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CN 22-1124/P
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  • 地理科学
      2010年, 第30卷, 第1期 刊出日期:2010-01-20 上一期    下一期
    选择: 合并摘要 显示图片
    论文
    激进地理学的形成和演变——以《异端的传统》为例
    叶超, 蔡运龙
    地理科学. 2010, 30 (1): 1-7.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.01.1
    摘要   PDF (1616KB)
    当前国内对激进地理学的研究相当有限。从方法论角度,通过选取激进地理学的代表作《异端的传统》为案例,在分析其背景的基础上,从激进地理学的理论、实践以及它与马克思主义的关系等方面总结和提炼了激进地理学的发展历程与要点,评价了该文的方法论涵义,并总结了它对中国地理学方法论研究的启示。该案例剖析表明,激进地理学是资本主义危机和实证主义地理学存在内在缺陷的背景下产生;其理论前提在于地理学家固有的种族-阶级属性使地理学成为科学实证和文化属性相结合的产物;激进地理学家主要通过创办刊物、建立团体、开展运动树立了激进主义学派,使它由"异端"成为传统;马克思主义是多数激进地理学家的理论选择;批判和自我批判基础上的重构可能是当今和未来地理学方法论创新的主要途径。中国应该积极开展激进地理学和马克思主义地理学的理论研究和实践活动。
    Little work has been done about radical geography and Marxist geography until now in China. Particularly thinking of China as a country which regards Marxism as guidelines and asserts it is the main or almost only correct ideology, we should not ignore and forget to know and understand the theories and practices of radical geography and Marxist geography. For this reason, this paper tries to introduce a representative figure, James Blaut and review his opinions and methods in the area of radical geography for Chinese geographers. In terms of method, case study is an important method for methodological research. According to choosing "The Dissenting Tradition", a classical paper in the history of radical geography written by James Blaut as the case, we analyzed and extended its meanings. Firstly, James Blaut is "the most exemplary" Marxist geographer as David Harvey ever appraised. As a Marxist, he is so full of the critical spirit that he really conforms to one of the most important criterion and principle that Marx put forward, which is "for a ruthless criticism of everything existing". Secondly, in the light of the paper by Blaut, we restated the theories and practice of radical geography, and summarized its main points and the meanings on the geographical methodology. Finally, at the same time of studying his opinions and contents, we should see and admire his courage and spirit to hold on a ruthless criticism of everything including himself all the time. Based on understanding exactly what Blaut and his paper wants to express, we can conclude that: ① radical geography is the product of the interaction between the capitalist crisis and the defective positivism geography; ② geography is not ever a "pure and objective" discipline holding neutrality of value, and geographers are under the jurisdiction of their race-class identity; ③ radical geography is founded mainly by starting publications, establishing the groups and a campaign to spread the radical thought, and most radical geographers finally become Marxists.Maybe it is the most inspirational for us that the theoretical reconstruction based on criticism and self-criticism is the main means of innovating geographical methodology. China should actively carry out theoretical research and practical activities of the radical and Marxist geography.
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    东北地区古代城市空间形态发展背景与进程
    郐艳丽
    地理科学. 2010, 30 (1): 8-14.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.01.8
    摘要   PDF (1116KB)
    东北地区古代城市的产生和发展遵循城市发展的一般规律,通过不同历史时期城市的空间形态特征研究,发现由于地域的特殊性,东北地区古代城市呈现空间特征呈现间歇性、不平衡性和空间地域隔离特征以及空间形态差异性特征,主要受区位条件、文化因素、民族因素、社会制度以及社会经济形态的深刻影响,形成独特的城市地域体系。同时,受中原文化的影响,东北地区古代城市表现为不同寻常的相继相承,能够因地制宜地建设、管理城市,不尊求常规封建礼仪,在城市管理等方面有独到的借鉴意义。
    Through the study on morphological characteristics of urban space during different historical periods,we found that the spatial distribution of the ancient cities in Northeast China showed the characters of intermittent, unbalanced, geographical isolated and different in space form because of the regional specificity. Affected by geographic conditions, cultural, ethnic factors, social system and socio-economic patterns, Northeast China city has developed a unique regional system.
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    在华跨国公司研发投资集聚的空间溢出效应及区位决定因素——基于中国省市数据的空间计量经济研究
    张战仁, 杜德斌
    地理科学. 2010, 30 (1): 15-21.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.01.15
    摘要   PDF (954KB)
    研发投资的空间集聚有利于溢出知识、节约成本、降低风险、共享资源。以中国省市为空间样本,采用空间自相关Moran指数及集聚分析的空间计量经济学方法,研究了在华跨国公司研发投资的空间溢出效应及区位决定因素。结果发现,在溢出空间性等集聚内生因素作用下,中国省域跨国公司研发投资行为在空间分布上存在交互作用,表现为明显的区域投资集聚现象;在形成空间集聚的各因素中,除市场规模、人才资源等需求和供给因素外,集聚因素本身也有重要影响。
    The agglomeration of R&D investment is in favor of getting knowledge spillover, sharing their knowledge and information, saving costs and reducing the R&D risk. In this article, the method of the spatal econometrics, such as Moran index and spatial model were used to analyze the spatial linkage and location factors of the R&D investment by transnational corporations in China. The results showed that the actions of R&D investment had closed spatial association and exhibited obvious spatial agglomeration on the province’s scale. Endogentic factor also had a significant and positive impact on the formation of spatial agglomeration besides the factors of market scale, demand and supply factors of human resources.
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    基于ESDA的城市社会空间研究——以上海市中心城区为例
    宣国富, 徐建刚, 赵静
    地理科学. 2010, 30 (1): 22-29.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.01.22
    摘要   PDF (1695KB)
    以上海市中心城区为实证,在因子分析的基础上将ESDA方法应用于城市社会空间研究。运用全局Moran’s I指数、Moran散点图、LISA等指标和方法,从全局和局部两个层面研究了城市社会空间主因子的空间关联特征。结果表明,各主因子都存在显著的空间正相关,呈现趋同集聚,其中社会经济地位因子和居住条件因子的相关性明显强于其他因子,相近社会经济地位和居住条件的社会群体在空间上的集聚对形成城市社会空间的作用更为显著;各主因子都存在不同于全局的局部空间关联模式,存在显著的"热点"和"冷点"地区,其中社会经济地位因子和居住条件因子呈现出更为明显的"热点"和"冷点",具有显著的"同质集聚、异质隔离"特征。相关研究结论对于理解城市社会空间的形成具有重要意义,也可为进一步深入研究的典型案例选择及相关政策制定提供参考。
    Spatial association is the essential characteristics of spatial related things and phenomena. Exploratory Spatial Data Analysis (ESDA) provides an effective method to reveal the spatial association. The formation of urban social space and its characteristics make the phenomenon of urban social spatial pattern also show significant spatial association. Based on factor analysis, the ESDA methods were applied to urban social space research with the Central Urban District in Shanghai as a case study. From the global and local dimensions, spatial association characteristic of the main factors of urban social space were revealed, by using the indicators and methods of Global Moran’s I index, Moran scatter plot and LISA(Local Indicators of Spatial Association). Global spatial autocorrelation analysis showed that the main factors of urban social space were all with significant spatial association, but there were differences in the degree of spatial association. The factors of socio-economic status and living conditions had stronger spatial association than other factors. Spatial agglomerations of similar socio-economic status and living conditions groups had more prominent contributions to the formation of urban social space. Local spatial autocorrelation analysis demonstrated that the main factors had different local spatial association from the overall pattern, there are obvious "hot spots" and "cold spots", and also some spatial "outliers". The socio-economic status and the residential condition factors show more obvious "hot spots" and "cold spots ", which manifested the characteristics of significant "homogeneous agglomeration, heterogeneous segregation ".
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    广州市港口服务业空间特征及其形成机制研究
    陈再齐, 闫小培, 曹小曙
    地理科学. 2010, 30 (1): 30-38.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.01.30
    摘要   PDF (1954KB)
    探讨了广州市港口服务业的空间分布特征及其形成机制。研究表明,广州市港口服务业空间分布具有珠江指向性和明显的集聚特征;在公司具有较高空间迁移频率的同时,其集聚空间却呈现出较强的稳定性;不同类型港口服务业的空间分布差异明显;空间总体格局表现出向外港区和城市CBD集聚的趋势。其空间分布特征是在区位因素、行业内在特性、港口空间系统演化、城市规划与建设以及信息技术革新等因素协同作用下的综合表现。
    The roles of a port are of importance in the local economy, which has drawn attentions in the many studies. Yet there are relatively few studies on the port service industries. The spatial characters and associated mechanism of the port service industries in Guangzhou were focused on. The pot service industries in Guangzhou wase highly spatial concentrated and Zhujiang-dependence. The spatial concentrating was steady while the shifting of enterprises was very frequent. The spatial distribution of the port service industries varied greatly with the different type. In general, it was apt to be concentrated to the trading port and the CBD. The spatial character is an synthesized outcome of the location, the nature of the industries, the evolution of the port spatial system, the urban planning influences and innovation of ICT.
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    日本专业主妇视角下的广州城市宜居性评价
    刘云刚, 周雯婷, 谭宇文
    地理科学. 2010, 30 (1): 39-44.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.01.39
    摘要   PDF (1161KB)
    宜居城市理念近年来日益受到关注,但相关的标准仍是模糊不定。在回顾和检讨宜居城市相关界定方法的基础上,从特定生活者的视角出发,以在广州居住的日本专业主妇为评价主体,采用问卷调查和半结构化访谈相结合的方法,探讨了广州城市的宜居性。通过日本专业主妇对广州和日本城市的对比评价,探讨了广州的宜居程度和改进重点。研究表明,广州在日本专业主妇眼中距宜居城市尚有较大的距离。其原因一方面是现实中的广州城市宜居水平不高,另一方面也与日本专业主妇的角色、文化理念及她们在广州居留时间的长短相关。
    The idea of livable city is in the spotlight in China recently,not only the government,but also the researchers and the media have paid attention to the livable city.But it’s a pity that the livable city’s concept and relevant standard are not clear.Reflections on how to define livable city were discussed in the paper.Besides,questionnaire and semi-structured interviews were combined to discuss the livability of Guangzhou from the prospective of some particular citizens,the professional housewives who emigrating from Japan into Guangzhou.All of those Japanese housewives are members of Japanese women’s association of Guangzhou (JWAG),they have only involved the living space and have separated from the production space for some reasons.So their evaluations of Guangzhou city’s livability are objective and relatively neutral.Besides,their home country,Japan,can also offer some meaningful references for Chinese urban development.Therefore,based on the perspective of Japanese housewives,the results of this research,are meaningful to international construction of Chinese metropolis and livable construction of people-oriented city.The evaluation method of this study mainly takes Japanese assessment on "livable city" as a reference.And the public security,housing,insurance,transportation,medical care,education,shopping,food,environment,climate,culture,entertainment and human relationship were taken as the evaluated factors to assess the livable characteristics from five aspects:the living safety,living conditions,affluence,convenience and comfort.Scores were designed to:5 points stands for great satisfaction;4 points refers to quite satisfaction;3 points means general satisfaction;2 points means dissatisfaction;1 point shows rather dissatisfaction.According to those Japanese housewives’ contrast between Japanese cities and Guangzhou,the degree of livability and the main aspects of improvement in Guangzhou were well discussed.Except living condition,other aspects were worse than those in Japan from Japanese housewives’ point of view,especially the data of medical care,education,environment,shopping and entertainment,which were over 2 times less than those of Japan.The result showed that there was a big problem in the convenience and comfort of Guangzhou.In the Japanese housewives opinion,there is a long way to go in order to become a real livable city for Guangzhou.For one thing,its degree of livability is low.For another,both those housewives’ special cultural background,overseas experience,role concepts,and their residence time in Guangzhou also effect on the evaluated results.
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    基于人居环境适宜性的市域人口增长调控分区研究──以南京市为例
    段学军, 田方
    地理科学. 2010, 30 (1): 45-52.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.01.45
    摘要   PDF (1948KB)
    构建人口规模收益函数和外部成本函数,对南京市主城、郊区和县城进行最优人口规模分析;进而通过人口随机分配模型和基于人居环境适宜性评价的优化目标函数,以预测的总人口规模和圈层人口最优规模为约束条件,采用蒙特卡洛法进行求解,获得人口的优化分布结果,与现状人口分布相比,把南京市域空间划分为四类人口发展功能区。研究认为,商业街区和老街区如湖南路、新街口街道、洪武路街道、朝天宫街道等老街区人口密度过高,需要进行人口规模的控制或调减;处于郊区的东山镇、沿江街道、仙林街道等,人居适宜性相对较高,现状人口密度较低,应快速集聚人口;南北两翼以及生态保护区的生态敏感性高,需要削减人口。
    The optimized allocation of population distribution should not only consider the cost and revenue of Population aggregation, but also should pay attention to the restriction and suitability level of human settlements. First, by building the revenue function and external cost function of population, this paper analyzed the optimal population for the central city, suburb area and county area of Nanjing city. Then by using random and objective function based on evaluation for the suitability level of human settlements, taking the forecasted total population and optimal population for circle areas as constraints, and using Monte Carlo methods, analyzed the population’s optimized allocation distribution. Compared with current population distribution, this paper divided the studied area in to four different types for population growth and distribution. Finally, this study showed that, population densities of business and older areas like Hunan Road, Xinjiekou, Hongwulu, Chaotiangong Streets are so high that there are needs of controlling the population size.The comprehensive suitability levels for population distribution in the suburb area, like Dongshan, Yanjiang, Xianlin towns, are relatively higher. Considering the faster economic growth rate and lower population density of these areas, population aggregation should be encouraged.The ecological sensitivity of northern, southern parts and ecological protecting areas are relatively higher, which means the population growth rate should be controlled, and people in these regions should be guided to move to other areas.
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    基于城市扩张的土地储备数量预测研究——以南京市区为例
    范宇, 杨桂山, 涂小松
    地理科学. 2010, 30 (1): 53-59.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.01.53
    摘要   PDF (1743KB)
    土地储备数量是土地储备制度运行中的主要问题,受到国内业界的广泛关注。新增土地储备与城市扩张有着密切的联系,通过SLEUTH元胞自动机模型,用1947年, 1978年, 1990年, 2000年和2005年5个年度城市土地利用变化的遥感影像图,模拟南京未来城市扩张,并结合历年来南京新增储备土地占城市扩张总量经验值比例,得出了新增储备量的测算结果,为测算南京市区土地储备量提供了借鉴方案。该方法不仅在量上可得出增量储备的结果,而且通过GIS空间分析的方法,与未来城市规划的土地利用规划图进行空间叠合,可以初步明确储备的增量分布方案,对土地储备工作具有现实的指导意义。
    Quantity of land reserve is a core aspect of land reserve system. It has been paid attention to by many experts and researchers in China . New land reserve is a main part of urban extension. The SLEUTH model, a cell-based tempo-spatial process model, was always applied to interpret historical land use change and simulate future change scenarios .This paper selected Nanjing city as the study area, historical land use scenarios for 1947, 1978, 1990, 2000 and 2005 were analyzed to track urban sprawl by TM/ ETM images explanation and spatial analysis of ArcGIS software. Through the SLEUTH model city expanding course of Nanjing in 2010, 2015 and 2020 were simulated in the paper, and the predicting amount of new land reserve was got by using average proportion of new land reserve area in whole expanding area of Nanjing . By now this method is a new way for prediting quantity of land reserve. Not only can it get the predicting amount of new land reserve in this way, but also it can get spatial distribution project of new land reserve blocks by spatial analysis method of GIS. It will play a great role in work of land reserve.
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    农业地域系统演变的动态模拟与优化调控研究——以东北地区为例
    程叶青
    地理科学. 2010, 30 (1): 60-65.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.01.60
    摘要   PDF (648KB)
    着眼于人地系统的复杂动态特征,基于东北地区农业地域系统的结构分析,运用系统动力学理论方法,构建农业地域系统演变的动态仿真模型。依据区域农业发展态势与未来目标,进行多情景模拟,提炼出传统发展、种植业结构优化发展和农牧综合协调发展3种代表性调控模式。对比分析后认为,农牧综合协调发展模式是东北地区农业地域系统较为合理的发展模式。构建合理农业地域结构必须控制非农用地快速扩张、挖掘农业综合生产潜能、培育优势农产品基地和产业带。
    Applying system dynamics method to establish models of regional sustainable development can depict systemic nonlinear structure and dynamic character more adequately than traditional mathematic models. Based on the structure, function and coupling mechanism analysis of agricultural territorial system, the dynamic simulation model of agricultural territorial structure change was established, and according to the trend and aim of regional agriculture development, the multiple scene dynamic simulation was carried out, and three typical development modes of regional agricultural territorial system were optimized and comparatively analyzed. By Comparative Analysis, the coordinated development mode of agriculture and animal husbandry is the reasonable development mode. To establish reasonable agricultural territorial structure, the northeast China should attach great importance to control the non-agricultural land, to excavate comprehensive potentiality of agriculture production, and to nurture advantage agricultural production bases and industrial belts.
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    技术环境对西北传统农区农户采用新技术的影响分析——基于三种不同属性农业技术的调查研究
    满明俊, 李同昇, 李树奎, 李普峰
    地理科学. 2010, 30 (1): 66-74.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.01.66
    摘要   PDF (1164KB)
    依据对陕甘宁传统农区的调查数据,选择苹果新种苗技术、小麦良种技术、节水灌溉技术为研究对象,系统分析了技术环境对农户采用农业新技术的影响及其差异。研究发现,技术环境因素对农户采用新技术具有较大的影响,其中,技术软环境对农户的影响大于硬环境的影响。农户采用具有不同属性的农业新技术受环境因素的影响程度存在较大的差异,具体表现为,苹果新种苗技术容易受到果品公司、农技站服务次数、技术培训质量以及信贷条件的影响;小麦良种技术容易受到科研组织、种子公司、农技站、人际网络以及技术供给渠道的影响;节水灌溉技术受到具有社会服务功能的技术组织、政府鼓励措施以及媒体宣传的影响较大。与此同时,地理因素对农户的技术行为具有明显的约束作用。
    Based on the investigation data in Shaanxi Province, Gansu Province and Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, where are the traditional agricultural areas in northwest, the apple breed technology, wheat seed technology and water-saving irrigation technology were chosen as the research objects. An systematic analysis of the difference in farmer’s adoption of new technology which is affect by the technology environment was made. The results showed, the technology environmental factors had great impact on farmer's adoption of new technology, and the soft environment’s impact was greater than the hard environment. Meanwhile, there was a big difference between the behaviors in farmer’s adoption of new agricultural technologies with different attributes. It specifically expressed that the adoption of apple breed technology was easily affect by the fruit company, the services times of agricultural technique department, the quality of technical training and the credit condition. The adoption of wheat seed technology was easily impact by the research organizations, the services times and quality of agricultural technique department, interpersonal network and the technology supply channel. The water-saving irrigation technology was more vulnerable to the impact of the technical organization with social service functions, the preferential policies and the media. At the same time, it can be found that the geographical factors had obvious restraints on farmer’s adoption of new technology.
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    中国化石能源使用可持续性评估——基于1990~2006年数据
    赵震宇, 宋冬林
    地理科学. 2010, 30 (1): 75-79.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.01.75
    摘要   PDF (798KB)
    进入1990年代,中国经济走上了前所未有的快速增长轨道,而化石能源作为推动经济增长的最主要动力源泉却同时也是造成环境恶化的双刃剑。采用加拿大生态经济学家Ree和Wackernagel共同发展的生态足迹模型,对1990~2006中国化石能源使用的生态足迹和生态承载力进行了计算,得到了该时期中国化石能源使用已处于生态赤字状态的评估结果。而化石能源使用过程中单位能源的CO2排量没有得到显著改善和森林覆盖率没有明显的增长是造成该时期中国化石能源使用处于生态赤字状态的主要原因。
    In contemplating the future course of economic growth all over the world,more and more scientists have been aware that economic development was damaging our environment.One persistent concern has been that man’s economic activities would reach a scale where the global climate would be significantly affected.Lots of articles have given the brief overview of the climatic implications of economic activity with special reference to carbon dioxide,and then will present possible strategies for control.It is thought that the economic activities which most affect climate are agriculture and energy.Of these.the latter is probably more significant,is certainly more easily analyzed.A brief overview of the interaction between carbon dioxide and the climate is as follows:combustion of fossil fuels leads to emissions of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere.Fossil fuels are?hydrocarbons?found within the top layer of the earth’s?crust,and they are the most important useful energy,and will be discussed here.In the energy sector,emissions of carbon dioxide,particulate matter,and heat are of significance for the global climate.Recent evidence indicates that,even after several millenia,the dynamic processes which determine climate have not attained a stable equilibrium.One of the more carefully documented examples is the global mean temperature which over the last 100 years has shown a range of variation of five-year averages of about 0.6℃.Many climatologists feel that it is prudent to consider as significant the changes witnessed in the last centurythe 0.6℃ range.Although the estimates are uncertain,it is probable that for carbon dioxide such a change would come with an increase of approximately 20 percent in atmospheric concentrations over preindustrial levels.Once in the atmosphere,the residence time appears to be very long,with approximately one-half of all industrial carbon dioxide still airborne.Because of the selective absorption of radiation,the increased atmospheric concertration is thought to lead to increased surface temperatures.The most recently study to date predicts that a doubling of atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide would eventually lead to a global mean temperature increase of 3℃.The predicted temperature increase by latitude indicates that there is considerable amplification at high latitudes.3 China is one of the biggest economy all over the world today,and she has to think of the problem of the global climate.Since 1990s,China has been very successful in economical increasing,in which fossil fuels are absolutely necessary.However,using fossil fuels unlimitedly is dangerous for our environment.In this text we use Ecological Footprint model created by William Ree and Mathis Wackernagel in 1992 to calculate Chinese Fossil Energy Footprint (FEF) and Fossil Energy Capacity (FEC) from 1996 to 2006.We find Chinese Fossil Energy Deficit (FED) has happened.emission of 1 unit energy not decreased and the forest covering not increased obviously were the main causes of Fossil Energy Deficit.
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    基于行动者网络的土地利用冲突及其治理机制研究——以广州市海珠区果林保护区为例
    王爱民, 马学广, 闫小培
    地理科学. 2010, 30 (1): 80-85.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.01.80
    摘要   PDF (879KB)
    用行动者网络分析方法,以广州市海珠区果树保护区为例,探讨土地利用冲突的演化过程、根源、类型及其治理机制。按照冲突的强度和显隐程度,土地利用冲突的演化过程大致可以区分为潜伏、显化、转变和胶着等4个阶段,但冲突循环的存在使其进一步的演变存在较大不确定性。在土地利用冲突治理过程中,各种社会行动者通过协商和谈判而建立纵横交织的网络,形成资源共享、互惠合作的机制,从而达成共同的治理目标。
    Rapid industrialization and urbanization process makes the functional value of urban ecology space even more remarkable. The green land protection policy on public interest results in barriers to develop rural community economy and promote residents’ income, which lead to more and more social conflicts originated from urban and rural land use. On the basis of urban spatial political-economy theory, and actors network theory, in a case of Fruit Tree Protection Zone of Haizhu District in Guangzhou City(HZFTPZ) the article investigated the evolution process, origins, types and governance mechanics of land use conflicts. The article found that, the evolution process of land use conflicts could be divided into 4 stages according to the intensity and levels of significance, i.e., latent period, obvious period, transformation period and conglutination period. But Nondeterminacy still exists in the further evolution of land use conflicts because of the role of conflict circle. During the evolution of land use conflicts, land use conflicts subjects spread from the core of land use conflicts to the periphery, social actors involved emerged ceaselessly, and conflict issues, standpoints and attitudes of conflict subjects and approaches to resolve conflicts were sequentially changed. In addition, land use conflicts were divided into procedure conflicts, value conflicts, interest conflicts and structure conflicts from appearance to nature, based on their origins and differentiation display. And all types of land use conflicts were logically related, because of the organically interaction and integration of social actors’ factors and social and economic regimes structure factors. Many land use conflicts registered as procedure destination differences among social actors, and the even deeper reasons displayed as the value judgment differences on the priority of protection-development and public interest-individual-interest among parties to a conflict, and the subjective understanding differences on land use interest distribution and risk exposure among parties to a conflict, but the final origins of conflict expansion or continuous agglutination existed in policy defects and regime cruxes in procedure design standard, values guidelines and interest distribution balance. During the governance process of land use conflicts, various sorts and varieties of social actors centered on some issues, established interlaced networks by consultation and negotiation and made up mechanics of recourse sharing and mutual benefit and collaboration, thus gained the ends of collaborative governance. The concrete measures including to establish the participation and communication networks based on communicating and participating of stakeholders, the collaborative governance network based on the networking cooperation of social actors, the community co-management network based on the appeal of community participation, the interest coordination network based on interest balance and coordination of stakeholders, and the land use conflict prevention and mediation network based on the prevention and mediation of land use conflicts.
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    基于GIS的乌鲁木齐城市用地空间结构变化研究
    熊黑钢, 邹桂红, 崔建勇
    地理科学. 2010, 30 (1): 86-91.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.01.86
    摘要   PDF (697KB)
    运用GIS技术探讨乌鲁木齐城市用地空间结构演变的时间、空间特点和发展的规律。结果表明:在研究时段内,乌鲁木齐市由一个中心(大十字)逐步发展为多个中心(友好、铁路局、火车站)。城市空间结构出现多核心的分布特点。在各个城市中心点(增长极),农业用地面积都在不断减少。远离最大发展中心(大十字)的铁路局附近农业用地减少的幅度最大。而居住用地、商业用地面积始终都在不断增加。大十字中心附近工业用地一直在减少;友好中心是前期增加(1970~1984),后期减少(1984~1993);铁路局中心一带始终增加。
    The space-time characteristics and evolvement of urban spatial structure were explored in the paper by using GIS technology. The study showed that the single city center (Dashizi) of Urumqi was developed progressively into multi-center (Youhao, Tieluju, Huochezhan) during the study period. The multi-center distributing characteristic of urban spatial structure appeared. The area of agricultural land was reduced constantly in each city center (growth pole).And the reduced speed of agricultural land in Tieluju which was far away from the largest city center (Dashizi) was fastest. But the area of residential and commercial land were increased all the time. While the industrial land near Dashizi keeped reducing,that of Dieluju was increased all the time. And industrial land in Youhao showed the characteristic of increasing in earlier stage (1970-1984) and reducing in later stage (1984-1993).
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    地理加权回归在区域土地利用格局模拟中的应用——以常州市孟河镇为例
    邵一希, 李满春, 陈振杰, 杨康, 蔡栋
    地理科学. 2010, 30 (1): 92-97.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.01.92
    摘要   PDF (1664KB)
    以江苏省常州市新北区孟河镇为研究区,在土地利用格局模拟的回归建模中考虑驱动因子对土地利用格局影响的空间不稳定性,实现基于地理加权的回归分析模型,并与基于全局最小二乘法(OLS)的Logistic回归模型进行比较。研究结果表明,运用地理加权回归(GWR)的建模方法,不但可以获得更好的拟合优度和更高的拟合准确率,而且可以获得各驱动因子对土地利用格局影响的空间分异特征。同时,研究结果也可以为孟河镇及其类似地区的土地利用规划决策提供科学依据。
    In this paper, Menghe Town in Changzhou City, Jiangsu Province was selected as a case to build a Geographically Weighted Regression analysis model for land use patterns simulation, which considers the spatial non-stationary of the impact on the land use patterns change of the driving factors. The simulation result was compared with OLS Logistic regression model. It is indicated that Geographically Weighted Regression model is not only able to improve simulation accuracy of regional land-use patterns, but also able to obtain spatial differentiation of the impact of the driving factors on land use patterns. Meanwhile, this study can also support the government decisions on land use management for Menghe Town and similar areas.
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    基于网格单元的喀斯特石漠化评价研究
    李阳兵, 王世杰, 程安云, 李卫海, 罗光杰
    地理科学. 2010, 30 (1): 98-102.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.01.98
    摘要   PDF (588KB)
    以盘县为例,综合遥感数据等多种数据源,在ARCGIS软件中应用格网分析技术,建立石漠化综合评价指数,对研究区2004年石漠化空间分布图进行100 m×100 m、200 m×200 m、500 m×500 m、1 000 m×1 000 m格网分析,绘制基于单元的石漠化分布图,以探索区域尺度上石漠化评价的方法及其随空间尺度的变化。建立石漠化综合指数,充分考虑一定空间单元内的石漠化面积比例和斑块组合,评价结果反映石漠化严重程度的空间异质性。结果发现基于4种网格的石漠化评价结果与石漠化现状分布图存在一定的差异,其中对极强度石漠化的评价差异最小,对轻度石漠化评价的差异最大。
    Taking Panxian County as a study case, the authors make a thorough analysis on regional karst rocky desertification assessments and their spatial scale impacts based on different grid units at 100 m?100 m, 200 m?200 m, 500 m?500 m, 1000 m?1000 m. The calculation of karst rocky desertification integrated assessment index (KDI) takes the percentage of areas and the patch assembles of grid units into consideration, which could reveals the spatial heterogeneity of karst rocky desertification. The results indicate that the KDI is influenced by assessment unit sizes, and there are some differences among assessment results of four spatial units and the actual distribution of karst rocky desertification. Moreover, the assessment results for karst rocky desertification at severe degree are consistent with the desertification distribution map, while those for the desertification at a light degree show a significant difference.
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    三峡水库蓄水以来长江中下游干流河床沉积物粒度变化的初步研究
    徐晓君, 杨世伦, 张珍
    地理科学. 2010, 30 (1): 103-107.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.01.103
    摘要   PDF (991KB)
    于2008年在宜昌至徐六径之间的1 600 km干流河道进行30个横断面取样和分析,与前人于三峡水库蓄水前的取样分析资料进行对比。结果表明:①三峡水库蓄水以来坝下游约400 km的干流河床(宜昌至城陵矶)沉积物出现全程粗化,越近大坝粗化越明显,这种沉积物粗化与水库蓄水后坝下游河床出现的强烈侵蚀密切相关;②蓄水前后城陵矶以下的1 200 km干流河床沉积物粒度的沿程趋势基本一致;③蓄水后河床沉积物仍保持沿程向下游变细且越近河口变化越缓慢的格局。
    As the core of fluvial geomorphology, sediment parameters reflect the sedimentary environment in river system. The impoundment of the Three Gorges Dam (TGD) is a doubtless inducement of the erosion of the middle and lower Changjiang (Yangtze) River channel. Compared the sediment samples data collected before TGD and after TGD, we dig out some rules which reflect the impact of the TGD. The results show that 1) caused by the erosion, the grain size of sediment coarsened intensively from Yichang to Chenglingji. Where closed to TGD, the tendency of coursing behaves more apparent. 2) The variation in grain size seems to be inconspicuous from Chenglinji to river mouth during 2002-2006. 3) The sediment component tends to be finer along the river downstream to river mouth.
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    黄土高原典型流域地下水补给-排泄关系及其变化
    朱芮芮, 郑红星, 刘昌明
    地理科学. 2010, 30 (1): 108-112.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.01.108
    摘要   PDF (810KB)
    基于长序列实测日径流资料,分析了无定河流域的地下水补给-排泄关系。结果表明:①流域多年平均地下水补给量为11.38~15.69 mm,降水入渗补给系数为2.9%~4.4%,基流补给率约为73.6%~86.8%;②就三个分区而言,年均地下水补给模数、降水入渗系数以黄土区最大,河源区次之,风沙区最小;而基流补给率以河源区最大,黄土区次之,风沙区最小;③趋势分析表明,研究区地下水补给量总体呈显著减少趋势,并进一步导致了基流量的减少。但是基流的减少程度高于补给量。
    The Wuding River Basin, which is one of the biggest catchments in the Loess Plateau, is dry and lack of water resources. In this paper, recharge-discharge relationship in the basin has been investigated using the daily streamflow records since the 1950s. It was estimated that the annual recharge of the basin varied from 11.38 mm to 15.69 mm. For different sub-catchments the ratio between recharge and precipitation ranged in 2.9%-4.7%, while the ratio between recharge and baseflow was 73.5%-86.8%. Baseflow is highly correlated with recharge. Spatially, the loess area has the largest recharge and recharge-precipitation ratio and the headwater area has the largest recharge-baseflow ratio, while the sandy area has the smallest. Temporally, groundwater recharge has decreased significantly, which consequently resulted at the significant reduction of baseflow. However, the decrease rate of baseflow is larger than recharge indicating the impacts of human activities like groundwater withdrawing.
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    念青唐古拉山南坡气温分布及其垂直梯度
    谢健, 刘景时, 杜明远, 王忠彦
    地理科学. 2010, 30 (1): 113-118.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.01.113
    摘要   PDF (951KB)
    利用架设在念青唐古拉山南坡9个海拔高度(4 300~5 500 m)的自动气象站1 a(2006年8月1日至2007年7月31日)的实测数据,对山坡1.5 m高度的近地面气温随海拔梯度和时间的分布进行了分析。表明念青南坡4 300~4 950 m冷季(10~4月)存在逆温。利用高山各观测高度的温度与当雄气象站气温具有良好相关,推算出多年平均情况下念青唐古拉山南坡各观测高度的年平均气温和各月平均气温。并由此推测念青唐古拉山南坡海拔5 100 m以上存在高山多年冻土,此多年冻土下界高度比《中国冻土》指出的高度高约200 m。
    Altitudinal and temporal distribution of air temperature were analyzed, using an original data set, spanning from 1 Aug., 2006 to 31 Jul., 2007 from 9 automated weather stations set up along an altitudinal gradient from 4 300 to 5 500 m a.s.l., at a southern slope of Nyainqentanglha Mountains, Tibetan Plateau. Air temperature inversion was found typically during October to the following April. The mean perennial values of annually and monthly mean air temperature were estimated for various observational altitudes at the studied slope, based on the significant correlation between air temperatures at the observed slope and Damxung Weather Station, which has 44 years of continual meteorological record since 1963. According to the estimated mean perennial air temperature, the lower limit of the alpine permafrost was estimated at about 5 100 m a.s.l., which is 200 m higher than the previous value proposed in the frozen soil in China.
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    近10年重庆市归一化植被指数变化分析
    李惠敏, 刘洪斌, 武伟
    地理科学. 2010, 30 (1): 119-123.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.01.119
    摘要   PDF (1634KB)
    运用1 km分辨率经过Savitzky-Golay滤波技术平滑处理的SPOT/VGT数据,通过对1998~2007年的归一化植被指数(NDVI)时间序列数据、NDVI与气象因子的关系、10 a来NDVI变化率的空间分布以及NDVI与海拔高度的关系等进行分析,研究重庆市植被变化及空间分布情况。结果表明,重庆市NDVI年变化相对稳定,在空间上变化较大,东北及东南部分地区植被退化,而西部地区NDVI变化率增加,表明植被覆盖有所增多。另外引起NDVI时空变化的原因中,温度远大于降水量,海拔高度也与NDVI有较好的相关性。
    The article researched the vegetation changes in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area of Chongqing through analysing the time series of NDVI data in 1998-2007, the relationship of the NDVI with meteorological factors, the change rate of NDVI and the relationship between NDVI altitude by using the 1 km SPOT/VGT-NDV I data smoothed by Savitzky-Golay filter. The results show that the annual NDVI variation in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area of Chongqing is relatively stable, while it decreases in the northeastern and southeastern areas and increases in the western area. Furthermore, the spatial and temporal changes of NDVI are mainly caused by temperature and precipitation. The temperature plays a more important role than precipitation in NDVI’s change, the altitude and NDVI also has a better correlation.
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    137Cs示踪技术在黑土区农业非点源污染负荷研究中的应用
    杨育红, 阎百兴, 沈波, 曹会聪
    地理科学. 2010, 30 (1): 124-128.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.01.124
    摘要   PDF (909KB)
    利用137Cs核素示踪和定位监测相结合,研究松嫩平原黑土区3个旱作坡面土壤的流失厚度和流失速率,坡面土壤流失厚度1.20~5.25 mm/a,侵蚀强度1 355.0~7 558.2 t/(km2·a);近40 a来,松嫩平原黑土区年均入河(湖)农业非点源污染负荷分别为TN 1.43 t/(km2·a)、NH3-N 15.01 kg/(km2·a)、NO3-N 8.51 kg/(km2·a)TP 0.42 t/(km2·a)、PO43--P 1.85 kg/(km2·a);土壤流失氮以有机氮为主;水溶态无机氮占总氮的0.51%,水溶性磷酸盐磷占总磷的0.12%。黑土区农业非点源污染物的输出和水土流失密切相关,深入研究其输移机理及防治措施具有重要的环境意义。
    The Songnen Plain in Northeast China is an important base of cash grain and soybean in China. Nonpoint source nutrient loads (TN, TP, NH3-N, NO3--N, PO43--P) to the water bodies were estimated using 137Cs nuclear tracing technique and field monitoring method. The annual mean erosion thickness of black soil in the typical slops is within 0.120-0.525 cm, and the erosion intensity is 1355.0-7558.2 t/km2 in last 40 years. The annual mean values of pollution loads per square kilometer were TN 1.43 t, NH3-N 15.01 t, NO3--N 8.51 t, TP 0.42 t, PO43--P1.85 t, respectively. Water dissolved inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus accounted for 0.51% of total nitrogen, and 0.12% of total phosphorus. Caesium-137trating technique is an differentive to traditional methods.
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    基于遥感的无锡市土地利用与过境水质响应关系的研究
    夏叡, 李云梅, 王桥, 徐恩惠, 金鑫, 王彦飞
    地理科学. 2010, 30 (1): 129-133.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.01.129
    摘要   PDF (1002KB)
    以京杭大运河无锡段水质监测数据和2003年7月SPOT-5正射影像为数据源,分析土地利用面积比例与过境水质之间的响应关系。结果表明:以监测断面为中心缓冲区距离的空间变化与水质监测指标之间有明显的响应关系。运河水质污染主要受离河岸较近的土地利用结构的影响。耕地上产生的农业污水,商业和工业中的废水以及大面积裸地上居民生活垃圾和建筑垃圾产生的污水是导致京杭大运河无锡段水质恶化的重要原因。
    Taking the six sections’ water quality monitoring data of Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal in Wuxi and SPOT-5 orthophoto images in July 2003 as the data source, this paper analyses the response relationship between land-use area proportion and the transit water quality. The result shows that the spatial change of the buffer distance which takes the monitoring section as center responds to the five water quality monitoring indexes. The canal water quality pollution is mainly affected by land use structure which is close to the river. So the agricultural effluent, commercial and industrial wastewater and effluent from large area of bare land which is made by living rubbish and construction refuse is an important reason to make the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal water quality worse.
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    宁夏长城塬全新世黄土-土壤剖面元素地球化学特征研究
    杨红瑾, 黄春长, 庞奖励, 李瑜琴, 米小建, 赵明
    地理科学. 2010, 30 (1): 134-140.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.01.134
    摘要   PDF (977KB)
    通过测定宁夏长城塬全新世黄土-土壤剖面中的元素含量,获得了一些地球化学参数指标。这些化学参数作为良好的气候代用指标,与磁化率、频率磁化率形成很好的对比,表明:古土壤形成时期气候温暖湿润,降雨丰富,淋溶作用强烈,黄土堆积时期气候相对干冷,成壤作用微弱;黄土风化成壤过程中元素的迁移变化可以间接反映出全新世以来的气候变化及成壤环境的变化。通过研究元素的活动性,发现全新世宁夏长城塬黄土只经历了早期的化学风化,应处在脱Ca、Na阶段,尚未进入去K风化阶段。
    Through the analysis of macro- and micro-elements and their variations with XRF at the CCY loess-soil site, Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, we obtain a number of geochemical parameters. There is a good comparison between these chemical parameters and magnetic susceptibility, frequency dependent susceptibility, which indicates that during the paleosol formation, the climate was warm and humid with abundant precipitation and greater eluviation, while during the loess accumulation, the climate was relatively cold and arid with weak pedogenesis. And the variation of elements can indirectly reflect the change of climate and pedogenic environment during the process of loess chemical weathering. Through the research of the activities of elements in CCY profile, it was found that Holocene loess in CCY only experienced primary process of chemical weathering characterized by leaching of Ca, Na, and not reached the secondary process characterized by leaching of K.
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    天山乌鲁木齐河源1号冰川大气气溶胶和新雪中可溶性离子关系研究
    张明军, 周平, 李忠勤, 赵淑惠, 金爽
    地理科学. 2010, 30 (1): 141-148.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.01.141
    摘要   PDF (1195KB)
    在2007年4月、8月和10月三个时段内,分昼夜采集了23个气溶胶样品和7个新降雪样品,对样品中的可溶性离子进行了分析。结果表明,乌鲁木齐河源1号冰川(以下简称1号冰川)春、夏、秋三个季节气溶胶平均载量为86.22 neq/m3,分析显示1号冰川存在NH4HSO4和(NH4)2SO4气溶胶,并有少量NH4NO3气溶胶存在。气溶胶和新雪样品中可溶性离子成分变化趋势相似,气溶胶浓度升高,新雪样品的浓度也会有所升高,反之亦然。气溶胶和新雪中Ca2+、Mg2+、Na+、Cl-、K+的相关性很好,说明雪中这些离子的浓度基本能反映大气中的状况;对气相和颗粒相并存的NH4+和NO3-来说,雪中的离子浓度和大气中的离子浓度不相关。
    Simultaneous samples of aerosol and fresh snow were collected at Glacier No. 1 (4100 m a. s.l.), Tianshan Mountains, between April 16 to 23, August 5 to 14, and October 10 to 24, 2007. Aerosol and snow chemistry (including the species of Na+, NH4+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Cl-, NO3- and SO42-) is analyzed and discussed. Major ion concentrations in aerosol samples change heavily with the total ionic burden averaging 86.22 neq/m-3 at standard temperature and pressure (STP). Interspecies aerosol relationships indicate the presence of NH4HSO4 and (NH4)2SO4 aerosol at Glacier No. 1 also with NH4NO3. High scavenging ratio values are found for all species except SO42-. Periods of increased concentrations in the aerosol are generally reflected by increased concentrations in the snow, and vice versa. Correlation coefficients between aerosol and snow for Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, Cl-, K+ show that snow chemistry basically reflects changes in the chemistry of the atmosphere. There are no significant correlations between aerosol and snow samples for NH4+, NO3- and low correlation coefficient for SO42-.
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    天山奎屯河哈希勒根51号冰川雪坑化学特征及环境意义
    董志文, 李忠勤, 张明军, 王文彬, 王飞腾
    地理科学. 2010, 30 (1): 149-156.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.01.149
    摘要   PDF (2093KB)
    2004~2007年在天山奎屯河哈希勒根51号冰川采集3个雪坑样品。运用相关分析、海盐示踪法等方法,对化学要素的季节变化特征及主要阴阳离子来源进行分析研究。结果表明,雪坑中不溶粉尘和主要化学离子具有明显的季节变化特征;春季期间降雪中粉尘浓度明显高于其他季节。主要离子的浓度在沙尘季节也明显高于非沙尘季节。雪坑中Ca2+是主要阳离子,SO42-是主要阴离子。除NO3-外,雪坑中其他离子浓度之间均存在较好正相关。表明冰川区主要受中亚地区沙尘活动影响;同时雪坑中的离子(尤其是Na+)除陆源矿物粉尘之外,一定程度源于海洋源。
    Snow chemistry on the glaciers of high mountains is good indicator for atmospheric environment change research. During the summer of the years from 2004 to 2007, we measured the characteristics of snow chemistry in three snowpits of different altitudes on the Haxilegen glacier No.51 of Kuytun, the eastern Tianshan Mountains of China. Correlation analysis and sea-salt tracing methods were used in this study to find out the source of major ions and dust particles. Results showed that the insoluble dust micro-particles and major ions in the snow had obvious seasonal variation. During Asian dust period, the concentration was significantly high, but the concentration was relatively low during non-dust period, which may be caused by dust activities of central Asia. The major ionic concentration was Ca2+>SO42->NH4+>NO3-> Cl-> Na+>Mg2+>K+, Ca2+ was the dominate cation, and SO42- was the dominate anion. The ionic correlation coefficient analysis shows that all the ions have very good correlation coefficient except the NO3-. The glacier regions was mainly affected by dust activities. Moreover, the major ions, especially Na+, was significantly affected by the Ocean in the west, as the precipitation was mainly from the west, besides those partly originated from the dust sources of central Asian region.
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    潮汐盐湿地甲烷产生及其对硫酸盐响应研究进展
    王维奇, 曾从盛, 仝川
    地理科学. 2010, 30 (1): 157-160.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.01.157
    摘要   PDF (547KB)
    综述了潮汐盐湿地甲烷产生及其对硫酸盐还原过程响应的最新研究进展。潮汐盐湿地甲烷产生除竞争性底物醋酸和二氧化碳/氢气外,甲胺、三甲胺、甲醇和甲硫氨酸等非竞争性底物同样十分重要;潮汐盐湿地甲烷产生潜力较低;硫酸盐对甲烷产生抑制作用明显;底物、硫酸盐浓度、温度与pH值均对硫酸盐抑制甲烷产生过程产生影响,此外,潮汐、盐分、菌种数量与活性也是影响甲烷产生过程主要因子。
    Reviews on methane production and the reaction to sulfate in saline wetlands was made. The results showed that acetate and hydrogen, methylamine, methanol, trimethylamine, methionine were substrates of methane production in saline wetlands. Methane production potentials of tidal saline wetland were lower. The inhibition effects of sulfate on methane production was significant.Substrates, sulfate concentration, temperature and pH value controls the inhibition effects of sulfate on methane production, furthermore, salinity, quantity and activity of methane production bacteria were key factors controlling methane production.
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