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CN 22-1124/P
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  • 地理科学
      2015年, 第35卷, 第2期 刊出日期:2015-02-20 上一期    下一期
    选择: 合并摘要 显示图片
    合肥主城区住宅剖面线型地价的比较与成因分析
    包善驹,陆林
    地理科学. 2015, 35 (2): 196-202.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2015.02.196
    摘要   HTML   PDF (0KB)

    采用GIS空间分析技术绘制合肥市2007年和2011年住宅修正地价等值线图,并依据合肥市圈层放射形的空间结构形态选取5条核心放射的剖切线。基于剖切线比较分析2007年和2011年的剖面线型地价的特征。结果表明:不同年份地价从中心往外围整体呈现衰减趋势,2011年城市各方向剖面地价从中心往外围出现了一系列明显的凸形地价阶地。比较明显的区域包括合肥市一环路与二环路附近。大蜀山和天鹅湖区域以及滨湖新区区域。针对凸形地价阶地出现的中观区位进行系统分析发现城市主导方展方向和重点发展区域、城市新兴功能组团、城市整体道路交通布局下新的交通节点、城市新的游憩综合区是形成凸形地价阶地的主要成因。


    Residential modified land price isoline map of Hefei city in year 2007 and year 2011 is obtained by GIS spatial analysis technology in this paper. Five core radiant slitting lines are selected by radial circle spatial structure of Hefei and comparative analysis of the section line type land price characteristics has been made between year 2007 and year 2011 based on them. The analysis showed that the land price present attenuation trend from center to periphery in different year, city land price of each direction profile appeared a series significant convex land price terrace from center to periphery in year 2011, in which the obvious area includes city one loop and two loop nearby, the Dashushan area, Swan Lake area and Binhu new district area. System analysis is made on medium location appeared in convex land price terrace and fined that city leading development direction and key developing areas, city emerging functional groups, the new traffic node under the new layout of the whole city and fresh recreation area are main causes of formation of the convex land price terrace.

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    长沙市农村居民点景观格局变化及地域分异特征研究
    谭雪兰,周国华,朱苏晖,欧聪
    地理科学. 2015, 35 (2): 203-209.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2015.02.203
    摘要   HTML   PDF (0KB)

    以1989年、1999年和2009年3期Landsat TM影像及2005年的土地利用现状图为数据源,结合野外实地调查,应用GIS空间分析、重心迁移定量模型和景观生态学方法,对长沙市1989-2009年农村居民点的用地面积、规模、空间分布、形状的动态变化过程及地域分异特征进行了研究。研究结果表明: ① 20 a来农村居民点总面积及斑块平均规模不断扩大,农村居民点空间分布日趋集中和密集,斑块形状不断向完整与规则转变;② 农村居民点空间布局地域分异特征明显,在平均斑块面积、斑块密度等指标方面平原区、丘岗区与山区之间存在着显著差异;③ 20 a来,长沙市农村居民点的空间分布重心由西向东迁移,迁移距离为6.62 km。


    In recent years, land supply and demand contradiction is increasingly outstanding in China. The landbase of rural residential area is experiencing a reverse development trend of "population decrease but land increase". The main reason is that rural residential area has been in a disordered development state with a chaotic layout for a long time in last years. So it is important to grasp the spatial pattern changes rule of rural residential area during rural residential land development planning. Based on the thematic maps of Land-use map in 2005 and TM images of 1989,1999 and 2009,and by integrating field survey and the method of GIS statistical software,offset of center gravity model and landscape ecology, the landscape pattern of rural residential area in Changsha from 1989 to 2009 is analyzed. In the recent 20 years,the class area(CA) of residential area in Changsha increase constantly, and the net increase is 2.52×104hm2. The number of patches(NP)increases from 197 867 to 206 289,the largest patch index(LPI) increase from 0.001 in 1989 to 0.004 in 2009.Furthermore,the mean patch size (MPS) increase from 0.425 to 0.531, the patch density (PD) take on an increase trend , which was 0.167/km2 in 1989 while 0.174/ km2 in 2009.The face margin ratio(AP) increase from 1.546 to 1.676, while fractal dimension(D) reduce from 1.679 to 1.672. The study finds that the landscape pattern of rural residential area has changed a lot from 1989 to 2009, the scale, number and acreage of the rural residential area increased , the landscape distribution of rural residential area is centralized and densified , and the landscape shape of rural residential area has obvious change with an anomalistic developing state existed. The characteristics of spatio-temporal differentiation of rural residential area are obvious, the scale, number, density and acreage of rural residential area in plain area are better than that of hilly and mountainous area. The center of Gravity of rural residential area offset 6.62 km from west to east in Changsha from 1989 to 2009. The quantitative analysis of landscape ecology can explain well the landscape pattern of rural residential area and provide useful information for studies of the small town construction , and for land trim and land intensive use.

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    基于小波多尺度变换的渭河水沙演变规律研究
    刘晓琼,刘彦随,李同昇,孟欢欢,于正松,芮旸
    地理科学. 2015, 35 (2): 210-216.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2015.02.210
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    关中平原地区是推动陕西省经济社会发展的引擎,其生产总值占陕西省的70%以上,但是水资源短缺、时空分布不均、河流含沙量高等问题严重制约其经济社会的发展。运用小波变换、滑动t检验、累积距平以及Yamamoto、Mann-Kendall等方法系统分析了1935-2011年渭河水沙序列演变规律。研究结果显示:77 a间除20世纪70年代、80年代外,其它年代渭河华县站水沙变化波动下降的匹配趋势均一致,其中径流量减流速度大于输沙量减沙速度;渭河水沙序列周期变化不一,径流量变化的主周期依次为38 a、14 a、4 a,输沙量变化的主周期依次为15 a、49 a、43 a、4 a;除输沙量49 a变化周期外,其他水沙变化周期大致相近;由于渭河输沙量变化所受气候及人类活动的影响远较径流量复杂,加之水沙异源,所以渭河华县站输沙量周期变化及突变点分布情况比径流量变化复杂,且其第一主周期变化呈现独特的变化态势。


    Guanzhong Plain is the economic engine of Shaanxi Province, which contributed 70% GDP to Shaanxi Province, and however problems such as lower water resources per capita, uneven distribution, higher river sediment concentration restrict its economic and social development. In order to reveal the evolution law of multi-scale the runoff and sediment discharge of the Weihe River,to offer provide theoretical basis for comprehensive utilization of water resources, water and soil erosion for guanzhong area, the Weihe River Basin,and the Yellow River Basin. In this article, Morlet complex wavelet function was used to transform the sequence of runoff and sediment discharge of Huaxian country station during 1935-2011, and combined with the analysis of measured values of the runoffand sediment discharge, to know well periodic variation and catastrophe point of the runoff and sediment discharge of the Weihe River, the methods of moving t test, accumulative anomaly and Yamamoto was applied to detect catastrophe point. The findings of research indicate that the change of runoff and sediment discharge of the Weihe River have the fluctuating descending tendency from 1935 to 2011, there are multi-time scales periodic variation of the runoff and sediment discharge of the Weihe River, the main cycles of runoff are 38 a,14 a and 4 a, apart from the 49 a cycle of sediment discharge, other main cycles are similar apporximately, while the main cycles of sediment discharge are 15 a,49 a,43 a and 4 a; catastrophe points of the runoff and sediment discharge in small-scale are much more than big-scale′s, the amount and situation of catastrophe points of the runoff and sediment discharge in different scale are different; Because of climate and mankind activity the change of sediment discharge more complex than runoff, in addition to the sources of sediment and water are different, so the periodic variation and catastrophe points of sediment more complex than runoff , and the first main cycles of sediment discharge has unique change trend .

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    黄河三角洲滨海地区植物生长季大气氮沉降动态
    宁凯,于君宝,屈凡柱,王光美,管博
    地理科学. 2015, 35 (2): 217-222.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2015.02.217
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    利用SCJ-302型降水降尘自动采样器在植物生长季对黄河三角洲滨海湿地的大气氮沉降进行监测,对沉降物中水溶性离子、干、湿沉降氮输入量、铵态氮和硝态氮在总沉降量中的贡献率及月变化动态等分析表明:黄河三角洲植物生长季,大气干、湿沉降中SO42-和NO3-占阴离子总量的92%以上,和Na+和Ca2+占阳离子总量的80%以上,总N沉降量约为2 264.24 mg/m2,且69%集中在降雨量较丰沛的6-8月。其中干沉降氮贡献率约为32.02%,主要集中在春季。N的湿沉降量与降雨量呈显著正线性相关(R2=0.82),在降雨量丰沛的8月,达到最大值675.64 mg/m2。该地区大气干沉降的氮素形态以硝态氮为主,约占氮素输入量的57.21%,湿沉降中以铵态氮为主,约占氮素输入量的56.51%。植物生长季中,大气沉降中的硝态氮与铵态氮含量对表层10 cm土壤的月平均贡献率分别为约31.38%和20.50%,可见大气氮沉降是黄河三角洲滨海区域土壤主要氮素来源之一。


    Wet and dry atmospheric depositions were monitored in plant growing season in coastal wetland of Yellow River Delta using SCJ-302 model automatic sampling equipment. The water-soluble ions, wet and dry atmospheric N depositions, monthly variation and the proportion of NH4+-N and NO3--N in total nitrogen deposition were analyzed. The results showed that SO42-and NO3- accounted for more than 92% of the anion numbers, Na+ and Ca2+ accounted for more than 80% of the cation numbers, respectively, in wet and dry atmospheric depositions in growing season in the Yellow River Delta. The total atmospheric nitrogen deposition was about 2 264.24 mg/m2, and 69% of it occurred from June to August in which the precipitation was abundant. In the total atmospheric nitrogen deposition, dry atmospheric nitrogen deposition accounted for about 32.02%, and it was high in spring. The significant positive relationship between wet nitrogen deposition and precipitation was observed in the study (R2=0.82). The wet atmospheric nitrogen deposition reached peak value in August (675.64 mg/m2). In the studied area, the predominant nitrogen in dry atmospheric deposition was NO3--N with about 57.21% of total dry atmospheric nitrogen deposition, while the predominant nitrogen in wet atmospheric deposition was NH4+-N with about 56.51% of total wet atmospheric nitrogen deposition. In plant growing season, the average monthly attribution rate of atmospheric deposition of NO3--N and NH4+-N were about 31.38% and 20.50% for the contents of NO3--N and NH4+-N in 10 cm soil layer , respectively. Therefore, the atmospheric nitrogen was one of main sources for soil nitrogen in coastal zone of Yellow River Delta.

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    夏季鄂海阻高活动天数的年际变化及其前期征兆分析
    杨旭,刘刚,廉毅,尚博
    地理科学. 2015, 35 (2): 223-229.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2015.02.223
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    利用1951-2009年NCEP/NCAR高度场月平均资料、全球海表温度月平均资料、国家气候中心提供的东北地区24站逐月温度资料、鄂霍次克海阻塞高压(东阻)活动天数等数据,采用相关和奇异值分解分析(SVD)方法,分析夏季(6-8月)东阻活动天数的年际变化及其前期征兆,结果表明:夏季东阻活动天数年际变化阶段性明显,21世纪以来不仅处于强盛后期明显下降趋势阶段,而且年际变率显著增大;夏季东阻活动天数与中国东北地区中部及东部的温度呈显著负相关;春季至夏季赤道东太平洋(NINO3区)SSTA(特别是1977-2009年)呈El Niño位相是夏季东阻活动的最重要强迫源,当赤道东太平洋为El Niño状态,以及阿拉伯海与北太平洋西风漂流区为暖海温时,夏季东阻活动天数偏多;与夏季同期大西洋海温的SVD1模态表明,当大西洋海温SSTA整体上处于冷(暖)位相分布时,东阻活动天数偏少(多);夏季东阻活动天数与春季NPO和极涡面积指数相关存在着的年代际变化特征,1951-1976年,夏季东阻活动天数仅与春季北半球极涡面积指数、亚洲极涡面积指数呈显著正相关, 1977-2009年,不仅与春季极涡面积指数呈正相关信号消失,而且,1951-2009年与春季NPO指数呈显著的正相关信号,在此期间也迅速减弱消失。


    The averaged monthly reanalysis data, including height data(HGT) and global sea surface temperature (SST) from 1951 to 2009 from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction-National Center for Atmospheric Research (NECP-NCAR), the averaged monthly temperature data of 24 stations in Northeast China provided by the National Climate Center, and the data of activity days of Okhotsk blocking highs are used to investigate the decadal variation and the early sign of the Okhotsk blocking highs' activity days, by using the method of correlation analysis and the Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) methods. The results show that the summer′s Okhotsk blocking highs′ activity days have a interannual variability of distinct stage. Since twenty-first century Okhotsk blocking highs′ activity days were significantly decreased during the late strong stage with an increasing interannual variability. There is a significant negative correlation between the Okhotsk blocking highs′ activity days and the temperature in middle and east of Northeast China in summer. From spring to summer,the SSTA (especially in 1977-2009) in El Niño phase is the most important source of Summer Okhotsk blocking high′ activity forced in the eastern equatorial Pacific (NINO3). When the eastern equatorial Pacific is in the El Niño state, and the SSTA is warmer in the area of Arabia sea and the west wind drift in North Pacific, there will be more Summer Okhotsk blocking highs′ activities. The first mode of SVD indicates that, when the Atlantic SSTA on the whole is in the cold (warm) phase ,the Okhotsk blocking highs′ activity days are shorter (longer). The correlation between the Okhotsk High activity days and spring NPO and polar vortex area index has an interdecadal variation feature. During 1951-1976, the Summer Okhotsk High activity days only reveals a significant positive correlation with the spring the northern hemisphere polar vortex and the Asia polar vortex area index. The signal of positive correlation with spring polar vortex area index disappears from 1977 to 2009, moreover, the signal of the positive correlation with the spring NPO index declines rapidly in 1951-2009.

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    泾河流域上游景观尺度植被类型对水文过程的影响
    张淑兰,张海军,王彦辉,于澎涛,徐丽宏,熊伟
    地理科学. 2015, 35 (2): 230-236.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2015.02.230
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    选择具有土石山区的泾河流域上游为研究对象,应用生态水文模型SWIM对上游景观尺度下各植被类型水文效应进行了模拟,并针对上游土石山区和黄土区分海拔段进行了植被分布的水文格局影响分析。结果表明:泾河流域上游的森林、农田、草地各植被类型的蒸散及组分、径流深和土壤深层渗漏各水文过程具有显著差异,不同区域(土石山区和黄土区)的同一植被类型的各水文过程明显不同;同时,植被景观格局存在区域和海拔差异,这使得不同区域和海拔段的各水文过程有所不同。如在土石山区,以森林为主的海拔段2 250-2 922 m降水量和蒸散量均最大(分别为641 mm和484 mm),以农田、草地和森林均有分布的海拔段1 750-2 250 m降水量较大(590 mm),但蒸散量最低(仅为434 mm);而在较为干旱的黄土区(降水量为514 mm)以农田和草地为主两个海拔段(1 026-1 350 m和1 350-1 750 m)的蒸散量较高(分别为458 mm和440 mm)。另外,从各水文过程要素与降水的比值看,两个区域之间差异比较明显,但同一区域不同海拔段间差异不明显。


    Profoundly understanding the influence of vegetation types and their distribution pattern on the hydrological processes is of great significance for water resources management and vegetation reasonable recovery in a large basin scale. In this study, the upper reaches of Jinghe Basin with stony mountain area was selected as the research area, and the dynamic process-based eco-hydrological model (SWIM) was used to simulate hydrological effect of different vegetation types at landscape scale, the impact of the vegetation distribution on hydrological pattern was further analyzed by distinguishing elevation in view of stony mountain area and loess area. Results showed that hydrological effects including evapotranspiration and its components, water yield and deep soil percolation among forest, farmland and grassland had significant difference, and the same vegetation type in different regions (stony mountain area and loess area) had obviously different effects on hydrological process. Because of the area and elevation difference of vegetation landscape pattern, the hydrological process in different areas and elevation sections had difference. For example, in stony mountain area, the precipitation and evapotranspiration in elevation section of 2 250-2 922 m dominated by forest was largest to 641 mm and 484 mm respectively, while the precipitation in elevation section of 1 750-2 250 m with farmland, grassland and forest scattered around was larger to 590 mm, but the evapotranspiration was lowest to 434 mm; in arid loess area with precipitation of 514 mm, the evapotranspiration in two elevation sections of 1 026-1 350 m and 1 350-1 750 m with farmland and grassland were 458 mm and 440 mm respectively. In addition, the difference of the ratios between hydrological process elements and precipitation in both areas was more significant, but is not obvious for different elevation sections in the same area.

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    基于水资源承载能力的达茂旗牧区用水方案优化
    龙胤慧,郭中小,廖梓龙,徐晓民,焦瑞,刘华琳
    地理科学. 2015, 35 (2): 237-243.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2015.02.237
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    根据干旱草原区水资源承载系统具有数据多元性和动态性的特点,建立基于GIS的水资源承载能力模型,分别从时间和空间尺度上评价现状水资源承载能力及其影响因素,评价结果表明2008-2012年达茂旗全旗的水资源承载能力为一般水平,水资源承载能力较强水平的区域占全旗总面积的37.23%;降水的减少直接导致了生产、生态用水的下降。灵敏度分析结果表明水资源自身承载能力受水资源可利用比例影响最大,社会系统主要受人口密度、城镇化率影响,经济系统中,农业GDP比重影响很大。基于现状评价结果预设3种牧区用水方案优化模式,水资源承载能力预测结果表明水资源开发利用率控制效果并非越严格越好,节水型社会稳步建设方案是规划水平年牧区用水方案的适宜模式。


    According to the feature of diversity and dynamic of water resources system in arid grassland area, the water resources carrying capacity model is established with Geographic Information System technology, the carrying capacity and its influence factors are evaluated in different spatial and temporal scales. The research results show that the water carrying capacity of Damaoqi is at general level from 2008 to 2012, and the area ratio of the stronger carrying capacity level of water resources is 37.23%. From the calculation results, it can be found that the lower rainfall makes the decrease of industry producing water consuming and ecological water consuming. The sensitivity analyzing results reveal that the available water resources ratio is the main factor to change water resources carrying capacity in water resources system itself, population density index and urbanization index are the two key factors to restrict the social carrying capacity system, and GDP of agriculture is the vital factor to control the economic carrying capacity system. Based on the present evaluation results of water resources carrying capacity, three different development patterns are designed for optimizing the water utillization of Damaqo in pastoral area. The calculation results indicate that the development pattern of the most strict water resource management is so stricter that the water resources carrying capacity would not been improved effectively, and the development pattern of steady construction of water saving society is the best way to promote the sustainable development of economic, society and ecology in Damaoqi in the planning year.

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    1971-2010年若尔盖湿地潜在蒸散量及地表湿润度的变化趋势
    王建兵,王素萍,汪治桂
    地理科学. 2015, 35 (2): 244-249.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2015.02.244
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    利用若尔盖、红原、玛曲3个气象站1971-2010年的地面气象观测资料,根据Penman-Monteith模型计算了若尔盖湿地的潜在蒸散量,发现若尔盖湿地年潜在蒸散量呈明显上升的趋势,上升趋势为9.1 mm/10a;若尔盖湿地潜在蒸散量在2001年出现了增大突变,2001-2010年平均潜在蒸散量比1971-2000年上升了28.6 mm;各季节潜在蒸散量均呈上升趋势,其中以秋季上升最明显,上升趋势为4.3 mm/10a。导致若尔盖湿地潜在蒸散量上升的主要气象因子是温度上升、相对湿度下降和降水量的减少,虽然日照时数减少和风速减小有利于潜在蒸散量的下降,但由于气温上升的趋势更明显,影响更大,所以若尔盖湿地潜在蒸散量呈明显的上升趋势。近40 a若尔盖湿地地表湿润度以-0.03/10a的趋势减小,其中2001-2010年比1981-1990年下降了0.11,下降十分明显;与此同时,年平均气温以0.41℃/10a的趋势上升,降水量以-13.5 mm/10a的趋势减少,虽然若尔盖湿地仍属于湿润区,但出现了明显的暖干化趋势。


    The meteorological data of the Zoige, Hongyuan and Maqu weather observation stations were used, the potential evapotranspiration was computed by using Penman-Monteith model. The results indicated that the potential evapotranspiration variation in the Zoige wetland shows an obvious increasing tendency with the tendency ratio of 9.1 mm/10a,An abrupt change of the potential evapotranspiration was detected in the 2001,the mean potential evapotranspiration during 2001-2010 has increased by 28.6 mm compared with that of 1971-2000. The autumn potential evapotranspiration increased with the tendency ratio of 4.3mm/10a,its more higher than the other seasons. The annual potential evapotranspiration’s minimum period is 1980s, it obviously increased from 1990s, the variety of seasonal potential evapotranspiration in spring, summer and autumn is very similar to that of annual. The winter potential evapotranspiration minimum period is 1990s, it obviously increased in the 21st.The cycle change is 7-8 a during 1970s and 1980s, from the end of 1980s to the end of 1990s, it is an obviously adjusted period, the cycle change is 5a from the beginning of 21st. The temperature rising, relative humidity and precipitation decreasing are the major contributors to the potential evapotranspiration increased. Although the decreasing of the sunshine duration and mean wind velocity is help to the potential evapotranspiration decreased, but the temperature rising plays a more important role to the potential evapotranspiration increased. The decreasing tendency of soil surface humidity index is -0.03/10a,the soil surface humidity index has decreased 0.11 during 2001-2010 compared with that of 1981-1990. meanwhile, the increasing tendency of the mean temperature is 0.41℃/10a , the decreasing tendency of the precipitation is -13.5 mm/10a, the climate change of the Zoige wetland shows an obviously warm-drying tendency .

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    吉林省雾的气候特征及变化成因分析
    刘玉英,李宇凡,张婷,徐洁
    地理科学. 2015, 35 (2): 250-256.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2015.02.250
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    利用1961-2010年吉林省雾日统计资料,对吉林省雾日的时空分布特征、变化趋势进行了详细分析,并分析了雾日变化的原因。结果表明:近50 a来,吉林省年和四季雾日的空间分布均呈东南部地区多、西部地区少的分布特征;雾日季节变化特征表现为8-9月多,10月至次年5月少,西部和中部地区雾日数月季变化呈现双峰型,东南部和东部地区呈现单峰型;雾大多数开始于夜间21时至次日早晨09时,结束于夜间22时至次日午后13时,持续时间多在6 h以下。近50 a来,除了春季雾日没有明显变化外,全省平均及各区域年和四季雾日均呈减少趋势;在2000年前后雾日数发生了一次明显的突变。雾日空间分布与海拔高度有密切关系;雾日趋于减少有人类活动导致的“热岛效应”、“干岛效应”、气溶胶密度加大等原因,也有气候趋于暖干化的自然原因。


    By using the data of fog days in the period of 1961-2010 in Jilin Province, the characteristics and changes of spatial and temporal distribution of fog days as well as reasons are analyzed. Results show that the spatial pattern of annual and seasonal fog days presents more in southeastern areas and less in western areas of Jilin Province. The seasonal characteristics appear more during Aug. to Sep., but less during Oct. to May. The inter-monthly variation of fog days in western and middle areas appears bimodal pattern, and that in southeastern and eastern areas appears unimodality. Fog usually begins at 21:00-09:00 LST and ends at 22:00-13:00 LST, with duration 0-6 h. In recent 50 years, the annual and four seasonal fog days of the province's average and all areas exhibited decreasing trends. The fog days appear obvious sudden change in 2000.The spatial distribution of fog days have relations with altitude. The causes of fog days decreasing are that the "heat island effect","dry island effect" and the increase of aerosol, and that the climate becaming warm and dry.

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    海洋地缘政治研究进展与中国海洋地缘环境研究探索
    韩增林,彭飞,张耀光,刘天宝,钟敬秋
    地理科学. 2015, 35 (2): 129-136.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2015.02.129
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    通过梳理西方100多a海洋地缘政治的发展脉络,系统总结和归纳其海洋地缘政治发展的4个阶段与特征:自然演进模式下的海洋地缘政治理论形成阶段( 1890s前)、国家空间-权力关系下的理论发展阶段(两次世界大战前后)、海洋地缘政治的现代化阶段(1960s-1990s)、新海洋地缘政治理论阶段(1990s后)。与国外相比,中国的海洋地缘政治研究起步较晚且未得到足够的重视,通过分析新中国成立以来中国地缘政治学者在海洋地缘政治领域的探索历程发现:中国海洋地缘政治发展缺乏相关学科理论的支撑和整合,难以形成完整的理论体系,研究手段也较为单一并缺乏建设性的实证研究,这与中国在世界“海洋地缘环境”格局中的现状严重不符。因此,面对批判地缘政治学的“多尺度转向”背景与中国发展的具体国情,提出发展中国“海洋地缘环境”的研究作为响应,并深入探讨“海洋地缘环境”的内涵与研究的空间尺度。最后,对海洋地缘环境近期重点研究方向做出展望:① 深化海洋地缘环境理论基础与研究方法;② 加强不同尺度的海洋地缘环境时空分异格局及其形成机理研究;③ 安全转向背景下的多尺度海洋地缘环境系统脆弱性研究;④ 结合中国实际,加强边境与边界的相关研究。


    The 21st Century is the century of the ocean, which has become an important guarantee for the sustainable social and economic development of coastal States and the national hot space of interests. Based on the macro mode of thinking and sensitive to the reality of international problems, marine geopolitics theory has influenced the whole process of world history greatly. After summarized the research progress during 100 years of western marine geopolitics, found that it has 4 development stages and each stage has its distinctive development characteristics: natural evolution of marine geopolitics pattern formation stage (-1890s), the state space of power relations theory development stage (around World War I and World War II), the stage of modern marine geopolitics (1960s-1990s), and a new marine geopolitics theory (1990s-). Compared with foreign countries, China marine geopolitics research started late and did not got enough attention. Through the analysis of modern exploration process in China of marine Geopolitics, it can be found that China marine geopolitics is lack of theory support and integration, which is difficult to form a complete theoretical system. Moreover, the research methods are empirical study single and lack of construction, which is seriously unfit the pattern —‘the marine geo-setting ’in the world. Therefore, combine critical geopolitics "multi scale to" background and specific national conditions of China development, the paper puts forward the research direction of "marine geo-setting" in China as a response to the spatial scale, then explore the connotation of the marine–geo environment. Finally, prospect the content of the research of marine–geo environment: ①develop the theory and method of marine–geo; ② strengthen the variation pattern and its formation mechanism of different scales of marine–geo environment; ③ vulnerability research on multi-scale marine geo environment system under the background of steering the security; ④strengthen border research combined with the actual situation in China.

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    地理想象:主客之镜像与建构
    林耿,潘恺峰
    地理科学. 2015, 35 (2): 137-143.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2015.01.137
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    地理想象既是一个哲学命题,也是一个文化地理命题,关涉不同认识论和不同学术流派的主张。通过梳理和分析人地关系中的感知与想象、想象共同体与他者的型塑、话语与权力的建构、地理世界的再现和意义化等研究的源流和观点,可以发现,地理想象作为观看世界的一种方式,虽然路径和景象有别,但始终建构于在主客体的镜像观照之中。在主客体之间映射地理想象的同时,也完成了自我和他者的生产,未来的研究应突破主客二元化的叙述范式,重构理解世界的新视角,重塑地理想象的研究话语。


    Geographical imagination is not only a philosophical proposition, but also a cultural geographical proposition. It concerns ideas of different epistemology and different academic schools. The article summarized the views about perception and imagination on the man-land relationship, production of imagination community and other, construction of discourse and power, and representation and significance of geographic world. Then, it proposed that as a way of seeing, geographical imagination is constructed by the interaction between the objective and subjective bodies, although the approach and the landscape are different. Mapping geographical imagination between subject and object also means the production of self and other. Finally it hopes that the research in the future will break through the paradigm of dualistic narration, reconstruct a new perspective to learn the world, and make a new discourse for geographical imagination.

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    金融空间联系及K-means聚类中心等级识别研究——以长三角为例
    杨志民,化祥雨,叶娅芬,邵元海
    地理科学. 2015, 35 (2): 144-150.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2015.01.144
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    以2001年、2006年、2011年长三角城市金融机构人民币存款、贷款额数为样本,构建金融空间联系模型,定量分析长三角城市金融空间联系分异特征。在此基础上构建K-means金融中心等级识别模型,识别长三角城市金融中心等级。研究表明:① 2001-2011年长三角城市金融“质量”空间趋势较为稳定,总体呈现东部高于西部,中部高于南、北部的倒U形分布。② 金融空间联系最大引力线联结格局较为稳定。③ 金融空间联系网络结构格局变化显著,主要从简单的“折线型”空间结构逐渐发展成简单的、复杂的“网络型”空间结构。④ 长三角金融城市中心等级空间分布格局稳定,以上海市金融中心最为突出。


    The article constructs the financial spatial combination model and analyzes quantitatively the spatial differentiation characteristics of spatial combination by applying the number of financial institutions RMB deposit and loan in 2001, 2006 and 2011, taking cities in the Changjiang River Delta as examples. Based on the analysis, the financial center level identifying model with K-means is built to identify the financial center level of the cities in the Changjiang River Delta. The conclusions can be drawn as follows: 1) The spatial trend of the cities’ finance “quality” in the Changjiang River Delta is relatively stable, showing overall that the finance “quality” of the cities in the east is bigger than that of the cities in the west, and the finance “quality” of the cities in the center is bigger than those of the cities in the south and north, presenting the down “U” shaped distribution in the past ten years. 2) On the whole, the largest attracting linkages pattern of finance spatial combination is relatively stable. The largest attracting linkages pattern of finance spatial combination of Shanghai changes significantly, decreasing mainly the connection with the Zhejiang Province. The largest attracting linkages pattern of finance spatial combination of Jiangsu Province is relatively stable, meanwhile, that of Zhejiang Province has been strengthened. 3) The network structure of finance spatial combination has changed significantly. It was mainly a simple “polyline-based” spatial network structure with integrated financial cities among “Shanghai-Suzhou-Wuxi” in 2001. Then it was mainly developed into a simple “network-based” spatial network structure with networked finance cities, covering the partial cities around the core city Shanghai in 2006. In 2011, it has been developed into a complex “network-based” spatial network structure with regionalized financial cities, covering most of the cities in Changjiang River Delta. 4) The spatial distribution pattern of the financial center level is stable, Shanghai is the most prominent financial center, and Suzhou, Wuxi and Hangzhou were followed.

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    基于签到数据的城市活动时空间动态变化及区划研究
    王波,甄峰,张浩
    地理科学. 2015, 35 (2): 151-160.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2015.02.151
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    借助新浪微博,引入位置服务大数据,以南京市为例,从时间、空间、活动3个方面分析城市活动空间的动态变化,并在掌握变化规律的基础上进一步划分城市活动区域。研究发现:传统的作息规律仍然支配着人们的签到活动,时间与活动内容间的对应关系仍然存在;居民活动在工作日、休息日与节假日,以及主城与外围地区存在差异;城市活动空间在一天内经历了相对分散-集聚-进一步集聚-分散-相对集聚的动态变化;城市活动区域可以划分为就业活动区、居住活动区、休闲活动区、夜生活活动区,及综合活动区;活动功能区呈现出混合化与边界模糊化的特征。


    Since 1990s, information and communication technologies (ICTs) have experiecned a rapid development over the world. Information and communication devices have almost penetrated into each aspect of people’s daily life, and thus become the necessities in the modern world. Under this advancement, the inner relationship among activities, time and location has been theoretically changed because of a serious of the responding tele-activities. However, we still have little knowledge from the empirical studies due to the lack of data. Besides, as a part of urban social space analysis, a dynamic analysis of urban activity space is even scarce, albeit with its importance in understanding the undergoing and future changes in the E-society. Especially in China where is under the socio-economic transition, understanding residents’ own need and their real-time activity as well as the influence of ICTs on activity space are quite necessary for the future urban management and planning. With the aid of Location-based service (LBS), Global Positioning System (GPS) and other applications, ICTs helps to record people’s real space-time activity, which is one of the main sources of big data in recent research. Among them, given by the soaring popularity of online social network such as Sina micro-blog (the most influential social networking platform in China) and the LBS check-in application, the check-in data undoubtedly provide a real-time big data for the study of urban activity space. Based on this understanding, this article tries to analyze the dynamic changes of urban space-time activity focused on activity, time, and location, using the LBS checking-in data from Sina micro-blog. The results show that: 1) although some research argued that residents’ activity schedule would be more flexible by the help of ICTs, in this study we find that the traditional routine still dominate in residents’ check-in activities, and thus the rhythm of check-in activities could be used to reflect the corresponding relationship between time and activity; 2) there are differences of residents’ check-in activity between on working days, weekends, and holidays, as well as between in downtown and in outskirts, which reveals the difference of daily activities in reality; 3) in a day urban activity space experience dynamic changes, specifically, varied from relative disperse to agglomeration in the morning (6-12 O’clock) and keeps further agglomeration till the afternoon (12-18 O’clock); while encounters dispersion in the evening (18-24 O’clock), though with a relative agglomeration in the night (0-6 O’clock); 4) according to the dynamic changes, activity zones are subdivided into office area, bedroom area, leisure area, nightlife area, and multifunctional area; 5) these activity zones could be generally characterized as hybrid, within a blurred boundary.

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    经济活动空间分布的探究:技术溢出、环境污染与贸易自由化
    何雄浪,张泽义
    地理科学. 2015, 35 (2): 161-167.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2015.02.161
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    新经济地理学第一次在一般均衡的分析框架内说明了经济活动的内生区位选择机理。经济活动的空间分布不仅跟技术溢出、环境污染有关,也跟贸易自由化有关。技术溢出效应跟空间距离有关,随着地区间技术溢出效应的增加,会加强产业的分散力,推动经济空间结构由非对称结构转向对称结构。环境污染必然影响资本生产部门的生产成本,随着地区间环境污染传播效应的增加,会增强产业的集聚力,推动经济空间结构由对称结构向非对称结构演变。贸易自由度的变化可以引起任何形式的产业空间结构稳态,对称结构、中心-外围结构以及部分产业集聚都有存在的可能。虽然经济活动的空间集中的非均衡发展是国家经济发展初期不可逾越的阶段,但是由此产生的区域经济差异会随着经济一体化的深入推进而最终消失。


    New Economic Geography has gained great fame, despite of its short history of more than 20 years. Its core concept is to emphasize the spatial non-continuity and non-monotonic of economic growth, subsequently to explain the regional economic development differences. It is the first approach that New Economic Geography has illustrated the endogenous location choice mechanism of economic activities in a general equilibrium setting. The spatial distribution of economic activities is not only related to technology spillover and environmental pollution, but also related to trade liberalization. Technology spillover effects are associated with space distance. As the increase of technology spillover effects between regions, the industrial dispersion force is enhanced and the economic spatial structure is changed from the asymmetric structure to symmetric structure. Environmental pollution inevitably affects the production cost of capital production department. The increment of environmental pollution spreading effect between regions will strengthen the industrial agglomeration and promote the change of structure from symmetric to asymmetric structure. The change of trade freeness can result in all kinds of stable state of industrial spatial structure that includes full agglomeration and symmetric spreading as well as partial agglomeration. Although the unbalanced development of the spatial concentration of economic activities is an insurmountable stage of the national economic development in the early, but the resulting regional economic differences will eventually disappear with the deepening of economic integration.

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    中国区域综合运输效率的测度及其时空演化
    李涛,曹小曙,杨文越,黄晓燕
    地理科学. 2015, 35 (2): 168-175.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2015.02.168
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    以中国31个省(市、自治区)为研究单元,采用DEA模型对1988-2011年中国省域综合运输效率时空演化特征进行了分析,结果发现:中国省域综合运输效率总体水平较低,呈现出东部高而中西部低的空间格局;从分解效率来看,中国省域综合运输技术效率水平较低,规模效率普遍较高,技术效率是影响综合运输效率时空格局变化的主要因素。3/4省份完成了由规模收益递增阶段向规模收益递减阶段的过渡,运输资源要素的投入冗余阻碍了综合运输效率水平提高,调控和优化现有运输资源结构,提高技术效率成为提高综合运输效率的主要途径。


    This article selects 31 provinces (municipalities and autonomous regions) in China as the study units, and uses the DEA model to analyze the comprehensive transportation efficiency and its temporal evolution characteristics in China over the period of 1988-2011. The results indicate that the integrated transport efficiency is relatively low, and diminishing from the east and west to the central. From the point of view of decomposition efficiency, the integrated transport technical efficiency is relatively low, but the scale efficiency is very high. The spatio-temporal evolution of integrated transport efficiency was determined by scale efficiency. Most provinces have transferred from the stage of increasing return to scale to the stage of decreased return to scale, which means further improvement of integrated transport efficiency will be hampered by too much input of resources. Our findings imply that the development of transport efficiency in the future should be improved by restructuring and optimizing the existing transport resources, especially to the necessity of improving technical efficiency for the improvement of integrated transport efficiency.

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    旅游上市公司时空态势行业差异研究
    柳百萍,刘庆广,韦传慧
    地理科学. 2015, 35 (2): 176-182.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2015.02.176
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    采集旅游上市公司样本资料,研究旅游上市公司空间分布、发展变化的行业差异,样本公司分属住宿餐饮业、商务服务业、公共设施管理业。空间分布特征:① 集聚分布,具有“溯源”性。住宿餐饮业、商务服务业分布指向高级别中心城市,北京、深圳2市最集中。公共设施管理业指向高级别旅游吸引物分布地,省区分布非常分散。② 比较中国旅游企事业单位省市排名,旅游上市公司集聚区与旅游企事业单位集中区错位分布。③ 主营业务投资地区分布受行业特征影响,住宿餐饮业、商务服务业投资异地化,分散化;公共设施管理业投资本地化,集聚化。分析样本公司年份区间数量及行业归属变化,得出结论:① 住宿餐饮业、商务服务业行业变化活跃,时间序列间歇式缓慢发展;② 公共设施管理业行业相对稳定,“井喷”后缓慢延续发展。


    The article collected samples of listed tourism companies with a site in China, to study the industrial differences in spatial distribution and development changes of listed tourism companies. The sample companies belong to three industries respectively, such as accommodation-catering industry, business-services industry and public-facilities management industry. Spatial distribution features include: 1) Aggregated distribution, and the characteristics of “roots”. Distribution of the accommodation-catering industry and the business -services industry points to the high-level center city. Beijing and Shenzhen are the best. Distribution of the public-facilities management industry points to the high-level tourist attractions. Its distribution is very fragmented inter-province. 2) Comparing the ranking of tourism enterprise and institutions inter-province in China. There are dislocation distribution between concentrated areas of listed tourism companies and tourism enterprises clusters. 3) Investment distribution of main business is affected by industry characteristics. Investment of the accommodation-catering industry and the business-services industry is in other places and scattered. On the contrary, investment of the public-facilities management industry is localization and concentration. Analyzing changes of sample companies number and industry attributes, the artide draws some conclusions: 1) Industry attribution change easily in the accommodation-catering industry and the business-services industry. Industry development is slow and discontinuity on the time series. 2) Industry attribution is stable in the public-facilities management industry, and their industry development turns to be slow after “the sudden increase”.

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    滨水区工业遗产保护与城市记忆延续研究——以杭州运河拱宸桥西工业遗产为例
    张环宙,沈旭炜,吴茂英
    地理科学. 2015, 35 (2): 183-189.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2015.02.183
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    工业遗产是社会工业文化的重要表征,承载着城市近现代化发展过程中的文化历史景观和记忆,为城市保留和建构了社会公共记忆的空间与素材。产业结构的转型和文脉保护意识的觉醒,使得滨水区遗存和集聚的码头、仓库、工厂成为近现代工业遗产。以杭州运河拱宸桥西工业遗产的博物馆化发展模式为案例,重点解析和梳理了滨水区工业遗产通过形态保护全面化、功能定位平民化、遗产展示活态化、运作机制创新化和展陈手法数字化等措施,有效延续城市记忆。最后,将杭州运河工业遗产的城市记忆延续归纳为“双层模式”,并访谈了多利益主体对其的评价,以期为未来类似研究提供一个比较参考。


    Industrial heritage is critical representation of the industrial civilization. It carries the memory of the modernization process of the city, and provides precious foundations for city renewal and brand building. The transform of industrial structure and the rising awareness of heritage protection make the waterfront docks, garages, and old factories become important industrial heritages. Based on a review of industrial heritage and the spirit of the city, this study uses the industrial heritage area on the west side of Gongchen Bridge, Hangzhou, which adopts the museum approach and builtds Hangzhou Arts and Crafts Museums, as a case study. It firstly examines the development model and initiatives undertaken by the management team, including the holistic protection model, positioning on the mass audience, live presentation approach, initiative management, and adopting of digital techniques. This study suggests a dual-layer model, including a basic element layer and a supporting element layer, referring to industrial heritage protection and prolonging the spirit of the city in this case. Through in-depth interviews from a view of a city wanderer, this study further assesses different stakeholders’ attitudes towards the museums’ practice in protecting and transferring the industrial heritages. In this case, the adaptive reuse of industrial heritage takes a comprehensive form which integrates partial functions of traditional museum, creativity industry park and leisure tourism place together instead of a single so-called reuse model. Hangzhou Arts and Crafts Museums own its unique lead, innovation and brand, which is bound up with external factors including Hangzhou’s urban renewal concept, leisure tourism environment, cultural industries cultivation, internationalization, etc., and internal factors brought by the Grand Canal (Hangzhou Section) Comprehensive Protection Project. Therefore, empirical model related to this case could be only provided as a reference and comparison, and more effective ways would be found if combined with the trend of urban organic renewal, heritage authenticity protection, industrial chain extension, and human emotional appeal.

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    东北地区城市民生质量测度与空间分析
    王哲野,程叶青,马靖,叶信岳,魏也华
    地理科学. 2015, 35 (2): 190-195.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2015.02.190
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    民生问题是当今中国政府和民众高度关注的热点问题,也是全面建成小康社会进程中需要迫切解决的关键科学问题。借鉴当代中国人的价值观结构,构建了民生质量评估指标体系,定量测度了东北地区34个地级市的民生质量指数,并采用ESDA和多元线性回归模型探讨其空间分异特征及其影响因素。研究结果表明:① 东北地区城市民生质量呈等级分布特征,且“两极分化”明显。② 经济实力、产业结构、城市化和地理邻近性对民生质量空间分异有重要影响。


    The problem of people's quality of life (QOL) is the focus of today′s society and Chinese government, which needs to be tackled during the process of completing the establishment of a moderately prosperous society in all respects. In this article, we first review the existing QOL-related literature appeared in many areas such as sociology, philosophy and geography, and then we make 34 municipal districts of the prefecture-level cities in northeast China as our study object and build a comprehensive index system to measure the QOL index based on the structure of contemporary Chinese values. Finally, we adopt exploratory spatial data analysis and multivariable linear regression model to analyze the spatial variation and its driving factors of urban QOL in northeast China. The results are shown as follows. First, the urban QOL presents a hierarchical spatial structure; residents in cities located in the medium-south part of Liaoning province tend to have higher quality of life compared with other cities in Northeast China, and the residents′ QOL in cities of north Heilongjiang province are more likely to be low. Second, the “Polarization” of the urban QOL is obvious, the “hotspot” areas distribute to the middle part of the Songnen Plain as an intersectional shape of the direction of “North-south” and “West-east”, while the “coldspot” areas concentrate in the eastern and northern cities of Heilongjiang Province. Third, the results of multivariable linear regression indicate that economic capacity, industrial structure, urbanization and geographical proximity are key influencing factors of the spatial variation features, of which, economic capacity has deciding impact on the urban QOL in northeast China, the spatial pattern of the QOL is high anastomose to that of GDP per capita, that is, the more developed economy, the higher QOL. Since the “reform and opening up”, the fast transition of society and economy improves greatly the residents` income in China, however, the development model of emphasizing excessively economic growth has brought about series issues such as unfair allocation, differential rich and poor, degraded environment and bereaved happiness. As one of the most typical old industrial bases, the issues of the QOL is much more serious and urgent than that of other region in China, therefore, the local government should impel vigorously the reform of social security, education, reside and medical treatment so as to improve the rural QOL and reduce the regional gap .

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    论文
    合肥主城区住宅剖面线型地价的比较与成因分析
    包善驹, 陆林
    地理科学. 2015, 35 (2): 197-203.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2015.02.197
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    采用GIS空间分析技术绘制合肥市2007年和2011年住宅修正地价等值线图,并依据合肥市圈层放射形的空间结构形态选取5 条核心放射的剖切线.基于剖切线比较分析2007 年和2011 年的剖面线型地价的特征.结果表明:不同年份地价从中心往外围整体呈现衰减趋势,2011 年城市各方向剖面地价从中心往外围出现了一系列明显的凸形地价阶地.比较明显的区域包括合肥市一环路与二环路附近.大蜀山和天鹅湖区域以及滨湖新区区域.针对凸形地价阶地出现的中观区位进行系统分析发现城市主导方展方向和重点发展区域、城市新兴功能组团、城市整体道路交通布局下新的交通节点、城市新的游憩综合区是形成凸形地价阶地的主要成因.


    Residential modified land price isoline map of Hefei city in year 2007 and year 2011 is obtained by GIS spatial analysis technology in this paper. Five core radiant slitting lines are selected by radial circle spatial structure of Hefei and comparative analysis of the section line type land price characteristics has been made between year 2007 and year 2011 based on them. The analysis showed that the land price present attenuation trend from center to periphery in different year, city land price of each direction profile appeared a series significant convex land price terrace from center to periphery in year 2011, in which the obvious area includes city one loop and two loop nearby, the Dashushan area, Swan Lake area and Binhu new district area. System analysis is made on medium location appeared in convex land price terrace and fined that city leading development direction and key developing areas, city emerging functional groups, the new traffic node under the new layout of the whole city and fresh recreation area are main causes of formation of the convex land price terrace.

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    长沙市农村居民点景观格局变化及地域分异特征研究
    谭雪兰, 周国华, 朱苏晖, 欧聪
    地理科学. 2015, 35 (2): 204-210.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2015.02.204
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    以1989年、1999年和2009年3期Landsat TM影像及2005年的土地利用现状图为数据源,结合野外实地调查,应用GIS 空间分析、重心迁移定量模型和景观生态学方法,对长沙市1989~2009 年农村居民点的用地面积、规模、空间分布、形状的动态变化过程及地域分异特征进行了研究.研究结果表明: ① 20 a 来农村居民点总面积及斑块平均规模不断扩大,农村居民点空间分布日趋集中和密集,斑块形状不断向完整与规则转变;② 农村居民点空间布局地域分异特征明显,在平均斑块面积、斑块密度等指标方面平原区、丘岗区与山区之间存在着显著差异;③ 20 a来,长沙市农村居民点的空间分布重心由西向东迁移,迁移距离为6.62 km.


    In recent years, land supply and demand contradiction is increasingly outstanding in China. The landbase of rural residential area is experiencing a reverse development trend of "population decrease but land increase". The main reason is that rural residential area has been in a disordered development state with a chaotic layout for a long time in last years. So it is important to grasp the spatial pattern changes rule of rural residential area during rural residential land development planning. Based on the thematic maps of Land-use map in 2005 and TM images of 1989,1999 and 2009,and by integrating field survey and the method of GIS statistical software,offset of center gravity model and landscape ecology, the landscape pattern of rural residential area in Changsha from 1989 to 2009 is analyzed. In the recent 20 years,the class area(CA) of residential area in Changsha increase constantly, and the net increase is 2.52×104hm2. The number of patches(NP)increases from 197 867 to 206 289,the largest patch index(LPI) increase from 0.001 in 1989 to 0.004 in 2009.Furthermore,the mean patch size (MPS) increase from 0.425 to 0.531, the patch density (PD) take on an increase trend, which was 0.167/km2 in 1989 while 0.174/km2 in 2009.The face margin ratio(AP) increase from 1.546 to 1.676, while fractal dimension(D) reduce from 1.679 to 1.672. The study finds that the landscape pattern of rural residential area has changed a lot from 1989 to 2009, the scale, number and acreage of the rural residential area increased, the landscape distribution of rural residential area is centralized and densified, and the landscape shape of rural residential area has obvious change with an anomalistic developing state existed. The characteristics of spatio-temporal differentiation of rural residential area are obvious, the scale, number, density and acreage of rural residential area in plain area are better than that of hilly and mountainous area. The center of Gravity of rural residential area offset 6.62 km from west to east in Changsha from 1989 to 2009. The quantitative analysis of landscape ecology can explain well the landscape pattern of rural residential area and provide useful information for studies of the small town construction, and for land trim and land intensive use.

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    基于小波多尺度变换的渭河水沙演变规律研究
    刘晓琼, 刘彦随, 李同昇, 孟欢欢, 于正松, 芮旸
    地理科学. 2015, 35 (2): 211-217.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2015.02.211
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    关中平原地区是推动陕西省经济社会发展的引擎,其生产总值占陕西省的70%以上,但是水资源短缺、时空分布不均、河流含沙量高等问题严重制约其经济社会的发展.运用小波变换、滑动t检验、累积距平以及Yamamoto、Mann-Kendall 等方法系统分析了1935~2011 年渭河水沙序列演变规律.研究结果显示:77 a 间除20世纪70 年代、80 年代外,其它年代渭河华县站水沙变化波动下降的匹配趋势均一致,其中径流量减流速度大于输沙量减沙速度;渭河水沙序列周期变化不一,径流量变化的主周期依次为38 a、14 a、4 a,输沙量变化的主周期依次为15 a、49 a、43 a、4 a;除输沙量49 a 变化周期外,其他水沙变化周期大致相近;由于渭河输沙量变化所受气候及人类活动的影响远较径流量复杂,加之水沙异源,所以渭河华县站输沙量周期变化及突变点分布情况比径流量变化复杂,且其第一主周期变化呈现独特的变化态势.


    Guanzhong Plain is the economic engine of Shaanxi Province, which contributed 70% GDP to Shaanxi Province, and however problems such as lower water resources per capita, uneven distribution, higher river sediment concentration restrict its economic and social development. In order to reveal the evolution law of multi-scale the runoff and sediment discharge of the Weihe River,to offer provide theoretical basis for comprehensive utilization of water resources, water and soil erosion for guanzhong area, the Weihe River Basin, and the Yellow River Basin. In this article, Morlet complex wavelet function was used to transform the sequence of runoff and sediment discharge of Huaxian country station during 1935-2011, and combined with the analysis of measured values of the runoffand sediment discharge, to know well periodic variation and catastrophe point of the runoff and sediment discharge of the Weihe River, the methods of moving t test, accumulative anomaly and Yamamoto was applied to detect catastrophe point. The findings of research indicate that the change of runoff and sediment discharge of the Weihe River have the fluctuating descending tendency from 1935 to 2011, there are multi-time scales periodic variation of the runoff and sediment discharge of the Weihe River, the main cycles of runoff are 38 a,14 a and 4 a, apart from the 49 a cycle of sediment discharge, other main cycles are similar apporximately, while the main cycles of sediment discharge are 15 a,49 a,43 a and 4 a; catastrophe points of the runoff and sediment discharge in small-scale are much more than big-scale's, the amount and situation of catastrophe points of the runoff and sediment discharge in different scale are different; Because of climate and mankind activity the change of sediment discharge more complex than runoff, in addition to the sources of sediment and water are different, so the periodic variation and catastrophe points of sediment more complex than runoff, and the first main cycles of sediment discharge has unique change trend .

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    黄河三角洲滨海地区植物生长季大气氮沉降动态
    宁凯, 于君宝, 屈凡柱, 王光美, 管博
    地理科学. 2015, 35 (2): 218-223.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2015.02.218
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    利用SCJ-302型降水降尘自动采样器在植物生长季对黄河三角洲滨海湿地的大气氮沉降进行监测,对沉降物中水溶性离子、干、湿沉降氮输入量、铵态氮和硝态氮在总沉降量中的贡献率及月变化动态等分析表明:黄河三角洲植物生长季,大气干、湿沉降中SO42-和NO3-占阴离子总量的92%以上,和Na+和Ca2+占阳离子总量的80%以上,总N沉降量约为2 264.24 mg/m2,且69%集中在降雨量较丰沛的6~8 月.其中干沉降氮贡献率约为32.02%,主要集中在春季.N的湿沉降量与降雨量呈显著正线性相关(R2=0.82),在降雨量丰沛的8 月,达到最大值675.64 mg/m2.该地区大气干沉降的氮素形态以硝态氮为主,约占氮素输入量的57.21%,湿沉降中以铵态氮为主,约占氮素输入量的56.51%.植物生长季中,大气沉降中的硝态氮与铵态氮含量对表层10 cm土壤的月平均贡献率分别为约31.38%和20.50%,可见大气氮沉降是黄河三角洲滨海区域土壤主要氮素来源之一.


    Wet and dry atmospheric depositions were monitored in plant growing season in coastal wetland of Yellow River Delta using SCJ-302 model automatic sampling equipment. The water-soluble ions, wet and dry atmospheric N depositions, monthly variation and the proportion of NH4+-N and NO3--N in total nitrogen deposition were analyzed. The results showed that SO42-and NO3- accounted for more than 92% of the anion numbers, Na+ and Ca2+ accounted for more than 80% of the cation numbers, respectively, in wet and dry atmospheric depositions in growing season in the Yellow River Delta. The total atmospheric nitrogen deposition was about 2 264.24 mg/m2, and 69% of it occurred from June to August in which the precipitation was abundant. In the total atmospheric nitrogen deposition, dry atmospheric nitrogen deposition accounted for about 32.02%, and it was high in spring. The significant positive relationship between wet nitrogen deposition and precipitation was observed in the study (R2=0.82). The wet atmospheric nitrogen deposition reached peak value in August (675.64 mg/m2). In the studied area, the predominant nitrogen in dry atmospheric deposition was NO3--N with about 57.21% of total dry atmospheric nitrogen deposition, while the predominant nitrogen in wet atmospheric deposition was NH4+-N with about 56.51% of total wet atmospheric nitrogen deposition. In plant growing season, the average monthly attribution rate of atmospheric deposition of NO3--N and NH4+-N were about 31.38% and 20.50% for the contents of NO3--N and NH4+-N in 10 cm soil layer, respectively. Therefore, the atmospheric nitrogen was one of main sources for soil nitrogen in coastal zone of Yellow River Delta.

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    夏季鄂海阻高活动天数的年际变化及其前期征兆分析
    杨旭, 刘刚, 廉毅, 尚博
    地理科学. 2015, 35 (2): 224-230.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2015.02.224
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    利用1951~2009年NCEP/NCAR高度场月平均资料、全球海表温度月平均资料、国家气候中心提供的东北地区24 站逐月温度资料、鄂霍次克海阻塞高压(东阻)活动天数等数据,采用相关和奇异值分解分析(SVD)方法,分析夏季(6~8 月)东阻活动天数的年际变化及其前期征兆,结果表明:夏季东阻活动天数年际变化阶段性明显,21 世纪以来不仅处于强盛后期明显下降趋势阶段,而且年际变率显著增大;夏季东阻活动天数与中国东北地区中部及东部的温度呈显著负相关;春季至夏季赤道东太平洋(NINO3 区)SSTA(特别是1977~2009 年)呈ElNiño 位相是夏季东阻活动的最重要强迫源,当赤道东太平洋为El Niño 状态,以及阿拉伯海与北太平洋西风漂流区为暖海温时,夏季东阻活动天数偏多;与夏季同期大西洋海温的SVD1 模态表明,当大西洋海温SSTA整体上处于冷(暖)位相分布时,东阻活动天数偏少(多);夏季东阻活动天数与春季NPO和极涡面积指数相关存在着的年代际变化特征,1951~1976 年,夏季东阻活动天数仅与春季北半球极涡面积指数、亚洲极涡面积指数呈显著正相关,1977~2009 年,不仅与春季极涡面积指数呈正相关信号消失,而且,1951~2009 年与春季NPO指数呈显著的正相关信号,在此期间也迅速减弱消失.


    The averaged monthly reanalysis data, including height data(HGT) and global sea surface temperature (SST) from 1951 to 2009 from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction-National Center for Atmospheric Research (NECP-NCAR), the averaged monthly temperature data of 24 stations in Northeast China provided by the National Climate Center, and the data of activity days of Okhotsk blocking highs are used to investigate the decadal variation and the early sign of the Okhotsk blocking highs' activity days, by using the method of correlation analysis and the Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) methods. The results show that the summer's Okhotsk blocking highs' activity days have a interannual variability of distinct stage. Since twenty-first century Okhotsk blocking highs' activity days were significantly decreased during the late strong stage with an increasing interannual variability. There is a significant negative correlation between the Okhotsk blocking highs' activity days and the temperature in middle and east of Northeast China in summer. From spring to summer,the SSTA (especially in 1977-2009) in El Niño phase is the most important source of Summer Okhotsk blocking highs' activity forced in the eastern equatorial Pacific (NINO3). When the eastern equatorial Pacific is in the El Niño state, and the SSTA is warmer in the area of Arabia sea and the west wind drift in North Pacific, there will be more Summer Okhotsk blocking highs' activities. The first mode of SVD indicates that,when the Atlantic SSTA on the whole is in the cold (warm) phase,the Okhotsk blocking highs' activity days are shorter (longer). The correlation between the Okhotsk High activity days and spring NPO and polar vortex area index has an interdecadal variation feature. During 1951-1976, the Summer Okhotsk High activity days only reveals a significant positive correlation with the spring the northern hemisphere polar vortex and the Asia polar vortex area index. The signal of positive correlation with spring polar vortex area index disappears from 1977 to 2009, moreover, the signal of the positive correlation with the spring NPO index declines rapidly in 1951-2009.

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    泾河流域上游景观尺度植被类型对水文过程的影响
    张淑兰, 张海军, 王彦辉, 于澎涛, 徐丽宏, 熊伟
    地理科学. 2015, 35 (2): 231-237.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2015.02.231
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    选择具有土石山区的泾河流域上游为研究对象,应用生态水文模型SWIM对上游景观尺度下各植被类型水文效应进行了模拟,并针对上游土石山区和黄土区分海拔段进行了植被分布的水文格局影响分析.结果表明:泾河流域上游的森林、农田、草地各植被类型的蒸散及组分、径流深和土壤深层渗漏各水文过程具有显著差异,不同区域(土石山区和黄土区)的同一植被类型的各水文过程明显不同;同时,植被景观格局存在区域和海拔差异,这使得不同区域和海拔段的各水文过程有所不同.如在土石山区,以森林为主的海拔段2 250~2 922 m降水量和蒸散量均最大(分别为641 mm和484 mm),以农田、草地和森林均有分布的海拔段1 750~2 250 m降水量较大(590 mm),但蒸散量最低(仅为434 mm);而在较为干旱的黄土区(降水量为514 mm)以农田和草地为主两个海拔段(1 026~1 350 m和1 350~1 750 m)的蒸散量较高(分别为458 mm和440 mm).另外,从各水文过程要素与降水的比值看,两个区域之间差异比较明显,但同一区域不同海拔段间差异不明显.


    Profoundly understanding the influence of vegetation types and their distribution pattern on the hydrological processes is of great significance for water resources management and vegetation reasonable recovery in a large basin scale. In this study, the upper reaches of Jinghe Basin with stony mountain area was selected as the research area, and the dynamic process-based eco-hydrological model (SWIM) was used to simulate hydrological effect of different vegetation types at landscape scale, the impact of the vegetation distribution on hydrological pattern was further analyzed by distinguishing elevation in view of stony mountain area and loess area. Results showed that hydrological effects including evapotranspiration and its components, water yield and deep soil percolation among forest, farmland and grassland had significant difference, and the same vegetation type in different regions (stony mountain area and loess area) had obviously different effects on hydrological process. Because of the area and elevation difference of vegetation landscape pattern, the hydrological process in different areas and elevation sections had difference. For example, in stony mountain area, the precipitation and evapotranspiration in elevation section of 2 250-2 922 m dominated by forest was largest to 641 mm and 484 mm respectively, while the precipitation in elevation section of 1 750-2 250 m with farmland, grassland and forest scattered around was larger to 590 mm, but the evapotranspiration was lowest to 434 mm; in arid loess area with precipitation of 514 mm, the evapotranspiration in two elevation sections of 1 026-1 350 m and 1 350-1 750 m with farmland and grassland were 458 mm and 440 mm respectively. In addition, the difference of the ratios between hydrological process elements and precipitation in both areas was more significant, but is not obvious for different elevation sections in the same area.

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    1971~2010年若尔盖湿地潜在蒸散量及地表湿润度的变化趋势
    王建兵, 王素萍, 汪治桂
    地理科学. 2015, 35 (2): 245-250.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2015.02.245
    摘要   HTML   PDF (462KB)

    利用若尔盖、红原、玛曲3个气象站1971~2010年的地面气象观测资料,根据Penman-Monteith模型计算了若尔盖湿地的潜在蒸散量,发现若尔盖湿地年潜在蒸散量呈明显上升的趋势,上升趋势为9.1 mm/10a;若尔盖湿地潜在蒸散量在2001 年出现了增大突变,2001~2010 年平均潜在蒸散量比1971~2000 年上升了28.6 mm;各季节潜在蒸散量均呈上升趋势,其中以秋季上升最明显,上升趋势为4.3 mm/10a.导致若尔盖湿地潜在蒸散量上升的主要气象因子是温度上升、相对湿度下降和降水量的减少,虽然日照时数减少和风速减小有利于潜在蒸散量的下降,但由于气温上升的趋势更明显,影响更大,所以若尔盖湿地潜在蒸散量呈明显的上升趋势.近40 a 若尔盖湿地地表湿润度以-0.03/10a 的趋势减小,其中2001~2010 年比1981~1990 年下降了0.11,下降十分明显;与此同时,年平均气温以0.41℃/10a 的趋势上升,降水量以-13.5 mm/10a 的趋势减少,虽然若尔盖湿地仍属于湿润区,但出现了明显的暖干化趋势.


    The meteorological data of the Zoige, Hongyuan and Maqu weather observation stations were used, the potential evapotranspiration was computed by using Penman-Monteith model. The results indicated that the potential evapotranspiration variation in the Zoige wetland shows an obvious increasing tendency with the tendency ratio of 9.1 mm/10a,An abrupt change of the potential evapotranspiration was detected in the 2001, the mean potential evapotranspiration during 2001-2010 has increased by 28.6 mm compared with that of 1971-2000. The autumn potential evapotranspiration increased with the tendency ratio of 4.3mm/10a,its more higher than the other seasons. The annual potential evapotranspiration's minimum period is 1980s, it obviously increased from 1990s, the variety of seasonal potential evapotranspiration in spring, summer and autumn is very similar to that of annual. The winter potential evapotranspiration minimum period is 1990s, it obviously increased in the 21st.The cycle change is 7-8 a during 1970s and 1980s, from the end of 1980s to the end of 1990s, it is an obviously adjusted period, the cycle change is 5a from the beginning of 21st. The temperature rising, relative humidity and precipitation decreasing are the major contributors to the potential evapotranspiration increased. Although the decreasing of the sunshine duration and mean wind velocity is help to the potential evapotranspiration decreased, but the temperature rising plays a more important role to the potential evapotranspiration increased. The decreasing tendency of soil surface humidity index is -0.03/10a,the soil surface humidity index has decreased 0.11 during 2001-2010 compared with that of 1981-1990. meanwhile, the increasing tendency of the mean temperature is 0.41℃/10a, the decreasing tendency of the precipitation is -13.5 mm/10a, the climate change of the Zoige wetland shows an obviously warm-drying tendency .

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    东北区夏季低温事件概率空间分布与亚洲阻塞流型域及其冷空气活动路径
    苏丽欣, 廉毅, 李尚锋, 沈柏竹, 陈长胜
    地理科学. 2015, 35 (2): 251-258.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2015.02.251
    摘要   HTML   PDF (2128KB)

    采用国家气候中心的全国160个和东北88个测站1960~2010年的逐月观测资料、美国NCEP/NCAR的再分析资料,对东北区夏季低温事件概率的空间分布与冷空气活动路径及其环流特征进行了分析,结果表明:东北区测站严重冷夏A事件≥20%概率区主要分布在黑龙江省的大部和吉林省的中东部,概率大值轴呈东北-西南向分布;东北区测站冷夏B事件≥20%概率区主要分布在东北区的中西部和长白山东部区,概率大值轴呈西北-东南向分布;5 个A事件典型年的500 hPa 亚洲地区呈现乌拉尔山与鄂霍次克海阻高,与东北区均为负距平区构成双阻塞偶极子流型,偏东和偏北区域为温度场负距平极值中心;5 个B事件典型年则巴尔喀什湖和贝加尔湖为正异常区,东北亚至北太平洋阿留申群岛附近上空为负距平区,构成亚洲地区东西向偶极子阻塞流型,温度场负距平分布为偏西北-东南走向;选择850 hPa 的假相当位温θse 的316 K候平均等值线的变化,反映来源于极地或超极地的冷空气活动路径的时空范围,其A和B事件典型年冷空气活动路径均分别与与东北区A、B事件大概率区的主要轴向分布是吻合的.


    Using National Climate Center monthly observations data at 160 stations in the national and 88 stations in Northeast China from 1960 to 2010 and the NCEP/NCAR monthly reanalysis data, the spatial distribution of summer cool events over Northeast China and Asian blocking regime and cold air path have been analyzed. The results show that more than 20% probability of the serious cold summer ("A" events) in Northeast China stations are mainly distributed in most area of Heilongjiang province and the Middle East northeast area of Jilin Province. The probability value axis is in a northeast southwest direction. More than 20% probability of cold summer ("B" events) in Northeast China stations are mainly distributed in the northeast area of the Midwest and Eastern Changbai Mountain region. The probability value axis is in Northwest - southeast distribution. At 500 hpa, the five of "A" events typical years show Ural mountain and the Okhotsk blocking High, and northeast regions are all negative anomaly zone consisting of double block dipole pattern, with negative anomaly center of maximal temperature field over eastern and northern area. The five of "B" events typical years show that Lake Baikal and Lake Balkhash are positive anomaly area, while the negative anomaly zone extends from the Northeast Asia to the Aleutian islands. It constitutes East-West dipole blocking flow pattern, with negative anomaly of temperature field distribution is in Northwest-Southeast direction. The 850 hPa,316 K pentad mean contours are selected to scope the activities of the cold air from the polar route reflection or super polar. The cold air path of "A" and "B" events typical years is consistent with the probability of the axial distribution of "A" and "B" event in Northeast China respectively.

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