policies.The Maotiao River valley is located in the middle of Guizhou Province,with the developed agriculture in karst mountain area.This paper selects the elevation,slope,population density,per capita GDP as the independent variables,construct multiple logistic regression(MLR) of farmland spatial distribution probability by random sampling.Then using the GIS technology and integrating the 2000’s relevant data,this paper simulated the farmland distribution map.When compared the simulation map with the actual 2000’s farmland distribution map,about 71% of the simulation is in accordance with the 2000’s farmland map.The result is quite satisfactory.
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    克拜东部黑土区侵蚀沟遥感分类与空间格局分析
    闫业超, 张树文, 岳书平
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (2): 193-199.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.02.193
    摘要   PDF (1244KB)
    近百年来,东北黑土区侵蚀沟的大量发育带来了一系列严重的社会经济问题,弄清侵蚀沟的类型、数量及分布情况是进行水土流失治理和生态环境建设的前提条件。以黑龙江省克拜东部黑土区作为典型研究区,采用2005年SPOT-5高分辨率卫星影象,结合野外调查,根据侵蚀沟的活跃程度,将黑土区的侵蚀沟分为活跃性、半活跃性和稳定性三种类型,阐述了不同类型侵蚀沟的影象特征和遥感分类方法,为利用遥感手段在区域尺度上对侵蚀沟进行快速调查提供了一种新途径。在对侵蚀沟进行信息提取和空间插值后,形成研究区不同类型侵蚀沟密度图,探讨了克拜东部黑土区侵蚀沟分布的空间格局特征及其影响因素,认为地貌发育过程中的“分水岭迁移”现象是造成该地区侵蚀沟密度东西差异的重要原因。
    Gully erosion is an important part of the soil erosion process and their occurrence and development may cause serious problems to a region’s agricultural sustainable development.Nowadays,wide and deep gullies can be commonly observed in Black Soil Region of Northeast China,owing to unreasonable land use option and human activities in the past 100 years.Some new technology such as Global Position System(GPS),phtogrammetry,and so on,is often used to study the process of gully development at local scale.But the research of gully distributing patterns at larger spatial scale is rarely reported.In this paper,taking black soil region of the eastern Kebai as a case study area,the SPOT-5 high resolution image was used to study the gully types,image character and their distribution on a regional scale.Since more active gullies have sparser vegetation cover,this study classified the gullies into three types(active gully,semi-active gully and stable gully) by their stage of development which can be estimated by fractional vegetation cover at gully bottom.The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index(NDVI) was used to calculate the average fractional vegetation cover of gullies.The image character of the erosion gullies is also described in detail.The gully density maps were made to show the spatial distribution character for each type of gullies.This study revealed that gully distribution is influenced by many factors.Gully density first increases sharply when slope degree increases,then decreases when the slope angle goes beyond 8 degree.Gully distribution is not uniform on each slope aspect,and highest gully density occurs at west and southwest side of the slope.Gully density also varies as altitude increases. It reaches the peak when altitude ranged from 210m to 280m.There is a great difference in gully density on two sides of the ridge between Runjin,Shuangyang and Tongken river systems.Most of the erosion gully occurs on the east side of the ridge,owing to the ridge migration in the natural process of landform evolvement.This result revealed that at local scale,gully occurrence is often influenced by such factors as slope steepness,vegetation cover,farm management,etc.,but at regional scale,the natural process of landform evolvement can not be negligible and may become a significant factor on gully distribution.This result indicates that constructing more reservoirs and dams across valleys is an effective way to control soil loss in Black Soil Region of Northeast China,as it can raise the base level and control the velocity of running water.
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    林冠对降雨截留能力的研究
    范世香, 高雁, 程银才, 白清俊
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (2): 200-204.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.02.200
    摘要   PDF (739KB)
    林冠截留能力是指在理想条件下林冠枝叶对任意降雨量的最大吸附量,随降雨量的增加而增加。当降雨量足够大时,林冠截留能力就等于林冠截留容量。所以,林冠截留容量是林冠截留能力的最大值。借鉴水文学中蓄满产流理论,构建林冠截留降雨能力模型。此外,结合一个具体林分的实测资料,介绍了林冠截留能力的近似确定方法,并与模型的模拟结果进行了比较。结果表明,两者非常吻合,表明文章建立的林冠截留能力模型是有效的,可以用于评判和比较不同林分对降雨截留作用的大小。
    In order to judge functions of forest canopy intercepting rainfall objectively and compare interception of forest canopy among different forests,the idea of rainfall-intercepting capability of forest canopy was posed.The interception capability is the maximum of forest canopy intercepting any rainfall under ideal conditions.The interception capability increases along with rainfall.When rainfall is enough,the interception capability is equal to the interception capacity of forest canopy.Therefore,interception capacity is also the maximum of the interception capability.Based on some assumptions,the model of interception capability was developed in terms of theory on saturated runoff-generating of hydrology and hydrologic forecast,namely If P<H,then IW[1-(1-P/H)β+1] IfP≥H,then I=αW where,I is interception capability;P is rainfall;α is forest canopy density;H,W,and β are model parameters,H=W(β+1).Furthermore,by combining with observated data of a stand,approximately determination method of interception capability was introduced.Moreover,effectiveness of the model was also examined.The results show that calculation values with the model are almost same as approximate observed values and that interception capability model is effective.The model may be applied to different stands of any areas to compare and evaluate effects of forest canopy intercepting rainfall.
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    中国北方几种灌丛群落表土花粉与植被关系研究
    李月丛, 许清海, 肖举乐, 阳小兰, 郑振华
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (2): 205-210.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.02.205
    摘要   PDF (963KB)
    中国北方20个典型灌丛群落主要花粉类型的百分比与植被盖度关系表明:除蒿及沙棘外,其它灌丛群落中,优势植物种的花粉百分比多低于20%。灌木花粉对植被的指示性研究表明:皂荚花粉为适中代表性类型,对植被指示明显。苦豆子、霸王柴、荆条、四合木、锦鸡儿、鼠李、绣线菊、虎榛子、榛、白刺、柽柳、柳等为低代表性类型(R值低于0.3),对植被有一定的指示意义;沙棘、蒿属、藜科花粉为超代表性类型(R值高于1或O值高于0.5),对植被也只有一定的指示意义。虎耳草科、豆科花粉对植被指示意义不明显。
    As one of important vegetation types,shrubs appear widely in different ecological regions.Parts of them have good indication to vegetation or ecological environment,parts of them can indicate the impact of human to vegetation.Now,in China,the area of shrubs has exceeded the forests.There are lots of researches about relationship between modern pollen and vegetation in forests,steppes and deserts,while very few researches about shrubs,so it is very necessary to study more about the relationship between modern pollen and vegetation in shrubs.In this paper,the study on the pollen assemblages for 53 samples in 20 shrub communities in the northern China showed that the pollen percentages for most dominant shrub plants were less than 20%,apart from Artemisia and Hippophae rhamnoides.The pollen assemblages of shrub communities in different ecological areas had obvious differences.The study on the relationship between the pollen percentages and shrub coverage showed that the pollen percentages of Nitraria,Vitex had significant relationship with their parent vegetation coverage,Tamarix,Artemisia have some relationship with their parent plants in certain extent,while the pollen percentages of Spiraea,Caragana,Leguminosae,Chenopodiaceae have no significant relationship with their parent vegetation coverage.The study on pollen indication to vegetation showed that Gleditsia pollen indicated their parent plants very well and is moderate represented type.Some pollen types,such as Sophora,Zygophyllum,Vitex,Tetraena could also indicate their parent plants well,while they are severely under-represented with the R-values less than 0.3;some other pollen types,such as Caragana,Rhamnaceae,Spiraea,Ostryopsis,Corylus,Nitrinia,Tamarix and Salix are also under-represented for the low R-values,however the strong scattering ability of pollen(O-values are higher than 0.5) making them only indicate their parent plants in certain extent.Pollen types such as Hippophae,Artemisia,Chenopodiaceae are over-represented for the high R-values,the strong dispersing ability or high pollen production(R values higher than 1 or O-values are higher than 0.5) also making them only indicate their original plants in certain degree.Pollen types such as Leguminosae and Saxifragaceae have no obvious indication to their parent plants(Ma values are close to Mp values).
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    长江上游重点产沙区产沙量对人类活动的响应
    许炯心, 孙季
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (2): 211-218.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.02.211
    摘要   PDF (944KB)
    对金沙江屏山站、嘉陵江北碚站、宜昌站20世纪50年代以来的输沙量和含沙量进行分析。结果表明,在年径流量相同的情况下,由于大规模矿山、钢铁工业、交通建设增加水土流失,屏山站1976~1996年年产沙量要高于1954~1976年。与此相反,由于修筑水库、塘坝拦沙,修建梯田、恢复植被减少侵蚀,北碚站1983~1996年年产沙量要大大低于1954~1982年;宜昌站1985~1996年年产沙量也低于1954~1984年。北碚、宜昌两站都存在一个使水利、水土保持减沙量为0的年径流量临界值,北碚站和宜昌站这一临界值分别为1142×108m3和4800×108m3
    The drainage areas between Shigu and Pingshan(except the Yalongjiang River basin) of the Jinshajiang River and the Jianglingjiang River basin are major sediment source areas of the upper Changjiang River.From 1954 to 1975, suspended sediment load and concentration at Pingshan station on the Jingshajiang River showed no trending variation,but afterwards they tended to increase.From 1954 to the early 1980s,suspended sediment load and concentration at Beibei station on the Jialingjiang River showed no trending variation,but after 1983 they tended to decrease.From 1954 to the mid-1980s,suspended sediment load and concentration at Yichang station on the Changjiang River showed no trending variation,but after 1985 they tended to decrease.A analysis of relationship between sediment load and river flow indicates that,on condition that annual river flows are equal,the annual suspended load at Pingshan station during the period 1976-1996 was larger than that during the period 1954-1975,due to large-scale mining and construction of iron-steel industry and communication lines,which increased soil loss.On contrast,due to reservoir construction,land terracing,tree planting and natural restoration of vegetation,sediment yield was reduced,and then the annual suspended sediment load at Beibei station on the Jialingjiang River during the period 1983-1996 became much smaller than that during the period 1954-1982.The annual suspended sediment load at Yichang station on the Changjiang River during the period 1985-1996 was also smaller than that during the period 1954-1996.It has been found that there is a threshold in annual river flow,at which the sediment reduction by soil-water conservation measures equals 0.For Beibei station and Yichang station,this threshold is 114 billion m3 and 480 billion m3,respectively.Due to differences in natural conditions and human activities in the two major sediment source areas,the lower Jinshajiang River basin and the Jialingjiang River basin,the response of sediment yield in the two areas are different,just in reverse directions.From viewpoint of drainage basin system,this reflects some complicated spatial behavior,resulting from different responses in different parts of a huge fluvial system.Study of these complicated spatial behaviors may help to get a better understanding of the mechanism of response of sediment yield to changing environmental factors,which is useful to more effective control of soil loss and sediment-related hazards.
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    塔里木河源流区气候变化和年径流量关系初探
    徐海量, 叶茂, 宋郁东
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (2): 219-224.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.02.219
    摘要   PDF (726KB)
    基于1957~2003年塔里木河流域源流区长期监测资料,分析塔里木河流域源流区的主要河流年径流量和相应气温、降水变化的特点,探讨流域内气候变化与水资源量变化的关系。利用非参数检验的方法,分析温度、降水变化与径流量变化的关联性和一致性。结果显示:在塔里木河流域源流区,温度在0.05水平上呈现单调递增的趋势,降水则表现为不显著增加的走势,而径流量基本均出现了递增现象;从参数检验和非参数分析的结果看,温度升高与径流量增加的关联趋势更明显。
    Based on the data from 8 meteorological stations and 7 hydrologic stations of the Tarim River in 1957-2003,the article analyzes the variation tendency of annual runoff and characteristics of temperature and precipitation of the main headstreams of the Tarim river,and then discusses the relationship between climate changes and annual runoff in the headstreams.Afterward,the nonparametric method is applied to test the correlation and consistency between temperature,precipitation and runoff.It is shown that when significant level satisfies with 0.05,the temperature of the headstreams has a liner-increasing trend while the precipitation increases weakly.But the runoff is always an obviously increasing trend since 1994.By the two-variable Wilcoxon testing,the temperature and runoff,precipitation and runoff respectively have a certain correlation.By the Kendall’s W testing,the runoff,temperature and precipitation of the Akesu River and the Kaidu River all have obvious correlation.The results show that the runoff of the two rivers increases with the increasing of the temperature and precipitation.However,since significant level does not satisfy with the testing standard,the three variables show different change trend in the Hotan River and the Yerqiang River.So we discuss the main climate factors affecting the runoff change by the nonparametric and parametric method.The results show that the increase of temperature may be the more obvious factor to result in increasing the runoff in the headstreams of the Tarim River.
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    西安高陵渭河近120年来的洪水演变
    赵景波, 蔡晓薇, 王长燕
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (2): 225-230.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.02.225
    摘要   PDF (1242KB)
    西安高陵渭河漫滩沉积剖面发育,能较好地指示渭河洪水变化。沉积物以粗粉砂、细粉砂、极细砂及粘粒为主。粒度较粗层位指示较强的水动力条件和短暂的湿润气候或一定地区的暴雨增加,粒度较细的层位则代表较弱的水动力条件和短暂的湿润程度略低的气候,而在各洪水沉积层之间无洪水发生的阶段则是正常的气候阶段或偏干的气候阶段。高陵渭河近120年来的河漫滩沉积剖面可分为16层,代表了16个大的洪水阶段。高陵渭河近120年来的河漫滩沉积粒度成分比更早期的河漫滩沉积粒度偏细,反映出近120年来渭河洪水深度与规模在变小,这主要是气候变干造成的。
    According to the grain size analysis to 210 samples of floodplain deposition of the Weihe River in Gaoling and the age material recorded in history books,we had studied the flood change of the Weihe River in recent about 120 years in Gaoling,Xi′an.The materials indicate that the flood-plain deposit develops well and the change of the grain size is obvious,which can indicate the flood change of the Weihe River clearly and with high-resolution.The flood-plain sediment is mainly composed of the coarse silt,fine silt,very fine silt and clay,and the grain size is comparatively small in general.The layer that the contents of fine sand and the very fine sand are high is the one that the grain size is big,and the layer that the contents of silt and clay are high is the one that the grain size is small.The layer that the grain size is big indicates the strong hydrodynamic condition and the transient moist climate or the rainstorm increase in certain area,the layer that the grain size is small indicates the weak hydrodynamic condition and the transient less moist climate,and the climate of the periods when no flood occurred were the normal or dryer.The flood-plain deposit of the Weihe River in recent 120 years in Gaoling can be divided into 16 layers,which represent 16 big flood stages.In the 1st,3rd,5th,7th,9th,11th,13th and 15th layers the grain size is comparatively small and in the 2nd,4th,6th,8th,10th,12th,14th and 16th layer the grain size is comparatively big,which is clearly shown not only in the accumulative content of the grain size but in the distribution range of such grani size parameters as Md,Mz,σ,Sk and Kg and the characteristic values,and reflects the flood scale in the 2nd,4th,6th,8th,10th,12th,14th and 16th stages is bigger than that in the 1st,3rd,5th,7th,9th,11th,13th and 15th stages.After eliminating the influence of the landform heightened by deposition on the grain size,we can make sure that the order of the depth and scale of 16 flood stages from big to small is the 16th,14th,4th,2nd,6th,1st,5th,8th,3rd,10th,12th,7th,9th,11th,13th and 15th.When the 1st,2nd,4th,6th,14th and 16th layers formed the height that the flood level passed over the flood plain was bigger than 2 m.When the 3rd,5th,7th,8th,9th,10th,11th,12th,13th and 15th layers formed the height that the flood level passed over the was smaller than 2 m.The grain size of the flood plain deposit of the Weihe River in recent about 120 years in Gaoling is smaller than that in early stages,which inflects the depth and scale of the flood of the Wei River in recent 120 years are changing small.This is caused mainly by the drying climate.
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    松花江流域非点源污染负荷估算与评价
    岳勇, 程红光, 杨胜天, 郝芳华
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (2): 231-236.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.02.231
    摘要   PDF (1287KB)
    结合RS和G IS技术,利用二元结构模型对2000年松花江流域非点源污染负荷进行计算与结果验证,并对流域内非点源污染状况做出评价。结果表明:4种非点源污染类型(农田、农村居民点、畜禽养殖和城市径流)中,农田TN、TP和NH4+-N非点源污染负荷量最高;畜禽养殖COD非点源污染比重最大。流域TN、TP的非点源污染负荷大于点源的污染负荷,其中TP的非点源污染负荷远远超过点源;而NH4+-N和COD的点源污染负荷则大于非点源污染。4种污染类型的不同污染指标(COD、TN、TP、NH4+-N)在时间(2000年内)和空间上呈现出一定的分布规律。
    On the basis of the opportunity of National Water Resource Planning in China,the loads of non-point source pollution were calculated in Songhuajiang River Basin in Northeast China in 2000.The work was finished by a model called binary structure model based on the data collection and investigation in the study area,additionally with the assistance of 3S technology.This model was set up by simplifying the process of pollutants transported of non-point source pollution.We divided the factors which affected the fate of pollutants into 2 categories;one is natural factors,the other social parameters.The most particular characteristic is that the dynamic factor,precipitation runoff factor was included in the equation.The model was applied in basin after calibration and validation.Then an assessment of non-point source pollution condition was presented.The results indicate: the load of TN,TP,and NH4+-N almost came from agricultural fields(>70% for these 3 pollutants),but livestock and rural residential contributed the most COD load(>95%) among the 4 type′s pollution sources,i.e.,agricultural farm,livestock farm,rural residential areas and urban areas.The load of TN,TP resulted from non-point source pollution(about 61% of the sum) is larger than that from point pollution,in which the load of TP is about 10 times more than that from point pollution.The relationship between the loads of COD and NH4+-N from non-point source and point pollution sources is opposite.The load of COD,TN,TP,and NH4+-N from 4 type pollution sources presents a temporal and spatial characteristic in distribution.In general,the load transported during flood season(from June to September) is larger than that during drought period(December to next April).And the pollutants from non-point source pollution dispersed in the Songnen Plain in the Songhuajiang River basin and the Nenjiang River basin.
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    太湖流域磷排放对区域城市化过程的响应——以宜兴市为例
    戴科伟, 高超, 朱继业, 钱谊
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (2): 237-242.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.02.237
    摘要   PDF (471KB)
    在系统分析基础上,利用系统动力学方法,以宜兴市为典型区,模拟城市化过程对磷发生量的影响,建立二者间的定量响应关系。结果表明,不论是在何种城市化发展速度下,磷的发生总量都会有较大幅度的增加,而目前规划的污水处理水平只能小幅度削减流域内磷的排放量,不足以从根本上扭转太湖水质持续恶化的趋势。在推进太湖流域城市化的进程中,必须加大投入,进一步加强环境基础设施建设,更大幅度地削减磷等营养物质的排放。
    Phosphorus is the limiting factor of Taihu Lake eutrophication and domestic sewage is its leading P source.In this regard,reducing phosphorus emission from urban section is an urgent priority.However,rapid urbanization in the watershed has a negative impact on the water quality improvement of the lake because most of the municipal effluent in the area is now discharged into river systems without or with only minor treatment.In this study,a system dynamic model was developed and applied in Yixing City,a case area in Taihu Lake watershed,to relate phosphorus emission and urbanization rate.Phosphorus generated in the case area will continue to rise with the urban expansion.Planned waste water treatment capacity can only slightly reduce P emission from its present level in the near future.The improvement of water quality of the lake lies largely on enlarged capacity of municipal domestic sewage treatment.The results of this study can be used as a theoretical base for realizing sustainable coordinative development between society,economy and environment in the area.
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    城市土地利用类型及格局的热环境效应研究——以上海市中心城区为例
    岳文泽, 徐丽华
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (2): 243-248.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.02.243
    摘要   PDF (1096KB)
    以上海市中心城区为例,首先采用SPOT影象,人工解译出城市土地利用的类型,同时利用Landsat7卫星,ETM+影象的热红外波段反演每个像元内的陆地表面温度,分析陆地表面温度在不同土地利用类型之间的差异,进一步分析不同土地空间分布格局与地面温度之间的关系。研究结果显示:上海市地表温度具有明显中心城区高、郊区低的热岛效应存在;在城市不同土地利用类型上的表面温度具有显著性差异,两两之间的比较揭示,城市地面温度在大多数土地利用类型之间的差异是显著的。城市内部不同土地类型所产生的热环境效应不同;城市土地类型在空间布局上越复杂,其产生的热岛效应越明显。
    The character of Land Surface Temperatures(LST) associated with urban land use type and land use pattern are discussed in Shanghai,China by using the data collected by the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus(ETM+) remote sensing system.Mean LST values associated with different land use types are significantly different.Multiple comparisons of mean LST values associated with pairings of each land use type are also shown to be significantly different.Then an analysis was performed about the relationship between LST and Shannon Diversity Index(SHDI) of urban land use types,which shows a positive correlation between LST and SHDI.According to the above results,LST,SHDI can be considered to be basic indices to study urban ecological environment and to contribute to further validation of the applicability of relatively low cost,moderate spatial resolution satellite imagery in evaluating environmental impacts of urban land function zoning,then to examine the impact of urban land use on the urban environment in Shanghai City.And this provides an effective tool in evaluating environmental influences of zoning in urban ecosystems with remote sensing and spatial analysis of geographic information system.
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    基于社区居民调查的海岸带湿地环境质量评价——以海南东寨港红树林自然保护区为例
    王计平, 邹欣庆, 左平
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (2): 249-255.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.02.249
    摘要   PDF (931KB)
    从影响红树林湿地环境质量评价因素间相互作用的复杂性和不同社区居民感官的差异性出发,利用模糊数学的理论与方法,建立了各评价指标的隶属函数和多级模糊综合评判的数学模型,并以海南东寨港红树林自然保护区为例,对其湿地环境质量进行了定量的综合评价。评价结果表明:东寨港红树林湿地环境总体较好,但仍存在一些问题。文章提出了东寨港环境管理的具体建议与对策,以期为东寨港湿地环境可持续发展提供决策依据。
    After analyzing the sense differences among residents and the complexity of the interaction among different environmental evaluation indicators, the mathematical model of fuzzy synthetical evaluation method is set up by using the fuzzy theory and approaches.Taking Dongzhaigang Mangrove Natural Reserve as an example,this article quantitatively evaluates the wetland environment of Dongzhaigang.The evaluation indicates that Dongzhaigang wetland environment is generally good,but still with some environmental problems.In this sense,some suggestions on the wetland environmental management are proposed in the paper,which will hopefully provide guidelines to the sustainable wetland development in Dongzhaigang.
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    树木年轮指示的柴达木东北缘近千年夏季气温变化
    朱西德, 王振宇, 李林, 秦宁生, 汪青春
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (2): 256-260.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.02.256
    摘要   PDF (385KB)
    依据采自青海海西德令哈、乌兰的树木年轮资料序列与柴达木东北缘1961~2001年夏季(6~8)平均气温资料序列之间较好的同期相关特征,重建了柴达木东北缘夏季(6~8)平均气温千年历史资料序列。运用乘积平均值、误差缩减值等方法对重建方程进行了检验,证明重建序列可信。通过分析发现,在重建的1098年中,有7个主要的冷期和6个主要的暖期,重建的气温序列存在15个主要突变时段。周期分析表明柴达木东北缘夏季气温存在46、52、61、73、91、183年和366年左右的长周期以及6.8年和2~3年的短周期。
    Based on the relationship between the tree-ring data series and summer(June to August) temperature from 1962 to 2001,about thousand year’s summer temperature in northeast of Qaidam Basin was retrieved by using the tree-ring chronology which developed from samples collected in Delingha and Wulan in western Qinghai.Using those methods just as the Mean Value of Product and the Reduction of Error,the retrieved series was proved through testing retrieved equation.The analyses show that seven major colder periods and six warmer periods existed in retrieved series in 1098 years.Fifteen major interrupt regions existed in retrieved temperature series.The cycle analyses show that the summer temperature series in northeast of Basin has longer periods of 46 years,52 years,61 years,73 years,91 years,183 years and 366 years,and shorter periods of 6.8 years and 2-3years.
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    基于137Cs计年法估算滇池沉积物重金属负荷
    张燕, 邓西海, 陈捷
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (2): 261-267.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.02.261
    摘要   PDF (466KB)
    根据滇池流域地貌、湖盆形态、物源供给等,用GIS方法将滇池外海分作7个区域,以137Cs计年法确定各区域上部沉积物3个沉积时段为1954~1963、1963~1986、1986~2003年,测算不同时段各区域的泥沙年均沉积通量和年均蓄积量,与当地实情及他人用其它方法研究对照,结果可以吻合。在此基础上,结合实验室测量,估算各区域的Cu、Cr、Cd、Pb、Hg、Zn在各时段的年均沉积通量,得到1963~2003年期间滇池沉积物几种重金属负荷分别达到1040.8、1054.0、11.2、824.7、2.5、2465.6 t。故应十分重视滇池沉积物中重金属,采用减少重金属和泥沙入湖量并举的措施控制沉积物重金属负荷的进一步增长。
    According to the shape of Dianchi Lake,the land forms of the lake basin and the sources of sediment and heavy metals,Dianchi Lake was divided into seven zones by using Geographic Information System(GIS).The sediments in the upper part of each zone,which were identified by 137Cs dating at different depths,correlate to special periods,such as 1954-1963,1963-1986,1986-2003.The mean sedimentation flux and annual total amounts of sediment accumulations of seven zones were evaluated.The results agree with the events occurred in Dianchi basin in lately 50 years obtained by different methods.Based on the sedimentation fluxes and the concentrations of heavy metals in the sediments measured in laboratory,the mean sedimentation fluxes and mean annual accumulation amounts of heavy metals,such as Cu,Cr,Cd,Pb,Hg,Zn,of each zone in three periods were calculated.The heavy metals loads from 1963 to 2003 in the sediments of Lake Dianchi were 1 040.8,1 054.0,11.2,824.7,2.5,2 465.6 t,individually.In order to control the increases of heavy metal loads,it is necessary to reduce the amounts of both heavy metals and materials entering Dianchi Lake.
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    高填方加筋黄土路堤稳定性的有限元分析
    王家鼎, 谢婉丽, 骆凤涛
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (2): 268-272.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.02.268
    摘要   PDF (841KB)
    采用有限元法对国内最高(62 m)的山西北张沟加筋黄土高填路堤稳定性进行了数值模拟,对其最大主应力、最小主应力、剪应力和塑性破坏区及其变形进行了计算,然后将其计算结果与未加筋路堤相比较,得出高填方加筋黄土路堤及地基变形特性和应力特性的变化规律。结果表明,由于加筋的作用,降低了黄土高路堤的变形,提高了其稳定性。这与现场沉降观测结果基本一致。
    Numerical simulation analyses of the highest reinforced embankment in Beizhang loess valley,Huozhou Town,Shaanxi Province,China,were carried out with finite element method.It is analyzed for the maximum and imum strains and stresses,shear stress,plastic zone of the highest embankment.The characteristics of strain and stress of high reinforced embankment and foundation are gotten,based on the comparison between reinforcement and non-reinforcement.The results show that the geo-grid not only enhance the stability of high embankment and foundation but also reduce its deformation.The FEM analysis results agree with the field tests.
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    长沙城市形态与用地类型的时空演化特征
    陈群元, 尹长林, 陈光辉
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (2): 273-280.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.02.273
    摘要   PDF (1175KB)
    运用GIS技术与高级编程方法提取了长沙市1979、1996年、2003年的城市用地现状图的数据信息,借助最小二乘技术,通过幂指数拟合,计算出了各年份的城市形态与用地结构的分维数,并探讨了长沙城市分形演化的机理和城市形态演化的信息熵。通过对分维数的时空变化所包括信息的分析,发现长沙城市形态及各职能类用地存在明显的分形特征,且各类职能用地的分维小于城市形态的整体分维,符合理论上推断的城市分维包容原理,整个城市形态朝着混沌向有序渐趋优化演化,但同时也存在绿化用地与对外交通用地发展不够完善的问题。
    The history and the present situation of study on urban morphology and land use structure based on the fractal theory are briefly introduced and reviewed.The model and its meanings of the fractal theory on urban morphology research is also introduced and explained.Taking Changsha as an example,the authors draw 1979,1996,2003’s fractal data message of its urban morphology by writing compute program and using ArcGIS soft,and calculate the fractal dimensions of its urban morphology and land use structure of different periods.The end shows that the tendency of fractal evolution gradually changing from the chaos to the order has been existing in urban morphology and land use structure in Changsha,and its causes of this phenomenon are mainly made for the development of urban economy,the innovation of regionalism and the modification of city planning.At the same time a few of questions in land structure also have been discovered,including that the area of the green land and the traffic land is smaller and their distributions are also more centralized.In this study,the dimension inclusion theory is confirmed,which means all the dimensions of different land use sorts are smaller than that of the whole urban morphology.Some significance about the study to Changsha urban planning also has been put forward.
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    GIS支持的广东地名景观EOF模型分析
    王彬, 岳辉
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (2): 281-288.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.02.281
    摘要   PDF (1901KB)
    将广东全省划分为86个行政单元,并选取64个典型地名的通名,运用EOF模型进行运算;选取累积方差超过70%的前三项做主成分分析,并借助G IS技术输出其各自的空间分布图。研究发现:64个通名在空间分布上明显地表现为不均衡性,即普遍分布和相对集中同时并存。以塘、坑、山、水等反映地貌特征的通名分布较为普遍,而以沥、厝、屋、板、六、都等民族或族群的方言通名分布则较为集中,其中以涌(冲、埇)、朗(塱)、沙、排、寮、塘、潭、沥、滘、基等通名主要分布在粤方言的珠江三角洲水网密集区,以坪、背、坑、岭、屋、畲(輋)、磜、溪等通名主要分布在粤东北和粤北及其它客家人分布区,以厝、洋、垄(垅)、田、寨、华、美(尾)等通名主要分布在粤东潮汕和粤西南雷州半岛福佬人分布区,以洞(垌、峒)、罗、六(箓、菉、弄)、板(曼、迈、麻)、那(纳)、古(过)、都(多)、云、栏(兰)等通名则主要分布在与广西交界的粤西和粤西南地区。
    This article makes operation by using EOF model through dividing the whole province into 86 administrative units and choosing 64 typical common words of place names.And it chooses and analyzes the first 3 main compositions whose variance accumulate close to 70,and outputs each spatial distribution map through using GIS technology.Finally,we can find that the common 64 words of place names can not be obviously shown as harmoniously in spatial distribution, but distributing both generally and relatively centralizedly at the same time, that is to say,they coexist.The common words of place names which reflect landforms characteristics,such as Tang,Dong,Shan,Shui,etc.,are comparatively general to distribute;while the common words which show dialect words of nationality or ethnicity place names,including Li,Cuo,Wu,Ban,Liu,Du,etc.are comparatively focusedly distributed.Those common geographical names including Chong,Lang,Sha,Pai,Liao,Tang,Tan,Li are distributed mainly over the river network of the Zhujiang Pear River Delta.Those including Ping,Bei,Keng,Ling,Wu,She,Qi,Xi are distributed mainly over the north and northeast of other Hakka places of Guangdong. Those including Cuo,Yang,Long,Tian,Hua,Mei are distributed mainly over Fulao place of the east and Leizhou peninsula of Guangdong.Those including Dong,Luo,Liu,Ban,Na,Gu,Du,Yun,Lan are distributed mainly over the places which the southwest of Guangdong is bounded on the west by Guangxi.According to the types,all the place names of the whole province are divided into 4 relatively independent groups of place names in the area distributed,it is landform characteristics and social culture that are the basic elements which cause to such distribution phenomenon in the area.
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