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ISSN 1000-0690
CN 22-1124/P
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  • 地理科学
      2008年, 第28卷, 第1期 刊出日期:2008-01-20 上一期    下一期
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    论文
    吴传钧院士对发展中国农业地理学的贡献
    刘彦随
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (1): 1-5.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.01.1
    摘要   PDF (824KB)
    吴传钧先生是杰出的地理学家、地理教育家。他热衷于农业地理学研究,是中国现代农业地理学的带头人。在70多年的科学研究与教育生涯中,农业地理学既是先生科学研究的起点,也是他科研工作的重点。先生在农业地理学领域的研究工作及其贡献可简要归纳为3个方面:①缘于深厚的农业地理情结,率先开展农业资源调查、农业区划的理论与方法探索;②结合国家重大项目研究,精心组织和深入开展农业地理学理论的系统研究与总结;③基于人地关系地域系统理论,率先研究提出中国不同类型区域的农业与农村发展问题、机制和方向。这些开创性的学术研究及成就,为建立具有中国特色的现代农业地理学理论与方法体系做出了重要贡献。
    Academician Wu Chuanjun is a distinguished geographer as well as a geography educator in China. He was born in Suzhou city in April 2, 1918. In his more than 70 years of scientific research and education career, Academician Wu has opened up a series of important research fields in contemporary Chinese geography, and has made academic contributions for the development of China's geography, professional personnel training. Mr. Wu is hereby value of his ninetieth birthday, this paper briefly describes his outstanding contributions in terms of his work in modern agricultural geography for which we extend our sincere congratulations.Academician Wu keens on research in the field of agricultural geography more then half century; he is one of the main inaugurators of Chinese modern agricultural geography. His contributions of theory and practice in agricultural geography study are as the follows: take the lead in investigating agricultural resources, agricultural regionalization theories and methods; systematically study and synthesize the agricultural geography theory; reveal the different types and directions of regional agriculture and rural development under the recent process of the rapid urbanization and industrialization in China.
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    从人地关系地域系统到人海关系地域系统——吴传均院士对中国海洋地理学的贡献
    张耀光
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (1): 6-9.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.01.6
    摘要   PDF (855KB)
    世界近代任何一个大国的崛起,都必须依靠海洋。中国既是陆地大国,又是海洋大国,中国的社会和经济的发展将越来越多地依赖海洋。吴传钓院士是中国杰出的地理学家,他提出:"地理学研究的核心——人地关系地域系统"[1]这一精辟的理论。同时他也是中国海洋地理学研究的实践者、倡导者和组织者。把人地关系的研究拓展到人海关系研究。提出了"地理学要面向海洋",多次提出:中国是个重要的海洋国家,地理工作不能限于"陆军",还要建立"陆军海战队",鼓励研究海洋。对吴传钓院士亲自参加海洋地理研究的实践、对年轻人的提携、把中国海洋地理学的研究推向国际等作了较详尽的介绍。
    Any rising country in modern times all around the world must give its credit to the ocean. China, as a country with extensive territory of both land and sea, relies more and more on the sea for its soci-economic development. As a distinguished geographer, Academician Wu Chuanjun has made great contribution to the development of this academic subject of geography. He is the first one who developed the insightful theory of regional system of man-land relationship. As Mr.Wu holds, and we all acknowledge, that regional system of man-land relationship is the core of the studies of geography. Mr. Wu is also a practitioner, advocate and organizer of studies on marine geography. Studies on man-land relationship owes it to Mr. Wu, who argues that geography be targeted at the sea as well, to branch out to man-sea relationship. Mr.Wu brought it up more than once that China is such an important country boasting wide range of sea territory that geographical studies should never be limited to land territory. It is suggested that a "waterborne army" be set up to study the sea. This paper tells in detail stories of Academician Wu’s hands-on practice in studies of marine geography, of his guidance and support for young generation of geographers, and of his introducing China’s geographical studies to the international community.
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    中国地理学发展的世纪回顾与展望
    李润田
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (1): 10-14.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.01.10
    摘要   PDF (567KB)
    通过对中国地理学在20世纪发展脉络进行了较全面、系统的回顾,在此基础上,对新世纪中国地理学的发展进行了展望。
    As a disciplinary of studying the temporal and spatial changing regulation of natural and human elements on the earth surface, geography has the attributes of both natural and social science when facing the worldwide scientific problems of global change and sustainable development. On the base of fully reviewing and studing the development of geography in the 20 century, the author made a prospect of the development of geography in China, and make points that, to advance the development of geography in new century, the following aspects must be paid great attention: 1) the development of geography in China must absorb the latest thoughts, theories and results overseas; 2) to construct the geography of Chinese characteristics, and pay more attention to the development of basic theories; 3) geography should play a great role in field of application research and basic research, and make breakthrough in integration research; 4) to enhance the development of weak branches in the geography, and initiatively adapt to the development of our modernization; and 5) to intensify the theory and methods study of the geographic information systems, and search new application technology, models in analyzing the geo-space information.
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    东北老工业基地城市群组结构和功能优化的初步研究
    王士君, 王丹, 宋飏
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (1): 16-21.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.01.16
    摘要   PDF (1397KB)
    东北地区城市群组应围绕老工业基地振兴和新型工业基地建设的任务,在新型工业化和城市化发展目标下,调整结构、优化功能。辽中南城市群应在继续重化工业和装备制造业方向的同时强化效益和效率机制;吉中城市组群应在坚持汽车工业和新兴工业部门方向的同时强化城际之间的行业联系;哈大齐以及黑龙江东北城市组群则应做好资源接续产业和新兴产业的培育工作。在结构调整和功能优化过程中,还要注意加强城市群组内部城市职能分工,加速产业结构与产品结构的梯度转移,逐步弱化不同等级城市间纵向联系的行政隶属关系,进一步强化同一等级城市间的横向联系,在城市群组之间亦形成良性的竞争和合作关系,为新型工业基地建设和东北地区经济发展提供空间载体。
    The northeast old industrial base of China is the industrial system mainly composed of the industrial projects that China placed in the three provinces of Northeast China with emphasis during "First Five-Year" and "Second Five-Uear" period. On its way of developing resources-based heavy industry, this industrial base incubated the growth of the urban agglomerations in Northeast China at the same time of establishing the huge heavy industrial system. Urban agglomeration refers to the city aggregation formed by certain amount of cities with different scales, different grades, different or similar character and type within certain geographical scope. At present, there are three large urban agglomerations, namely urban agglomeration Central Southern Liaoning Province, urban agglomeration in central Jilin, in urban agglomeration Harbin-Daqing-Qiqihar and northeast Heilongjiang, and other local urban agglomerations in Northeast China.Urban agglomerations in Northeastern China grow along with the construction, formation and development of the old industrial base. Up to present time, basic urban functions formed in the construction period of the old industrial base have been still remained in most cities of Northeast China. Though the allocation relation, the supply and sale relation formed in planned economy were broken down within and between those urban agglomerations, situations of the coordinating and stable relation with market being the impetus, element flows and industrial division being the principal part have not been established. Impacted by the decline of the old industrial base, those urban agglomerations still have obvious structural and functional problems. This kind of situation has somewhat become the bottleneck of revitalizing the northeast old industrial base. Based on the above-mentioned knowledge, this paper puts forward that urban agglomerations in Northeast China should adjust structures and optimize functions, focusing on the task of revitalizing the old industrial base and aiming at new-type industrialization and new-type urbanization. Urban agglomeration in Central and southern Liaoning Province should strengthen benefit mechanism and efficiency mechanism in the meanwhile of continuing the development of heavy industry and equipment manufacturing; urban agglomeration in central Jilin should consolidate industrial relation at the same time of sticking to the development of automobile industry and emerging industries; urban agglomeration in Harbin-Daqing-Qiqihar and northeast Heilongjiang should lay emphasis on resources-substitute industry and emerging industries. In the process of structural adjustment and function optimization, those agglomerations should also enhance interior urban function division, accelerate grads transfer of industrial structure and product structure, weaken the vertical administrative relation between cities of different grades and strengthen the horizontal relation of cities of the same grades, establish virtuous competitive relation and cooperative relation between different urban agglomerations, so to offer spatial carrier for the adjustment of the old industrial base and the economic development of Northeast China.
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    城市化过程中水资源利用保护问题探索——以长江下游若干城市为例
    姚士谋, 陈爽, 年福华, 张雷, 冯长春
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (1): 22-28.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.01.22
    摘要   PDF (1077KB)
    在全球经济一体化的新形势下,工业化与城市化过程加快,超大城市与城市化走廊不断扩展,尤其在发展中国家和亚洲地区。但在城市化过程中,由于人们缺乏科学发展观,片面追求社会经济效益,追求经济发展增长速度,忽视了生态环境的保护,尤其是对水资源的合理利用与保护。对长江下游经济发达地区一些重点城市,尤其是苏锡常地区与长江口的水质、水体保护与污染状况和城市化发展的相关问题曾作过深入调查分析;就地区的城市化特点、城市化过程、水资源利用管理以及合理保护水资源的问题作一些分析研究,试图探索中国经济发达区域城市化过程中水资源利用保护的新路子,特别对长江下游地区城市工业、产业结构调整和坚持走新型工业化道路提出了和谐发展的办法和模式,对本区的可持续发展具有重要的现实意义,为构建中国和谐社会作出努力。
    In the current phase of the global economic incorporation, the speed of the industrialization and urbanization is growing, and the metropolis and residentialization corridor is expanding increasing, especially in the developing countries and Asian area. But during the urbanization, the protection of the environment, especially protecting and making good use of water resoucers, is ignored because lack of the scientific outlook on development, merely aiming at economic benefit and the increasing speed of GDP per capita. This paper discusses the characters and processes of the urbanization, the utilization and management of the water resources and how to protect the water resources in the lower Changjiang River valley through investigating some important cities deeply, especially the problems of water body pollution, protection and urbanization process in the area of Suzhou-Wuxi-Changzhou and the Changjiang River mouth are deeply investigated and analysized. At last some new methods about how to utilize and protect the water resources during the urbanization in the developed area are put forward in order to be used in the construction of the harmonious society. The methods and models of the harmonious development about the urban industrial structure adjustments and new industrialization road in the downstream area of Changjiang River are proposed particularly, which will benefit for sustainable development in this area.
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    城市化过程中土地利用变化对区域滞洪库容量的影响研究——以南京市河西地区为例
    吴运金, 张甘霖, 赵玉国, 杨金玲
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (1): 29-33.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.01.29
    摘要   PDF (1145KB)
    通过对两期LandsatTM遥感影像进行监督分类,提取近20年南京市河西地区土地利用变化状况,用转移矩阵、迁移概率和迁移量比重模型来说明河西地区的土地利用变化,并根据地表状况和土壤的压实程度提出了不同土地利用类型的区域滞洪库容量计算模型,从而估计土地利用变化对水分调节功能的影响。研究发现:①河西地区土地利用变化的主要特征为以其他土地利用类型向建筑用地的转移为主,旱地内部的转移和水田向旱地(主要是菜地)的转移也占有一定的比重;②由于地表封闭和种植结构的改变导致区域滞洪库容量大量损失,1986年到2003年总滞洪库容量减少了550.40万m3其中因建筑用地面积的增加使地表封闭而减少的滞洪库容量高达482.15万m3,相当于整个研究区域86mm水深;③局部范围的土壤压实只对局部的滞洪库容量产生影响而对区域的总的滞洪库容量的影响不大,1986年到2003年因土壤压实而减少的滞洪库容量只有3.12万m3,只占总滞洪库容减少量的0.54%。研究表明减少地表封闭是防止城市瞬时洪涝灾害的重要方面。
    The dramatic land use/land cover change(LUCC) is a fundamental characteristic during urbanization which has a strong impact on urban ecosystem and environmental quality. In this paper we used Landsat TM images of two periods (1986 and 2003) covering Hexi area of Nanjing City as a basis to quantify the changes of land use and cover. We used transfer matrix, transfer probability and transfer proportion to explain the changes of land use in Hexi areas.In addition, we built models to calculate the capability of flood detention which can explain the effects of land-use changes on water regulation function of regional soil cover. The result showed that the main characteristics of land use changes in the studied areas were predominantly the conversion of other land uses to build and roads with sealed surface, and the transformation of paddy field to vegetable cropland. During this land use changes, the water storage capacity dropped drastically and amounted to 5.50?106 m3, which equaled to 86mm water depth. However, the contribution by soil compaction was only 31.2?103 m3, which accounted only 0.54% of the total capacity loss. The study showed that an environmentally-sound soil management, especially reducing surface sealing in urban area was essential in building an ecological friendly city.
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    黄土高原地区退耕还林工程的农户响应与影响因素——以甘肃定西大牛流域为例
    马岩, 陈利顶, 虎陈霞
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (1): 34-39.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.01.34
    摘要   PDF (271KB)
    以甘肃省退耕还林(草)重点实施区为例,通过问卷调查和定量回归分析,研究农户对退耕还林(草)工程的认识和态度。总体上农民有较高的生态环境保护意识,对退耕还林(草)政策的认识基本持积极支持的态度;年龄、文化程度、家庭人口、劳动力数量、人均耕地数量、退耕还林(草)面积是影响农户环保意识和对退耕还林(草)态度的主要因素,农业和非农业农户之间存在一定差异。
    In 1999, the Chinese government initiated a "Grain-for-Green Project", aiming to reduce soil erosion and to improve regional environmental quality in the Loess Plateau. This project was firstly started in Gansu, Shaanxi and Sichuan provinces, and then was expanded to 25 provinces of China. As one of the largest ecological rehabilitation projects in the world, the attitudes and perceptions of farmers towards Grain-for-Green Project are significant for the successful implementation. However, it was less known at present.This paper focuses on the environmental awareness and the attitudes towards Grain for Green Project in two kinds of farmer households. The analysis is based on a semi-structured interview of 69 farmer households by means of participatory rural appraisal (PRA). According to the source of income, the farmers were divided into two groups, on-farm-oriented and off-farm-oriented. Although some differences remain, most respondents have positive attitudes towards environmental protection and Grain-for-Green Project. After that, binary logistic regression models were used to identify the major factors that influence the farmer’s responses towards environmental conservation and Grain-for-Green. The results indicated that the main affecting factors are age, education, household size, the number of labor, cropland area per capita, area of grain for green, but the effect is different between on-farm group and off-farm group. According to the results, some suggestions were given in this paper for improving the farmer’s attitude to the project, such as extending the period of subsidence in Grain for Green Project, re-employment of the rural surplus labor, and strengthening education of the local farmers.
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    中亚热带网纹红土的稀土元素特征与成因分析
    叶玮, 杨立辉, 朱丽东, 李凤全, 王俊荆
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (1): 40-44.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.01.40
    摘要   PDF (377KB)
    130块样品的稀土元素含量、稀土分布模式、稀土特征值分析以及物源指数的计算表明,中亚热带网纹红土与北方黄土具有相似的稀土特征。网纹红土稀土元素平均含量(179.57μg/g)与地壳平均值(178μg/g)、北京郊区1998年12月大气粉尘稀土总量(177.97μg/g)以及两块中国黄土标样平均值(178.22μg/g)非常接近,稀土分布模式与风成沉积及UCC类同,轻稀土强烈富集,重稀土淋失,轻重稀土比值9.86~15.18,Ce元素正异常,物源指数<0.5。稀土元素特征指示,所研究的网纹红土的母质与黄土具有风尘相似性,而且风尘沉积后经历了较北方黄土更为强列的风化作用,其形成环境与古土壤和上新世红粘土接近。
    The vermicular red earth is a kind of sediment which is widespread in middle sub-tropic zone. It is similar to the loess in grain size, mineral composition of clay, sedimentary texture and so on. This study compared the rare earth element (REE) feature of the vermicular red earth in southern China with that of the loess and other Aeolian deposits in northern China, in order to understand the origin of vermicular red earth better. The REE contents of the samples were measured by using the ICP-MS. And 130 samples which were collected from Jiujiang, Xinzi and Shahe in Jiangxi Province, Jinhua and Anji in Zhejiang Province, Zhuzhou in Hunan Province were analyzed. The results suggest that the vermicular red earth is similar to dust deposits in REE features. Vermicular red earth also originates from well-mixed and multi-cyclic sediments. (1) The average REE content of vermicular red earth is 179.57μg/g, greater than that soils of China, but it is near to those of earths crust (178 μg/g), the dust storm deposit of Beijing suburb in Dec. 1998 (177.97μg/g) and Chinese standard loess samples (CJ-1 and CJ-2, average in 178.22μg/g). (2) The vermicular red earth show a similar REE distribution pattern as that of the dust deposits in northern China. The curve is sharp from La to Eu, and flat from Eu to Lu. The Eu shows negative anomaly. (3) The LREE content of vermicular red clay is dominant, but the average content of HREE is 14.26mg/kg (the percentage is less than 10%), obviously lower than the loess (18.89mg/kg) and Pliocene red clay(18.57 mg/kg) in the northern China. The ratios of LEE and HREE range from 9.86 to 15.15, which is higher than those of the loess and Pliocene red clay. The element Ce appears highly positive anomaly. (4) The calculation of provenance index (Pi) indicates that vermicular red earth is similar to the loess and Pliocene red clay in the northern China in chemical component. (5) Compared with the white parts, the red matrix of vermicular red earth is characterized by the low concentration and low ratio of REE, but the distributing pattern is identical. In a summary, all of the above evidences from REE suggest that the vermicular red clay in studied areas may originate from dust and have the same source as the aeolian deposits in the northern China. The dust has suffered stronger weathering than loess during the accumulating process.
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    基于土壤学知识的主成分分析判断土壤重金属来源
    赵彦锋, 郭恒亮, 孙志英, 史学正, 吴克宁
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (1): 45-50.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.01.45
    摘要   PDF (1121KB)
    以无锡城乡交错区和郑州市郊区为例,基于土壤学知识,在主成分分析中综合运用土壤基本理化性质和土壤重金属数据对土壤重金属的主要来源进行分析,讨论不同采样方案对主成分分析结果的影响。结果表明:基于土壤学知识的主成分分析有助于增强对数据分析结果的解释,区分土壤重金属的不同来源,但运用该法时应考虑到采样方案对分析结果的影响。
    Fristly, the origin of heavy metals in soils were researched with the aid of Principle Component Analyses (PCA) in Wuxi peri-urban area and in Zhengzhou suburb. In PCA, combined with soil heavy metals, soil basic properties were also utilized based on soil knowledge. Secondly, the results of PCA based on different sampling designs were compared. The results of this paper showed that it was helpful to distinguish the sources of heavy metals in soils using PCA based on soil knowledge. However the errors of PCA caused by unreasonable sampling designs should be noticed.
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    社区居住环境的空间数据探索性分析
    艾彬, 徐建华, 黎夏, 卓莉
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (1): 51-58.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.01.51
    摘要   PDF (1479KB)
    社区作为城市内部空间尺度单元之一,作为人类的活动中心,居住环境备受人们关注,因此对其进行定量分析是目前城市研究的热点之一。采用GIS、空间数据探索性分析和网格计算相结合的方法,选取上海市外环以内131个街镇社区作为研究对象,对其内部居住环境的空间格局进行探索性分析研究。通过研究发现,社区居住环境是不同因子相互联系、相互作用的结果,其在空间上的分布相应地表现出局部的差异性和整体上的趋同性。并从空间联系的角度出发,提出了对研究区各个社区在空间上布局和规划的方案。
    At present, as an important scale in the research field of GIS, community is attracted to many scholars. One of the hot spots to study is residential environment. Based on this, method integrated with GIS, spatial data analysis and grid computing to study community’s residential environment were proposed in this paper for knowledge discovery of spatial pattern. Selecting 131 streets in downtown of Shanghai as samples, firstly, 23 indices were chosen and fuzzy BP model was used to evaluate the quality of residential environment, secondly, spatial exploring analysis including global and local analysis was used. Several conclusions were drawn: community’s residential environment is influenced by different variables, which will result in special pattern in the space. In old core urban area, overall residential environment is general lower than other periphery area mainly for higher population density and too less vegetation coverage; on the other hand, due to the relationship between the variables, residential environment shows local dissimilarity and global similarity. Finally, according to the spatial autocorrelation of residential environment among the communities, strategies for planning the layout of communities were put forward in this paper.
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    基于两种新型景观指数的张掖绿洲植被格局动态研究
    刘传胜, 张万昌, 雍斌
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (1): 59-65.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.01.59
    摘要   PDF (1808KB)
    通过遥感与GIS技术分析张掖绿洲植被格局动态,验证了Frohn(1998)提出的两种新型景观指数PPU(Patch Per Unit)和SqP(Sq)[Square Pixel]在时间序列上对于植被景观格局分析的适用性和敏感性。分析结果显示PPU和SqP(Sq)指数分别对应聚集度和分维数这两种传统景观指数呈相似的变化趋势和统计相关性,但其针对景观类型的变异系数相对于聚集度和分维数都较高,即其指数值对各植被斑块类型辨识的敏感性更强,对景观破碎化程度和斑块形状复杂度的时空演变具有更好的预测性。通过对新型景观指数特性的分析及动态对比,表明张掖绿洲植被景观的空间异质性和斑块形状复杂度呈现逐渐增强的总体态势。
    By using RS and GIS techniques, PPU(Patch Per Unit) and SqP(Sq)(Square Pixel), the two new landscape metrics proposed by Frohn (1998), were utilized in dynamic analyses on vegetation pattern of Zhangye Oasis and proved to have favorable applicability and sensitivity in temporal landscape pattern analyses. It was demonstrated that the new metrics had similar transformation trends and statistical dependence for temporal landscape pattern analyses by comparison with the traditional landscape metrics (Contagion and Fractal Dimension). It was also found that PPU and SqP(Sq) showed more sensitivity than the traditional ones because of their higher coefficient of variation, thus the new metrics were provided with better predictable ability and sensitivity for landscape fragmentation and patch shape complexity, and had advantages in distinguishing the patch types comparing to Contagion and Fractal Dimension. Computation on new landscape metrics and dynamic analysis of landscape metrics behaviors for these time series images clearly revealed the general evolution trend of the oasis from fragmentation to contagion with the gradual enhancement trend of the spatial heterogeneity and patch shape complexity.
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    基于遥感的黑龙江省西部水稻、玉米种植范围对温度变化的响应
    朱晓禧, 方修琦, 王媛
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (1): 66-71.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.01.66
    摘要   PDF (1978KB)
    利用多时相遥感数据,生成黑龙江西部地区1988年和1998年两个序列的农作物种植范围图,结合相应时段的该地区≥10℃积温数据进行分析。研究表明,黑龙江省西部地区农作物种植结构对气候变暖有明显的响应变化:随着等温线的大幅度整体北移,水稻的种植北界随着≥10℃积温的2200℃等温线向北移动约1.5个纬度,水稻集中种植区随≥10℃积温的2300~2400℃等温线北移约1个纬度;分布在≥10℃积温2800℃等温线和2400℃等温线附近的两个玉米密集种植区随着上述两条等温线北移1个纬度左右。在上述玉米、水稻种植范围北移过程中,同时出现玉米的种植区被新增的水稻种植区大范围替代的现象。
    Global warming and its impacts in the past two decades have gained much attention worldwide. Human may adjust their behaviors to response to such changes. In this paper, the west of Heilongjiang Province, one of the main grain producing areas which is sensible to climate change, is chosen as the research area to analyze the response of the grain crops’ structure to climate warming. RS technique is used as the main research method in this paper. Two temporal series of TM images are interpreted to generate the crop land use maps of the west of Heilongjiang Province in 1988 and 1998 respectively. Then, based on the ≥10℃ cumulative temperature data of the same period, we find the response of crop structure to climate warming is very evident in the west of Heilongjiang Province. Because the isothermal lines of cumulative temperature move northward, the planting boundary of rice extended northward for 1.5 degree with the 2 200℃ isothermal lines of the ≥10℃ cumulative temperature, and the region of dense rice-planting area extended northward for 1 degree with the 2 300-2 400℃ isothermal lines of the ≥10℃ cumulative temperature. In the same way, two planting regions of corn extended respectively with the 2 800℃ isothermal lines and the 2 400℃ isothermal lines of the ≥10℃ cumulative temperature for 1 degree northward. Furthermore, rice had the priority in the process of substitute above.
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    MODIS影像的NDVI和LSWI植被水分含量估算
    张友水, 谢元礼
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (1): 72-76.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.01.72
    摘要   PDF (555KB)
    植被含水量估算在作物灌溉和森林火灾预警中具有重要指导意义。采用8天合成MODIS地表反射率数据,针对植被水分含量与陆表水指数,植被覆盖与归一化植被指数的关系及不同植被类型和地表水分含量状况在NDVI-LSWI二维空间中的分布规律,在NDVI-LSWI梯形特征空间中确定最大和最小含水量边界线的基础上采用植被干燥指数直接估算植被水分亏缺程度。该方法不仅简便,而且可以避开植被指数温度梯形图中陆地表面温度和气温差值的测量。
    Estimating the water status of vegetation is most important in crop irrigation and prediction of forest fire. This paper analyzes the relationships between vegetation water content (VWC) and land surface water index (LSWI) and between fractional vegetation cover and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) from 8-day composite MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) surface reflection products (MOD09A1), and the distribution regularities of different type of vegetation and its surface water content in LSWI-NDVI space. Two years’ 8-day composite MODIS Surface Reflection products were used to estimate the minimal and maximal water content lines of the hypothetical trapezoidal shape of NDVI-LSWI in the study area. Instead of the theoretical trapezoidal shape of fractional vegetation cover and Ts-Ta that indirectly estimated water status per fractional vegetation cover (Ts-Ta is surface (soil and canopy) temperature minus air temperature at measuring time), the vegetation dryness index (VDI) developed in this study was directly used to estimate vegetation water deficits at the canopy level by the trapezoidal shape of LSWI-NDVI. The technique simply estimated vegetation water status without measuring Ts-Ta.
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    基于高光谱特征选择和RBFNN的城市植被胁迫程度监测
    王芳, 卓莉, 黎夏, 夏丽华
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (1): 77-82.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.01.77
    摘要   PDF (1298KB)
    以Hyperion星载高光谱数据为例,基于指数提取-特征选择-分类识别-模式分析的思路,分析广州市的城市植被胁迫状况。提取与胁迫相关的高光谱植被指数,对其进行相关分析,滤除相关性很高的植被指数,利用选取的特征应用RBF(径向基函数)神经网络对城市的植被胁迫程度进行分类,对广州市受胁迫植被的空间分布及其原因进行分析。研究表明:运用特征选取和RBF神经网络可以较好的区分城市植被受胁迫的程度;城市植被受胁迫的程度与城市交通污染、人为干扰相关性比较大;受胁迫植被的强度分布呈现从城市中心向外的梯度变化,在大块绿地外围呈环状分布。
    Urban vegetation system has great ecological value to social-economic-natural ecosystem,but it was often submitted to different stresses caused by air pollution, water pollution, "heat island" problem, etc., which debases its ecological service functions, so it is important to develop methods to monitor urban vegetation stress level. Using the Hyperion hyper-spectral data, which has advantage in monitoring vegetation physiological characters on large scale, an urban vegetation stress level monitoring method was developed based on vegetation stress feature selection and RBFNN (Radial Basis Function Neural Network). Firstly, 14 hyperspectral vegetation indices were extracted from reflectance image of Hyperion and a feature selection based on correlation analysis was conducted to reduce the redundancies. Then an urban vegetation stress level classifier based on RBFNN was trained on the selected features and vegetation stress level was classified and mapped. Finally, the spatial distribution characteristics of vegetation stress in urban and some reasons were analyzed. The result shows that the RBFNN vegetation stress level classifier is able to identify vegetation stress level quickly and accurately. Vegetation stress level is correlated largely with urban traffic pollution and human disturbance, and vegetation in commercial and residential areas of urban center are apparently experiencing higher stress than vegetation in suburban regions; the stress level shows a ringy distribution around large greenbelts.
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    黑河流域近60年来径流量变化及影响因素
    王钧, 蒙吉军
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (1): 83-88.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.01.83
    摘要   PDF (1386KB)
    基于莺落峡、正义峡水文站径流量数据及相关气候资料,借助小波分析、小波神经网络模型和GIS空间分析方法,研究黑河干流径流量变化周期、突变、趋势及原因。结果显示:1944~2005年莺落峡年均径流量变化长周期约7和25年,变化总体呈增加趋势,增加率约1.04m3/(s·10a);1954~2000年正义峡年均径流量变化长周期约6和27年,变化总体呈减少趋势,减少率约2.65m3/(s·10a);2006~2015年莺落峡年均径流量呈增加趋势,增加率约2.04m3/(s·10a);莺落峡径流量的增加主要与黑河流域上游气候向暖湿型转化有关,而正义峡径流量的减少与中游水资源利用量的迅速增加有关。
    This paper analyzes the characteristics, tendencies, and causes of annual runoff variations of the Yingluo Gorge (1944-2005) and the Zhengyi Gorge (1954-2005), which are the boundaries of the upper reaches, the middle reaches, and the lower reaches of the Heihe River Basin. Methods used in the study include wavelet analysis, wavelet neural network model, and GIS spatial analysis. The results show that: (1) annual runoff variations of the Yingluo Gorge had principal periods of 7 years and 25 years, and the variation ratio was 1.04 m3/(s·10a); (2) annual runoff variations of the Zhengyi Gorge had principal periods of 6 years and 27 years, and the variation ratio was 2.65m3/(s·10a); (3) during 2006-2015, annual runoff variations of the Yingluo Gorge have ascending tendencies, and the increasing ratio is 2.04 m3/(s·10a); (4) the annual runoff increase of the Yinluo Gorge had causal relationship with the increased temperature and precipitation in the upper reaches, and the annual runoff decrease of the Zhengyi Gorge in the past decades was mainly caused by the increased human consumption of water resources in the middle researches. The study results will provide scientific foundation for making rational use and allocation schemes of water resources in the Heihe River Basin.
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    基于GIS的水环境价值模糊综合评价研究
    侯英姿, 陈晓玲, 王方雄
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (1): 89-93.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.01.89
    摘要   PDF (840KB)
    将GIS技术引入水环境价值经济评价研究中,基于环境价值理论,探讨在GIS支持下水环境价值评价的原理、方法及其实现途径,构建相应的模糊综合评价数学模型,并将该模型与GIS集成,借助GIS有效的空间管理平台,从价值观角度定量探讨水环境与社会经济系统的关系。
    On the basis of environment value theory, this paper analyzes the principle, method and achieved approach for water environment value, and presents fuzzy comprehensive evaluation model of water environment value. It integrates fuzzy model and GIS technologies, and discusses the interaction of water environment and human being society based on GIS from the view of value. It uses GIS technologies to research evaluation of water environment value for the first time.
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    江苏沿海海面的多尺度波动过程和趋势预测
    俞肇元, 袁林旺, 谢志仁
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (1): 94-99.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.01.94
    摘要   PDF (930KB)
    以江苏沿海处于长江三角洲持续徐缓沉降区的3个验潮站为研究对象,综合运用EMD方法和SSA方法进行海面波动的过程和趋势分析。通过迭加EMD提取的长期趋势和长周期组分获得修正的长期趋势,利用SSA对剩余组分进行分解,获得各站位小尺度的海面波动周期序列,各站位间均能较好的对比。在此基础上,针对修正的长期趋势分量,建立未来海面变化趋势的预测模型,对各站位未来百年相对海面变化的上升值进行预测和对比。
    In this paper three tide gauge stations along the coast of northern part of Jiangsu Province were selected as the objects of study, which were located in the sustainable slowly settlement areas of Changjiang (Yangtze) River Delta. Fluctuation and trend of sea level change were analyzed in virtue of EMD and SSA methods comprehensively. The adjusted long-term trends were obtained through the sum of trends that extracted by EMD and long-term cycle components. Short-term wave cycles were gained from the rest components by means of SSA method and each station could be properly compared. Combined with the research findings of local ground rise or fall, the absolute sea level changes were discussed and prediction models were built according to the adjusted long-term trends. Based on the mentioned above, relative sea level changes in the coming one hundred years were calculated and compared with results of IPCC.
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    陕西文学地理分异研究
    梁璐
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (1): 100-106.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.01.100
    摘要   PDF (1165KB)
    文学地理学是从地域的角度,用空间的观点来分析研究文学。通过对形成现当代陕西文学地域差异的自然地理因素与人文地理因素研究,探索文学空间分异机制,构建文学地理学相应的理论框架。文学地域差异中最重要的方面是文学发展程度和文学风格的差异。陕西文学发展程度存在地域不平衡,其中地理条件优越,经济、文化发达地区以及交通要道、文化交流较多的地区多是文学发展程度较高的地区。自然景观的单调与繁复除直接影响着文风的质朴与瑰丽外,更多的通过在地理环境基础上形成的有着独特区域特点的经济类型、生活方式,以及由此所衍生的民风民性等方面曲折地影响着文学家,进而影响其风格。文学的这种空间分异性使文学表现出明显的地域差异。
    Literature geography is a newly arising branch in culture geography. It studies as well as analyses literature from regional and dimensional perspective. From the natural geography perspective and the human geography perspective, Shaanxi contemporary literature is investigated in the essay to explore the dimensional differentiation system in literature so as to set up the corresponding theory in literature geography. As far as literature dimensional differentiation is concerned, the differentiations in literature development and literature styles are of great significance. Shaanxi literature develops in an unbalanced way. In the regions where they enjoy geographical, economic and transportation convenience as well as more cultural communications, the literature development in these areas is comparatively higher. In a direct way, under the influence of natural sight, whether it being monotonous or complex,the style in writing will be modesty or gorgeous accordingly. In an indirect way, litterateurs are more affected by the unique regional economic types, living conditions, residents' customs and their folkway, which in return influence their writing styles. This is how the various styles and features are come into being. To be specific, the most developed literature lies in the central area of Shaanxi, which claims messiness and modesty in its literature style. The southern and northern Shaanxi are less developed in literature; however some developed areas are till exist. The north Shaanxi claims rugged and unconstrained in its literature style. The southern Shaanxi claims elegance and clearness in its literature style. This dimensional differentiation makes sharp regional difference in literature.
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    基于本底趋势线的秦俑馆旅游危机后评价研究
    孙根年, 于立新
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (1): 107-112.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.01.107
    摘要   PDF (1000KB)
    分析了相邻年比较法在旅游危机评价中的不足,提出了基于本底趋势线的旅游危机后影响评价方法。以陕西秦始皇兵马俑1980~2005年统计数据,建立了入境旅游、国内旅游、客流总量和旅游收入4条本底趋势线,对1989年北京6.4风波、1998年亚洲金融危机、2003年SARS瘟疫三个突发事件旅游危机在本景区的响应进行后评价研究,揭示了秦兵马俑景区在三次危机中所造成的客流量损失、旅游收入损失及冲击时间表,为突发事件旅游危机的后评价研究提供了新的理论与方法。
    After analyzing the flaws of neighboring year comparison method in the evaluation of tourism crisis, the post-impact evaluation method of tourism crisis from emergent event was put forward based on the theory of tourism background trend line. Using the statistics data of Qin's Terra-cotta Museum from 1980 to 2005, taking the tourism crisis response to three breakout events in Qin's Terracotta Warriors and Horses Museum as an example, the four tourism background trend lines of inbound tourist, domestic tourist, total tourist arrivals and tourism income was found. And the post impact evaluation of three emergent events to Qin's Terra-cotta Museum's tourism development wasanalyzed, which are the Jun. 4 Event in Beijing in 1989, Asian Finance Crisis in 1998, and SARS pestilence in 2003, then the tourist loss, tourism income loss and impact time-table were explored.
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    珠江三角洲城市群旅游空间结构与优化分析
    陈浩, 陆林, 章锦河, 郑嬗婷
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (1): 113-118.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.01.113
    摘要   PDF (1256KB)
    以往对于城市旅游的研究多是将城市作为客源地和旅游通道,作为旅游目的地的研究较少,多侧重城市旅游形象及旅游开发与规划等方面,涉足城市群旅游目的地的研究则更少。中国已经或正在形成一批具有雏形的城市群,因此城市群旅游空间结构的研究具有很强的现实意义。以中国发展较早且较为成熟的珠江三角洲城市群为研究对象,对珠三角区域形态以及区域空间连接度、通达度进行了度量,分析了城市群旅游发展的空间等级结构和旅游流的空间组织,构建了城市群旅游目的地空间模型,得出珠江三角洲区域旅游发展的空间格局。珠江三角洲区域旅游发展与香港、澳门密不可分,在今后的发展中应继续加强与香港和澳门的合作。泛珠三角概念的提出使得加强更大区域旅游合作显得更加必要。随着港澳深珠跨海大桥的修建,珠三角区域旅游空间格局将会得到进一步优化。
    The city was by way of the origin of the tourist and the alleyway in the researches to urban tourism anciently,as the tourism destination,the researches are mostly about the tourist image and the planning.There is little research about the tourism cities cluster.There are some cities cluster rudiment in China.So the research to the spatial tourist structure of the tourist cities cluster is very significant.The Zhujiang River Delta is much mature urban cluster in China. The paper analyses the area's shape, tolerance, the spatial connection and the understanding,analyses the spatial tourist grading stucture and the spatial organization of the tourism flowing, constructs the spatial tourist mode of the urban cluster,concludes the spatial tourist pattern of the Zhujiang River Delta.The high level of the tourist industry of the Zhujiang River Delta is concerned with the HongKong and Macao. The Zhujiang River Delta should strengthen the cooperation with them in the future.It is very necessary to strengthen the cooperation in the wider spatial dimension when the concept of the Extensive Zhujiang River Delta is advanced.With the bridge connecting the Hong Kong, Macao, Shenzhen and Zhuhai,the spatial tourist pattern will be more optimized.
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    综述
    国内外道路侵蚀研究回顾与展望
    张科利, 徐宪利, 罗丽芳
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (1): 119-123.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.01.119
    摘要   PDF (516KB)
    道路引起的径流汇集及道路侵蚀的不断演化常常是沟蚀加剧的诱因,未铺装路面上形成的侵蚀沟及坡面侵蚀来沙在路面上的堆积,也会严重影响正常交通运输。国内外许多学者已从不同角度关注道路侵蚀。文章回顾近20年来国内外有关道路侵蚀的研究工作及所取得的成果,分析目前研究存在的主要问题。针对中国侵蚀环境特征及侵蚀产沙特点,对未来道路侵蚀研究工作开展进行展望。
    Road network plays an important role in initiating hydrological change and contributing to erosion process in a watershed because of the cutting of overland flow pathways and sediment transportation. Roads in a watershed can generate the flow collection along slopes and road-related erosion can also enhance gully erosion. Gully erosion occurring on the roads as well as corresponding sediment deposition may hinder traffic. In order to determine the contribution of road networks to soil loss, most attention has been given to road erosion and its impacts on hydrological and sediment transport process in a watershed in many countries over the world on the base of the data from field investigation and experiments. A lot of results dealing with road erosion process and sediment storage have been obtained. In this paper, we reviewed and discussed the researches on road erosion conducted in recent 20 years, and summed the results obtained by representative researchers in different parts of the world. At last, according to geographic features and soil loss, some suggestions and prospects on studies about road erosion in China have been given.
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    西方城市社会地理学研究进展及对中国研究的意义
    李健, 宁越敏
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (1): 124-130.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.01.124
    摘要   PDF (980KB)
    本文首先回顾了西方城市社会地理学发展的历程,然后评述了现代城市社会地理学研究的转变、特点和主要学派。依据对相关文献的考察,把西方现代城市社会地理学的研究领域分为四大部分:(1)城市空间结构的社会意义(2)城市社会空间分异模式(3)城市空间与制度框架(4)城市场景中的特殊行为,并对此进行了综述概括。最后就城市社会地理学在中国发展的意义和研究领域提出了建议。
    First, the paper retrospects the developing course of urban social geography in western countries, and then remarks the transformation of modern urban social geography and its theory basis. Based on some literatures, the paper divides modern urban social geography into four parts: 1) the significance of sociospatial structure; 2) the patterns of sociospatial differentiation; 3) urban space and institutional frameworks; and 4) deviant behavior in urban settings. Finally, it puts forwards some suggestions on the development and study of urban social geography in China. The paper also thinks that comparing with ripe urban social geography study in western countries, our study fields should be extended. The reason and mechanism of urban problem have a necessarity to go further to excavate. Urban social geography must pay more attention to the research progress of sociology since the 1980s and strengthen the theory analysis in the aspects such as urban management, institution, structurization, and so on.
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    西方国家城市内部居住迁移研究综述
    刘望保, 闫小培, 曹小曙
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (1): 131-137.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.01.131
    摘要   PDF (730KB)
    城市内部居住迁移是家庭与住房的空间匹配过程,也是理解城市重构的核心问题,是西方城市地理学、社会学和行为科学的重要研究内容。文章首先从居住迁移决策模型、居住迁移过程和居住迁移与城市重构相互关系三个方面对西方城市内部居住迁移研究进行综述。在简单回顾国内相关研究的基础上,借鉴西方的研究视角,提出国内相关研究展望。
    As a spatial matching process between households and housing, and also the core question to understand mechanism of urban restructure,intra-urban residential mobility is an important research issue of urban geography, sociology and behavior science in the west. From three aspects, namely residential mobility decision models, residential mobility process and residential mobility and urban restructure, this paper reviews literatures on intra-urban residential mobility in the west. Then based on simple review on relative literatures in China, this paper attempts to advance several research directions on intra-urban residential mobility in China.
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    论文
    征稿简则
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (1): 138-138.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.01.138
    摘要   PDF (0KB)

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