Since the urbanization is one of the most typical form of land use or land-cover change, the exploration of driving mechanism for urban growth and the forecast of its change in future plays an important role in the achievement of urban sustainable development. In view of multi-agent system’s great capability of simulating complex spatial system, a spatio-temporal dynamical model of urban growth simulation based on multi-agent system is developed from the view of combining “top-down” and “bottom-up” decision-making behaviors. In this model, “top-down” macro land use planning implemented by macro agents and “bottom-up” micro land use spatial appeal sponsored by micro agents interact with each other via two-dimensional spatial grid and promote urbanization process in study area together by joint decision-making. Taking central Lianyungang City as the example, three target scenarios, based on current trends, economic development priorities and environmental protection priorities, were developed, and the corresponding urban growth scenarios were simulated and analyzed. The simulation results show that combining “top-down” and “bottom-up” multi-agent decision-making behaviors to simulate spatio-temporal dynamical urban growth can give full play to the potential of multi-agent system to understand the driving mechanism of urbanization and provide decision-making support based on scenario analysis for urban management.
以甘肃省为研究对象,从道路网出发,结合甘肃省社会经济因素,以县（区）为单元,运用GIS理论方法计算甘肃省道路网密度,并分析了道路网密度与人口密度、GDP密度之间的相关性,考虑到道路网建设还受资源、产业结构、道路网建设政策及其它运输方式的影响,提出了道路网依赖–偏好指数。在此基础上,分析了甘肃省道路网密度和依赖—偏好指数分布及空间特征。结果表明：① 甘肃省道路网密度以兰州市、嘉峪关市为中心向外衰减,道路网密度整体分布东南比西北高,东南比西北均匀;② 道路网密度与人口、生产总值等社会经济因素相关性很高,受经济发展水平和道路建设政策影响很大;③ 5.75%的县区属于超强依赖或超强偏好型,20.68%的县区属于强依赖或强偏好型,62.7%的县区属于中等依赖或中等偏好型,8.05%的县区属于较弱依赖或较弱偏好型,3.45%的县区属于弱依赖或弱偏好型。以兰州为中心及河西走廊地区的道路网依赖—偏好指数高于东部和南部山区。可为甘肃省道路网与人口、经济协调发展提供基础理论和参考依据。
Taking Gansu Province as an study area, the article employs the technical processes and assessment to calculate the road network density based on the analysis of the social and economic development of Gansu Province using GIS technology. And the relationship of the network density with population and GDP is analyzed, it is found that there exists a stable mathematical relation and a statistics law among them. The study has the following results. 1) The density of road network in Gansu Province is outward decay along the center of Lanzhou and Jiayuguan. The distribution of network density is higher in the southeast than northwest of Gansu, and also more uniform in the southeast than northwest Gansu.2) Road network density and population density, GDP and other socio-economic factors are highly relevant, and it is obviously influenced by the level of economic development and policy construction.3) About 5.75% of county or district are in the super dependence or super favoritism situation, about 20.68% of county or district are in the strong dependence or strong favoritism situation, and 62.7% county or district are in the common dependence or common favoritism situation. Comparatively, about 8.05% of county or district are in the less dependent or weak favoritism, and 3.45% of county or district are in the weak dependent or weak favoritism situation. The dependence-favoritism index in Hexi Corridor region is higher than the eastern and south mountainous area in Gansu. This study can afford a fundamental theory for the harmony development of Gansu road network, population and economy.
Rurality inheritance is a key issue of tourism development of ancient village. Construction model of assessment of rurality inheritance is researched in this paper, the main factors of the assessment model include village house,village culture, village economic, village society and village environment. The rural architectural inheritance appraises the ancient village building monomer (monuments and sites, historic buildings, traditional dwellings), architectural individuality and locality, the materials of the streets and lanes, context and texture, architectural style and historical and the integrity and authenticity of the cultural relics. The rural cultural inheritance appraises the rural lifestyle, villages oral history, religion, folk customs and rural festival or some other inheritance of the local rural culture. The agricultural economics inheritance refers to the inheritance of primary industry’s generalized agricultural economy, generalized production of agro-processing, traditional agricultural trade or some other aspects. The rural social heritage refers to the one of the rural social structure and power relations, including the internal relations of clan relations, neighborhood relations and the relations of rural governance or the other co-existence of the inter relations. The villages’ environmental inheritance refers to the protection of the overall settlement pattern of the ancient villages, surrounding landscape and rural ecological environment or the others. The choice of factors was based on the characters of old villages’ merits and distinctions. Subsequently, the model was used in recognizing the impact of rurality inheritance with rural tourism development,based on a case village, Cuandixia Village, the investigate of experts view about Cuandixian indicates that the development of rural tourism redounded to the keep of village houses, village culture, village society and village environment, but restrained the traditional village economic.
The fundamental purpose of heritage protection is to inherit the spiritual heritage and human civilization. Therefore, heritage authenticity includes the protection of the original material and its cultural connotation and aesthetic meaning of the original truth. While in heritage protection, conservation of heritage destination image authenticity is the historical mission of heritage tourism, which contributes a lot to the heritage perpetuation, to the civilization extension, and to the common development of heritage cause and traveling industry. Therefore, how to disseminate heritage tourism destination images have become the key in the study on heritage tourism destination images. Heritage tourism is a heritage and tourism "cross" product. Conflicts between heritage and tourism values have long existed in heritage tourism, which breeds heritage management challenges and tourism development difficulties. Heritage tourism destination images, an interactive bridge between heritage tourists and heritage destination, have important theoretical and practical values. This article takes Suzhou Gardens (Humble Administrator's Garden and Lion Grove Gardon) as study cases to make a profound study on cultural heritage tourism destination images. It aims at exploring the diffusion process of cultural heritage tourism destination images, perfecting cultural heritage tourism destination image diffusion theories and providing new perceptions in its information dissemination. By taking the three-dimensioned coupling structure of tourist destination images theory as the basis in the full-text and by drawing on the theoretical ideas of modern information dissemination, a bridge is thus laid between the image evaluation and the dissemination of tourism image. The the efficient image dissemination of cultural heritage tourism destination enables the actual users (i.e., tourists or potential tourists) to reach the image information accurately, further to reduce image producing costs and improve tourists traveling experience. This article makes a survey of about 10×104 samples to study the image distribution patterns of the cultural heritage tourist attractions in Jiangsu Province, to explore the two types of cultural heritage tourism image diffusion laws of the case sites, and to advance the heritage tourism destination image circle model and the gravity model. Accordingly, based on the different geographical locations, it divides the overall tourists engaged in cultural heritage tourism destination image dissemination into the external group, the intermediate group, interior group and core group. As a result, through targeted media integration and content integration, it tends to fully bridge up the information gap of the cultural heritage tourism destination images among different tourist groups.
基于GIS技术,运用栅格成本加权距离算法,计算中国1 063个4A级及以上旅游景点的空间可达性,并测算县域单元的整体可达性,利用空间关联方法分析了县域可达性的空间差异。结果表明：中国4A级及以上景点的空间分布总体上呈现出集聚分布的特点,人文景点的聚集程度明显高于自然景点。全国4A级及以上景点的平均可达性时间为60.5 min,63.29 %的景点可达性在120 min以内;所有4A级及以上景点的可达性在全国的分布差异显著,且其空间分布具有明显的交通指向性;人文景点可达性好的区域相对于自然景点更加集中。所有景点、人文景点、自然景点均呈强集聚格局,3种类型可达性热点区域的分布呈现明显的热点-次热点-次冷点-冷点自东向西带状分布的格局。
Transit route system is link between tourist destination and tourist market, so the good transit system will provide an important theoretical support for optimizing the distribution of scenic spots for planning-making. Scenic spot is a very important carrier of tourism activities. The study of the spatial structure of tourism is receiving increasing attention but methodology so far has used qualitative rather than quantitative methods. The criterion of A-grade scenic spot is a tourist ranking classifiable system in China, consisting of almost all the most popular and important tourist destinations in China. Based on an investigation on 1 063 tourist scenic spots with National AAAA grade (4A for short) and using GIS and some quantitative analysis methods, the spatial structure of scenic spots is investigated, with their characteristics and distribution for different strategies being discussed. Based on the matrix raster data, this article calculates the spatial accessibility of all counties in China using cost weighted distance method and ArcGIS as platforms. Then it discusses the spatial differences of county accessibility of scenic spots by ESDA (Exploratory Spatial Data Analysis). The results show that general scenic spots exhibit an aggregated distribution. Considering the accessibility, it can be found that the human scenic spots are more centralized. The average accessibility is about 60.5 min, and the area where the accessibility of scenic spots within 120 min reaches 63.29%, while the area where the accessibility within 30 min accounts for 19.84% and the longest time needs 595 min which is located at central Tibetan Plateau. The values of the average accessibility of natural scenic spots and human scenic spots are 67.7 and 63.01 min, respectively. And then, the distribution of the accessibility coincides with traffic line. At county level, the estimated values of Moran’s I are all positive using the analysis of spatial association. All the test results indicate that scenic spots and adjacent areas show the strong positive correlation. The distribution of hot spots regarding the accessibility shows a obvious zonal distribution pattern of hot spots-sub-hotspots-sub-cold spots-cold spots from east to west, which the hot spots are in the eastern and southern China, Central Liaoning, Chengdu-Chongqing, Kunming-Guiyang and Hainan. Cold spots are distributed in the border zone of Tibet, Xinjiang and Qinghai Province.
以大连市为对象,研究城市化进程中企事业单位分布格局的变化和搬迁特征,分析搬迁单位到城市中心距离的变化与相互间离散程度的变化及搬迁单位运输成本以及员工通勤、业务出行成本的变化和搬迁强度。通过调查,明确员工的住宅选址意愿和通勤出行变化,计算员工可自由支配时间的减少程度,分析员工人居生活质量的下降状况。研究发现：① 搬迁前后单位的分布形态差异很大,搬迁后单位呈稀疏分散格局,搬迁单位的运输成本、员工通勤成本和业务出行成本大幅攀升;② 只有约4%的员工随单位迁至新址附近居住,大部分员工不愿搬家的主要原因是新址的交通不便和教育条件差;③ 单位搬迁前后,员工通勤可达性的变化明显,长距离通勤使得员工平均每天减少近2 h的自由可支配时间,员工的人居生活质量大幅度下降。
Taking the relocated enterprises in Dalian as the object, this article focuses on the spatial distribution of the enterprises and the living qualityof the employees in the context of urbanization. The changes of the spatial distribution of the enterprises before and after the relocation are analyzed firstly, including the distance from the city center and their mutual dispersion degree. Moreover, the relocation intensity and the cost changes of transportation, commuting as well as business trips are calculated based on the main relocation directions. Furthermore, through a questionnaire survey, the willingness of the residential relocation of the employees is analyzed, and the main factors influencing their determination of residential relocation are identified. Finally, the changes of the commuting trips, including the modal split, the expenses, the time, etc. are explored. And then, the reduced free time and the affected living quality of the employees are studied. Main conclusions are as follows. Firstly, the patterns of the spatial distribution are greatly different between the enterprises before and after the relocation. The enterprises are distributed in a sparsely scattered tendency after the relocation. Since the urban space is largely extended, there is a sharp surge in the various costs such as the transportation, the commuting and the business trips. Secondly, only about 4% of the employees move to their new residences near the new locations. The reason for the remaining 96% of the employees not willing to relocate lies in the poor accessibility and the education condition. If the conditions surrounding the new sites meet the requirements, these employees may move to the new sites. Thirdly, the home-work separation of the employees after the relocation deteriorates and the commuting accessibility changes significantly. Nearly two hours of the daily free time has been wasted for the long distance of commuting, and thus the living quality of the employees has been affected seriously.
The urbanization is a complex, multilevel dynamic procedure of social economy domain, and the result of multiple factor act on each other. Different factor show deferent mechanism of action on deferent city's urbanization history stage. Culture is the new view point on the urbanization development research in the new period. Base on the literature review, this paper carry on theory discussing on the motive power and mechanism of the new period urbanization, and analyses the mechanism of action of the culture power on the development of urbanization. This paper concludes the main view point as follows: (1) Culture is the new motive power for the development of urbanization in the culture economy times. (2) As the city development's resource factor, intelligence factor, spirit power, culture develop to be the soft power for the development of the city. Culture promote the city's competitive power by the function of educate, encourage, synergism, and to be the power source for the city development, and to be the new point of growth of the city economy by the conversion of the culture. (3) The culture promotes the process of city extension expansion and speed up urbanization process. The culture promotes the cultural industry and the cultural economic development by the cultural economy and economic culture. The culture promotes population urbanization by improving population and labor force transfer capacity and transfer level. The culture promotes the city' assembling and expansion by the city factors' assembling and cultural facilities' developing. (4) Culture promotes the development of city connotation and promote the quality of urbanization. The culture upgrades the industry and economic development benefits by industry innovation and development ability. The culture promotes population urbanization quality by improving population quality and "citizenization" level. The culture promotes civilization and progress and promotes the modernization of the city by education and enlightenment function .
Based on fused images of both SPOT and TM in 2008 in central Jiangsu Province as the major data sources, the delineation, water, roads, and other spatial information of rural settlements in the research area are achieved via man-machine interactive interpretation. By the spatial analysis and cluster analysis techniques, grids as the cells, the distribution patterns of rural settlements in central Jiangsu are analyzed, and the categories of rural settlements are classified. The results indicate that: (1) The density of rural settlements in the research area is high in the east and west, lower in the center. However, land-use scale in settlements presents an opposite pattern. (2) The rural settlements that have a high complexity in shape and high degree of fragmentation are located in the south of Taizhou area and in Nantong coastal areas. However, the complexity and fragmentation in the south-central region of Yangzhou, north Taizhou, central, west and south Nantong rural settlements are very small. (3) The differentiation characteristic of the mean nearest neighbor distance is that the rural settlements have a longer distance in the middle of research area, which it indicates that the settlement distribution is sparser and more scattered, the distance of the settlements in the south and east is more nearer, and the distribution of settlements is very concentrated. The distance of the mean nearest neighbor water of the settlements in Nantong area is very small in the southeast settlements, large in the west. The distance of the mean nearest neighbor water of the settlements in Yangzhou area is very small in the west, large in the east. The average spatial distribution pattern of the mean nearest neighbor road of the settlements is unapparent. But the average distance of the most settlements from the roads is very small, from which it indicates that it is very convenient for the settlement in the areas to have internal and external contacts. (4) Finally, by means of establishing the measurement index system of the rural settlements, adopting the method of hierarchical cluster, and combining with the patterns of rural settlements, the rural settlements of central Jiangsu province are divided into three types: Lixiahe lake type, bottomlands along Yangtze River and Yellow Sea type, and central Jiangsu plain type. Lixiahe lake type is low-density cluster-like. Bottomlands along Yangtze River and Yellow Sea type can be divided into two sub-types, such as medium-density arc-belt type and high-density stripe type. Central Jiangsu plain can be divided into 3 sub-types, such as low-density mass type, medium-density broad-band type, and high-density point-scattered type.
The rapid urbanization brought a series of land issues, such as the low efficiency of land use; the damage to farmland, farmland security and soil ecological environment. Because of the diseased of the land acquisition compensation system, it resulted in the uneven distribution of benefits, the infringement of farmers’ (herdsmen) rights, along with the widening gap between urban and rural areas, which in turn led to the consolidation of dual structure and affected the balance of the urban and rural. To deepen land reform and promote the integration of urban and rural development, the first and foremost is not the land system reform, but the choice of urbanization path. The theory and practice of urban and rural development is mainly based on the landless population migration of farmers and herdsmen, but it failed fundamentally to solve the "three rural issues". Based on the protection of the geographical cultural structure, ecological structure and not change the conditions of the land original properties, it must comply the national main functional area planning and take the cooperation as the breakthrough. Through the land use spatial layout innovative mechanisms, it will break the land dual structure,and effectively guarantee the farmers to achieve cooperative organizations autonomy,to integrate development of agriculture in the form of new industries, and to enforce rural areas’ new urbanization by the industrial development of intrinsic motivation. Meanwhile, it will construct the new innovative urbanization path, by means of rebuilding the connotation of public administration, reconstruction and repair of soil ecology.
Land surface evapotranspiration is an important process in the energy balance and water cycle between the atmosphere and the land surface. Detailed understanding of the spatial and temporal variations of land surface evapotranspiration is critical for hydrologic cycle study and water resource management, especially in arid and semi-arid area. Satellite remote sensing provides a straightforward and consistent way to observe evapotranspiration over large scales with more spatially detailed information than traditional in-situ observation. In this paper, remote sensing data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the EOS/AQUA satellite and ground meteorological data from July 2002 to September 2009 were employed to estimate the land surface evapotranspiration in Bosten Lake Basin, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. Four remotely-sensed variables (land cover, land surface temperature, normalized difference vegetation index and surface albedo) and three ground measured variables (air temperature, precipitation and wind velocity) were used. First the net radiation, ground heat flux and sensible heat flux were estimated and therefore the latent heat flux could be calculated based on the surface energy balance approach. Then the accumulated daily evapotranspiration was derived by up-scaling the instantaneous latent heat flux under the assumption of constant daytime evaporative fraction. The validation of the estimated evapotranspiration gives a satisfactory accuracy with the mean absolute error of 12.39 mm and the mean relative error of 14.15%. The annual mean land surface evapotranspiration of Bosten Lake Basin exhibits a distinguishable spatial pattern, high in the northwest (higher than 700 mm) and low in the southeast (lower than 150 mm). The Bosten Lake and the small lake wetland exhibit the highest evapotranspiration while the desert around Bosten Lake exhibits obviously lower evapotranspiration than other areas, indicating that the spatial distribution of evaporatranspiration is highly influenced by land cover. The seasonal variation of mean evapotranspiration shows a unimodal pattern, with the evapotranspiration in summer accounts for 48.10% of the whole year. Evapotranspiration is significantly positively correlated with precipitation and air temperature, suggesting that the evapotranspiration in Bosten Lake Basin increases with precipitation and air temperature. Furthermore, the two climate factors show different contributions to evapotranspiration in different seasons. In spring, the precipitation has more impact on evapotranspiration than air temperature; in summer, both precipitation and air temperature have obvious high correlation coefficients with evapotranspiration; in autumn and winter, air temperature has greater effect on evapotranspiration than air temperature. This study shows that satellite remote sensing is an effective approach for estimating spatial land surface evapotranspiration at regional scale with the aid of meteorological data. The spatial and temporal variations of evapotranspiration provides important reference for the water resource management and ecological environment research of the Bosten Lake Basin.
洪泽湖流域近60 a来汛期降水的综合分析表明,汛期降水呈现总体增加的趋势,且未来仍呈增加趋势。汛期降水在2000年出现突变,此后呈现明显增加特征,是2000年来洪涝频繁的主要因素。SPI旱涝等级显示,旱涝以1960 s波动最为显著,而2000 s以来SPI值明显偏高。汛期降水与东亚夏季风（EASM）指数存在6 a左右和准2 a的共振周期。在1960~1972年间的6 a左右共振周期上,EASM越强,降水越少;而在1986~1992年的6 a左右共振周期上,EASM与汛期降水呈较弱正相关。1996~2004年间准2 a左右的共振周期上,EASM与汛期降水呈反相关系。
The methods of anomaly analysis, Mann-Kendall analysis, Rescaled Range Analysis, Standardized Precipitation Index and the wavelet analysis are applied t to detect the characteristics of the precipitation in flood season in the Hongze Lake catchments. Result shows that the precipitation in flood season undergoes an insignificant upward trend in the recent 60 years, and it would continue to be an increasing trend in the near future. Abrupt change of precipitation in flood season occurred in 2000 and it increased greatly in the nearest 10 years which resulted in more flood in 2000s. Result of the Standardized Precipitation Index analysis also confirmed that the 1960s experienced the greatest fluctuations for the precipitation while the 1980s was quite steady and the 2000s had a higher SPI value in general. 1965,1951,1954,1956,1991,2000,2003,2005 and 2007 are the years in which the SPI value is lager than 1.0, which means a flood year. While in 1966,1953,1973,1978,1985,1988,1994,1999 and 2004, the SPI value is smaller than -1.0, which implied a drought year accordingly. Wavelet coherence analysis suggests that a syntonic period of about 2 a and 6 a can be found between East Asia summer monsoon and precipitation in flood season. At period of about 6 a in 1960-1972, it appears to be a stronger monsoon accompanied by less precipitation, but in 1986-1992, it is demonstrated to be a stronger monsoon with more precipitation relatively. The flood year of 1991 and the drought year of 1988 are the typical in phase years. However, at period of about 2 a in 1996-2004, anti-phase between the East Asia summer monsoon and precipitation in flood season resulted in flood year in 2003 and drought year in 1999 and 2004 respectively.
采用风洞模拟手段对地处半湿润区的北京市农田土壤风蚀中的粉尘释放规律进行研究。结果表明,研究区农田粉尘释放强度随风速增大呈指数规律增大,粉尘在风蚀物的含量随风速增大呈指数规律降低。近地表粉尘质量流量随高度增加呈幂函数规律降低,在风蚀物中的含量随高度增加呈线性增大。粉尘粒径随风速增大而变粗,之后达到稳定状态。近地表粉尘粒度组成沿垂直方向的变化可以划分为两段,0~20 cm高度层的双峰态分布和20~60 cm高度层的三峰态分布。随着高度增加,释尘粒度组成变细。
Farmland dust emission law in Beijing area that locates in sub-humid areas is studied in the paper by means of wind-tunnel simulation on the basis of field survey, observation and samples collection. The results show that the intensity of farmland dust emission increases exponentially with wind speed increasing, the dust proportion in wind-erosion particles decreases exponentially with wind speed increasing. Near-surface dust mass flow follows the power function decreasing rule with height increasing. Its proportion in erosion particles increases linearly with height increasing. It has a similar trend of dusts mass flow and its proportion in wind-erosion particles in all layers. So there is a well regularity of dusts movement in near-surface that the dusts mass flow increases exponentially with wind speed increasing and decreases with height increasing, and its proportion in wind-erosion particles decreases exponentially with wind speed increasing and increases linearly with height increasing. The dusts coarsen with wind speed increasing and then reach a steady state. The dust particles become thinner with height increasing. The average particle size decreases linearly with height increasing, which is faster in low wind speed and becomes slower with wind increasing. The change of dust particles composition along the vertical direction in near-surface can be divided into two sections: it presents the bimodal distribution in 0-20cm height layer, and presents the trimodal distribution in 20-60cm height layer.
野外风洞实验表明,砾石床面具有捕沙和过沙的双重功能,砾石床面的输、阻性质是不同覆盖度与风动力耦合的结果。当砾石盖度小于20%时,床面基本以风蚀作用为主 ;当砾石覆盖度在30%~50%时,低风速条件下（<10 m/s）,床面以强烈风积作用为主,高风速条件下（>12 m/s）,床面以强烈风蚀为主,其间[(10~12) m/s]床面趋于蚀积平衡状态;当砾石覆盖度大于60%时,随着风速的增大,床面蚀积量变化不大。研究结果可应用于莫高窟顶沙砾质戈壁的风沙防治,为风沙工程增添新的思路和新技术。
Results of field wind tunnel simulation reveal that gravel beds exist three types of states: aeolian erosion, balance of aeolian erosion and deposition ,aeolian deposition. Under certain wind velocity, there is a type of gravel bed reaching the balance. At this time, sand accumulation is saturated. Processes of aeolian erosion and deposition can be fitted by a polynomial function, which can be used to predict the changing process of sand accumulation of gravel beds with different coverage. Gravel beds have dual function of sand trapping and transporting. Properties of erosion and deposition of gravel beds are the results of the coupling of gravel coverage and the impetus of wind. Gravel beds are mainly eroding when gravel coverage is below 20%; gravel beds are mainly intensively depositing under low wind velocities (<10 m/s), while under high wind speeds (>12 m/s) gravel beds change into eroding intensively. Aeolian erosion and deposition balance approximately between wind velocities with 10-12 m/s. When gravel coverage is larger than 60%, with increasing wind velocity, aeolian erosion and deposition amount of gravel beds changes little. The ratio of gravel space to height (Sp/H) and the airflow property are main factors influencing on erosion/deposition state of gravel beds. When the value of Sp/H ranges from 5 to 3, the airflow of gravel beds is isolated roughness flow, and gravel beds are eroding or intensively eroding. When the value of Sp/H ranges from 3 to 1, the airflow of gravel beds is wake coherence flow, and gravel beds are intensively depositing or intensively eroding. When the value of Sp/H is smaller than 1, the airflow of gravel beds is boating flow. Because of the wind-blocking effect the gravel beds are depositing, balance between depositing and eroding or eroding. These results can be applied to the wind-blown sand control projects at the top of Mogao Grottoes. The artificial gravel surface with a coverage of 30% is ideal both in sand trapping and depositing, thereby decreasing sand damages on the murals at utmost, which offers some new thought and techniques to the wind-blown sand control project.
利用1960~2009年的日平均气温资料,采用线性趋势、Morlet小波分析、Mann-Kendall法对祁连山及河西走廊极端气温的季节变化特征进行了分析。结果表明：各季节极端高温天气呈显著增多趋势,极端低温天气呈显著减少趋势;各季节极端气温天气的变化周期略有不同,春、夏、秋、冬季极端高温天气的主周期分别为8、14、16、16 a,极端低温天气的主周期分别为14、16、14、6 a;春、夏、秋、冬季极端高温天气分别在2002、1997、1994、1986年突变增多,极端低温天气分别在2002、1997、1987、1986年突变减少,秋、冬季极端气温天气对全球气候变暖的响应比春、夏季早。
Based on daily temperature data of 18 meteorological stations in Qilian Mountains and Hexi Corridor from 1960 to 2009, the seasonal characteristics of extreme temperature change were analyzed by methods of linear trend, Morlet wavelet and Mann-Kendall. The results indicate that extreme high temperature days in each season are on the rise significantly, especially increased with larger scales after the middle of 1980s. But that is contrary to extreme low temperature days, which decreased with larger scales after the middle of 1980s in spring and summer, and decreased after the middle and later of 1960s in autumn and winter. The changing scale of extreme temperature days is the largest in winter, and the changes of them are before ten years in winter than in other seasons, which indicated that the significant change of extreme temperature days took place in winter firstly. The cycle changes of extreme temperature days in different seasons are different, but they are grouped in 6-10 a、12-16 a and 18-22 a. The major cycle of extreme high temperature days in spring, summer, autumn and winter are changing respectively with 8 a、14 a、16 a and 16 a, and that of extreme low temperature days are changing respectively with 14 a、16 a、14 a and 6 a. The mutation of extreme high temperature days in spring, summer, autumn and winter increased in 2002、1997、1994、1986, respectively, but that of extreme low temperature days decreased in 2002、1997、1987、1986, respectively. Except autumn, the abrupt changes of extreme high temperature days and extreme low temperature days in other seasons are coincident. The response to global warming of extreme temperature days is earlier in autumn and winter than that in spring and summer. The change of extreme temperature days will bring some effect to the Qilian Mountains and Hexi Corridor. The increase of extreme high temperature days will add pressure of preventing fire for forest and grasslands in Qilian Mountains. The decrease of extreme low temperature days will reduce the occurrence frequency of freeze damage, but it will be contribute to destructive insect to crossing the winter, which will cause the disasters of plant disease and insect pest in forest, grasslands and farmland, and it will be a potential threaten for protection of ecology environment and agriculture production.
以浙江省仙居县为实验样区,通过气温空间分布的地形调节统计模型,使用10个气象站（哨）气温资料和4种不同空间分辨率的DEM（5 m,源于1∶1万数字化地形图;30 m,来源于Aster GDEM v2;90 m,来源于SRTM v4.1;900 m,源于GTOPO30’）模拟不同空间尺度年均气温空间分布,比较其误差大小及随宏观地形（海拔高度）和微观地形（坡度和坡向）的分布差异。结果表明：基于4种不同空间分辨率DEM模拟气温呈较大空间分布差异性;随着DEM空间分辨率减小,误差逐渐增加,空间差异性降低。微观地形因子（坡度和坡向）随空间分辨率的变化产生显著变化,明显影响气温空间分布,不同坡度和坡向间年均气温差最高可达到10~12.5℃,最小仅为1.9~2.6℃。
In mountainous areas, the terrain factors (e.g., elevation, slope, aspect, hillshade) are the main factors that affect the spatial distribution of temperature. Calculating the temperature over rugged terrain is very difficult. In the mountainous regions of complicated landform and great height difference, the observation data of the existing weather stations are far from enough to reflect the spatial distribution of the air temperature. However, in recent twenty years, digital elevation model (DEM) and digital topography analysis of GIS technology provide a better way to research the spatial distribution of temperature in mountainous areas. Previous studies have shown that the accuracy of topographic factors derived from DEM with different resolutions varies greatly due to the scaling effect. Accordingly, the simulation of temperature spatial distribution also is influenced by DEM at different spatial scales. In this paper, Xianju County in Zhejiang Province is selected as the study area.The topography-adjusted statistical model is applied to simulate annual temperature with different resolutions based on temperature data from 10 meteorological stations and different resolutions (5 m, 30 m, 90 m, and 900 m) DEM data derived from 1∶10 000 digital topographic map, Aster GDEM, SRTM 90 m and GTOPO30’, respectively. It is hypothesized that the temperature map with 5 m resolution is relatively accurate and the errors between the other temperature map with different resolutions and 5 m temperature map are compared and analyzed. Moreover, the temperatures with different grid cell sizes differ significantly with topography in macro and micro scale. The topographic and spatial-scaling effects are analyzed on the temperature simulation in Xianju County. The results show that the spatial distribution of the simulated temperature based on different resolution DEM has great different characteristics. The simulated temperature error increases gradually with the decrease of DEM resolution and the spatial heterogeneity decreases. The terrain factors such as slope gradient and aspect in micro topography scale have significant change with DEM resolution and then have great effect on the spatial distribution of temperature. With the decrease of DEM resolution, terrain is smoothing, the mean value of slope decreases, and lapse rate of temperature decreases. The minimum effect of DEM resolution on temperature simulation is in low elevation (elevation < 100 m) area. The error of the simulated temperature is only less than 0.3℃. In the area , the elevation range is from 100 m to 200 m, and the error is about 1.1℃. The temperature error will reach 2.1-2.4℃ in higher elevation (elevation>200 m). It is found that the coarser the resolution is, the smoother the terrain is. Moreover, with the DEM grid size increasing, variation of aspect and slope cause the decrease in the spatial heterogeneity of the simulated temperature. The maximum temperature difference in different slope gradient and aspect may reach 10-12.5℃, while the minimum difference is only about 1.9-2.6℃.
In the article,the samples of road surface soils in Harbin city are divided into different grain size fractions (bulk sample, >63 μm, 30-11 μm and <11 μm ) to measure major elements and carbonate and carbon isotope composition of different grain size fractions respectively. The results show that the variation degree of major elements in different grain size fractions is in sequence of Al<Na<Si<K<Ca, Mg<Fe<Mn<P<Ti, and the variation of Al element is relatively stable. The volume of Fe, Mg, Ca, Mn, Ti and P elements gradually raise with decreasing grain size, while the volume of Si, Na and K is exactly the opposite.The relationship between Al element and grain size is unclear, and Al element is enriched in >63 μm fraction, while the minimum in 63-30 μm fraction. The influence of grain size to chemical weathering index is in sequence of CIA, (Al+Fe+Ti+Mn)/(Mg+Ca+K+Na)<(CaO+K2O+Na2O)/Al2O3<Fe2O3/MgO<K2O/Al2O3<(CaO+MgO+Na2O)/TiO2. The ratio of CIA and (Al+Fe+Ti+Mn)/(Mg+Ca+K+Na) is the best index reflecting the chemical weathering degree, and next is the ratio of (CaO+K2O+Na2O)/Al2O3, Fe2O3/MgO and K2O/Al2O3, and the influence of grain size to (CaO+MgO+Na2O)/TiO2 ratio is larger, resulting in that (CaO+MgO+Na2O)/TiO2 ratio is not a good index indicating chemical weathering degree of sediments. The variation range of carbonate volume in different grain size fractions is larger, and carbonate volume gradually raise with decreasing grain size, showing carbonate volumes are not a good indicator distinguishing dust source region. The variation range of carbon isotope composition in different grain size fractions is less, showing carbonate carbon isotope compositions is a better tracing index indicating eolian dust provenance than carbonate contents, and the relationship between carbon isotope composition and grain size is relatively complicated, but most of samples are shown as “N shape” flexural variation modes, namely, rises, then descends and again rises, with decreasing grain size.
收集中国30个省份的8 978例城市健康青年男性收缩压参考值,应用SPSS 17.0统计分析软件,综合运用相关分析和回归分析的方法,研究其与9项区域地理环境指标的关系。运用多元回归分析、曲线估计和主成分分析估计中国男性青年收缩压指标的正常参考值,得出不同的收缩压预测模型。结果发现,健康青年男性收缩压参考值与中国地理因素间有显著相关关系(F=12.003, P=0.000)。健康青年男性收缩压参考值的预测模型为：YSBP=55.155+0.004 x2+0.712 x3+0.160 x8+0.519 x9。
With the change of global climate and ecological environment, more and more people become more concerned with the relationship between the environment and the SBP reference value. This paper discussed the relationship between the SBP reference value of the health adolescent boys and the geographical factors. 8978 cases of the health adolescent boys were collected in 30provinces of China, and the correlation analysis was used to find the correlation of the geographical factors and the SBP reference value of these young men. The SPSS software was used to get the study of these relationships. In order to get the best result, the regression analysis, the curve analysis and the main factor analysis were chosen. In order to get the best result, we chose the regression analysis, the curve analysis and the main factor analysis altogether. Through the Comparison of the Real value and the Predicted value, we got the three different forecast model through these analysis, and then we chose the best forecast model through the comparison of three different models. The result shows there is significant relationship between the geographical factors and SBP reference value. And the forecast model is: YSBP=55.155+0.004 x2+0.712 x3+0.160 x8+0.519 x9.The spatial distribution of the reference SBP value in different areas of China was abstained also. And in order to reveal the distribution regularity of the normal reference value of young men in China and provide a scientific basis for making a unified standard of the normal SBP reference value. we also get the thematic map of the distribution of the reference value in different areas of china, the distribution condition of the SBP value can be clearly reflected through the map, if any one want to read the SBP reference value of different areas of china, we can read the reference value of the adolescent boy’s SBP reference value through the map. This paper give the scientific foundation for making the SBP value. Through all these analysis, we find that the 9 Geographical Variables are all closely related to the normal SBP reference value of chinese young men.
The problem of aggregation has been always one of the hot and focuses of the region research, and the positioning of aggregation is a prerequisite for continuing in-depth study in aggregation analysis. Aggregation appears a high degree of sensitivity on the scale. When the aggregation was analyzed by using the spatial autocorrelation method, scale choices are often susceptible to subjective judgments of the researchers, and exist the possibility of selection bias. So the spatial weight problem has been controversial. In addition, the aggregation is obviously space-dependent as well as time-dependent since different aggregation takes place within different time and space, which is neglected by the spatial autocorrelation method. Therefore, some scholars have been trying to explore better ways for aggregation analysis. In comparison, the spatial-temporal scan statistic method raised by scholars as Kulldorff shows its superiority. This paper targets at 51 districts and counties within the central and southern regions of Gansu Province, which are densely populated minority areas. Using software Geoda0.9.5 and Clusterseer0.2.3, spatial autocorrelation analysis and space time scan statistical analysis were adopted about 30463 perinatal deaths during 2001 to 2010 according to the report delivered by monitoring points of Ministry of Health. It also gives a detailed comparison between spatial autocorrelation and scanning statistic from the different perspectives of scale choices, scale transforming and space integration, and then tests the analysis results by appealing Sam 4.0. Through theoretical and empirical analysis, it further confirms that spatial-temporal scan statistic method has the significant advantage from the three aspects of scale selection, scale conversion, and spatial-temporal integration,which shows that it is not only effective measure to solve the problem of artificial selection, but also to achieve the scale extrapolation and automatic conversion, and more favorable mix of three-dimensional, dynamic, multi-scale analysis. Therefore, a conclusion is drawn that the space-time scan statistic method is superior than other methods. Specifically, there are three main aspects: 1） Compared to spatial autocorrelation methods and space-time scan statistic method, the adjacency and distance matrix is artificial selection in spatial autocorrelation. The space-time scan statistic method achieves the purpose of scale automatically conversion and avoids the instability. 2) The scale of spatial autocorrelation methods is static, single, and the scale of space-time scan statistic is dynamic, three-dimensional and multi-scale.3) In analyzing the issue of spatial autocorrelation method does not take into account the time factor, while the space-time scan statistic method is not only the full integration of space technology, and achieves good analytical results. By combining the time factor, the range of aggregation can be reduced to a more accurate range. Moreover, space-time scan statistic method can even make a prediction, which can provide a basis for decision-making.
Vegetation coverage can effectively protect soils from erosion by intercepting raindrop impact and retaining runoff. In the loess hilly region of China, vegetation status has been improved since the “Grain for Green” project was launched and as a result, grassland, shrub land, and forestland get greatly increased. Study of the effects of the different restoration stages on runoff and sediment reductions may provide a sound basis for evaluating the environmental effects of vegetation restoration. Natural rainfall is difficult to manipulate and consequently, and soil erosion patterns on slope with different ways of vegetation coverage under natural rainfall condition have not been examined well. Runoff plots integrating different stages of vegetation restoration, including farmland, grassland, shrub land, and forestland were set up on the loess slope of Yangou catchment in Yan’an where the “Grain for Green” project was practiced to examine the runoff and sediment reductions in the different stages of vegetation restoration under natural rainfall condition. The investigation of the accumulative runoff and sediment yields from 2004 to 2008 showed that the runoff and sediment reductions ranked in the order of forestland>shrub land>grassland>farmland. Runoff reduction for forestland was the highest, being only about 10% of runoff from farmland. This implies that farmland was the major sources of soil erosion and sediment. The spatial structure and ground litters on forestland were capable of retaining runoff and thus promoting rainfall infiltration into soil. Sediment yields on grassland, shrub land, and forestland decreased by more than 90% compared with that on farmland in all the years but 2006, in which rainfall was lower. Thus, all the three stages of vegetation restoration had significant sediment reducing effects. On grassland and shrub land, sediment reductions were higher than runoff reductions. Comparison of the runoff and sediment yields on grassland and shrub land before and after vegetation cutting showed that more than 80% of the runoff reductions on grassland and shrub land were attributed to retaining by ground litters on and roots in them. Vegetation removed shrub land had stronger soil anti-erodibility than vegetation removed grassland and sediment yields on the lands increased slightly after vegetation cutting. After vegetation cutting on grassland and shrub land, the remaining roots and ground litters still had considerable soil conserving effects. However, the sediment yields on grassland and shrub land after vegetation cutting increasing indicated that during the initial vegetation succession, the layer near ground surface was still weak in ecological function and needed protecting by closed tendering.