：Since the “Pole-Axis Theory” and related “T shaped” spatial structure strategy for territorial development and economic layout of China were proposed in 1984, the “T shaped” spatial structure strategy has been implemented in 1980s-1990s. As the two most important economic belts, the coastal economic belt and the Changjiang River economic belt constitute a T-shaped in China. The two belts meet at the Changjiang River Delta which is the most economically developed region in China. The Changjiang River economic belt integrate the two most development regions (including the Chengdu and Chongqing Areas and the Wuhan Area)with the costal economic belt. The hinterland of Changjiang River economic belt almost includes half of China, which with rich resources, strong agricultural, economic and technical basis, and has become the world's largest integrated transmission channel with waterway dominated, including railways, highways, pipelines and other components of EHV. Its huge potential for development can not be compared to other economic zone except the coastal economic belt. To strengthen the two economic belts will lay the foundation for sustained development of economic and achieving the goal of total economic output in 2020 doubled compared with 2010. The “Pole-Axis Theory” and related “T shaped” spatial structure strategy for territorial development and economic layout of China (the coastal economic belt and the Changjiang River economic belt as the primary national development axis) have been recognized by many domestic scholars and relevant leadership, and comply with the requirements of territorial development and economic layout rationalization in China. It will be a long-term strategy of taking the coastal economic belt and the Changjiang River economic belt as the primary national development axis in the coming decades.
The traditional economic growth theory considered that the main driving factors of economic growth were material elements such as labor, land, but lacked attention to the innovative elements like talent, technology and so on. While, In the era of the knowledge-based economy, the research on innovative city is booming and a series of theoretical achievement has been produced. Some conceptual systems, such as “National Innovation System”, “Regional Innovation System” had been put forward since the 1980s and deeply explored into the urban research during the subsequent studies, which brought a series of theoretical achievements related to innovative cities. Based on this, this article makes a literature review which focuses on the research of innovative city in recent years. Firstly, the article starts with the innovation theory proposed by Joseph Schumpeter, tracing back the theoretical source. Secondly, it makes a review on the main content of “Innovative City” involving the proposition and connotation, inscape and condition, developing type and pattern and so on, and on this basis, the theoretical evolution process of innovative city has been cleared up. That is the innovative city is an important part of the innovative country, and the city innovation system is a subsystem of the national innovation system. Therefore, the research on the innovative city is a further inheritance and development of national and regional innovation system theory in the level of city space. Then, the article makes introspection on the weak appoints of the present research on innovative city, in which the research on innovative city has fallen into as well as the lack of concern on the exogenous power source for city innovation. Aiming at the above problems, it can be clearly indicated that the further studies on innovative city cannot be limited to the construction of index system and the city rank according to their innovative performance. It should deeply step into the inner city based on those studies, and build an innovative system with a distinctive characteristic together with the most suitable constructional path and scheme by the dynamic analysis of some specific aspects of a city, which can bridge the “innovation” and “city”, such as the spatial environment, industrial structure, cultural connotation, development history and so on. Finally, the article points out the major breakout direction for the research and practice on innovative city in future as follows: the first is the individual road selection to setting up an innovative city, the second is that how to use the international innovative resource effectively to help building an innovative city. The above views not only exert a significant impact on the construction of innovative cities in developing countries and regions, but also is applicative in developed counties and regions.
Against the background of globalization, urbanization, and the relaxation of household registration system, China's large cities have witnessed massive inflows of new migrants since the start of the new millennium. The integration of new migrants into destination cities hinges on their ability to and inclination to settle down in the destination. New migrants' settlement intention has drawn extensive attention from policy-makers and the media, but such topic remains under-researched in China's migration literature. Previous studies on migrants' settlement intention have focused merely on poorly educated rural migrant workers, devoting insufficient attention to the increasing diversification of new migrants' socio-economic status in the Chinese context. Based on a questionnaire survey conducted in six cities, this article aims to investigate patterns and determinants of new migrants' settlement intention in China, with a particular focus on the heterogeneity of migrants. Our descriptive results show that new migrants generally have rather strong intention to settle down in destination cities, and that 58.8% of them intend to live in the destination city permanently. However, their intention to settle down may not be translated into actions due to the lack of capabilities of settling down. Results from logistic regression models indicate that female, well-educated, high-income, established migrants and migrants whose migration destinations are located in the central and western regions and who have local hukou status, abundant local social capital, strong local identities, and high life satisfaction have stronger intention to settle down in the destination city, and that income levels, hukou status, social networks, identities, and places of residence play a dominant role in this regard. We further divided new migrants into 3 cohorts: skilled migrants who have attained a university degree or college diploma, labor migrants with high school education or below, and business migrants who run small business such as restaurants, factories, and workshops and found that determinants of migrants' settlement intention vary across different migrant cohorts. Specifically, business migrants have the strongest intention, followed by skilled migrants and labor migrants. Skilled migrants' intention to stay permanently in the destination city is determined by their social linkages with local residents and their sense of belonging to the destination city, while that of labor migrants is jointly affected by their occupation, property status, social capital, identities, and places of residence. With regard to business migrants, human capital, social capital, household registration status, and places of residence play a dominant role in shaping their settlement intention. Our findings suggest that China's new migrants become increasingly heterogeneous in terms of the settlement intention, and that they integrate into the host urban society through different paths. Therefore, it is necessary for governments at all scales to enact different policies designed for particular migrant cohorts.
利用2001~2010年相关统计数据,探讨中国城市市政公用设施投资建设的区域差异,并采用数据包络分析方法进行投资效率评价。研究表明：① 全国各省区累计投资差异较大,东部省区各分项设施建设投资均远高于中西部省区,但中西部省区投资的平均增速高于东部省区;② 研究时段内绝大部分省区分项设施建设水平都有较大幅度提高,2010年全国范围设施建设水平大致呈现由东部地区向中西部地区递减的格局。③ 设施投资效率区域差异大,在空间分布方面不具有明显的东中西梯度特征。研究认为,应首先着力提高建设效率,并进一步综合考虑投资能力与设施需求,及时调整投资力度,促进设施建设与社会经济发展需求相协调。
Urban municipal public facilities are the important support for accelerating urban modernization, making cities more livable and promoting urban development. It is of great significance to discuss the level of municipal public facilities and the efficiency of investment. Based on statistical data from 2001 to 2010, regional differences of urban municipal public facilities in construction and investment are discussed. Furthermore, using the method of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), the investment efficiency is evaluated. The results show that: 1) there exist large differences in cumulative investment among provinces. The average growth rate of investment in the central and western provinces is above the eastern provinces. The investment on different facilities projects in the eastern province is much higher than the central and western provinces. 2) The level of different public facilities in each province has a substantial increase. In 2010, the nationwide facility levels generally showed a decreasing trend from the eastern regions to the central and western regions. 3) There exist large regional differences in the efficiency of investment and its spatial distribution does not show obvious gradient change among the eastern, central and western regions. It is suggested that first and foremost, construction efficiency should be improved, and then, the level of investment and facilities should be considered together. Finally, according to urban development needs, it is necessary to timely adjust the investment to coordinate the relationship between facility construction and socio-economic development.
运用数据包络分析法（DEA）及Malmquist生产率指数法,选择实际利用外资额、进口总额作为输入指标与GDP、出口总额作为输出指标,测算了中国41个国家级经济技术开发区2001~2010年的综合效率与全要素生产率指数,并对其时空分异特征进行分析。研究结果表明：① 平均综合效率偏低,总体呈“M”型变化趋势;② 综合效率区域差异明显,西部最高,东部次之,中部最低;③ TFP年均增长率为1.025,处于低速增长状态,说明开发区的整体生产效率逐年改善;④ TFP增长率地区分布为东部最高,西部次之,中部最低,综合效率较高的开发区TFP增长率反而较低;⑤ 对GDP增长速度与TFP增长速度双低的开发区进行分类指导与合理整治,以全面提高开发区的可持续发展能力。
Economic and Technological Development Zones are the growth pole of China’s urban economic development. Therefore the study of the development efficiency of these zones is very essential to optimize resource allocations, to promote the transformation and upgrading of Economic and Technological Development Zones and to contribute to a sustainable development. Using the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) and Malmquist index, this article uses the total amount of foreign capital actually utilized and total import volume as input indicators, GDP and the total export volume as output indicators to calculate. the overall efficiency and total-factor productivity (TFP) index of China’s 41 state-level Economic-Technological Development Zones, from 2001 to 2010, are and analyzed their spatio temporal differentiation. The results suggest: 1) the average overall efficiency is generally on the low level, with an “M” trend. 2) Overall-development efficiency has an obvious regional differentiation with the highest in the west, and the lowest in the central regions. 3)The average annual growth rate of TFP is 1.025, which suggests that the overall production efficiency is ameliorating annually with a slow rate. 4) The growth rate of TFP is the highest in the east, and the lowest in central regions. The Zones with higher overall efficiency have relatively lower TFP growth rate. 5) In order to raise the sustainable development capacity of the development zones, we should offer respective guidance and reasonable regulation to zones with both low GDP growth rate and low TFP growth rate. Therefore, in order to strengthen the ability of resource allocation and integrated management, as well as to promote the transformation and upgrading of Economic and Technological Development Zones and sustainable development, we suggest as follows: 1) investment in human capital and innovation platforms should be increased and contributions of technological innovations be augmented to the overall efficiency of these zones, 2) the eastern region should gradually reduce their Economic and Technological Development Zones’ reliance on foreign capital and importation; instead, increase the overall efficiency, and this region should steer towards attracting both foreign and domestic capital and a co-development of export and domestic sales. 3) as for zones with high GDP growth rate and high TFP growth rate, it is necessary to further optimize resource allocations and reasonable utilization, so as to keep a rapid and sustainable development; zones with both low GDP growth rate and low TFP rate should on the other hand strengthen inspections on internal resource allocations and reasonable utilization, find out what the problem is and learn from other more advanced zones, to gradually improve overall management; 4) institutional innovations and innovative mechanisms should be reinforced, theses zones’ management skills to raised achieve all-around improvement in development efficiency; 5) influencing factors of Economic and Technological Development Zones’ development efficiency and unusual samples should be studied in future researches.
利用GIS网络分析技术可真实模拟可达性，实现设施优化布局。以大连市甘井子区兴华街道小学配置为例研究，在借鉴以往研究成果基础上，结合公安部门统计数据，通过实地调研，兼顾流动人口，利用GIS技术构建网络分析数据集，采用最小化阻抗模型和最大化覆盖范围模型比较研究，确定研究区小学配置方案。结论表明，基于最大覆盖范围原则的小学选址更合理。保持区域原有的兴华小学、松江路小学、千山路小学、华中小学和芙蓉小学5 所小学在原区位继续运行，在2 号和45号点位再配置2所小学，较为合理。
Accessibility is truly simulated with the application of GIS network analytic technique to put into reality optimum allocation of infrastructure. Based on lessons drawn from former research findings, given full-scale urban development strategy of Dalian, distribution of primary schools of Xinghua Street in Ganjingzi District of Dalian City is studied as an example. By abstraction of data on residential areas and schools from high-resolution remote sensing images in the year 2012, combined with on-the-spot investigation, research and statistical data from Public Security Bureau, with migrant population taken into account, meanwhile, database of school-age population and school is established. By comparative study of minimum impedance model with some arithmetic application of such influence factors as lag time multiplied by velocity or time (sensu lato) and maximum coverage domain model with appropriate modifications involving the largest number of points in maximum service diameter and some demand points within coverage domain, an allocation schema for primary schools in studied district is identified, which is done in both small and steady stages over a period of time, rather than suddenly. The conclusion demonstrates these main points as follows : 1) The distribution of primary schools is not located well enough for the moment, and it should be improved to a much more advantageous situation with much more professional attention paid to technical analysis. 2) Primary school location based on the principle of maximum coverage is more reasonable, which presents a striking contrast between different ones. 3) It is advised that Xinghua Primary School, Songjianglu Primary School, Qianshanlu Primary School, Huazhong Primary School and Furong Primary School should be located in the original spots. 4) It is relatively reasonable to allocate 2 primary schools in No.2 and No.45 spots.
With the rapid development of information technology, the information from the internet becomes an important way for people to gain social support. The combination of internet and geospatial information not only changes the way people live and work, but provides new approaches for urban studies. This article mainly focuses on the nuclear density analysis and the comprehensive evaluation of spatial pattern of the Catering Industry by the analysis on the comprehensive score and the ranking of the Catering businesses, on the basis that the evaluation system of public praise degree with the data from a website of Dianping.com. The result reveals that 4 classes of the4 public praise degree were found among the Catering businesses in the urban area of Nanjing, which looks like a “pyramid” with large number on the bottom and small number on the top, that indicates the number Catering businesses with lower degree of public praise is largest and that of mid-class Catering businesses is relatively small. In other word, the Catering Industry of Nanjing is now on a low level development. The spatial pattern of the Catering Industry consists of a core (Xinjiekou) and other secondary service centers roughly demonstrates the feature that service quality decreases by circle pattern, and the top-class Catering businesses that develop separately are mainly in the center of urban area. Also, the state of retail trading in the urban commercial district would affect the spatial distribution of traditional and leisure Catering businesses. However, the traditional central place theory is harder to explain the problems of spatial distribution pattern of urban Catering Industry. This study has found an approach that could evaluate the service quality of Catering Industry with the quantitative study on the public praise of Catering Industry with the data from the internet. Moreover, it could provide some advices for the service facilities planning and policy made by the government in order to facilitate the marketing Intelligence of Catering Industry and rational consumption of consumers.
采用ESDA的方法,运用ArcGIS10.0和GeoDa095i软件,选取1980年、1990年、2000年和2010年4个时间断面分析了自改革开放以来内蒙古县域经济空间格局演化的过程。结果表明：① 改革开放以来,内蒙古县域经济空间格局和经济增长空间格局都发生了巨大的变化,其热点区都由蒙东地区跃迁到蒙中和蒙西地区,蒙中&#x0201c;金三角&#x0201d;地区代替蒙东成为内蒙古经济发展的增长极,蒙东地区则变为经济冷点区。② 县域经济空间格局和经济增长空间格局都有明显的空间自相关性,且经济空间格局的空间自相关性越来越大。③ 内蒙古县域经济形成了经济水平相似（热点区、冷点区）的集中连片区,内蒙古东 、中、西部的经济差异越来越大。影响内蒙古县域经济空间格局演化的因素可以可分资源、历史文化、区位等内部基础性因素,以及市场、政策等外部驱动型因素。
Regional economic disparity is a universal phenomenon in regional economic development. To some extent the gap may promote reasonable competition among regions, but if the regional economic difference is too large, it may cause disorder and social unrest. Endowed with a special location, natural resources and ethnic composition, Inner Mongolia&#x02019;s economic development plays a significant role in the socio-economic development and prosperity of the whole region as well as of the country. It has gained tremendous economic development in recent years, the economic growth rate ranked first for 9 consecutive years in China since 2002. However, few studies have been made about Inner Mongolia, especially on the spatial pattern of economic development and growth rate at tiny spatial scales. This article analyzed the regional economic disparities of Inner Mongolia at the county level with panel data from 1980 to 2010 with exploratory spatial data analysis methods, of Moran&#x02019;s I and Getis-Ord G*i, whereby the significance of spatial interactions and geographical location was investigated. With the application of ArcGIS10.0 and GeoDa095i, the spatial patterns of per capita GDP and economic growth rate of counties over the 30 years were analyzed. It was found that: 1) The overall spatial patterns of economic development level and growth speed of Inner Mongolia at the county level have tremendously changed. The hot spots moved from eastern regions to central and western regions. The golden triangle region composed by Hohhot, Baotou, and Ordos has become the economic growth pole of Inner Mongolia. 2) Both the economic development level and the growth rate exhibited significant spatial autocorrelation. While that of the former has become increasingly obvious, that of the latter has increased and then decreased. It revealed that the accumulating of the economic growth rate was slowing down. 3) The development of Inner Mongolia in recent years has fortified the differentiation of three discontinuous economic blocks: the eastern block was less developed, and the western and central blocks became developed. As a result, the regional economic disparities enlarged between the three blocks. The article also analyzed the influencing factors of the evolvement, from perspectives of internal conditions including resources, history and culture, location, and external driving forces such as market and policies.
Major grain-producing counties have made outstanding contributions to ensure Chinese food security, but the economy overall fell behind. The article used the factor analysis method based on the data of 2007 and 2012 to evaluate the economic development of 12 major grain-producing counties in Jilin Province. The results show that spatial pattern of economic development in major grain-producing counties had changed: 1) though the proportion of the developed county was 16.67% in 2012, remaining the same as 2007, that of medium developed county reduces to 25.08%, and that of the less developed county increased to 58.33%. The overall level of major grain-producing counties is backward. 2) Contrast to that in 2007, the economic development of major grain-producing counties improved, but the gaps among the developed, medium developed and less developed counties county were widening. Per Capita GDP of first one was higher 5 555 yuan than the average level in Jilin Province in 2012, but the others were far behind the average. The gap between developed counties and less developed counties of Per Capita GDP increases from 7 455 yuan in 2007 to 9 910 yuan in 2012. 3) The reasons of widening the gap include on the degree of industrialization, agricultural resources endowment, the location factor and the policy factor. Degree of industrialization is the core motivation to intensify the gap between the counties. The difference of the resources endowment is the objective factor to widen the gap between the counties, the location factor is the main factor to add the gap between the counties and the policy factor is an important factor to promote the development of county economy.
As the most distinctive cultural symbols, the art of calligraphy is endowed with a rich cultural connotation. On one hand, it performances the origin function of identification, and on the other hand, it constructs a meaningful world based on collective memory and identity. China and Japan have the similar cultural traditions of calligraphy. Meanwhile, calligraphic landscape is a crucial component of urban cultural landscapes and an important representative for both counties. Calligraphic landscape is a portion of a geographical space that has a specific visual characteristic and a special sense of the place resulting from the lay-out of calligraphy characters as landscape elements. As one kind of calligraphic landscape, shop signs of different tourist districts are taken into the statistic and analysis process. Selecting Liulichang of China and Sensoji Temple of Japan as traditional tourist districts, Wangfujing of China and Shinjuku of Japan as renewal tourist districts, Xinjiekou of China and Ginza District of Japan as modern tourist districts, this article examined the similarities and differences of spatial differentiation of calligraphic landscapes of two countries from multi spatial scales, by employing specific calligraphic landscape index which indicates more traditional calligraphic signs with a higher value and more non-traditional or western signs with a lower value. The findings indicate that for literal, folk and calligraphic traditional discrepancy between China and Japan, some differences derived from calligraphic landscapes exist mainly in the ways of writing forms and normal authenticity of calligraphic landscapes, characteristics of cultural penetration and fusion, and the identity to the artistic and social status of calligraphers. However, the consistence manifests in the ways of spatial differentiation of urban calligraphic landscapes and cultural identity of two countries on the whole. From macroscopic perspective, in the context of globalization, both China and Japan are affected by the westernization, foreign cultural invasion and urban renewal processing, as a result of which, quantities of western characters appear in the shop signs of the modern tourist districts while renewal tourist districts show the similar characteristics. It reflects the broad impact of modern globalization. From meso-perspective, both two countries have the same spatial differentiation characteristics of calligraphic landscapes among different types of tourist districts: the traditional tourist districts have higher calligraphic landscape indices than the renewal tourist districts, and the modern ones have the lowest calligraphic landscape indices. And from microscopic perspective, both two countries have also the same differentiation characteristics of calligraphic landscapes among different formats: the formats with traditional characteristics have higher calligraphic landscape indices than modern ones, which is explained based on the process of symbolization of culture of the merchandise driven by symbolic consumption after the rise of post-modernism. On all the three types of urban tourist districts, many traditional calligraphic signs are preserved as important tourist attractions, which can lead to the conclusion that strong cultural identity still exists in both China and Japan under the influence of globalization.
Economic identity is the mainstream of the current social identity. Cultural identity, based on imagine cultural community, reflects common historical experience and common cultural codes. Place is the eternal subject of human geography. Heritage is a hot debate topic in current society, which retains the "dead world" desire. Cultural identity of heritage provides a way to let people know about personal life experiences and understand more social and cultural changes. Cultural identity of place is characterization of social-culture practice. Taking historic water town of the Changjiang River—Zhouzhuang as a case study, this article choses pluralistic discourse analysis method in the guidance of constructivist paradigm, and analyzes the vulnerability performances of cultural identity in ancient town. The results show that: government, developer, media, expert, tourist immigrant and local residents construct the cultural identity vulnerability in an ancient town. The government is dominant force in the local social and economic development, fulfilling the dual role as decision makers and investors and maintaining culture identity of Zhouzhuang effectively. But traditional culture identity deviates when tourism enters into a mature period in the context of market economy. Developers (especially entrepreneurs) are outstanding creative destroyer, with an important quality of commercialization, which forced culture producers into a form of market competition, and strengthened the process of creative destruction in the field of aesthetic to meet the needs of tourist gaze, deconstructd the core meaning of traditional culture. Most of the heritage tourists in China did not take the initiative to pursue traditional culture, consciousness and attitude change since entering the postmodern. They abandoned stability of aesthetic modernity, praised all the commotion, distorted traditional cultural identity of ancient town to certain extent. Immigrants displace local population in the process of globalization, rationalization of economic operation replace rules and value belief of local people which formed in daily life, so cultural community are reduced to subordinate system of society, and the meaning and profound connotation of ancient traditional culture identity is missing. According to the vulnerability characteristic of cultural identity in ancient town, this article proposes several management modes, such as reforming material and living environment, building of cultural community, advocating rational communication, in order to provide references for cultural heritage protection and sustainable development policy formulation.
The purpose of this article is to detect the land use and land cover change (LULCC) in Taohe River Basin (TRB) from 1980s to the 2000s and explore its main driving forces. We first build a database of the LULCC by collecting and reorganizing the land use and land cover maps and images, along with data from hydrometeorologic and socio-economic surveys. The methods that we adopt for estimating the LULCC include the comprehensive utilization index, the transition matrix, and the dynamic index. Correlation analysis and principal components analysis (PCA) are then used for identifying the socioeconomic driving factors of the LULCC before the driving mechanisms are determined through fitting the Multiple Linear Regression Expressions (MLREs) to every land use type. It is found that forestland and grassland decreased while cultivated land increased over the past 30 years, despite the obvious heterogeneities in time and space. Temporally, cultivated land and forestland experienced a decline while grassland gained during 1980 s-1990 s; thereafter, cultivated land increased at the expense of forestland and grassland. Spatially, forestland and grassland in the upper and middle reaches of the TRB reduced but cultivated land grew; in the lower reaches, opposite trends took place. Overall, change in cultivated land was the most significant of all land-use types, and both deforestation and afforestation went on simultaneously. Correlation analysis and PCA show that the LULCC in the TRB were driven mostly by the regional economic development, and that the main types of land use-cultivated land, forestland, and grassland-were also affected by agricultural growth, featuring farming population and area expansion. The small categories of land uses-built-up land and water body were influenced by a combined set of "regional economy + farming factors + urbanization and climate" driving mechanism. Accordingly, the MLREs were fitted with satisfactory accuracies for both calibration and validation, suggesting a satisfactory capability to capture the LULCC driven by the socio-economic requirements and regional climate of the TRB.
Applying Geographic Weighted Regression model, this article analyzed the spatial relationships between landscape fragmentation index-effective mesh size and related factors of Manwan Reservoir, Lancing River, Yunnan Provence. The selected explanatory variables covers factors of nature and human activity, including distance to main road, distance to county, distance to river and slop, aiming to determining the contribution of different factors to fragmentation. The results showed that: all the related factors exhibited significant positive correlations with effective mesh size after dam construction, which indicates these three variables can be used as factors for the spatial analysis of effective mesh size. We compared GWR model with Ordinary Least Square（OLS）model which presented that GWR model gave a much better fitting result with lower AICc value and higher adjusted R2 value. Besides, the spatial distribution of residuals can examine the validity of the results. Apparent gathering characteristic indicated that the results of the model are invalid because the key explanatory factor is lost. Therefore global Moran′s I statistics on the residuals from OLS and GWR models were tested. For all the GWR models global Moran′s I ranges from 0.042 7-0.344 2 (p<0.01), while for all the OLS models it ranges from 0.478 6 to 0.545 8 (p<0.01) which indicated that the GWR models produced smaller global Moran′s I than OLS models with the same explanatory variables and reduced the spatial autocorrelation residuals of the models. Hence a GWR model improved the reliability of the relationships and was the optimization of OLS models. Coefficients of regression models reflect the sensitivity of the effective mesh size to each factor. The big coefficient represented the strong impact explanatory variable had on the effective mesh size. So we got the maximum value of coefficients as the most sensitive factor of effective mesh size. The most sensitive area to distance to road gradually reduced in 1974-1988. Before the dam construction in 1974, road was the most influential factor to the landscape fragmentation of the study area and its affected area occupied by almost 50% of study area, while after the construction and operation of Manwan hydropower station, its affected area reduced to 25% of the study area. However, the most sensitive area to distance to river and slop gradually increased. The most sensitive area to distance to county exhibited a trend of increasing firstly and then reducing. Although the impact of slope on effective mesh size in the three periods was the smallest, it showed a significant change. In terms of spatial distribution, the most sensitive area to distance to river located within 2 km to Manwan dam, the tail of the reservoir and the narrow-shaped part in the middle of the reservoir, which expanded to the entire reservoir area in 1974-2004.
依据2006~2008年连续3 a共9次采用RTK GPS技术与测量方法对一个典型海岸新月形沙丘形态的高精度测量数据,分析了海岸新月形沙丘的移动方向、方式、速度以及形态变化特点。结果表明,海岸新月形沙丘具有缓慢、向陆往复式前进的移动特点,形态变化则具有随季节增减变化中高度、宽度、长度、断面面积与体积增加的加积特征,究其原因是区域风况、海岸地表覆被、沙丘形态及人类活动等共同作用的结果。
A typical coastal crescent dune, located at Feicui island region of Changli Gold Coast in Hebei Province, which is one of the most typical coastal aeolian landform distribution regions in China, was chosen to study the movement and topographic change of coastal crescent dune by use of high-precision RTK GPS measurement technology during 2006 and 2008. The surveying results show that the movement of coastal crescent dune displays the characteristics of slow advancement toward inland in the way of to-and-fro. In 2006-2008, the leeward slope bottom of the coastal crescent dune moved landward with an average speed of 2.80 m/a. The topographic change represents the characteristics of increasing in height, width, length, cross-section area and volume of the coastal crescent dune with seasonal variations. Compared the last surveying with the first time, the height of coastal crescent dune top increased 1.01 m, the width increased 2.30 m, the length increased 9.51 m, the base area increased 2 236.14 m2, the area of three transverse sections increased averagely 117.82 m2 and the volume of the coastal crescent dune increased by 46 830.0 m3. As a result of different interaction among wind condition, coastal land cover, the height and volume of costal dunes and the human activities in research region, the movement direction, type and velocity of the coastal crescent dune as well as the characteristics of topographic change are different from those of the other regions and other coastal aeolian dunes.
以福建省长汀县河田地区为研究区,在野外样方生物量调查和典型植被光谱测定基础上,对比分析SPOT5影像8种植被指数与马尾松林（Pinus massoniana）碳储量关系,估算区域尺度马尾松林碳储量。结果表明,马尾松林冠层与林下植被芒萁（Dicranopteris dichotoma）在短波红外波段（SWIR）反射率区分明显。加入SWIR的修正的归一化植被指数（MNDVI）与森林碳储量回归决定系数最高,并有较小的均方根误差,同时可减少林下植被覆盖对马尾松林碳储量估算影响。生态恢复驱动下研究区平均碳储量增加到30.37 t/hm2。
The Hetian area of Changting County in Fujian Province was selected as a case to examine the quantitative relationship between eight remote sensing vegetation indices (VIs) and the forest carbon storage in the Hetian area by plot sampling and analysis of biomass allometric equations and SPOT-5 imagery. We then estimated the carbon storage of Pinus massoniana forest for the area. The results show that the spectral reflectance of Pinus massoniana canopy and its understory vegetation, Dicranopteris dichotoma could be clearly distinguished in SWIR(Short Wave Infrared) band. The degree of agreement between the VI and the carbon storage of the forest are different among the eight used indices, with the MNDVI (Modified Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) having the highest R2 value and second smallest RMSE value. The VI constructed with a SWIR band could reduce the overestimation in the forest’s carbon storage caused by the effects of understory vegetation. After 30 years’ effort of management to reduce soil loss in the area, particularly in the past 10 years, the ecologically restored carbon under the Pinus massoniana forest has reached to 30.37 t/hm2 on average.
The research object of this study are the Tamarix ramosissima, Populus euphratica and Sophora which are the dominant species vegetation in lower reaches of Heihe River. Guided by the theories of Ecology Hydrology, Geobotany, Statistics theories and other disciplines, field investigation combined with remote sensing and spatial analysis methods were applied to study biomass and transpiration water consumption of dominant species of vegetation in study area. Firstly, biological characteristics of typical samples survey and biomass observation of dominant species of vegetation was made. The relational model of aboveground biomass and the ecological parameters (canopy area or coverage area) of dominant species of vegetation were constructed. Then, ecological parameters of dominant species of vegetation were obtained from high resolution satellite imagery Geoeye-1 which were classified by decision tree method to realize the spatial distribution estimation of aboveground biomass of dominant species of vegetation. Finally, the transpiration water consumption of dominant species of vegetation was estimated by the relationship between biomass and transpiration coefficient. According to the studying results, the spatial distribution characteristics of aboveground biomass and transpiration water consumption of 0-2 km, 2-5 km, 5-10 km and 10-15 km river buffer zone were analyzed. The spatial distribution pattern of transpiration water consumption was revealed. The following results were gotten. According to the classification result, the total canopy area of Tamarix ramosissima and Populus euphratica are 2.44&#x000D7;102 km2 and 3.61&#x000D7;10 km2 respectively. And the coverage area of Sophora alopecuroides is 4.28&#x000D7;102 km2. The total biomass of dominant species of vegetation was 2.53&#x000D7;106 t. The distance to river on the biomass of dominant species of vegetation is significant. According to the experimental results of the transpiration coefficient of dominant species of vegetation. The total transpiration water consumption of dominant species of vegetation is 10.89&#x000D7;108 t. The propotion of Tamarix ramosissima, Populus euphratica and Sophora alopecuroides are 12.94%, 82.93% and 4.13% respectively.
Correlation analysis, spatial statistical analysis and overlay analysis are carried out to investigate spatial distribution pattern and variation characteristics of vegetation NDVI, and to analyze the relations between vegetation NDVI and regional climate from the views of temperature and precipitation respectively. The results indicate that the vegetation NDVI change shows three periods during 2000-2010: relatively-rapid growth stage in 2000-2002, slightly fluctuate stage in 2003-2005, and steady growth stage in 2006-2010. Vegetation NDVI change varies in different regions. In the loess hilly area of the central and eastern region of northern Shaanxi Province, the vegetation cover increased significantly, while in the wind drift sand area of the northern region, the vegetation cover change was small, and in low-mountain hilly area of the southern region, the vegetation cover slightly decreased. The precipitation was going on a declining curve in 2000-2010, while the temperature undergoing an upward trend in the same period. However, this dry-heating climate trend has been slightly restrained over the past years. The vegetation cover is positively related to precipitation and temperature in some areas,while in other areas it is negative. The linear relation is not obvious. Climate mainly impacts growth rhythm of vegetation in growth period, while temperature is a very important factor to inhibit vegetation growth in summer, and precipitation’s impact on vegetation growth is obviously hysteretic.
To explore the role of terrain on preventing the railway from blown sand disaster, a typical transect within the protective system of Shapotou section was selected and its airflow measured in field and over a scaled down model in wind tunnel. The airflow over this transect shows high speed wind centers on the top of the fence dune and on the edges of river terraces, while low speed wind centers appear at the leeward of the fence dune and downwind of the river terraces. The high wind speed center gets stronger as the wind speed increases. The reduction coefficient (Rc (x,z)) is used to describe the airflow variation along this transect. A sharp increase of (Rc (x,z)) is found behind the fence for a horizontal distance 8 times the fence height. Rc(x,z) increases with the increasing protection distance. Under the reference wind speed of 8-9 m/s, the decline and fluctuating terrain contribute about 43% the reduction of the near surface airflow to the total airflow reduction by the shelterbelt. As wind speed increases, airflow diffusion is weakened and (Rc (x,z)) decreases to below zero. Dune topography and the protection measure play a role on the dune surface airflow. Though the fence dune has a windward slope gradient three times the gradient of the semi-fixed dune and the fixed dune, the speed-up ratio (s) is almost the same. It is the drag force of fence exerting on the winds that effectively reduces the windward speed- up ratio, and leads to the large amount of sands accumulating around the fence to form a distinct artificial dune form. Friction wind speed decreases rapidly from the moving dune area towards the railway. Under reference wind speed of 6 m/s, 9 m/s and 12 m/s, the friction wind speed over dune surface decreases by 49%, 45% and 39% from the moving dune area to the railway, respectively. The friction wind speed in the fixed dune section (model) is always lower than 0.5 m/s due to the decline terrain. The fence dune has a protection distance ten times the dune height in which the friction velocity is always less than the threshold friction velocity. It is supposed that, when there are lacking of checkerboard and vegetation cover, the fence dune and the decline terrain would reduce 88% the latent sand flux from the moving dune area under wind speed of 5-9 m/s and 50% under wind speed of 12 m/s. All the results indicate that terrain is one of the most important factors to prevent the railway from blown sand disaster. The fence dune has become an indispensible part of the railway protective system.